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Combustion Science and Technology


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Numerical Parametric Study of Diesel Engine Operation with Gasoline


Youngchul Ra , Jeong Eui Yun & Rolf D. Reitz
a a b a

Engine Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA


b

Division of Mechatronics, College of Engineering, Kangwon National University, Korea Available online: 18 Feb 2009

To cite this article: Youngchul Ra, Jeong Eui Yun & Rolf D. Reitz (2009): Numerical Parametric Study of Diesel Engine Operation with Gasoline, Combustion Science and Technology, 181:2, 350-378 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00102200802504665

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Combust. Sci. and Tech., 181: 350378, 2009 Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 0010-2202 print/1563-521X online DOI: 10.1080/00102200802504665

NUMERICAL PARAMETRIC STUDY OF DIESEL ENGINE OPERATION WITH GASOLINE Youngchul Ra,1 Jeong Eui Yun,2 and Rolf D. Reitz1
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Engine Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA 2 Division of Mechatronics, College of Engineering, Kangwon National University, Korea
Parametric studies of direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline are presented. A multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, coupled with improved sub-models and the Chemkin library, was employed. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion. The results show that high pressure DI gasoline engine combustion and emissions are successfully predicted and are in good agreement with available experimental measurements under various operating conditions. It is seen that gasoline has a much longer ignition delay than diesel fuel for the same combustion phasing; thus, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate emissions are significantly reduced compared to corresponding diesel-fueled cases. The results also suggest possible methods for expanding the operating conditions of DI gasoline compression ignition (CI) combustion. This indicates that the application of gasoline fueling to compression ignition engines is likely to lead to lowemission engine concepts. Keywords: Compression ignition; Detailed chemistry; Direct injection; Emissions; Gasoline; Sprays
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INTRODUCTION In order to continue usage of compression ignition (CI) combustion under current pollutant emission regulations, many steps must be taken to lower the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions of conventional diesel engines. In most advanced combustion techniques, variation of the injection timing and ignition delay is utilized to lower combustion temperatures through enhancing mixing times and=or combustion intensity. If the mixing is accelerated via either increased swirl or shortened injection duration (i.e., increased injection velocity), or if the fuel conversion rate is slowed down, auto-ignition can be timed to occur after the fuel and air are better mixed and soot levels can thus be reduced. NOx emissions can be reduced by reducing the combustion temperature by running under
Received 2 June 2008; revised 8 September 2008; accepted 18 September 2008. The authors acknowledge the financial support from Kangwon National University in Korea and the Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories. Address correspondence to Youngchul Ra, Engine Research Center, 1500 Engineering Drive, ERB #1016B, Madison, WI 53706. E-mail: yra@wisc.edu

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highly dilute conditions (i.e., lean operation or using high levels of exhaust gas recirculation [EGR]). One of the attractive strategies for lowering emissions is premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) (Iwabuchi et al., 1999; Kanda et al., 2005; Opat et al., 2007). This strategy is typically achieved with the use of a more advanced injection timing than for conventional diesel. The fuel is injected into the combustion bowl with the objective of providing a fully vaporized mixture of fuel and air, which forms mixture conditions close to a homogeneous charge. Although both the control of combustion phasing and reduction of emissions can be achieved in the PCCI regime, the amount of fuel that can be injected per cycle is limited by the high pressure-rise rate, which is a consequence of pre-mixed charge auto-ignition. Another strategy is to use relatively retarded injection timings to increase the ignition delay and allow for fuel-air pre-mixing (Kimura et al., 1999, 2001, 2002; Kreiger et al., 1997). When heat release occurs after top dead center (TDC), the pressure rise rate can be reduced for a given maximum heat release rate, which enables engine operation at higher load. However, if the heat release timings are retarded too much, the combustion becomes unstable and the engine efficiency decreases. Other types of combustion use an early small injection (pilot injection) with a late injection of additional fuel to keep temperatures low (Hashizume et al., 1998; Neely et al., 2005. This method is able to combine the merits of the strategies using early and retarded injection timings. The maximum heat release rate can be reduced by spreading out the heat release through multiple injections (Sun & Reitz, 2006). One of the crucial characteristics of fuels considered for use in diesel engines is their autoignitability. This depends on the chemical composition of the fuel, as well as on the evolution of the thermal state and the composition of the charge mixture. Cetane number (CN) and research octane number (RON) are widely used as indicators of ignitability or resistance to autoignition. They are measured under predefined conditions, and thus can essentially indicate the effects of fuel composition on the propensity to autoignite. Typically, practical diesel fuels have a CN greater than 40 and are so prone to autoignition that they can autoignite before the fuel is sufficiently mixed with air. On the contrary, gasoline fuels have a CN lower than 30 (or RON higher than 60; see Kalghatgi, 2005). Because a well-mixed charge condition before ignition is desirable in low emission CI combustion, fuel characteristics such as those of gasoline that provide longer ignition delay to allow fuel to mix with air are expected to be beneficial. In order to enhance the mixing with air, high volatility and diffusivity are additional key properties of the fuel. Hashizume et al. (1998) used a fuel with a CN of 19 to retard the first ignition timings in their multi-stage diesel combustion experiments. In their experiments, CN effects were successfully demonstrated in terms of ignition delay and fuel consumption by comparing them with the results for a fuel with a CN of 62. Shimazaki et al. (2003) have reported that a lower cetane fuel increases the mixing time before ignition and enables lower smoke levels to be achieved compared to a higher cetane fuel. Diesel fuels of different CN and volatility characteristics were also tested by Risberg et al. (2005) in an engine. They showed that the CN well describes the autoignition quality of diesel-like fuels in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. The effect of fuel auto-ignition quality on engine ignition timings and emissions has been studied experimentally by Kalghatgi et al. (2006, 2007) for four different

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fuels with different CN and volatility, including conventional gasoline. With injection timings near TDC, the gasoline had a much larger ignition delay so that the engine could be run at significantly higher loads with low smoke on gasoline compared to diesel fuel with no detriment to NOx, CO, unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), and fuel consumption. It has been also reported that with multiple injection with gasoline fuel, the maximum heat release rate could be significantly reduced for a given IMEP while maintaining low cyclic variation compared to a single injection (Kalghatgi et al., 2007). More recently, Weall and Collings (2007) investigated the effects of fuel composition on combustion and emissions by using various blends of gasoline and diesel fuel to change CN and volatility of the fuels. They reported that an increased proportion of gasoline fuel reduced smoke emissions at higher operating loads through an increase in charge premixing resulting from an increase in ignition delay and higher fuel volatility. As computational capacity improves, numerical simulations are becoming more attractive for engine combustion studies because they facilitate the exploration of operating conditions that cannot be easily achieved in experiments. Also, as more attention is paid to methods to reduce pollutant emissions, detailed information about the mixture preparation, ignition, combustion, and the subsequent pollutant formation in engines is becoming critical for improving engine performance. While significant experimental effort has been devoted to the study of late direct injection (DI) of gasoline fuels in conventional diesel engines, corresponding multi-dimensional modeling studies have been rarely reported. Recently, Ra et al. (2009) conducted a numerical study on combustion of DI gasoline sprays in a conventional diesel engine using a multi-dimensional CFD code coupled with detailed chemistry calculations. The numerical models were validated by comparing predicted results of single and double injection combustion of gasoline and diesel fuels with available measurements. The predicted pressure, heat release rate, and emission results were in good agreement with the experimental measurements under various operating conditions. The results confirmed that particulate emissions of DI gasoline engine combustion were significantly reduced compared to corresponding diesel fuel cases, mainly due to the enhanced mixing of fuel and air before ignition due to the longer ignition delay of gasoline for the same combustion phasing. Based on these validations, in the present study, the numerical model is used to investigate the effects of parametric variation of engine operating conditions on performance of DI gasoline combustion in a conventional diesel engine. Double injections were considered and injection timing, injection duration, pilot proportion, EGR ratio, boost pressure, initial gas temperature at intake valve closure (IVC), injection amount (or equivalence ratio), swirl ratio, and injector nozzle hole size were selected as parameters to be studied.

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NUMERICAL APPROACH Physical Models For simulating the spray process and the mixing and combustion of fuel=air mixtures in the combustion chamber, various physical sub-models were employed in the present KIVA-ERC-CHEMKIN code. The code is based on KIVA3V Release 2

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(Amsden, 1999) coupled with the CHEMKIN II library (Kee et al., 1989). The added sub-models include models related to drop breakup, collision and coalescence, drop deformation, drop evaporation, and wall impingement and vaporization, among others (Ra et al., 2009). A hybrid primary spray break-up model that is computationally efficient as well as comprehensive enough to account for the effects of aerodynamics, liquid properties, and nozzle flows was employed (Beale and Reitz, 1999). In this model, the injected fuel blobs are tracked by a Lagrangian method, while the break-up of each blob is calculated from considerations of jet stability from Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability theory. For the secondary and further break-up processes, a Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) Rayleigh Taylor (RT) hybrid model was used (Beale and Reitz, 1999). A droplet collision model based on the stochastic particle method (Amsden, 1999) was used in which the collision frequency is used to calculate the probability that a drop in one parcel will undergo a collision with a drop in another parcel, assuming all drops in each parcel behave in the same manner. The probability of coalescence is determined considering the Weber number, which includes the effects of density and surface tension of the liquid droplets. Droplet deformation in terms of its distortion from sphericity is modeled using a forced, damped harmonic oscillator model, where the surface tension and viscosity of the droplet are the major properties used in the restoring force and damping terms, respectively (Liu et al., 1993). Distortions of the droplets affect the momentum change between droplet and the ambient gas, and subsequently the drop velocities (or relative velocity between the drop and the gas) that are the governing parameters in the breakup and evaporation processes. The droplet vaporization model considers the droplet temperature range from flash-boiling conditions to normal evaporation (Ra & Reitz, 2003, 2004). The improved model accounts for variable internal droplet temperatures and considers an unsteady internal heat flux with internal circulation and a model for the determination of the droplet surface temperature. The model uses an effective heat transfer coefficient model for the heat flux from the surrounding gas to the droplet surface. Also, the variable density of the diesel-surrogate fuel as a function of temperature is considered in the governing equations and the relevant sub-models. The effective heat transfer coefficient calculated in the model is also used to determine the amount of fuel to be treated as vapor when the drop surface temperature reaches the critical temperature while the drop interior is still in a sub-critical condition (Ra et al., 2008). Effects associated with spray=wall interactions, including droplet splash, film spreading due to impingement forces, and motion due to film inertia, were considered in a wall film sub-model, in addition to calculations of film transport on complex surfaces with heating and vaporization of the film, and separation and re-entrainment of films at sharp corners (ORourke & Amsden, 1996). For the turbulence calculation, the RNG k e model (Han & Reitz, 1995) was used. In the two-phase transport equations, droplets are treated as point sources, and the wall film fuel flow is not resolved on the computational grid. Therefore, it is assumed that with the vaporized fuel in a computational cell where droplets or wall film parcels exist, the liquid vaporizes under the prevailing mixture conditions, and

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the vapor mixes completely with the gaseous mixture within the cell. Thus, stratification of gaseous species within a single cell is not resolved. Combustion Model The ignition=combustion characteristics of automotive fuels are often represented using blends of two hydrocarbons (e.g., primary reference fuel), that is, iso-octane (iC8H18) and n-heptane (C7H16). It is widely accepted that the oxidation processes of n-heptane and iso-octane well represent the ignition and combustion characteristics of diesel and gasoline fuels, respectively. In the present study, a skeletal reaction mechanism for primary reference fuel oxidation with 41 species a nd 130 reactions (Ra & Reitz, 2008) was used to calculate the detailed chemical kinetics of combustion. The mechanism has been well validated using data from HCCI (Hessel et al., 2008) and direct injection engine experiments (Genzale et al., 2008; Kalghatgi et al., 2007), as well as with the ignition delay time data obtained in shock tube tests (Fieweger et al., 1997) for various temperatures, pressures and fuel compositions. In the present study, gasoline was modeled as PRF 100 (i.e., 100% iso-octane) both for physical properties and chemistry calculation. Figure 1 shows ignition delay times of iso-octane=air mixtures at constant volume

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Figure 1 Predicted ignition delay times of iso-octane=air mixtures at constant volume for various initial temperatures, pressures, and equivalence ratios. (a) Comparison between predictions and experimental measurements in shock tube tests for various equivalence ratios. Measured data is from Fieweger et al. (1997). Predicted ignition delay times for initial pressures of (b) 40 bar, (c) 60 bar, and (d) 70 bar.

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for various initial temperatures, pressures and equivalence ratios. In the figure, predicted ignition delay times are compared with measurements in shock tube tests by Fieweger et al. (1997) for 40 bar initial pressure and three different equivalence ratios (see Figure 1a). Considering the operating conditions of the engine simulated in the present study, predicted ignition delay times at 60 and 70 bar initial pressures are shown in Figures 1c and 1d, as well, together with those for 40 bar initial pressure (see Figure 1b). In the calculations of spray processes and gaseous species mixing, the physical properties of diesel fuel were represented with those of tetra-decane (C14H30) while the properties of iso-octane were used for gasoline fuels. These have been found to be adequate surrogates for the respective fuels (Kong et al., 2007). For the calculation of NOx formation, a four-species (N, NO, N2O, and NO2) and twelve-reaction NOx mechanism was used that has been reduced from the GRI NOx mechanism (available online at http://www.me.berkeley.edu/gri_mech/) and added to the PRF reaction mechanism. A phenomenological soot model (Kong et al., 2007), modified from the Hiroyasu soot model (Hiroyasu & Kadota, 1976), was employed to predict soot emissions. In the modified model, acetylene (C2H2) is used as an inception species for soot formation, which not only enables the soot model to be coupled with the detailed chemistry calculation, but also improves soot emission predictions. For the oxidation of soot, the Nagle-Strickland-Constable (NSC) model was employed in the soot model. Assuming a well-stirred reactor in each cell, changes of species concentration were obtained from the chemical reaction calculations, which are directly integrated with the transport calculations in the CFD code. Computational Conditions A heavy-duty diesel engine with a compression ratio of 14 (Kalghatgi et al., 2007) was used for the simulations. An eight-hole injector with an included angle between sprays of 120 degrees was modeled. For the parametric variations considered in the present study, injection timings were fixed at 137 and 23 degrees after top dead center (deg atdc) for pilot and main injection pulses, respectively. This injection timing corresponds to the condition that produces minimum HC=CO emissions in an injection timing sweep, as reported by Ra and Reitz (2009). For the baseline case, the pilot pulse was set to 30% of the total injected amount, the total fueling rate was 0.12 g=s (120 mg=cycle for 1200 rpm), and the initial pressure and temperature at IVC were 2.5 bar and 403 K, respectively. Note that, instead of intake port conditions, mixture conditions at IVC are used in this paper. It is also notable that, due to heat transfer from the cylinder walls, the mixing of fresh air with hot internal residual gases, and a slight compression of the gas mixture during the period between BTDC and IVC, the gas temperatures at IVC are normally higher than the intake port gas temperatures. The EGR ratio, which is defined as volume ratio of the burned gas of a stoichiometric mixture to the fresh air (morel ratio of N2 to O2 is 3.773), was set to 32% (including internal EGR) and the swirl ratio was set to 2.4. For the parametric variations, the pilot injection proportion was varied from zero to 100%, and the total injected fuel was varied between amounts corresponding to overall equivalence ratios of 0.1 and stoichiometry. The initial gas temperature

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and pressure at IVC were varied between 1.5 and 3.0 bar and 383 and 423 K, respectively. The EGR ratio was changed from 10 to 50%, and the swirl ratio variation ranged from 1.0 to 3.5. In order to investigate effects of the nozzle geometry and injection strategy, the nozzle hole size and pulse duration were also varied, ranging from 141.4 to 303.3 mm and 16.8 to 67.2 crank angle degrees, respectively. The computational conditions are listed in Table 1. The baseline conditions are shown in parentheses. In the simulations, the operating conditions are the same as those of the baseline, unless mentioned otherwise. The fuel injection profiles were obtained using a model to calculate the injection velocity profile from needle lift data (Bianchi et al., 2002). Needle lift data measured by Kalghatgi et al. (2007) was used in the present study. Example injection velocity profiles for a double injection from the injector specified in Table 1 are shown in Figure 2. For the parametric variation of the pilot portion, the injection durations of the pilot and main pulses were adjusted according to the split proportion while the maximum injection velocity was held constant. In fact, the effect of rate shape of the pilot injection was found to be negligible, though these results are not presented in this paper. When the fueling rate was changed, theduration of each pulse was fixed to the value of the baseline case, and the injection velocities were varied accordingly. The same injection rate shape was used for the simulations with gasoline fuel. When double injections are used, pressure waves induced by the first injection pulse can interact with the second injection if the pulse dwell is not long enough (Lee, 2006). In the present study, this interaction was
Table 1 Computation conditions Engine Type Bore Stroke (mm) Connecting rod length (mm) Compression ratio Injector Number of holes Included angle (degree) Nozzle hole diameter (mm) Injection timings (deg atdc) Injection duration (deg CA) Injection amount (mg=cycle) Operating conditions Engine speed (rev=min) Swirl ratio Temperature at IVC (K) Pressure at IVC (bar) EGR ratio (%) Valve timing (deg atdc) Fuel Injection strategy Pilot pulse split ratio (%) Computation crank angle (deg atdc) Numbers in parenthesis are the baseline values. Heavy-duty, flat cylinder head, shallow bow piston 127 154 255 14.0 8 120 141.4303.3 (200) Main pulse: 45 6 ( 23); pilot pulse: 137 8.433.6 (16.8) 26.7186.7 (120) 1200 1.03.5 (2.4) 383423 (403) 2.03.0 (2.5) 1060 (32) IVC 137, EVO 141 Gasoline Double 0100 (30.6) IVC $ EVO

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Figure 2 Normalized injection velocity profile of double injection used in the present study. Start of pilot injection is offset to zero crank angle in the plot. Injection durations are 4.8 and 9.6 deg CA for the pilot (30%) and main (70%) pulses, respectively, at engine speed 1200 rev=min.

neglected because the pulse dwell is long enough ($19 ms) for such wave interactions to damp out. The computational grid for the heavy-duty diesel engine used in the present study is shown in Figure 3. The cylinder geometry was as given by Wahlin et al. (2004). Because the number of nozzle holes of the injector used in the experiments was eight, a 1=8th sector grid was employed to save computation time, assuming periodicity at the end-faces of the sector grid. In order to take into account crevice flow effects, crevice regions were resolved as an elongated top land in the grid. The volume of the crevice regions was initially set based on a measured value for a similar diesel engine and then was adjusted slightly to give a motored engine pressure profile that matched measured. A total of 20,073 cells at BTDC were considered. Fifteen cells were used for the 45 degree sector in the azimuthal direction and 2.4 2.4 mm resolution was used for the cells in the bowl region in the radial and vertical directions, respectively, consistent with previous studies on the effects of grid resolution (Han & Reitz, 1995).

Figure 3 Vertical cross-section view of the computational grid for the heavy-duty engine at 20 deg atdc. The arrow indicates the direction of spray injection.

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Validation of Numerical Approach Figure 4 compares predicted pressure and heat release profiles with measured data of Kalghatgi et al. (2007) for gasoline double injections. The fueling rate was fixed at 120 mg=cycle. A pilot injection with 30% of the total injected fuel was made at 137 (IVC) deg atdc, and the main injection timing was 9 deg atdc. The predicted pressure and heat release profiles are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. The long ignition delay due to the low cetane number and high volatility of gasoline allows sufficient time for vaporization and mixing such that the fuel=air mixture becomes relatively uniform. It is seen in the figure that ignition is very much retarded, and that most of the charge burns in the premixed burning regime, which results in a short period of main heat release and a rapid pressure rise after the main ignition starts. Figure 5 shows comparisons of soot and NOx emission of gasoline and diesel combustions. In these cases, the fueling rate was 120 mg=cycle. The experimental soot emissions data of Kalghatgi et al. (2007) clearly shows the reduction of soot emissions in the gasoline single injection combustion cases, as shown in Figure 5a, while the NOx emissions are comparable in both fuel cases (see Figure 5b). Note that, due to the difference of fuels in physical properties and chemistry, the injection timings of the gasoline cases are advanced (16 to 10 deg atdc) to ensure similar ignition timings to those of the diesel cases. In Figures 5c and 5d, predicted emissions are compared with the measured data for gasoline single injection combustion shown in Figures 5a and 5b. The predicted emission trends are seen to be in good agreement with the measured data. As in the experimental data, soot emissions were predicted to be one order of magnitude lower than those obtained with diesel fuel. Similar trends were obtained for double injection. With the pilot pulse fixed at 137 deg atdc,

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Figure 4 Comparison of predicted pressure and heat release rate profiles of double injection gasoline combustion with measured data by Kalghatgi et al. (2007). Starts of pilot and main injections were 137 and 9 deg atdc, respectively. Fueling rate was 120 mg=cycle and the pilot portion was 30%.

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Figure 5 Comparison of soot NOx emissions between gasoline and diesel combustion for various injection timings. Measured data by Kalghatgi et al. (2007). Fueling rate was 120 mg=cycle for all the runs. For double injection, first pulse timings were fixed at 137 deg atdc. (a) Measured smoke opacity of single injection, (b) measured NOx emissions of single injection, (c) measured and calculated soot emissions of gasoline single injection, (d) measured and calculated NOx emissions of gasoline single injection, (e) measured and calculated soot emissions of double injection, (f) measured and calculated NOx emissions of double injection.

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the main injection pulses were varied. Again, due to the physical and chemical difference of the fuels, the main injection timings of the gasoline combustion were much more advanced compared to the diesel cases. The improvement of soot emissions in gasoline combustion is clearly seen in both measured (Kalghatgi et al., 2007) and simulated data, as shown in Figure 5e. On the contrary, NOx emissions of the gasoline combustion remain quite comparable to those of diesel combustion, as shown in Figure 5f.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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Combustion of DI double pulse gasoline sprays was simulated with the chemical kinetic calculations incorporated into the multi-dimensional CFD code, as described above. Validation of the performance of the simulations for DI gasoline combustion in the same engine employed in the present study has been reported in the literature by Ra et al. (2008b). In the present study, the model was further applied to investigate the performance of DI gasoline combustion with parametric variation of engine operating conditions, including injection timing of the main pulse, pilot pulse proportion, EGR ratio, boost pressure, initial gas temperature at IVC, injection amount, swirl ratio, nozzle hole size, and injection pressure.

Effect of Injection Timing Variation In order to investigate the effect of main injection timing variation, the main injection timing was varied from from 45 to 1 deg atdc. The start of pilot injection and the split portion were fixed at 137 deg atdc and 30%, respectively, for all the runs. The same initial mixture conditions at IVC were used for the simulations. Predicted pressure and heat release rate profiles are shown in Figure 6. For the injection timing of 1 deg atdc, the charge misfired. As injection timing was advanced, ignition timings were advanced, and peak heat release rates and maximum pressure rise rates increased. This indicates that the main injection timings

Figure 6 Predicted pressure and heat release rate profiles of double injection gasoline combustion for various main injection timings. (a) Pressure, (b) heat release rate.

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significantly influence noise levels, which are closely correlated with the maximum pressure rise rate. For injection timings earlier than 40 deg atdc, ignition timings did not change much, while the peak heat release rates slightly increased, which indicates that the charge mixtures are very close to being homogeneous. The predicted soot, NOx, UHC and CO emissions for various injection timings are shown together with IMEP in Figure 7. The soot levels are predicted to be substantially lower than corresponding diesel cases (not shown), while NOx emissions are comparable between gasoline and diesel cases (Ra et al., 2008b). The soot emissions are seen to increase and then decrease as the main injection is advanced from TDC, as shown in Figure 7a. If the injection timing is retarded after the peak soot timing (9 deg atdc), enhanced mixing is achieved again due to the retarded ignition through decreasing gas temperatures during the expansion stoke. In that case, the soot and NOx emissions can be reduced simultaneously. However, for extremely late injection, combustion becomes poorer due to too low gas temperatures (e.g., for an injection timing 2 deg atdc ca50 was predicted to be around 20 deg atdc); thus, soot and NOx formation decreases substantially and CO emissions maintain similar levels, but the UHC emissions rise to extremely high values and eventually misfire occurs. An optimal injection timing was observed around 25 deg atdc that showed a local minimum in the soot, UHC, and CO emissions. This is because the mixing of fuel vapor and air is enhanced with advancing injection timing and becomes optimal at a certain injection timing, which maximizes the use of the available air in the combustion chamber. This emission behavior has been well described for dieselfueled engines operating in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime (Opat et al., 2007). Ra et al. (2008b) showed that a significant UHC originated from the pilot injection and entered the crevice region. The fuel existing in the crevice region is likely to survive combustion during the compression and expansion stroke due to substantially low mixture temperatures and is emitted during the exhaust stroke. Because the possible interaction between the injected fuel and the oil film on the

Figure 7 Predicted emissions and IMEP of double injection gasoline combustion for various main injection timings. (a) Soot and NOx emissions, (b) UHC and CO emissions and IMEP.

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cylinder liner walls and the effects of the ring pack geometry on the crevice flow were not considered in the present study, the UHC emissions might be over-predicted. It is interesting that in gasoline DICI engine operation, the optimal injection timing should be determined by the trade-off between NOx and UHC=CO emissions, as the soot emission level is substantially low compared to that of diesel. Although soot, UHC, and CO can be significantly reduced at the optimal injection timing at the expense of a slight increase in NOx emissions, the maximum pressure rise rate increases rapidly (see Figure 6). Therefore, the main injection timing should be set as a compromise between the noise and emission levels. For injection timings between 30 and 25 deg atdc, impingement of the fuel spray on the bowl surfaces decreases. Because of the short penetration of air-borne droplets and the quick evaporation of gasoline, a significant amount of fuel vapor tends to penetrate a short distance and stay in the center region of the cylinder. The fuel in this region cannot use the air in the outer squish region near the piston lip and piston top surfaces. Thus, UHC and CO emissions increase again from the local minimum, as shown in Figure 7b. Note that the ignition timings are still after TDC within this range of injection timings, such that the corresponding NOx emissions and IMEP increase, as shown in Figures 7a and 7b, respectively.

Effect of Pilot Pulse Proportion The effect of the pilot pulse proportion was investigated. Maintaining the total fuel amount injected, the amount of pilot injection varied from zero to 100% of the total fuel amount. The start of injection timings of the pilot and main injections were fixed at 137 and 25 deg atdc, respectively, which corresponds to the injection timing that minimized soot, UHC, and CO emissions, as shown in Figure 7. The variation of injected amount was achieved by changing the injection duration of each pulse, while maintaining the maximum injection velocity constant. In Figure 8, the variation of the pressure and heat release rate profiles is compared. As the

Figure 8 Predicted pressure and heat release rate profiles of double injection gasoline combustion for various pilot pulse proportions. (a) Pressure, (b) heat release rate.

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proportion of the pilot injection is increased, the ignition timing is advanced, and the peak heat release rate is increased. For pilot proportions greater than 90%, the ignition timing did not vary much, which means that the mixture conditions are close to being homogeneous. It is seen that control of the pilot proportion is effective in controlling the noise level. Figure 9 shows the variation of emissions and IMEP with respect to the change of pilot proportion. For all pilot proportions, the soot emission level was predicted to be substantially low, although soot emissions tend to decreases with increase of pilot proportion, as shown in Figure 9a. It is interesting that NOx emissions are maximized when the pilot and main injections are evenly split. With increasing main injection amount, stratification of fuel mass fraction in the cylinder charge increases. Because the overall equivalence ratio is lean ($0.4), an increase of stratification results in the formation of more stoichimetric mixtures, the burned gas temperature of which is the maximum. This leads to an increase of NOx emissions, although the ignition timing is retarded and the ambient gas temperature is reduced by expansion of the cylinder gas due to the piston motion. However, as the main injection amount is further increased, the effect of decreasing ambient gas temperature prevails, and thus the NOx emissions are reduced. CO emissions are seen to increase as the pilot proportion decreases from 100%, while the UHC emissions increase until 40% and then decrease slightly with a further decrease of the pilot proportion. Note that the ignition timing is retarded and the burned gas temperature is reduced with decreasing pilot injection amount. Although the formation of intermediate hydrocarbon species and CO is enhanced due to improved mixing due to increased ignition delay times, the reduced ambient gas temperature at the time of ignition and the subsequent expansion of the gases results in an increase of incomplete burning of the charge. This is why CO emissions are increased while UHC emissions are reduced as the pilot proportion is decreased below 40%. Due to improved combustion phasing, IMEP slightly increased as the pilot proportion is decreased from 100%. Although the peak cylinder pressure increases

Figure 9 Predicted emissions and IMEP of double injection gasoline combustion for various pilot pulse proportions. (a) Soot and NOx emissions, (b) UHC and CO emissions and IMEP.

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with an increase of the pilot proportion, heat transfer from the burned gas to the cylinder walls increases, and thus the expansion pressures are reduced. This indicates that pilot proportion change is also effective to control the noise level and IMEP simultaneously.

Effect of EGR Ratio The variation of EGR ratio from 10 to 60% was simulated. Except for the mixture composition at IVC, all other computation conditions were the same as the baseline conditions. The mixture composition at IVC for each EGR ratio was estimated based on the burned gas composition of a stoichimetic charge. In Figure 10, predicted pressure and heat release rate profiles are shown for various EGR ratios. It was predicted that ignition timings are retarded as EGR is increased. Misfire occurred for an EGR ratio of 50% or higher due to the excessive ignition delay times. Increasing EGR reduced the peak heat release rate and maximum pressure rise rate. This indicates that the noise level can be significantly reduced, but combustion stability deteriorates with increasing EGR. NOx emissions decrease significantly with increased EGR, while soot emissions at first increase and then decrease, as shown in Figure 11a. As mentioned above, the soot emission level is substantially low due to the improved mixing, as a result of the longer ignition delay times of gasoline. By reducing EGR from 40%, UHC emissions slightly decrease while CO emissions decrease and then increase slightly. As can be seen from the pressure profiles in Figure 10a, increased heat loss through the walls with decreasing EGR contributes to the increase of CO as the EGR ratio decreases further from the value corresponding to the minimum CO amount. It is also seen that the increase of CO emissions and heat loss results in a decrease of IMEP, as shown in Figure 11b. Note that, due to misfire, soot and NOx emissions become negligible and UHC emissions become extremely high at EGR 50%. This is also confirmed from extremely low IMEP for the non-firing cases.

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Figure 10 Predicted pressure and heat release rate profiles of double injection gasoline combustion for various EGR ratios. (a) Pressure, (b) heat release rate.

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Figure 11 Predicted emissions and IMEP of double injection gasoline combustion for various EGR ratios. (a) Soot and NOx emissions, (b) UHC and CO emissions and IMEP.

Effect of Initial Gas Temperature at IVC Figure 12 shows predicted pressure and heat release rate profiles for various initial mixture temperatures at IVC. All other conditions are the same as for the baseline case. As the mixture temperature at IVC decreases from the baseline value (130C), ignition is retarded significantly, and the charge mixture misfires eventually. On the contrary, as the initial mixture temperature is increased from the baseline value, the ignition is advanced slightly, and the peak heat release rate increases and then decreases with the increase of IVC temperature, as shown in Figure 12b. For a higher IVC temperature, the ignition delay time is shortened, but at the same time, the combustion regime becomes closer to a diffusion burning regime in which the heat release tends to be spread out in time, and thus the peak heat release rate is lowered.

Figure 12 Predicted pressure and heat release rate profiles of double injection gasoline combustion for various mixture temperatures at IVC. (a) Pressure, (b) heat release rate.

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Figure 13 Predicted emissions and IMEP of double injection gasoline combustion for various mixture temperatures at IVC. (a) Soot and NOx emissions, (b) UHC and CO emissions and IMEP.

The corresponding emissions and IMEP are shown in Figure 13. As the initial mixture temperature at IVC decreases, both soot and NOx emissions decrease, as shown in Figure 13a. UHC and CO emissions do not vary much with variation of the IVC mixture temperature, while IMEP slightly increases with decreasing IVC mixture temperature due to the reduction of heat loss through the walls, except for the lowest temperature case that misfired.

Effect of Boost Pressure The effects of boost pressure were simulated by changing the gas pressure at IVC from 2.0 to 3.0 bar. Other operating conditions were the same as those for the baseline case for all runs. In Figure 14, predicted pressure and heat release rate profiles are shown. Reducing boost pressure from the baseline pressure (2.5 bar), ignition was retarded, and misfire occurred in the case of 2.0 bar boost pressure.

Figure 14 Predicted pressure and heat release rate profiles of double injection gasoline combustion for various boost pressures. (a) Pressure, (b) heat release rate.

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For iso-octane, ignition delay times increase with reduced pressure. In addition, due to the lowered ambient gas density, the mixture temperature is cooled more by the evaporation of a given amount of fuel. Note that the initial mixture temperatures was constant, and most of the gasoline spray droplets vaporize and mix with air due to the high volatility of gasoline. As was shown in Figure 12, ignition of gasoline=air mixture is very sensitive to temperature variation. In addition, ignition delay times decrease with decreasing pressure for a given temperature (see Figure 1). These retarding effects have a greater influence than the advancing effect of the increased overall equivalence ratio in the reduced pressure cases (note that total injected fuel amount was constant), resulting in misfire in the case of 2.0 bar. NOx emissions increase slightly with increasing boost pressure, while soot level remains constant, as shown in Figure 15a. The lowered evaporation cooling, elongated residence time at high temperatures after the time of ignition, and more available oxygen contributes to the increase of NOx emissions in higher boost pressure cases. It is interesting that UHC and CO emissions increase with boost pressure, as shown in Figure 15b. This is attributed to the contribution from overly lean mixtures. If the charge is too lean, its ignition delay time may be longer than the time available for combustion during the cycle, and thus the mixtures are very likely to burn incompletely. An increased amount of oxidizer obtained by boosting the initial pressure tends to form leaner mixtures, and this contributes to the increase of UHC and CO. The increased incompleteness of combustion (i.e., higher UHC and CO emissions and increased heat loss through the wallsnote that the heat loss period is longer due to the advanced ignition timing and the heat transfer rate is increased due to the increased gas density) causes the IMEP to slightly decrease with boost pressure, as shown in Figure 15b.

Effect of Injection Amount The effect of engine load variation was also investigated. The total fueling rate was varied to give overall equivalence ratios from 0.1 to 0.7. All other conditions

Figure 15 Predicted emissions and IMEP of double injection gasoline combustion for various boost pressures. (a) Soot and NOx emissions, (b) UHC and CO emissions and IMEP.

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were the same as the baseline conditions. The pressure and heat release rate profiles are shown in Figure 16. As the fueling rate increases, the maximum pressure-rise rate increases while ignition timings advance slightly. Due to the high volatility of gasoline, the fuel is well premixed with air even in the highest fueling rate case (note that for the 0.7 case, evaporation was 98.8% at 5 deg atdc), and HCCI-like combustion occurs, as can be seen from the very rapid pressure rise and narrow heat release period in Figures 16a and 16b, respectively. As mentioned previously, increasing the fueling rate lowers the average mixture temperature due to evaporation cooling before ignition. The competing effects between the evaporation cooling and increased equivalence ratio reduce the advance of ignition timing as the fueling rate increases from the baseline case. As can be expected, NOx emissions increase with increasing fueling rate due to the increased burned gas temperature, as shown in Figure 17a. It was predicted that soot emissions also increase with injected fuel amount. However, the overall soot levels remain very low because the fuel and air were well mixed before ignition. It is interesting that the CO emissions are minimal at an overall equivalence ratio of 0.45 and increase with either increasing or decreasing fueling rate from that value, as shown in Figure 17b. As the injected fuel amount is reduced from the optimal amount, CO emissions increase rapidly. Because ignition is retarded and the combustion duration (e.g., 50% burning time) becomes longer, more of the mixture tends to combust incompletely, which results in increasing CO emissions. When the fueling rate is increased from the optimal value, overly lean regions as well as rich regions in the stratified charge are not likely to burn completely during the combustion period. This contributes to the slight increase of CO emissions seen in the higher fueling rate cases. UHC emissions show a similar trend to that of the CO emissions, except for the high fueling rate cases, where the UHC emissions remained at the similar levels to those of the minimum CO emissions case. This indicates that a significant amount of the fuel partially reacts to form CO, and subsequently the accumulated

Figure 16 Predicted pressure and heat release rate profiles of double injection gasoline combustion for various injected fuel amounts. (a) Pressure, (b) heat release rate.

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Figure 17 Predicted emissions and IMEP of double injection gasoline combustion for various injected fuel amounts. (a) Soot and NOx emissions, (b) UHC and CO emissions and IMEP.

CO survives the combustion. This is confirmed by the variation of IMEP, where rate of increase decreases as the fueling rate increases, as shown in Figure 17b.

Effect of Swirl Ratio The effect of initial swirl ratio at IVC was also investigated. Swirl ratio variation has different effects on the fuel distribution from the pilot and main injections. When the pilot sprays are injected, the in-cylinder gas density is low enough for the sprays to penetrate and possibly impinge on the cylinder liner walls. As the swirl ratio increases, breakup of the spray droplets is enhanced, and thus evaporation during the spray penetration period is enhanced. Therefore, with increasing swirl, the fuel is distributed more uniformly over the entire combustion chamber, and less fuel enters the crevice and liner regions. This is confirmed by examining fuel mass fraction iso-contours shown at 30 deg atdc, as seen in Figure 18a. On the contrary, when the main sprays are injected, the spray injection trajectory is parallel to the bowl surface (see Figure 3). Along with the squish flow, this induces a flow in a counter-clockwise direction in the piston bowl. For very low swirl ratios, the injection velocity is high enough for the fuel vapor to move along the bowl surface and enter the squish region between the piston top and the cylinder liner. As the swirl ratio is increased, the increasing centrifugal force reduces the intensity of the squish flow and subsequently weakens the counter-clockwise flow. Because the evaporation of the spray droplets is enhanced with increasing swirl ratio, the penetration of fuel vapor along the bowl surface is reduced, and a significant amount of fuel vapor is trapped within the center bowl region of the combustion chamber. In Figure 18b, fuel distributions on the vertical plane through the spray axis at TDC are shown for three different swirl ratios. A fuel-rich area is seen in the bowl lip region for the lowest swirl ratio case (SW 1.0), and a significant amount of fuel is found in the center region of the combustion chamber for the highest swirl ratio case (SW 3.5). For the baseline swirl ratio, the fuel is well mixed with air, although a small area of rich mixture develops in the center region of the combustion chamber.

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Figure 18 Predicted distributions of fuel mass fraction on a vertical plane through the spray axis for three different swirl ratios. (a) At 30 deg atdc, (b) at TDC.

Figure 19 shows the corresponding pressure profiles, emissions and IMEP for various swirl ratios. All simulation conditions except for the swirl ratio were the same as the baseline conditions. No significant effects of swirl ratio on ignition timing and pressure rise rate are seen, as shown in Figure 19a. However, due to the increased heat loss though the walls, the IMEP decreases slightly with increasing swirl ratio, as shown in Figure 19c. In addition, the decreasing IMEP is attributed, in part, to the increase of UHC emissions. As described above, more fuel is trapped in the center region of the combustion chamber, but the fuel entering the crevice region is decreased with increasing swirl ratio. Therefore, the UHC and CO emission levels are determined from the net contribution from these two emission sources. With increasing swirl ratio, UHC emissions are predicted to increase gradually, while CO emissions decrease first and then increase rapidly. The charge flowing into the bowl lip and squish regions in the low swirl cases are cooled by heat transfer to the walls and mixing with cold gases from the crevice region during the expansion stroke. Thus, the oxidation of CO in the region is reduced and more CO is emitted. Because the overall mixing of fuel and air is enhanced with an increase of swirl ratio up to an optimal value, CO emission levels decrease at first. However, with increased swirl, the contribution from the rich area in the cylinder center increases, which increases the UHC emissions. Beyond a certain swirl ratio, the rich regions near the cylinder center become the major source of the UHC and CO emissions, which is why both emissions suddenly increase when the swirl ratio is changed from the baseline to higher values, as shown in Figure 19c. NOx emissions were predicted to increase slightly with increasing swirl, as shown in Figure 19b. The increasing trend is due to the increase of fuel stratification, leading to richer, higher combustion temperature regions, as described above. Note that the increase of heat loss with increasing swirl ratio would tend to reduce NOx emissions through the reduction of burned gas temperatures. However, the contribution by the increase of local high temperatures prevails. Soot emissions slightly

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Figure 19 Predicted pressure profiles, emissions and IMEP of double injection gasoline combustion for various swirl ratios. (a) Pressure, (b) soot and NOx emissions, (c) UHC and CO emissions and IMEP.

decrease with increasing swirl ratio up to 3.0, then increase with further increase of swirl ratio, as shown in Figure 19b. Note, however, that the overall soot emission levels remain extremely low for all swirl ratios considered in the present study.

Effects of Nozzle Hole Size (Injection Pressure) In order to investigate the effects of nozzle hole size, the nozzle hole diameter was varied between 141.4 and 303.3 mm, which correspond to area ratios relative to the baseline value between 0.5 and 2.3. Because the injection duration and total amount of injected fuel were fixed at those of the baseline, an increase of nozzle hole area represents a decrease of injection pressure or injection velocity. Figure 20 shows the variation of pressure profiles, emissions, and IMEP for the various nozzle diameters. By increasing nozzle hole size, the injection velocity is reduced and the initial drop size is increased. Therefore, droplet breakup is reduced, and the evaporation rate is decreased. As a result, more spray droplets impinge on the piston bowl surface and form wall films (refer to Figure 3 for spray injection direction). Due to the influence of the fuel film dynamics, the mixing of the fuel vapor is significantly reduced.

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Figure 20 Predicted pressure profiles, emissions, and IMEP of double injection gasoline combustion for various nozzle sizes. Nozzle hole size is represented in terms of the ratio of nozzle hole area to the baseline value. (a) Pressure, (b) soot and NOx emissions, (c) UHC and CO emissions and IMEP.

Consequently, the fuel vaporization rate is much reduced, and the fuel vapor distribution becomes more stratified. Due to the reduction of fuel vapor available for combustion at the time of ignition, ignition is slightly retarded, and the maximum pressure rise rate and peak cylinder pressure are decreased. This behavior is shown in Figure 20a. Increased fuel stratification with larger nozzle sizes causes an increase of the extent of stoichiometric areas in the chamber. This results in the slight increase of NOx and soot, as shown in Figure 20b (up to area ratio of 1.3). However, further increase of stratification reduces the size of local high temperature regions, and thus burned gas temperatures. Therefore, NOx emissions decrease while soot emissions keep increasing (see Figure 20b, area ratio 1.32.3). Note that, with a larger nozzle diameter, the impingement of the pilot injected sprays on the cylinder liner walls is increased. Most of the impinged fuel enters the crevice region during the compression stroke. As mentioned before, the fuel in the crevice region is likely to vaporize slowly, survive the combustion, and is emitted as either fuel vapor or partially burned species. This contributes, in part, to the

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increase of UHC and CO emissions with increasing nozzle diameter, as shown in Figure 20c. Also, more fuels remains in the cylinder center and piston bottom regions, resulting in rich mixtures (note that the penetration of fuel vapor along the bowl surface is more limited due to the fuel film dynamics with increasing nozzle size). The combustion quality of the charge in these regions becomes very poor; thus, UHC and CO emissions are significantly increased and IMEP is decreased.

Effect of Injection Duration Finally, the effect of the injection duration of the pilot and main injections was investigated. The injection duration was varied between 0.67 and 2 times the baseline value. Both the pilot and main pulse durations were varied in the same ratio. For all cases, the start of pilot injection and the end of main injection were fixed at 137 and 10.2 (the baseline value) deg atdc, respectively. Because the total amount of fuel injected and the nozzle hole size were fixed at those of the baseline, the variation of pulse duration represents change of injection pressure. The injection velocity is inversely proportional to the pulse duration. Figure 21a shows the injection rate shapes considered in the simulations. In the figure, the injection rates were normalized with the maximum injection rate of the baseline case. Increasing the pulse duration affects the ignition timings and peak cylinder pressures significantly. Fixing the end of main injection, as the pulse duration is increased from the baseline case, the ignition timings were advanced, and the peak cylinder pressures were reduced substantially, as shown in Figure 21b. On the contrary, the reduced injection duration retarded the ignition timing while the peak cylinder pressures remain at the similar level. Similar behavior is seen in the variation of corresponding IMEP, as shown in Figure 21d. Doubling the pulse duration reduced the IMEP from 12.9 to 10 bar. This indicates that the injection velocity is one of the key parameters that have a dominant effect on the engine performance. Reduced injection velocity deteriorates the atomization of sprays, resulting in bigger drop sizes. Subsequently, spray impingement is increased, and the wall film fuel is rapidly increased, which leads to more fuel stratification. Therefore, the combustion becomes poor, and UHC and CO emissions increase tremendously, as shown in Figure 21d. Because the local peak temperatures and the area of high temperature regions are also reduced by doubling the pulse duration, NOx emissions are reduced. However, increasing fuel stratification substantially increases soot emissions, as shown in Figure 21c. It is interesting that the decreased injection duration helped improve emissions while the IMEP remain the same. This is due to the fact that the improved uniformity of fuel distribution by enhanced fuel=air mixing reduces the amount of rich mixtures, thus delaying the ignition. Because the ignition occurs during the expansion stroke, more retarded ignition results in lower burned gas temperatures, which has reducing effect on NOx emissions. Based on these results, together with those for the variation of pilot proportion and nozzle hole size (see Figures 8, 9, and 20), it can be concluded that high injection velocities are needed in order to maintain the atomization quality to generate a sufficiently well-mixed charge in the combustion chamber.

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Figure 21 Predicted pressure profiles, emissions and IMEP of double injection gasoline combustion for various injection pulse durations. Start of pilot injection and end of main injection were fixed at 137 and 10.2 deg atdc, respectively, for all runs. Injection rates were normalized with the maximum injection rate of the baseline case. (a) Injection rate shape, (b) pressure, (c) soot and NOx emissions, (d) UHC and CO emissions and IMEP.

Practical Approaches Using Gasoline DICI Based on the predicted performance of the gasoline DICI engine described above, it is believed that a tremendous reduction of PM is achievable by using gasoline DICI to meet the PM regulation without using particulate trap. Thus implies that only a gas phase oxidation catalyst would be enough for after-treatment. The change of injection amount, boost pressure, and EGR ratio would be a viable way to ensure a wide load range in actual engine operation. The operating limit is basically constrained by the occurrence of misfire, which is more susceptible than in the corresponding diesel fuel cases. While the engine load is controllable via fueling rate, boost pressure, and EGR ratio, the emissions of NOx, UHC, and CO are improved by optimizing injection strategies such as injection timing, injection pressure, pulse split ratio, injector nozzle size, as well as control of the mixture condition (e.g., via variable valve timing).

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Because the long ignition delay times of gasoline fuel might be more involved with engine speed variation than in the diesel combustion through available combustion time, the gasoline DICI operation deserves further investigation both experimentally and numerically in terms of the performance variation with respect to engine speed. It seems that rapid pressure rise during the combustion period is an adverse effect of gasoline DICI operation. Although it was demonstrated in the present study that the pressure rise rate could be controlled by variation of injection timing, pilot pulse proportion, and EGR ratio, it would be interesting to explore the effects of various strategies to reduce the pressure rise rate such as multiple injection, the mixed mode combustion of auto-ignition, and deflagration burning, among others.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The combustion of DI gasoline sprays in a conventional diesel engine was simulated using a multi-dimensional CFD code. Detailed chemistry calculations using a reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for primary reference fuel oxidation was employed in the simulations, as validated by Ra and Reitz (2008). Simulations of gasoline double injection combustion with parametric variation were performed. Parameters including the injection timing of the main pulse, pilot pulse proportion, EGR ratio, boost pressure, initial gas temperature at IVC, injection amount, swirl ratio, nozzle hole size, and injection pressure were considered in the present study. In-cylinder gas pressure and heat release rate profiles, emissions and IMEP were compared, and the following conclusions were drawn from the results: 1. Compared to diesel fuel results over the entire range of parametric variation, particulate emissions were maintained at substantially low levels. However, UHC, CO, NOx emissions, and noise levels were significantly influenced by the parametric variation. 2. By advancing the main injection timing in gasoline combustion, an optimal injection timing that gives minimum CO and UHC emissions was found. However, the main injection timing should be selected as a compromise between the reduced emissions and increasing noise (pressure rise-rate) levels. 3. Variation of the pilot pulse proportion was found to be an effective way to control CO emissions and maximum pressure rise rates at only a slight expense of reduced IMEP. 4. Variation of EGR ratio was effective to control the maximum pressure rise rate. However, the window of operable EGR ratios is so narrow that mixtures are likely to misfire at levels of EGR that are reliably used in conventional diesel-fueled engine operation. 5. Gasoline compression ignition combustion was found to be very sensitive to initial gas temperatures at intake valve closure, especially near the lower bound of the operating limit. 6. Boost pressure had relatively small effects on emissions and IMEP, except that decreasing boost eventually resulted in misfire due to poor atomization of the sprays.

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7. Reducing the injected fuel amount (load) helped reduce the maximum pressure rise rate and NOx emissions significantly. However, UHC and CO emissions were increased substantially due to incomplete combustion at low loads. 8. Swirl ratio variation had negligible influence on the ignition timing, although the mixture distribution was significantly affected. 9. With the injected fuel amount and duration fixed, variation of the nozzle hole size did not affect ignition timing much, but did affect the peak cylinder gas pressures. An increase of nozzle hole size had negative effects on UHC, CO, and soot emissions for all the nozzle sizes considered in the study. 10. Increasing the injected fuel pulse duration advanced ignition timing and lowered peak cylinder pressures significantly. It is recommended that the injection velocity should remain high to maintain the atomization quality.

NOMENCLATURE atdc CI CN deg CA DI DICI EGR EVO HCCI IMEP IVC LTC NOx PCCI TDC UHC after top dead center compression ignition cetane number degrees crank angle direct injection direct injection compression ignition exhaust gas recirculation exhaust valve open homogeneous charge compression ignition indicated mean effective pressure intake valve closure low temperature combustion nitric oxides premixed charge compression ignition top dead center unburned hydrocarbon

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