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Appendices

A. Raw Experimental Data


manometer readings Angle (0deg) Angle (10deg) 9.7 14.5 10.9 15.5 11.1 14.95 11.4 14.4 11.45 13.85 11.55 13.5 11.6 13.3 11.5 12.75 11.4 12.4 11.4 12.05 11.3 11.75 11.25 11.5 11.15 11.2 11.05 11 11 10.95 10.95 11 10.95 11 11.05 11.05 11.1 11.05 11.15 11 11.25 10.8 11.25 10.7 11.25 10.5 11.4 10.35 11.6 10.25 11.65 10.1 11.7 9.85 11.75 9.75 11.8 9.65 11.85 9.45 11.7 9.3 11.3 9.15 10.45 10.7 9.9 12.9 9.4 9.3 11.25 11.6

Hole no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

x (mm) 1 4 7.5 12.5 18.5 27 34.5 48.5 69 94 124 154 183.5 212 218 223.5 222.5 220 214.5 207.5 183 153.5 124 93.5 68.5 48.5 34 26.5 18.5 12 7 4 0.5 0 -

x/c 0.004348 0.017391 0.032609 0.054348 0.080435 0.117391 0.15 0.21087 0.3 0.408696 0.53913 0.669565 0.797826 0.921739 0.947826 0.971739 0.967391 0.956522 0.932609 0.902174 0.795652 0.667391 0.53913 0.406522 0.297826 0.21087 0.147826 0.115217 0.080435 0.052174 0.030435 0.017391 0.002174 0 -

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B. Sample Calculations
The free stream pressure is required as a variable to compute the pressure coefficient using the equation shown below. ( ( ) )

The atmospheric pressure was measured using the digital barometer in the lab; the density of paraffin was taken to be 787 and the acceleration due to gravity, g as 9.81 . Manometer pressure readings were multiplied by sin30 due to an inclination angle of 30 degrees. The change in height was required between the upstream pressure and pressure due to the atmosphere; which was measured as 11.25 and 9.4 inches of paraffin respectively. (Converted to meters from multiplying by 0.0254.

The static pressure distribution was calculated around the aerofoil surfaces at the ith positions. This was required to compute the pressure also and give the variation between each point on the aerofoil. ( ( ) )

The above equation is a calculation for static pressure at hole number one which is x=1mm from the tip of the aerofoil at 0 degrees angle of attack. The rest of the parameters are the same as that used in the free stream pressure

is a constant required to work out the ideal volume flow rate. It is obtained by dividing the throat diameter by the larger diameter of the venture meter.

The throat diameter is 229mm and the larger diameter is 397mm.

The area,

is the throat area required to calculate the ideal flow rate through the wind tunnel.

The pressure difference between the duct and venturi meter, is also required to work out the ideal volume flow rate through the wind tunnel. Readings were taken using a manometer which was measured in inches of water. This was converted to a pressure by using the standard formula, .

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The density of water was taken to be 1000

All the parameters required to work out the ideal flow rate have been sampled in the above calculation. The flow rate was required to work out the free stream velocity for which can be used to obtain the pressure coefficients at the 34 points. The equation was used from equating the Bernoulli equation and continuity equation to give.

The above equation was the ideal flow rate which was calculate. The actual flow rate of the fluid was calculated by using the equation shown below.

The value is a constant that was obtained from a figure in the fluids mechanic textbook. This value varies with Reynolds number.

The actual flow rate, was required to compute the free stream velocity. Instead, the mean velocity was obtained which is an accurate representation of the free stream velocity using the simple volume flow rate and velocity equation.

The area used in this representation is of the area of the duct with dimensions, 300mm by 300mm. These dimensions were used as the free stream velocity is located in the square duct.

This final step was to compute the pressure coefficient after obtaining all the parameter involved in calculating the coefficient. The pressure coefficient was required to show the relationship of the flow along the surface of the aero foil.

The above equation uses a pressure, aerofoil at 0 degrees angle of attack

at hole number one which is x=1mm from the tip of the

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