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INT. J. NEW. INN.

, 2012, 1(2), 300-303

Research paper

ISSN:2277-4459

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE: A PERCEPTION REGARDING CHANGE MANAGEMENT AMONG THE EMPLOYEES AND WORKERS IN PRIVATE SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS IN GUJARAT STATE
Revati C. Deshpande*
MBA Department, Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat, India Abstract : The onslaught of globalization has made it necessary for, the private or public organization to change according to the rapid transformation on International economics. And it becomes a question of survival and extinction for the organization if they dont understand the alarm of qualitative changes. And to bring on-going qualitative change in organization the main concern is to prepare its employee to accept the change willingly. The term Change itself makes the employee to react or defend with a feeling of uncertainty, a fear of unknown and an unsecure feeling about the jobs. As a result they tend to have high anxiety, stress and conflicts which lead employees to defend or resist the change as reflects through their attitude and behaviour towards the work performance and efficiency. The present study focuses on the perception of the 200 employees and workers working in private sector organizations of Gujarat State regarding change management. The Sample includes Business development Managers, Engineers, Technical supervisors, Staff and workers. A Study was conducted and it was found that there is a difference in perception regarding change acceptance, reason, attitude, behaviour, visible goal transparency and employees involvement in change management procedure. Keywords:- Change, Change Management, Change Agent.

1. Introduction
In todays world the pace of global, economic and technological development makes change an inevitable part for the organizations working. And for this they require to have a planned change through good change agents or organization development practitioners. To have a planned change management the term change has to be understood and defined properly. As Burnes (2004)1 defines change as departure from the past or radical alteration of the status quo. And according to Newstrom (2007)2, change is any alteration occurring in the work environment that affects the way in which employees must act. Organizations that show proactive behavior towards organizational change gain a remarkable advantage relative to its competitors Pellettiere (2006)3. And after defining it is very important to provide an effective Communications that informs various stakeholders of the reasons for the change (why?), the benefits of successful implementation (what is in it for us, and you) as well as the details of the change (when? where? who is involved? how much will it cost? etc).Devise an effective education, training and/or skills upgrading scheme for the organization. People at all levels of the organization need to be involved in the change effort (Kets de Vries and Balazs, 1998)4. Organizational change is the process by which organizations move from their current state to some desired future state to increase their effectiveness. Hence it becomes more important to implement the change management program in a more planned manner. And 300

Porras and Robertson (1992)5 argued in their theory that planned change activities should be guided by the information about: 1) the organizational failure that can be changed, 2) the intended outcomes from making those changes, 3) the casual mechanisms by which those outcomes are achieved, and 4) the contingencies upon which successful change depends. Lewin (1963)6 explains that a change towards a higher level of group performance is often short-lived, so permanency of the new level should be included in the objective of a planned change. And Burnes( 2004) 7 mentioned about the emergent approach to change considers that change is ongoing and that it is an unpredictable process of aligning and realigning to a turbulent environment And here we should also understand the Counter resistance from the employees of companies and aligning them to overall strategic direction of the organization. Perception of the employees is to be taken in right direction regarding change. Provide personal counseling (if required) to alleviate any change related fears. Monitoring, implementation and fine-tuning the change process as required by Organizations and for the personal change management. The change agent must understand emotional behaviours and attitudes well enough to help organizations members address resistance, Commitment, and ambiguity at each stage of planned change which are the difficult issues that raise emotions such as fear of failure, rejection, anxiety and anger. After reviewing the literature, it was found that most of the studies were conducted for the change management from organizational perspective. As change management INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEW INNOVATIONS

INT. J. NEW. INN., 2012, 1(2), 300-303

Research paper

Deshpande

_______________________________________________________________________________________
is a very broad concept which includes Reengineering, restructuring, transformation, flattening, downsizing, rightsizing, a quest for a global competitiveness, the researchers were conducted for these areas more than for the employee perception regarding change which is one the most important concern for the organizations. Few studies have been carried out for the Organizational Change: A Perception regarding change management among the employees and workers in Private sector organizations in Gujarat State. Hence the need is identified to study it. The main aim of the study is to identify the Perception regarding change management among the employees and workers in Private sector organizations in Gujarat State. Objective of the study is to examine the awareness, factors affecting change, to understand the meaning of change management and various methods of adoption of change management by the change agents and the OD practitioners. change agent by keeping transparency and having constant talks with employees. 49.5% agreed that Ideas are openly communicated and encouraged within the implementation of change. b. The statements according to you best apply that how change is managed at your organization? - It was found from the study that the respondents prefer the change within departments according to needs, followed by the Team or Group behavior that affects the organization while the change is implemented, then after the option of Organization change rapidly or continuously and lastly the Change is important for the organization even for small matters. 91.5% respondents agreed that Change management is necessary during emerging situation. 92.5% respondents agree that Change process has its effect on work performance and efficiency c. The reasons because of which change is visible, the goals are transparent, whether they are well-planned before the implementation and which are the most probable areas for the change in private sector? -It was found from the study that 60% respondents believed that change is visible and the goals are transparent, 48.5% agreed that change is well planned process in the private sector. The most probable reasons for the change in private sector organization are ITImplementation, Organizational restructuring, Outsourcing followed by Business Process Reengineering, Strategic shift and globalization. d. To know whether the change management team is responsible for attitudes and behavior of the employees who are to be changed It was found in the study that only 45% respondents agree that the change management team is responsible for attitudes and behavior of the employees who are to be changed and 35% have neutral opinion about the same. 93% respondents agree that Change takes place with their consent e. To know the key reasons for change management procedure meeting expectations at your organization It was found that change management procedure in organization is giving the expected result in the way it is conducted. 94% respondents agreed that because of Congruent Talk and Actions (of Employees and Change agents), the change is meeting the expected results for the organization over others.

2. Methodology
Cross sectional study was conducted to examine the relationships of independent and dependent variable by applying the self administered survey questionnaire. And with the help of literature review the various hypotheses to examine the relation between dependent and independent variable are also used. In the following Research the procedure which is adopted is quantitative approach. Respondents were 200 private sector employees in Gujarat. In private sector there is a combination of people working full time employee, Part time employee, Full time worker, Part time worker and contract workers. And in this study they are divided on the basis of occupation like BDM, Engineers, Technical Staff, Staff employee and workers. The sample included 155 male and 45 female by convenience sampling method. The survey instruments were administered to the participants by personal visit and through emails. Demographics include gender, present employment status, years on their present job and years with present employer. Statistical Analysis include: ANOVA and Chi Square, while the tools used for statistical Analysis include: Excel and SPSS

3. Results and Discussions

a. To understand the familiarity with the change 3.1. Data analysis & Interpretation management procedure and to know whether there is resistance and conflict in the organization and how 3.1.1. ANOVA Analysis change agents handled them. - It was found that the process of change management H0.1- There is no significant difference in average is a term very well known to all employees. And out of agreement of employees among various designations 200 respondents only 3 were unaware about Change and 85% resist to change. This reflects that change is not (current job status) Interpretation H0 should be accepted. A one-way liked by the private sector employee willing. They show ANOVA was conducted to compare the significance behavior of resistance which has to be handled by a good INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEW INNOVATIONS 301

INT. J. NEW. INN., 2012, 1(2), 300-303

Research paper

Deshpande

_______________________________________________________________________________________
difference in an average agreement of employees among various designations (current job status). There is no significant difference in average agreement of employees among various designations (current job status) at the P=0.7368 < 0.05. H0.2 There is no significant difference in average agreement of employees and their tenure in the organization Interpretation: - H0 should be accepted. . A one-way ANOVA was conducted to compare the significance difference in an average agreement of employees and their tenure in the organization. There is no significant difference in average agreement of and their tenure in the organization at the P=0.722< 0.05. 3.1.2. Chi- Square Test (Refer Tables: 1 to 5) reject the hypothesis and it can be concluded that there is no dependency between Genders on the perception that how change is managed at your organization. H0.5: Job Title is independent on the perception that change management brings resistance in the organization during the change programme. Interpretation: - H0 should be rejected .The observed value is greater than the critical Chi-square value of 9.4877 so, the researcher decision is to reject the null hypothesis. In other words researcher accepts the hypothesis that there is dependency between Gender and on the perception that how change is managed at your organization. 3.2. Limitations and Implications:The study is made for the development of the organization with the help of healthy change. The employees and workers perception towards change and their negative attitude, behavior is to be handled by the change agents by understanding the reason for reluctance to change and motivating factors to change. The study will be helpful to the Organizational Development Practitioners, Change Agents in forming a good change management procedure.

H0.1: Conflict occurs due to change management in organization is independent on gender of the respondents Interpretation: - H0 should be accepted. It is independent on the occurrence of conflict due to change management. It means Conflict occurs due to change management in organization is independent on gender of the respondents. Table Value (3.84) > Calculated (3.2). So, the researcher decision is not to reject the null hypothesis. In other words researcher fails to reject the hypothesis that means there is no dependency between Conflicts occurs due to change management in organization on gender of the respondents. H0.2: The gender is independent on the change process and the intervention affects the work performance and efficiency of work. Ho should be accepted. The observed value is not greater than the critical Chi-square value of 3.8415. So, the researcher decision is not to reject the null hypothesis. In other words researcher fails to reject the hypothesis that no dependency between gender and the intervention affects the work performance and efficiency of work. H0.3: The tenure is independent on the change process and the intervention affects the work performance and efficiency of work. Interpretation: - Ho should be accepted .The observed value is not greater than the critical Chi-square value of 7.8147 so, the researcher decision is not to reject the null hypothesis. In other words researcher fails to reject the hypothesis and concludes that there is no dependency of the tenure on the intervention that affects the work performance and efficiency of work. H0.4: Gender is independent on the perception that how change is managed at your organization Interpretation: - Ho should be accepted .The observed value is not greater than the critical Chi-square value of 9.4877 so, the researcher decision is not to reject the null hypothesis. In other words researcher fails to 302

4. Conclusion
Driving conclusion as a result of perception of change management is very difficult task. In change Management process making decisions and plans to ensure success on every phase of the change process by satisfying all the stakeholders is a biggest challenge. It is hard to unlearn old behaviors and techniques for the employees and workers in the organization. It becomes little hard to break the old habits and the old processes. The above study demonstrates the perception of employees and workers towards the change in private sector and it was found that the impact of the factors like readiness to change and demographic characteristics has a very huge impact in having the organization change. The success of change management process lies in having congruent talks & actions and team motivation. There was agreeing to neutral response regarding the involvement, communication and having transparency & vision goal of the information of the change. It can be concluded that if change is communicated through good change agents or OD Practitioners it is accepted by most of the employees and workers and they understand that the change is requirement for the survival of the organization and themselves. References
1. Burnes B (2004). Managing Change, Essex; Prentice Hall 2. Newstrom JW (2007). Organizational behavior, Human behavior at work, NewYork; McGraw-Hill.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEW INNOVATIONS

INT. J. NEW. INN., 2012, 1(2), 300-303

Research paper

Deshpande

_______________________________________________________________________________________
3. Pellettiere, V., 2006. 'Organization self-assessment to determine the readiness and risk for a planned change'. Organizational Development Journal, 24, pp.38-44. 4. Kets de Vries, M. F. R. & Balazs K. (1998). "Beyond the Quick Fix: The Psychodynamics of Organizational Transformation and Change," European Management Journal, 16 (5), pp. 611-622. 5. Porras and Robertson, Organisation Development theory, J. Porras and P. Robertson, Organisation Development : Theory, Practice and Research, in Handbook of Industrial and organizational Psychology, 2d ed., vol.3, ed. M. Dunnette and M.Hough )Palo Alto, Calif: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992)Quarterly, 9(4), 339-350 6. Lewin, V. 1963. Reproduction and development of young in a population of California Quail. Condor, 65: 249-278. 7. Burnes, B. (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics, 4th edn (Harlow: Prentice Hall).

Table: 1 Frequency distribution of employee on the basis of gender. Gender M F No. of employees 155 45

Table: 2 Frequency distribution of employee on the basis of tenure on the job. Years of Experience 1-6 Months 6-12 Months 1-6 years 6< No. of employees 4 28 87 81

Table: 3 Frequency distribution of employee on the basis of tenure on the job Change process and its effect on work performance and efficiency Y N No. of employees 185 15

Table: 4 Frequency distribution of employee on the basis of Perception of change- level of acceptance Perception of change- level of acceptance Organization change rapidly or continuously Departments within the organization change according to their needs Change is important for the organization even for small matters Does the Team or Group behavior affect the organization while the change is implemented Other reasons Table: 5 Frequency distribution of employee on the basis of Job Title Designations BDM Engineer Technical Staff employee Workers Others No. of employees 15 32 30 77 46 0 No. of employees 43 52 35 54 16

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