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IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes

Section 1: Principles of chemistry

a) States of matter

1.1 The arrangement, movement & energy of particles in each of three states of matter:

solid, liquid, gas:

SOLID

LIQUID

GAS

SOLID LIQUID GAS Tightly packed In constant movement Move rapidly Vibrate about their fixed positions
SOLID LIQUID GAS Tightly packed In constant movement Move rapidly Vibrate about their fixed positions
SOLID LIQUID GAS Tightly packed In constant movement Move rapidly Vibrate about their fixed positions

Tightly packed

In constant movement

Move rapidly

Vibrate about their fixed positions

Bounce off each other

Random direction

Break and reform clusters

Very hight speeds

Strong forces of attraction between particles

Weaker forces of attraction between particles

Very weak forces of attraction between particles

M.P. + B.P GREATER than room temp.

M.P. LESS than room temp

M.P.+ B.P. LESS than room temp

B.P. GREATER than room temp

1.2

Interconversions of solids, liquids & gases:

SOLID LIQUID [melting]

LIQUIDSOLID [freezing]

LIQUIDGAS [evaporation/ boiling] GASLIQUID [condensation]

GASSOLID SOLIDGAS

 LIQUID [condensation] GAS  SOLID SOLID  GAS [sublimation] 1.3 Changes in arrangement, movement and

[sublimation]

1.3 Changes in arrangement, movement and energy of particles during interconversions

Melting: [melting point]

Particles vibrate faster

Gain enough energy to BREAK attractive forces

Freezing: [freezing point]

Particles move more slowly

Lose energy- come closer together

Forces of attraction take over

Melting point and freezing point are exactly the SAME temps

Evaporation: [always happening at all temps] Particles from the surface of liquid Move faster than other particles Have enough energy to break forces

Boiling: [specific temp] All particles have enough energy to break forces Escape from surface

Boiling point: shows strength of attractive forces between particles Depends on surrounding pressure Lower pressurelower B.P.

Sublimation: [fixed temp] Solid directly to gas

b) Atoms 1.4 i) showing that particles are very small

gas b) Atoms 1.4 i) showing that particles are very small Dissolve potassium maganate (VII) in

Dissolve potassium maganate (VII) in water Dilute solution until faint colour:

1 cm 3 10 cm 3 by adding water Large number of particles in a very small mass Must be very tiny

ii) Showing that particles move

Diffusion in gases:

ii) Showing that particles move Diffusion in gases: Lid from each gas jar removed Bromine gas
ii) Showing that particles move Diffusion in gases: Lid from each gas jar removed Bromine gas

Lid from each gas jar removed

Bromine gas particles bounce around until they reach the top

Brown colour evenly spread

Also do this with hydrogen and air (use lighted splint)

Diffusion in liquids:

hydrogen and air (use lighted splint) Diffusion in liquids: Very slow Crystal of potassium manganate (VII)

Very slow

Crystal of potassium manganate (VII) into water

Crystal particles collide with water particles and SPREAD

iii) Showing that particles in different gases travel at different speeds:

particles in different gases travel at different speeds: NH 4 molecules  faster  lighter [cloud

NH 4 molecules fasterlighter [cloud closer to HCL)

LOWER THE RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS FASTER DIFFUSION RATE

iv) Showing changes on a graph Heating curve:

Evaporation/ boiling Melting
Evaporation/ boiling
Melting

Cooling curve:

Condensation
Condensation

Solidification/ crystallising

1.4 Atomsmallest particle that can exist on its own + take part in a chem. Reaction

Moleculetwo/ more atoms chemically combined

1.5 Differences between elements, compounds & mixtures ElementPure substance that cannot be split into anything simpler

Compound2/more

Mixture2/ more elements mixed together [no chemical reaction]

elements chemically joined [PURE]

Fixed composition

No fixed composition

Own properties

Same props are components

Fixed M.P. + B.P.

Melts + boils over range of temps

Cannot be broken down by physical techniques

Separated by physical techniques

Undergoes chemical reaction

No chemical reaction

1.6 Describe techniques for separation of mixtures

i) Simple distillation

techniques for separation of mixtures i) Simple distillation A pure solvent from a solution 2 miscible

A pure solvent from a solution

2 miscible liquids with a large difference (more than 30°C) in their boiling points

Substance with the lower B.P. evaporates, rises up the flask and enters the condenser.

It condenses back into liquid and collects into the beaker

Substance with the highest B.P. is left behind in the distillation flask

ii) Filtration

filtrate
filtrate

residue

iii) Evaporation

ii) Filtration filtrate residue iii) Evaporation Evaporating basin An insoluble solid from a liquid [solid required]

Evaporating basin

An insoluble solid from a liquid [solid required]

2 solids, [one soluble and one insoluble in particular solvent]

Uses: drinking water, penicillin

To obtain residue: rinse with water and dry between filter paper or use desiccator

To obtain filtrate: heated to the point of crystallisation

iv) Crystallisation

iv) Crystallisation A solute (soluble solid) from an aqueous solution Point of crystallisation : until a

A solute (soluble solid) from an aqueous

solution

Point of crystallisation: until a saturated solution is obtained.

Saturated solution: no more solute can dissolve at a specific temperature in a specific volume of water.

Remove a small quantity of the solution with glass rod + drop on glass for cooling.

If crystals form quickly, the solution is saturated

faster the rate of crystallisationsmaller + impure crystals formed and vice-versa.

v) Fractional distillation

crystals formed and vice-versa. v) Fractional distillation Miscible liquids with a small difference in boiling points

Miscible liquids with a small difference in boiling points

Liquids evaporate at the same time and mixture of vapours enters the fractionating column

Column heated up to temp of lower B.P. liquid in mixture

The vapour of lower B.P. liquid can no longer condense in the fractionating column and continues to rise until it enters the condensercollected flask

On further heating the higher boiling point liquid will distil over + be collected

vi) Chromatography

vi) Chromatography Only separates the mixture into its components Filter/ chromatography paper Rubber bung  to

Only separates the mixture into its components

Filter/ chromatography paper

Rubber bungto ensure that the air in the container is saturated with the vapour

Most soluble solute in solvent travels through paper faster

Separating Funnel

in solvent travels through paper faster Separating Funnel Two immiscible liquids Less dense liquid on top

Two immiscible liquids

Less dense liquid on top

Tap slowly opened + denser liquid collected in a beaker

Tap is then closed and liquid that remains in the separating funnel is collected into another beaker

c) Atomic Structure

1.8 Atomic Structure

Cloud of ELECTRONS
Cloud of
ELECTRONS

PROTONS

NEUTRONS

1.9 relative mass + relative charge of proton, neutron + electron

PROTON

NEUTRON

ELECTRON

1 amu

1 amu

1/2000 amu

+

No charge

-

1.10

Atomic number: number of protons

Mass number: number of protons + number of neutrons

Isotopes: atoms of the same element with the same no of protons but different no of neutrons

Same atomic number but different mass number

Relative atomic mass: the no of times heavier an atom of an element is compared to 1/12 th the mass of a carbon-12 atom

1.11 calculating the A r from relative abundances of isotopes

(Abundance (%) x mass number) + (abundance (%) + mass number)

100

1.12 definition of periodic table

Periodic table: arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number

d) Relative Formula masses and molar volumes of gases

1.15 calculate M r from A r

By adding all A r values of atoms in molecular formula

Unit: amu

1.16 understand the mole

Mole: measure of the amount of substance

1.17 mole as the Avogadro number of particles in a substance

1 mole = 6 x 10 23 particles = A r /M r in grams (g)

Avogadro constant: the no of atoms present in 12g of carbon-12 isotope

1.18 examples of mole calculations

1. Calculate the mass given the number of moles:

1 mol Ca40g

2.25 mol Cax g

x= 2.25 x 40 = 90g

2. Calculate the number of moles given the mass (g):

5.5 g of lithium sulphate

Li

2 SO 4 = 14+32+64= 110 g

1

mol110 g

x

mol5.5 g

x= 5.5/110 = 0.05 mol

1.19 molar volume of a gas in calculations

Under the same conditions of temp + pressure, 1 mol of any gas will occupy the same volume

Room temp + pressure (rtp): 1 mol= 24000 cm 3 = 24 dm 3 = 24 L

Examples:

1.

Calculate no of moles in given volume

1

mol24 dm3

x

mol1.5 dm3

x= 1.5/24 = 1/16 mol

Avogadro’s Law: equal volumes of gas at same temp + pressure contain equal no of molecules, hence equal no of moles.

Examples:

1. Calculate volume of H required to react completely 30cm 3 of N + volume of ammonia produced

3H 2 + N 2 NH 3

3

:

1

:

2

3x30: 30: 2x30

H= 90cm 3

NH 3 = 60 cm 3

Calculations involving chem. Equations:

Balanced chem. Equationmole ratio of reactants + products

Example: sodium sulphite reacts with dilute HCl; the products are sodium chloride, sulphur dioxide and water. If 0.125 mol sodium chloride was produced during the reaction, calculate

a) The mass of sodium sulphite that reacted

Na 2 SO 3 +2HCl 2NaCl + SO 2 + H 2 O

2 mol NaCl from 1 mol Na 2 SO 3

0.125 mol NaCl 0.0625 mol Na 2 SO 3

Mr of Na 2 SO 3 = 126

1 mol 126 g

0.0625 mol x g

b) The volume of sulphur dioxide evolved at r.t.p

1 mol Na 2 SO 3 1 mol SO 2

0.0625 mol Na 2 SO 3 0.0625 mol SO 2

x= 126 x 0.0625 = 7.875 g

0.0625 molx cm 3

x= 0.0625 x 24000 = 15000 cm 3

Concentration: the amount of solute dissolved in a given volume of solution [mol dm -3 ] aka the number of moles of solute in 1000 cm 3 / 1 dm 3

Examples:

1.

Calculate the number of moles given the volume and concentration of solution

3

dm 3 of 2.0 mol dm -3 solution

2

mol 1 dm 3

x

mol 3 dm 3

x

= 3 x 2= 6 mol

2.

Calculate concentration given the mass of solution and the volume

5.52 g K 2 CO 3 to give 250 cm 3 of solution

K 2 CO 3 138 g

138 g 1 mol

5.52

gx mol

x = 5.52/138 = 0.04 mol

0.04

mol 0.25 dm -3

x

mol 1 dm -3

x= 0.16 mol dm -3

3.

Calculate the mass required to make a given volume of specific concentration solution

Nitric acid to make 250cm 3 of 0.100 mol dm -3 solution

0.100 mol dm -3 HNO 3 1000 cm 3

x mol HNO 3 250 cm 3 HNO 3 = 63 g

x= 250 x 0.1 / 1000 = 1/40 mol

1 mol HNO 3 63 g

1/40 mol HNO 3 x g

x= 1.575 g

e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations 1.20 Write word equations and balanced chem. Equations

MUST KNOW:

Name of ion

Symbol of ion

Charge

Zinc

Zn

2+

Silver

Ag

1+

Ammonium

NH 4

1+

Nitrite

NO 2

1-

Nitrate

NO 3

1-

Hydroxide

OH

1-

Sulphite

SO 3

2-

Sulphate

SO 4

2-

Hydrogen sulphate

HSO 4

1-

Ethanoate

CH 3 COO

1-

Phosphate

PO 4

3-

Carbonate

CO 3

2-

Hydrogen carbonate

HCO 3

1-

1.21 Uses of state symbols [s, l, g, aq]

Soluble

Insoluble

ALL Na, K + NH 4 salts

ALL nitrates

ALL hydrogen carbonates

K + NH 4 salts ALL nitrates ALL hydrogen carbonates Chlorides Sulphates except except Ag +

Chlorides

Sulphates

except

except

Ag + Pb chlorides

Ca, Ba + Pb sulphates

except except Ag + Pb chlorides Ca, Ba + Pb sulphates ALL carbonates (Except Na, K

ALL carbonates (Except Na, K +NH 4 )

Most Pb + Ag salts

ALL sulfides

Na, K +NH 4 ) Most Pb + Ag salts ALL sulfides Group 1, Ca +

Group 1, Ca + Ba Oxides + hydroxides

except

Most oxides + hydroxides

Ionic equations:

-Break apart soluble molecules into the two ions that are formed (one positive and one negative)

-Insoluble molecules NOT broken apart

-Cancel out all common ions on both sides

1.22 how formulae of simple compounds can be obtained experimentally including metal oxides, water + salts containing water of crystallization

Experiment to find the formula of an oxide of copper

Experiment to find the formula of an oxide of copper Mass of copper oxide weighed +

Mass of copper oxide weighed + heated

Oxide: black red-brown

(since only Cu left )

Stream of H 2 passed continuously to prevent hot Cu reacting with air to form CuO

[ excess H2 gas ignited to prevent explosion ]

heating, cooling + weighing repeated until constant mass recorded

Combustion tube tilted (prevent condensed steam running back to hot tube)

Mass of oxygen present in oxide= mass of CuO at start mass of Cu at end

1. How many mol in specific mass of oxygen

2. Determine mole ratio

3. Apply mole ratio

4. Find empirical formula

Experiment to determine the formula of water

- H gas passed over heated CuOreduced to Cu + H 2 O

- H 2 O vapour through U-tube containing anhydrous calcium chloride

- Weighing mass of u tube before + after passing the H 2 O to calculate mass of H 2 O

- Mass of O = Mass of CuO Mass of Cu

- Mass of H = mass of H 2 O mass of O

- Determine mole ratio of H + O

- Divide by smallest number of two to attain whole numbers

absorbs water

1.23 calculate empirical + molecular formulae from experimental data

Empirical formula: the simplest whole number ratio of different atoms present in a molecule of a substance

- Mass of each element (from percentage composition) changed to MOLES

- Simplest whole number ratio found by dividing by smallest number of moles found

- If decimals obtained multiply by suitable number

Molecular Formula: the exact number of atoms of each element present in 1 molecule of the compound [multiple of empirical formula]

- Find empirical formula

- Calculate relative molecular mass (M r )

- (Mass of empirical formula) n = M r

Example:

Liquid Y molar mass 88 g mol-1 contains 54.5% C, 36.4% O + 9.1% H

C
C

54.5 % in 100g= 54.5 g = 4.5 mol

 
O
O

36.4% in 100 g= 36.4 g =2.275 mol

H
H

9.1%--> in 100g = 9.1 g = 9 mol

 
C
C

:

O
O

:

H
H
4.5/2.275 2.275/2.275 2 : 1 :
4.5/2.275
2.275/2.275
2
:
1
:

9/2.275

4
4

Empirical formula: C 2 H 4 O

Mr = 44 amu

Empirical: molecular

1

:

2

Molecular formula: C 4 H 8 O 2

1.25 percentage yield

Percentage yield =

Actual yield Theoretical yield

X 100

f) Ionic compounds

1.27 formation of ions by gain/ loss of electrons

The positive ion: CATION The negative ion: ANION + -
The positive ion: CATION
The negative ion: ANION
+
-

1.28 oxidation and reduction

Oxidation: gain of oxygen OR loss of electrons

Reduction: loss of oxygen OR gain of electrons

electrons Reduction: loss of oxygen OR gain of electrons Always happen together REDOX reactions E.g. burning,

Always happen together

REDOX reactions

E.g. burning, respiration, rusting, spoiling of food

Oxidising agent: substance that causes another to be oxidized by getting reduced

Reducing agent: substance that causes another to be reduced by getting oxidised

Half equations Example of redox reaction: Mg ( s ) + CuO ( s )

Half equations Example of redox reaction:

Mg (s) + CuO (s) MgO (s) + Cu (s) Ionic equation: Mg (s) + Cu 2+ (s) Mg 2+ (s) + Cu (s)

Mg atomsMg ions Mg (s) Mg 2+ (s) + 2e-

Cu ionsCu atoms Cu 2+ (s) + 2e- Cu (s

Oxidation

Reduction

1.29 recall charges of common ions (see 1.20)

1.30 deduce charge of ion from electronic configuration of atom from which it’s formed Example: Sodium

of ion from electronic configuration of atom from which it’s formed Example: Sodium Loses 1 electron

Loses 1 electron Charge: 1+

1.31 explain using dot & cross diagrams the formation of ionic compounds by electron transfer (combinations of elements from group 1,2,3,5,6,7)

Example 1: NaCl

ionic compounds by electron transfer (combinations of elements from group 1,2,3,5,6,7) Example 1: NaCl Example 2:

Example 2: CaCl 2

ionic compounds by electron transfer (combinations of elements from group 1,2,3,5,6,7) Example 1: NaCl Example 2:

1.32

Ionic bonding definition [metal + non metal]

Ionic bonding: strong electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions

1.33 Properties of ionic compounds + explanations

High M.P. + B.P.

Very strong electrostatic forces of attraction (ionic bonds) require large amounts of heat energy to be broken

Hard

Very strong electrostatic forces of attraction between ions require large amounts of energy to be broken

Non-Conductors in SOLID state

Ions held in their fixed positions by strong ionic bondsnot free to move around

Conductor in LIQUID (molten/aqueous) state

Ions free to move (strong ionic bonds broken) + act as mobile charge carriers

Soluble in water

Insoluble in organic solvents

High densities

Ions close together by strong ionic bonds

1.34 Relationship between ionic charge with M.P. + B.P. of ionic compound

1.35 the ionic crystal Giant 3-D lattice structure held together by attraction between oppositely charged ions

held together by attraction between oppositely charged ions 1.36 Simple diagram representing positions of ions in

1.36 Simple diagram representing positions of ions in crystal of sodium chloride DRAW BOTH DIAGRAMS

charged ions 1.36 Simple diagram representing positions of ions in crystal of sodium chloride DRAW BOTH

g) Covalent substances

1.37 covalent bonding

Covalent bonding: 2/ more NON-METALLIC atoms share their unpaired outer shell electrons

Strong electrostatic force of attraction between the shared pair of electrons + the nuclei of the atoms

1.39 dot + cross digrams to show formation of covalent compounds by electron sharing

i. hydrogen

of the atoms 1.39 dot + cross digrams to show formation of covalent compounds by electron

ii. chlorine

iii. Hydrogen chloride v) methane iv. water vi) ammonia

iii. Hydrogen chloride

iii. Hydrogen chloride v) methane iv. water vi) ammonia

v) methane

iv. water

iii. Hydrogen chloride v) methane iv. water vi) ammonia

vi) ammonia

vii) oxygen viii) nitrogen ix) carbon dioxide x) ethane

vii) oxygen

vii) oxygen viii) nitrogen ix) carbon dioxide x) ethane

viii) nitrogen

vii) oxygen viii) nitrogen ix) carbon dioxide x) ethane

ix) carbon dioxide

x) ethane

xi) ethane 1.40 properties of covalent compounds Low M.P. + B.P. Held together by weak

xi) ethane

xi) ethane 1.40 properties of covalent compounds Low M.P. + B.P. Held together by weak intermolecular
xi) ethane 1.40 properties of covalent compounds Low M.P. + B.P. Held together by weak intermolecular

1.40 properties of covalent compounds

Low M.P. + B.P.

Held together by weak intermolecular forces of attraction can be broken easily with small amounts of heat energy

Non-Conductors of electricity in all states

Made up of neutral moleculesno mobile charged particles to act are charge carriers

Soft

Weak intermolecular forces of attraction require small amounts of energy t be broken

Soluble in organic solvents

Insoluble in water

Relatively low densities

Weak intermolecular forces of attraction do not attract molecules close together

1.42 substances with giant covalent structures have high melting points

Giant molecular structuremade up of millions of atoms covalently bonded in an ordered way in a 3-D arrangement

Large numbers of covalent bonds need to be brokenlarge amount of heat energy

Allotropes: different crystalline forms of the same element which can exist in the same physical state

1.43 Diagrams of diamond & graphite atoms

Diamond

forms of the same element which can exist in the same physical state 1.43 Diagrams of
Very High M.P. Large numbers of strong covalent bonds need to be broken Non-conductor of

Very High M.P. Large numbers of strong covalent bonds need to be broken

Non-conductor of electricity 4 outer shell electrons of each C atom used in bonding no free electrons to act as charge carriers

Relatively high density Strong covalent bonds pull atoms closer together

Very hard used in cutting Very strong covalent bonds hold carbon atoms together firmly

Graphite:

Very High M.P. Large numbers of strong covalent bonds need to be broken Good conductor

Very High M.P. Large numbers of strong covalent bonds need to be broken

Good conductor of electricity 3 out of 4 outer shell electrons used in bonding No free electrons to act as charge carriers

Relatively high density Strong covalent bonds pull atoms in structure closer together Lower than diamondcontains van der Waals’ forces

Soft [lubricant] Layers held by weak van der Waals’ forces which are easily brokenlayers can slide over h) Metallic crystals

1.45 metal: giant structure of positive ions surrounded by a sea of delocalized electrons

positive ions surrounded by a sea of delocalized electrons 1.46 properties of metals High M.P. +

1.46 properties of metals

High M.P. + B.P. (many exceptions Hg, Na, Pb)

Very strong metallic bondslarge amounts of heat energy to be broken

Good conductors of electricity

Delocalized electrons free to move around + act as charge carriers transfer electric charge from one part to another

Malleable [hammered into thin sheets]

Layers of cations can slide over each other

+ Ductile [drawn out into wires]

i) Electrolysis

1.47

electric current: flow of electrons

1.48

+ 1.49 See 1.33 + 1.40

1.50

distinguishing between electrolytes + non-electrolytes

Electrolyte: compound that is decomposed by electricity Non-electrolyte: compound which does not conduct electric current since no ions present