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Germany on the Rise 1. Germany Officially Announces Rearmament (March, 1935) a. Had begun 15 years ago under Gen.

Von Seeckt b. Included i. A well-disguised general staff in various bureaucracies ii. An officer corps hidden in police units iii. Paramilitary groups iv. Veterans associations v. Rifle clubs vi. An air force based on commercial pilots Ruhr Valley, Germany a. Home to munitions plants that were moved back from Russia b. Churned out airplanes, tanks, artillery, guns, etc. Allied Inability to Enforce German Disarmament (Late 20s-Early 30s) a. Allied inspection teams left in 1927 and Ruhr occupation ended in 1930 b. UK and US demobilized their armies in the 1920s already, dismantled their weapons factories and accepted naval limitations Locarno Treaty (1925) a. To secure post-war territorial settlements and normalize relations with Weimar Republic b. 2 categories of borders: East and West c. Western states had borders guaranteed d. Eastern borders between Germany and Poland were set but had the option of being revised later Geneva Disarmament Conference (1926) a. Followed the Locarno Treatys attempt to rebuild peace b. A commission studied how to reduce armament levels throughout the world c. France continually voiced its suspicions about Germanys good intentions to disarm d. Ended in 1931 with nothing to show Geneva Disarmament Conference (1932) a. Great Depression and continued suspicion of German rearmament called for another meeting to reach an actual agreement b. Germany demanded universal disarmament as per Treaty of Versailles or equal level of weapons between Germany and other world powers c. France and Germany abandoned the negotiations German Position on Rearmament (1932) a. Demanded either universal disarmament with all powers in accordance with Treaty of Versailles or be given the same level of weapons as the other powers French Position on German Rearmament (1932)a. No, no, no! None at all! Geneva Disarmament Conference (1933) a. Britain and France promised an equal system b. Germany demanded equal level of arms with all other powers Reasons for German Rearmament (1933) a. Would stimulate employment and industrial production b. To regain military superiority Malthusian Curse a. Germany did not have enough arable land to support its population growth German Policy of Lebensraum a. Literally living space b. Eastern Germany and Western Russia: expel or subdue all non-Germans to make way for German settlement Reasons for Germanys Focus on Eastern Europe and western Russia a. Had the land and resources to sustain Germanys growth Slavs and Jews a. They occupied the lands Hitler wanted b. Targeted for elimination Reasons for Rapprochement Between Germany and Italy (1933) a. Fascist solidarity b. Common distaste for French colonialism and naval influence German Foreign Policy Goals (Pre-Hitler Era)

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a. Recovery of lost territories b. Annexation of German-speaking regions based on national self-determination c. Restoration of military power Hitlers Foreign Policy Goals a. Same as before but didnt really care for German-speaking peoples outside of Germany b. He used their agitation as a pretext to grabbing more land British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonalds Compromise Plan (1933) a. All armies at 200,000 men b. Frances army will be decreased in increments over 5 years until on par with other countries Germanys Rejection of MacDonalds Compromise Plan (1933) a. Demanded the right to construct restricted weapons and increase size of military Global Security Concerns (Japan, 1931 and Germany, 1933) a. Hitler withdrew from LoN, quite the disarmament conference and dissolved the Reichstag b. A German referendum showed a 90% approval rating c. France could no longer pressure Germany through world opinion German-Polish Nonaggression Pact (1934) a. Obliterates Frances system of defensive alliances b. Relieves some political pressure on Hitler and gives him time to get ready for war c. Poland gets access to German resources and Hitler quiets Danzig

French Security on the Continent 1. Issues of Franco-Italian Conflict (20s and 30s) a. France did not support Italys attempt to acquire the Dalmatian Coast during the peace process b. France was mistreating Italians in Tunisia c. France and Italy entered a naval race during the 1920s d. France had allied itself with Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia while Italy tried to agitate Yugoslavian Serbs by supporting Croat separatists 2. Franco-Italian Shared Objective (30s) a. Anschluss of German-speaking Austria due to the increased threat to Czechoslovakia and war-making potential b. Creation of an economic federation and political association 3. Anschluss a. The union between Austria and Germany on the grounds that Austria contained German-speaking peoples 4. Austrian Crisis (1934) a. Chancellor Dollruss was assassinated by local Nazis who wanted Hitler to take over b. Plot was foiled when Italian troops were sent to the border to prevent an Anschluss c. Hitler repudiates the plot and Mussolini takes the credit 5. Result of Austrian Crisis (1934) a. January 1935: settled most differences in Africa in exchange for guaranteeing Italian consultations in the event Germany violates Treaty of Versailles or about the independence of Austria 6. German Repudiation of Disarmament Provision of the Treaty of Versailles (March, 1935) a. Hitler makes re-armament public 7. Stresa Conference (April, 1935) a. France, Britain and Italy jointly condemn Germany and threaten joint opposition to further violations b. France and Italy exchange secret pledges of military support if Germany enters Rhineland or Austria 8. Issues of Franco-Soviet Conflict (20s and 30s) a. France had issues with Russias Brest-Litovsk treaty and its debts to French investors b. Russia had issues with Frances anti-bolshevism and support of Poland c. France wanted to maintain the new status quo while Russia worked with Germany to ruin the postwar system 9. Franco-Soviet Relations Improve (30s) a. The rise of Hitler causes Russia to endorse Frances position at the disarmament conferences b. April 1933: Russo-German military collaboration ends and all military ties are cut c. New French-Russo relations clear the air of suspicions which gives Barthou an opportunity to create new security arrangements 10. Louis Barthou a. Appointed French foreign minister in Feb. 1934 b. Gets assassinated in Oct. 11. Franco-Soviet Dual Alliance Proposal (1934) a. Modeled on Locarno Treaty

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Germany, Russia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Finland and Baltic states would mutually guarantee their borders Bilateral agreement between France and Russia in that Russia would commit to France as per Locarno and France would commit to Russia as per this new pact d. Hitler rejects this proposal and Poland rejects allowing Russia to move troops through its land Pierre Laval a. Appointed new foreign minister in 1935 Lavals New Plan (1935) a. Cement relations between France, Britain and Italy to the point that Germany must enter into an agreement (as suggested by Mussolini in 1933) b. May 1935, France and Russia conclude a mutual assistance pact c. May 1935, Russia and Czechoslovakia made a similar pact d. Germany is now surrounded and isolated Soviet Comintern a. Communist international b. Presented a popular front against all forms of fascism Popular Front a. Viewed by French conservatives as a form of communist interference in French politics b. A coalition of France, Italy and Russia against German advances Reasons for Achievement of French Security (1935) a. France needed a decidedly anti-German coalition which led it to fascist Italy and communist Russia b. Italy and Russia were surprisingly friendly to each other which facilitated the process

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The Collapse of the French Security System on the Continent 1. Stresa Front a. Britain, France and Italy (the old WWI coalition) 2. French Security on the Continent (1935) a. April 1935: Stresa declaration to strengthen Locarno Treaty b. May 1935: Franco-Soviet pact c. June 1935: Franco-Italian military talks begin d. Alliances with Belgium, Poland and Czechoslovakia e. Friendship treaties with Romania and Yugoslavia 3. Anglo-German Bilateral Naval Agreement (1935) a. June 1935: Germany could build up its navy to 35% of total tonnage of British fleets (which was promptly ignored) b. Fractures the Stresa Front by breaking a Versailles clause 4. British and French Concessions towards Italy in Ethiopia (1935) a. January 1935: France formally renounces economic interests in Ethiopia b. August 1935: Britain and France give Italy a privileged economic position and the right to appoint Italian advisors to Ethiopias civil service system, army and police 5. Italian Invasion of Ethiopia (1935) a. October 1935: Italy invades Ethiopia b. Ethiopia was a member of LoN and there was much public outcry c. LoN condemned the invasion and voted economic sanctions as supported by France and Britain 6. Hoare-Laval Pact (1935) a. December 1935: a secret Anglo-French agreement allowing the majority of Ethiopia to be under Italian rule and the rest as an Italian client state b. Was disavowed when it was leaked c. Britain and France were already disobeying the economic sanctions 7. German Stance towards Italy during Invasion of Ethiopia (1935) a. Used the fracturing Front to his advantage b. Remained neutral and was willing to supply Italy with iron, coal and steel c. Would regard the Franco-Soviet alliance as a violation of Locarno and a threat to German security d. Reintroduced military forces and fortifications into the Rhineland 8. Franco-Soviet Pact (1936) a. February 1936: ratification of Franco-Soviet Treaty b. Germany used this treaty to generate anti-communist propaganda 9. German Invasion of the Rhineland (1936) a. March 1936: German infantry, AA guns and aircraft move into the Rhineland 10. Frances Maginot Line

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A line of fortifications along the French-German border French military doctrine dictated passivity in compliance with Frances desire not to go to war (basically wrote off the Rhineland) c. However, govt leaders in Paris wanted an offensive in direct opposition to the general staff Pierre-Etienne Flandin a. April 1936: goes to London to discuss an Anglo-French countermove b. However, Brits do not see it as a flagrant violation due to lack of moves towards the French border Joint Anglo-French Counteroffensive Proposal against the Germans in the Rhineland (1936) a. Britain would not participate in any military response or approve of French unilateral action b. Britain wanted to avoid war at all costs and correctly believed that another pan-Europe war would begin from a French or Anglo-French advance into the Rhineland Hitlers Brinkmanship Succeeds in Paralyzing British and French Military Response a. Used their fear of going to war against them b. Only option for Britain and France was to issue protests, issue a LoN condemnation and begin French-Anglo military consulations c. Britain began remilitarizing but only on upgrading the navy and air force for home/colonial protection Little Ententes and Polands Response to German Invasion of the Rhineland a. They believed that France would initiate any moves trying to restrain Germany b. June 1936: joint meeting of all chiefs of staff of the Little Entente c. Poland increases diplomacy with Germany while other nations continue to depend on French military protection Belgian Renouncement of Military Alliance with France (1936) a. October 1936: Belgium ends alliance with France and reverts to neutrality b. British and French forces were no longer guaranteed passage c. Frances northeastern frontier is now open and unguarded German Rise of Security on the Continent (1936) a. To the north, Belgium has been neutralized and the Rhineland is remilitarized b. To the east, Poland is now a barrier to the Soviet Union c. To the south, the Little Entente is now forced to seek improved relations with Germany Spanish Civil War / General Francisco Franco (1936) a. Franco asked fellow Fascists Hitler and Mussolini for aid b. Germany would be able to test out new weapons, tactics (namely terror bombing) and gains access to Spanish resources c. Italy uses this as an opportunity to get closer to Germany Hitlers Four-Year Economic Plan (1936) a. October 1936: to create absolute independence from foreign trade by synthetic materials b. Supervised by Hermann Goering Blitzkrieg a. Lightning War b. Used fast-moving armor and air power to punch through enemy lines and isolate pockets of the enemy Rome-Berlin Axis (1936) a. October 1936: Mussolinis acceptance of Germanys powers over Austria and Eastern Europe b. Gives France and Britain another target to worry about: Italy Anschluss / Kurt von Schuschnigg / Austrian Nazis a. Hitler begins to pressure Austria to align its policies with that of Germany b. Indicates to Austrian Nazis to increase subversive activities to prepare for annexation c. Austrian police raids on Nazi HQ reveals collusion between Germany and Austrian Nazis which forces Hitler to take on a different route d. February 1938: Hitler personally meets with Chancellor Schuschnigg and bullies him into accepting Nazis in the govt e. March 1938: Schuschnigg sets up a plebiscite to get national support in resisting Germany which Hitler oversees with his military f. April 1938: a clearly rigged election votes for Anschluss German Annexation of Austria (1938) a. Clearly forbidden by Treaty of Versailles but at this point, who cares? b. Schuschnigg got no support from France or Britain Anti Comintern Pact (Berlin-Tokyo Axis) (1936) a. Germany benefits from Japanese pressure on European colonial possessions in Asia b. All hated communist Russia and promoted resistance against Comintern

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24. Creation of the Axis Powers (1937) a. Italy joins the Anti-Comintern Pact b. The worlds three expansionist powers are now aligned Hitlers Annihilation of Czechoslovakia 1. Danzig a. Dominated by the Nazi party and gave headache to the Polish authorities b. Hitler ordered them to calm down when he made peace with the Polish govt Teschen (Upper Silesia) a. Given to Czechoslovakia in 1920 and home to 80,000+ Poles b. Hitler offered this as a reward to Poland if it helped Germany gain the Sudetenland Sudetenland a. German-speaking Western Czechoslovakia b. Had defensive fortifications against Germany Little Entente a. The Little Entente was united because Hungary had land taken away to form the Little Entente b. This union was opposed to Hitler taking the Sudetenland and was backed by France Hungary a. The main enemy to the Little Entente Hungary and Yugoslavia Agreement (1938) a. 1938: Hungary and Yugoslavia settle the majority of their disagreements b. Undermines the unity of the Little Entente Romania a. Romania and Russia have territorial disputes over Bessarabia b. Hitler used this issue to prevent Russian help from reaching Czechoslovakia German Commercial Policies for Economic Ties with Eastern Europe a. Used their economies to help bolster the German economy and isolate Poland b. The Little Entente fell apart easily Nazi Propaganda in the Sudetenland (1938) a. Accuses Poland of persecuting the 3 million Sudeten Germans Konrad Henlein a. Head of the Sudeten German Party b. Demanded political autonomy of Sudetenland so that Germany may annex it later Reasons for Czech Resistance to Allowing for German Annexation of Sudetenland a. Would lose the majority of their fortifications against a German invasion b. Would set a precedent for other minority groups like the Poles in Teschen and the Slovaks France Fails to Aid Czechoslovakia a. Appeared to be committed to the Franco-Czech alliance b. Would not fight due to a terrible air force, Belgian refusal to cooperate and overestimations of the German military c. France thought it would be defeated again Britain Fails to Aid Czechoslovakia a. Britain was unwilling to go to war over something that didnt interest them b. Remembered the terror bombings of civilians and the AA defenses werent ready yet Eduard Benes Gives In to German Sudeten Demands a. Sept. 5 1938: England and France pressure him into giving in to the Sudeten party b. Hitler wants a war, not concessions and so orders Henlein to create a list of grievances Neville Chamberlain Promotes Peace in Eastern Europe for Two Reasons a. Believed that WWI could have been averted with more skillful diplomacy b. Believed that Germany was mistreated at the Paris Peace Conference Hitler / Chamberlain Meeting (Berchtesgaden, Austria, September 15, 1938) a. Sept. 15, 1938: Chamberlain meets with Hitler to settle the Sudeten issue b. Hitler sticks to national self-determination and Chamberlain goes off to persuade France and Czechoslovakia to agree Edouard Daladier a. Hates the idea of giving the Germans the Sudetenland but backs down and allows Chamberlain to take the lead Czech Response to Anglo-French-German Diplomacy a. Rejects the solution but is forced to when Britain threatens to ends diplomatic efforts and France refuses to give military support

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19. Hitler / Chamberlain Meeting (Godesberg, Germany, September 22, 1938) a. Chamberlain agrees to concessions but Hitler abruptly declares that conditions in the Sudeten have deteriorated and require direct intervention 20. Europe Mobilizes for War (1938) a. Sept. 24, 1938: Czech govt goes to war b. Sept. 26, 1938: French army goes to war c. Sept. 27, 1938: British navy goes to war d. Sept. 30, 1938: Germany orders the assault on Czechoslovakia 21. Benito Mussolini Intervenes to Avoid War (Munich Conference, September 30, 1938) a. Sept 29, 1938: Mussolini calls for a conference on behalf of Czechoslovakia b. Hitler agrees to host the conference in Munich, Germany c. Britain, France, Italy and Germany attend (no Czechoslovakia) 22. Facets of the Munich Pact (1938) a. Czech army leaves the Sudetenland between Oct. 1 and Oct. 10 b. German occupation follows c. Britain and France were assured redrawn borders d. Germany and Italy got similar assurances after Polish and Hungarian claims were adjucated 23. Romanian-German Economic Agreement (December 10, 1938) a. Guaranteed German access to Romanian oil and wheat due to shortfalls in German production 24. Hungary Joins the Anti-Comintern Pact (1938) a. Withdraws from the LoN b. Hitler gives Hungary approval to annex Czechoslovakias easternmost province 25. Romania and Yugoslavia Accept German Subservience (1938) a. Diplomatic and economic subservience to Germany 26. Lithuania / Port of Memel a. Lithuania becomes a satellite nation b. March 1939: Port of Memel is annexed 27. German Occupation of Prague (March 15, 1939) a. March 15, 1939: western half of Czechoslovakia becomes a German protectorate b. Eastern half becomes the satellite state of Slovakia 28. Poland Reneges on Previous Agreements with Germany (1939) a. Poland refuses to declare subservience to Germany or adherence to Anti-Comintern Pact b. Ruling elite balanced between German and Russian influences since the end of WWI c. National pride prevented them from become like Czechoslovakia 29. Germany Decides on Poland as Primary Target a. Takes out Poland prior to taking on Western Europe b. Uses mistreatment of Germans in Danzig and economic difficulties with East Prussia as excuses 30. Polish Resolve / Anti-German Policy a. Polish resistance is aided by French and Britain changes in policy b. Britain and France go from appeasement to resistance c. Britain accelerates rearmament and plans for continental action d. France places orders of warplanes with FDR 31. Nazi-Soviet Pact (August 23, 1939) a. Hitler appease any Russian aggression using Polish territory b. Stalin gains time for arms buildup against German invasion c. Stalin had choose between Britain and Germany but chose Germany because he felt that Britain could not effectively defend Poland in time