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Weaving Technology

Weaving Lab # 1: NOMINAL AND ACTUAL SHUTTLE AND PICKER MOTIONS

Name: Shoaib Wahab


Course: Weaving Technology Year: 2nd Year BSc Group: Textile Technology Business management (TTBM)

Experiment Conducted: 27th Sptember 2010

Lab # 1

Weaving Technology

Objectives Following report will help the reader to examine the methods being performed to present the Actual and Nominal Motion of a Shuttle-loom, and the significance of a Picking Stick and Picking Stick compliance in the process, with the help of analytical and graphical representation.

Equipments To perform this experiment the equipments we require are; i) ii) iii) iv) Shuttle-loom Stroboscope Tachometer Measuring Scale

Measures Provided with the general strategy in the instruction sheet the experimentation is alienated in two halves. i) Nominal Motion ii) Actual Motion To obtain the best results and outcome of the experimentation each part of the experiment is conducted under the supervision of an Instructor. To perform the experiment, Weaving Machine has been modified with an addition of a wheel attached to the crank shaft so that, a nominal motion could be given to the machine manually by simply turning the wheel to a desired angle by hand. Stroboscope: Its a device necessary to perform this experiment. A Stroboscope as defined by its name helps the viewer to see a high pace running device still. The device has a mechanism attached to it which increases and delays the speed of flash, which results in helping the viewer to see a running object at different instances. Tachometer: It is a small electronic device used to measure the speed of the weaving machine. The device is connected to the crank shaft while it rotates and display on its screen the speed of the crank shaft rotation in terms of RPM or PPM. This speed is referred as speed of the machine.

Lab # 1

Weaving Technology

Measuring Scale: For this experiment a measuring scale is attached to the shuttle box which carries a paint mark to measure the shuttle position at different instances of the crank shaft rotation.

Methodology and Procedure Nominal Motion The shuttle was pushed fully into the left hand shuttle box and the crank shaft was turned by hand to a timing before the shuttle displacement begins (identify this position by the left hand picking cam). Then with the help of paint mark on the shuttle box measurements were recorded of the shuttle position at every five degrees until the shuttle stopped moving. The experiment was then repeated to obtain two consistent sets of data. i) Reading 1 Angle at Crank Shaft 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 ii) Reading 2 Angle at Crank Shaft 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 Shuttle position in cm 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 10
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Shuttle position in cm 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 10 13 14 15.5 16 17 17

Weaving Technology

95 100 105 110 115 115

13 14 15.5 16 17 17

iii) Average for reading 1 and 2 Angle at Crank Shaft 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 Discussion: The curve in fig 1.1 for the nominal motion clearly indicates that with the gradual crankshaft rotation the shuttle is provided with a force i.e. with a help of a picking stick. As the shuttle starts moving it over comes its state of rest and momentarily starts accelerating. As it moves on its own the force diminishes causing the curve to decline after some time. Actual Motion This half of the experiment was conducted while the loom was running; the shuttle position was observed with the help of a stroboscope triggered by the loom. While viewing the crank shaft timing scale, the flash was adjusted so that the stroboscope flashes at the timing of interest. Then observations were recorded with the corresponding shuttle position, using the reference mark on the shuttle (by flashing the stroboscope on the shuttle box), at the shuttle position of every five degree interval, from just before start of the picking until the shuttle moves off the scale. The following data was tabulated;
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Shuttle position in cm 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.75 6 9.25 11.75 14 15 16 16.75 17 17

Weaving Technology

Angle at Crank Shaft 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 Discussion:

Shuttle position in cm 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 9 14 21 25

The curve in fig 1.1 for actual motion shows that there is an immediate bent in the curve at the start that indicates that in an actual motion when the picking stick hits the shuttle, the shuttle takes time to overcome the inertia present in it. But by the time it over comes it the curve forms a steep slope indicating its free fall motion across the shed. Outcome Lag and the picking stick compliance: As we interpret the displacement curves in fig 1.1, for both the nominal and actual motion we can see that there is a significant distance that exists between both the curves before the point where these curves intersects. In the year 1949 Thomas and Vincent who conducted this experiment for the first time and published the report at Shirley Institute named the phenomena as Lag. According to them the lag between the nominal and actual motion displacements is a result of the force required to overcome the inertia of the shuttle. This phenomenon of lag also help us to understand the nature of the picking stick and picking stick compliance in the process of shuttle loom weaving. Thomas also suggested this nature of the curves as the Catapult Effect. The nature of the picking stick is somewhat similar to the one of the catapult where the slag strap and the picking stick help to strike the shuttle in a very similar fashion. With the help of fig 1.1 we can also comprehend that the point of intersection of both the curves is actually the point where the contact of the picking stick expires with the shuttle. The ratio between Maximum Actual and Maximum Nominal shuttle velocity:

Lab # 1

Weaving Technology

Nominal Curve, Change in L / Change in (o) = 2.5 / 4.0 = 0.625 Actual Curve, Change in L / Change in (o) = 4.4 / 3.5 = 1.257 Ratio, Actual / Nominal = 1.257 / 0.625 = 2.01 Maximum Actual shuttle velocity: Velocity = Distance / Time =m/s Maximum Actual shuttle velocity, = Change in (L) / Change in (o) = cm / o = 4.4 / 3.5 To gain the maximum actual shuttle velocity we will have to convert the units, (cm) into (m) and (o) into (sec). For this conversion we had to use the tachometer which gave us the speed of the weaving machine i.e. 164 PPM of RPM. Converting (o) into (sec); = 164 picks 1 min o = 164 * 360 60 sec o = 59040 / 60 1 sec o = 984 1 sec o =1 1 / 984 sec o = 3.5 3.5 / 984 sec -3 = 3.56 * 10 sec Converting (cm) into (m); = 100cm 1m = 1cm 1 / 100 m = 4.4cm 4.4 / 100 m
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Weaving Technology

= 4.4 * 10-2 m Maximum Actual Shuttle Velocity; = (4.4 * 10-2) / (3.56 * 10-3) = 12.359 m/s

Lab # 1