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Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

(Transport Layer)

Out e Outline Introduction and challenges (self learning) Which transport layer protocols? (self learning)
Traditional TCP (self learning) A B i f R i it t T diti Brief Revisit to Traditional TCP (self learning) l

Application Transport Protocol Network P N k Protocol l Media Access Protocol Physical Channel (Radio)

WS 2010/2011
Prof. Dr. Dieter Hogrefe Dr. Omar Alfandi

Design goals and Classification of a Transport layer protocols for wireless ad hoc networks networks. Enhancements to TCP for wireless ad hoc networks
TCP-based TCP based Others

Summary y
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Introduction : Transport layer objectives


Setting up :
end-to-end connection end-to-end delivery of data packets flow control and congestion control

Introduction : Challenge
The traditional wired transport layer protocols are not suitable for wireless ad hoc networks due to the inherent problems associated with ad hoc networks networks. TCP protocol does not work well in ad hoc net orks ork ell networks
What are the major reasons behind that ?

There are:
Connection-less transport layer protocols such as UDP Connection-oriented transport layer p p y protocols such as TCP

Introduction : Major reasons (1/4)


Misinterpretation of packet loss:
Wired connection : packets loss are mainly due to congestions; Wireless ad hoc networks : high packet loss due to :
High BER (wired link < 10 E-9, wireless link 10 E-5 ~ 10 E-4 and even higher) Collision due to hidden terminal problem Interference: wired link are well isolated, wireless links interfere; Frequent path breaks: wired due to failures, wireless: mobility; Large-scale and small-scale propagation phenomenon.

Introduction : Major reasons (2/4)


Effects of contention (dependency on path length)
Within the increase in the number of hops in the path throughput decreases exponentially

Misinterpretation of congestion window (CW)


CW is the rate that is acceptable for the network and the receiver

Asymmetric link behaviour


Sometimes wireless link are directional in ad hoc networks leading to l di t
Delivery of a packet to a node and failure in the delivery of ACK Some routing p g protocols require the forward and backward p q paths to be the same
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Frequent path breaks


T Topology changes, route reconfigurations, etc .. l h t fi ti t

Introduction : Major reasons (3/4)


Resources contention
B th DATA and ACK require RTS CTS DATA ACK at th Both d i RTS-CTS-DATA-ACK t the data-link layer Contention for resources in the same link at forward and backward paths

Introduction : Major reasons (4/4)


Network partitioning and merging
TCP receiver for session A TCP receiver for session B TCP receiver for session A TCP receiver for session B TCP receiver for session A TCP receiver for session B

Multipath routing
Some routing protocols use multiple paths between the source and destination leading to:
High number of out-of-order packets leading to DUPACKs g p g Different RTO values leading to unnecessary retransmission
RTO: Retransmit TimeOut DUPACKs: Duplicate Acknowledgments

TCP sender for session A TCP sender for session B TCP sender for session B

TCP sender for session A

TCP sender for session A TCP sender for session B

Out e Outline Introduction and challenges (self learning) Which transport layer protocols? (self learning)
Traditional TCP (self learning) A B i f R i it t T diti Brief Revisit to Traditional TCP (self learning) l

Which transport layer protocols?


TCP is reliable, incorporates congestion control, incorporates end-to-end and fl i t dt d d flow control mechanisms t l h i Observations concerning ad hoc networks
It i preferable t seamlessly i t is f bl to l l integrate TCP in ad hoc t i dh networks:
To enable seamless operation of higher layer protocols such as FTP,HTTP

Design goals and Classification of a Transport layer protocols for wireless ad hoc networks networks. Enhancements to TCP for wireless ad hoc networks
TCP-based TCP based Others

If not, to make as less modifications to TCP as possible:


To make wireless and wired TCPs understands each other seamlessly

Summary y
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If not, to split the TCP into wireless and wired part:


T concentrate internetworking functions in gateways To t t i t t ki f ti i t
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Out e Outline Introduction and challenges (self learning) Which transport layer protocols? (self learning)
Traditional TCP (self learning) A B i f R i it t T diti Brief Revisit to Traditional TCP (self learning) l

Traditional TCP
The major responsibilities of TCP in an active session are t to: provide reliable in-order transport of data:
t not allow losses of data. to t ll l fd t

Design goals and Classification of a Transport layer protocols for wireless ad hoc networks networks. Enhancements to TCP for wireless ad hoc networks
TCP-based TCP based Others

control congestions in the networks:


to not allow degradation of the network performance performance.

control a packet flow between the transmitter and the receiver:


to not exceed the receiver's capacity.

Summary y
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In general
we distinguish between the following operational phases i TCP h in TCP:
slow-start phase (also known as exponential start); congestion avoidance phase; congestion control phase; fast retransmit phase; p fast recovery.

TCP segment structure

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TCP co ect o estab s e t a d te C connection establishment and termination at o

Out e Outline Introduction and challenges Which transport layer protocols?


Traditional TCP A B i f R i it t T diti Brief Revisit to Traditional TCP l

Design goals and Classification of a Transport layer protocols for wireless ad hoc networks networks. Enhancements to TCP for wireless ad hoc networks
TCP-based TCP based Others

Summary y
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Revisit: RTT and Timeout


Every time TCP sends a segment, it starts a timeout:
it must be larger than RTT: to avoid unnecessary retransmission; it should not be much larger than RTT: to not introduce big delays.

Revisit: Reliable in order data transfer in-order


Reliable in-order data transfer of TCP ensures the following: data stream in the receiver's buffer is uncorrupted; receiver s data stream in the receiver's buffer is in order (no gaps, no duplications). TCP at the client: frames application layer data into segments; each time TCP releases a segment to IP layer a timer starts; the following three cases are possible here:
if the timer expires and no ACK is received, the TCP retransmits a segment; if ACK is received the TCP should check:
this is a first-time ACK: all data up to the acknowledged byte have received correctly and in order. this is a duplicate ACK (DUPACK): some data have been received out of order order, retransmit the segment. 17 18

The following dynamic expression is used for setting a timeout: Timeout = Estimate of RTT + 4xDeviation, where
Sample RTT = t(the ACK is received) - t(the segment is sent to IP); Estimate of RTT = (1 - x) Estimate of RTT + x Sample RTT;
x = 0.125 is mostly chosen given more wait to recent Sample RTT; Deviation = (1 - x)Deviation + Sample RTT - Estimate of RTT;

Notes
small deviations of Sample RTT: Timeout > Estimate of RTT; big deviation of Sample RTT: Timeout Estimate of RTT.
RTT: Round T i Time RTT R d Trip Ti Website: https://wiki.net.informatik.uni-goettingen.de/w/images/9/9f/Telematik_WS2009_chapter4-i.pdf

Revisit: Flow control


Flow control service is a rate matching provided by TCP using the dynamic rcvWin: i th d i Wi
rcvWin is sent with every ACK to the sender; initially rcvWin = rcvBuf; initially, for next ACK the receiver sends: rcvWin = rcvBuf - ( lastByteRcv - lastByteRead ); the sender must ensure that ( lastByteSent -lastByteAcked ) rcvWin to not overflow.
rcvBuf B f Data from IP reading Available space rcvWin
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Revisit: TCP Tahoe congestion control (1/3)


Every transmission starts with connection setup and followed by slow start phase: the sender starts the session with a congestion window set to maximum segment size (MSS):
it sends MSS bytes of data; starts retransmission timeout (RTO) and waits for acknowledgement packet (ACK).

if ACK is received in RTO the congestion window is doubled and two MSSs of data are sent; the congestions window is doubled with every ACK until it reaches slow-start threshold;
Website: https://wiki.net.informatik.uni-goettingen.de/w/images/e/e6/Telematik_WS2009_chapter4-ii.pdf W b it htt // iki t i f tik i tti d / /i / / 6/T l tik WS2009 h t 4 ii df

TCP data in the buffer

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TCP Tahoe congestion control (2/3)


The slow-start phase is followed by congestion avoidance p phase: when the slow-start threshold is reached, the congestion window grows linearly; if the ACKs are recei ed before timers (RTOs) e pire received expire:
the congestion window grows until the receiver window advertised in connection setup; (l tB t S t - l tB t A k d) rcvWin t NOT allow overflow (lastByteSent lastByteAcked) Wi to ll fl

TCP Tahoe congestion control (3/3)


If the ACK is not received in RTO, TCP assumes the packets is ( g ) lost (congestion): TCP enters the congestion control phase performing the following:
reduces the slow-start threshold to 1/2 of current CW; slow start resets the congestion window to one MSS; activates the slow-start algorithm and resets the timeout.
Congestion control

Slow-start

Congestion avoidance

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TCP Tahoe with fast retransmit


TCP Tahoe uses the fast retransmit procedure to respond to losses: if the sender receives three out-of-order segment with higher than expected seq. number; resend the out-of-order segment before timeout expires and enter slow start phase.

Revisit: TCP Reno


DUPACKs are not indication of severe congestion. On arrival of three DUPACKs:
TCP R Reno enters th f t recovery phase and performs th f ll i t the fast h d f the following actions;
retransmits the lost segment and does not enter slow start phase; slow start reduces the slow-start threshold to 1/2 of the current CW; reduces the CW to a 1/2 of the current CW + 3.

increases the CW linearly with reception of subsequent DUPACKs;


one MSS per a DUPACK (meaning that one more packet left the network).

on reception of ACK (this ACK is due to retransmission) the sender: d


resets the CW with the slow-start threshold; enters the congestion avoidance similar to TCP Tahoe.

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More improvements are available: TCP NewReno; TCP SACK.


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Fast recovery procedure of TCP Reno

Out e Outline Introduction and challenges (self learning) Which transport layer protocols? (self learning)
Traditional TCP (self learning) A B i f R i it t T diti Brief Revisit to Traditional TCP (self learning) l

Design goals and Classification of a Transport layer protocols for wireless ad hoc networks networks. Enhancements to TCP for wireless ad hoc networks
TCP-based TCP based Others

Summary y
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Design goals of a Transport layer protocols for i l f wireless ad hoc networks dh t k


The protocol should maximize the throughput per connection It should provide th h ld id throughput f i h t fairness across contending flows t di fl Should incur minimum connection setup and connection maintenance overhead Should have mechanism for congestion control and flow control Should be able to provide both reliable and unreliable connections ti Should be able to adapt to the dynamics of the network such as the rapid change in topology p g p gy The available bandwidth must be used efficiently Should be aware of resources constraints such as battery power

C ass cat o of the transport aye protocols Classification o t e t a spo t layer p otoco s
Transport layer p p y protocols for wireless ad hoc networks

TCP modifications

Other protocols p - ACTP - ATP

Split approaches

End-to-End approaches End to End - TCP-ELFN - TCP F TCP-F - TCP-BuS - ATCP

- Split-TCP Split TCP

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Out e Outline Introduction and challenges Which transport layer protocols?


Traditional TCP A B i f R i it t T diti Brief Revisit to Traditional TCP l

TCP enhancements: TCP-F TCP F


Feedback-based TCP
Support of reliable data-link layer protocols Routing support to inform the TCP sender about path breaks Routing protocols is expected to repair the broken path within a reasonable time

Design goals and Classification of a Transport layer protocols for wireless ad hoc networks networks. Enhancements to TCP for wireless ad hoc networks
TCP-based TCP based Others

The main aim of TCP-F is to minimize the throughput g p degradation resulting from path breaks

Summary y
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sender

receiver

sender

receiver

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TCP F TCP-F
In TCP-F an intermediate node upon detection of the link break
Obtains information from TCP-F senders packets routed via this node; generates a route failure notification (RFN) packet; routes this packet to the TCP-F sender; does not forward any p y packet from this connection; ; updates its routing table; stores information about generation of a RFN packet.

TCP F TCP-F
When TCP-F sender receives the RFN packet it enters the socalled snooze state:
stops sending packet to the destination; cancels all the timers; freezes the congestion window; sets up a route failure timer = f(routing protocol, network size, y ) network dynamic): when failure timer expires TCP-F enters the connected state.

Any intermediate node that forwards the RFN packet: if this node has an alternative route to destination:
discards the RFN packet and uses this p p path to forward other packets:
this allows to reduce an overhead involved in route re-establishment

If the broken links rejoins or intermediate node obtains a new path to destination:
route reestablishment notification (RRN) is sent to TCP-F sender;

if this node does not alternate route to destination:


updates its routing table and forwards the RFN packet to the source
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TCP F TCP-F
When the sender receives RRN packet:
reactivates all timers and congestion window assuming that the network is back; starts transmitting data available in the buffer; takes care of packets lost due to path break break.

TCP F TCP-F : Advantages and disadvantages


Advantages: provides simple feedback to minimize problems due to link breaks; still allows congestion control occurring due to buffer overflows; Disadvantages: requires merging of transport and network layer features (at least, cross layering); cross-layering); requires ability of nodes to detect path breaks; requires ability of routing protocols to repair a link within a reasonable time; requires ability of node to determine the TCP-F sender; reactivated congestion window may not reflect allowed network rate.
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Sender (connected) Sender (from connected to snooze) RFN Sender (from snooze to connected) RFN

RRN

RRN

TCP enhancements: TCP-ELFN TCP ELFN


TCP with Explicit Link Failure Notification According t TCP ELFN an explicit li k failure notification i A di to TCP-ELFN li it link f il tifi ti is used. When an intermediate node detects a link failure: sends an explicit link failure notification (ELFN) to TCP-ELFN sender:
either sending an ICMP destination unreachable message (DUR); or inserting info regarding link break in RouteError message of the routing protocol.

TCP ELFN TCP-ELFN


Being in standby state the TCP-ELFN sender:
periodically originates probe packets to see if a new route is established; when ACK for a probe packet is received TCP-ELFN continues to perform as usual. f l
Sender (connected) Sender (standby) ICMP(DUR), RouteError Sender (standby) Sender (connected) 35

Once the TCP ELFN sender receives the ELFN packet: TCP-ELFN
it disables its retransmission timer and CW; enters a standby state.

probe routeOK

probe routeOK 36

TCP ELFN: TCP-ELFN: Advantages and disadvantages


Advantages: provides path break information to the sender; does not heavily depend on routing protocol capabilities; bili i Disadvantages: periodic packets consume bandwidth, sometimes it may not help (partitioning); reactivated congestion window may not reflect th ti t d ti i d t fl t the new allowed network rate.

TCP enhancements: TCP-BuS TCP BuS


TCP with BUffering and Sequence information protocol tries to notify the source about the path breaks using the feedback info; this protocol is more dependent on routing protocol compared to TCP-F and TCP-ELFN. TCP-BuS was proposed for usage with associativity-based routing (ABR) and uses:
localized query (LQ) message of ABR; REPLY message of ABR.

Sender

Both these messages are modified to carry TCP connection and segment information.
Intermediate upstream Intermediate downstream

Receiver

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TCP BuS TCP-BuS


When a link break is detected, intermediate downstream node:
generates a route notification (RN) message to TCP BuS receiver: TCP-BuS
RN includes the sequence number of packet belonging to that flow in the head of its queue;

TCP BuS TCP-BuS


When ERSN is received the following is done at the sender:
comparing sequence numbers segments are selectively retransmitted retransmitted.

all packets belonging to this flow are discarded at all intermediate nodes p g g that forward RN.

When a link break is detected, intermediate upstream node:


generate explicit route disconnection notification (ERDN); when ERDN is received by the sender, it stops sending and freezes timers CW; all packets in transit nodes are buffered, till new partial path is found by source of ERDN; tries to find a new (partial) route to the TCP-BuS receiver; if it finds, explicit route successful notification packet ( , p p (ERSN) to the sender ) is sent.
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TCP flow LQ REPLY

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TCP BuS: TCP-BuS: Advantages and disadvantages


Advantages: avoidance of retransmissions due to buffering, usage of sequence numbers; selective retransmission i l i i i improves the performance of h f f TCP; Disadvantages: Disad antages dependency on the routing protocol (ABR); b ff i at intermediate nodes (th could b buffering t i t di t d (they ld be overflowed, thus, may fail).

TCP enhancements: ATCP


Ad hoc TCP This i Thi is a wise realization of TCP with feedback due to: i li ti f ith f db k d t usage of explicit congestion notification field (currently is under consideration in IETF); )
usage of intermediate thin layer between traditional TCP and IP layer; only a few functions; does not require a certain routing protocol; adaptation of congestion window to a new path.

Aim: to treat path breaks independently from congestion situations.

IETF: Internet Engineering Tasking Force

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ATCP
The following are advantages of such a layered structure:
ATCP logic is separated from classic TCP; no changes to TCP are required; in principle, ATCP can be realized and installed separately from TCP; TCP simple primitives can be defined between ATCP and TCP layers.

ATCP
when a TCP connection is established, established ATCP enters the NORMAL state; in the NORMAL state ATCP does not interfere with classic TCP and remains invisible.
DISCONN DUR DUP DUR ACK/Packet NORMAL retransmits a segments from a buffer
Before RTO/ 3 DUP ACK ACKs

DUR

TxPacket

Data TCP ATCP IP tcp input() p_ p () atcp_input() ip_input() Data


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ACK ECN

tcp output() p_ p () atcp_output() ip_output()


LOSS DUR: destination unreachable Tx : packet transmission DUPACK: duplicate ACK ECN: explicit congestion notification

ECN

CONGESTED

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DISCONN DUR

DUR

ATCP
Consider the case when packets are lost or arrive out-of-order at destination:
DISCONN DUR DUR

ATCP
When ATCP is in the LOSS state:
retransmits a segments from a buffer

DUP ACK/Packet ACK/P k t

DUR

the receiver generate DUPACKs: Traditional TCP (e.g. Tahoe):


the sender retransmits the segment; decrease its congestion window accordingly.
retransmits a segments from a buffer

DUP ACK/Packet

DUR NORMAL

ATCP:

Before B f RTO/ 3 DUP ACKs ACK ECN

TxPacket

if new ACK is received from the receiver ATCP enters LOSS the NORMAL state; if ECN is received it enters the CONGESTED state; if ICMP DUR is received it enters the DISCONNECTED state state.

Before RTO/ 3 DUP ACKs ACK

NORMA L TxPacket

ECN

ECN

CONGESTED

CONGESTED

When ATCP is in the NORMAL state:


three DUPACKs are received ATCP enters goes to LOSS state; if ECN is received it enters the CONGESTED state and remains invisible for TCP; if ICMP DUP is received it enters the DISCONNECTED state.

counts, waits if the number of DUPACKs reaches three; LOSS t it th b f DUPACK h th ECN if so, it puts ATCP in the LOSS state and does not invoke the congestion control; in the LOSS state ATCP retransmits unacked segments from the sender's nacked buffer.

When ATCP is in the DISCONNECTED state:


decrease the congestion window to one; remains in this state; if either ACK or DUPACK is received, it goes into NORMAL state.

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ATCP
It is expected that the new route is found and the source is informed. When ATCP is in the CONGESTED state:
if ICMP DUR is received it goes into DISCONNECTED state.

ATCP: Advantages and disadvantages


Advantages: compatible with traditional TCP; maintains the end-to-end semantics of TCP; Disadvantages: requires support from routing protocol (route changes, partition detection); requires changes to interface functions.

In I general, th f ll i i made i ATCP l the following is d in ATCP:


packet loss due to high BER:
retransmits lost packet
retransmits a segments from a buffer

DISCONN

DUR

DUR DUP ACK/Packet DUR

route reconfiguration delay and transient partitions:


stops transmission until the new route has been found

Before RTO/ 3 DUP ACKs ACK

NORMA L TxPacket T P k t

ECN LOSS ECN CONGESTED

out-of-order packet delivery: out of order

makes classic TCP unaware of it and retransmits the packet from TCP buffer

change in route:
recomputes the congestion window
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TCP enhancements: Split-TCP


The following are two major problems with TCP: 1. 1 degradation of throughput with increase in the path length:
Short connections obtain more throughput than long connections. connections

2.

unfairness among TCP flows:


MAC layer contention (IEEE 802.11 MAC: channel capture effect): lengthy TCP flows: more p g y points to contend.

Split TCP Split-TCP


Split-TCP provides the solution by splitting the TCP functionalities into:
congestion control; end-to-end reliability.

Why it is possible?
congestion control: local phenomenon due to high contention for resources; end-to-end reliability: end-to-end phenomenon. dt d li bilit dt d h

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Split TCP Split-TCP


Split-TCP splits the connection into a set of concatenated TCP connections

Split TCP Split-TCP


Proxy nodes are chosen using the distributed algorithm: l ith
simplest way: packet traversed n hops - behave as a proxy.

Transmission control at the TCP sender window is split into:


end-to-end CW: end to end
it is updated according to arrival of end-to-end ACKs.

CW: (CW end-to-end CW) Proxy node is responsible for:


terminating the connection from the sender/precessor proxy node; setting up a connection with receiver/successor node.
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it is updated according to arrival of local ACKs (LACKs) from the next node.

Split TCP Split-TCP


The proxy node behaves as follows:
it maintains CW that governs transmission in a segment; when packet arrives from predecessor the LACK is sent back; arrived packet is buffered; the buffered packet is forwarded to the next node node.

Split TCP: Split-TCP: Advantages and disadvantages


Advantages: i improved th d throughput: reduction i th path l h t d ti in the th length; th improved throughput fairness: each segment works at the most suitable rate; Disadvantages: requires modifications to TCP; the end-to-end connection handling is violated; the failure of proxy nodes may lead to throughput degradation; security encryption schemes may not work (intermediate nodes have to process). high resource consumption (buffer space).
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Co pa so of C solutions o Comparison o TCP so ut o s for ad hoc networks oc et o s


Issue Loss due to BER Path break Out of order Out-of-order packets Congestion Path break notification ifi i Path reestablishment Notification Depend on routing End-to-end semantics Buffer at inter. Node TCP-F TCP TCP snoozes TCP TCP Yes Yes Yes Yes No TCP-ELFN TCP TCP standby TCP TCP Yes No Yes Yes No TCP-BuS TCP TCP snoozes Resend TCP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ATCP No cong. control TCP Reordering ECN notification Yes No Yes Yes No Split-TCP TCP TCP TCP TCP No No No No Yes
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Out e Outline Introduction and challenges Which transport layer protocols?


Traditional TCP A B i f R i it t T diti Brief Revisit to Traditional TCP l

Design goals and Classification of a Transport layer protocols for wireless ad hoc networks networks. Enhancements to TCP for wireless ad hoc networks
TCP-based TCP based Others

Summary y
56

Ot e transport protocols o Other t a spo t p otoco s for ad hoc networks oc et o s


Application controlled transport protocol (ACTP) ACTP i a li ht is light-weight t i ht transport layer protocol: tl t l TCP: High reliability - a lot of retransmissions -- low throughput. UDP: Is not reliable at all - a lot of data just lost -- low reliability. ACTP: Is between TCP and UDP - some lost data may be recovered -- higher performance. ACTP is characterized by the following:
it is responsible for feedback to end application; end-to-end reliability is left to applications; priorities of packet are implemented; implementation of priorities is left to lower layers. layers
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ACTP
Each data to be transmitted contains the following information:
delay (a maximum tolerable delay); number of the packet; priority of the packet.

The d li Th delivery status is maintained at ACTP and available t t t i i t i d t d il bl to application via isAcked():
successful delivery of the packet (ACK was returned); possible loss of the packet (ACK is not returned within a deadline); remaining time for the packet (ACK is not returned but the deadline has not expired); Application SendTo(delay,message,priority) SendTo(delay message priority) no information available.
layer ACTP layer IP 58 IProute() isAcked()

ACTP: Advantages and disadvantages


Advantages: scalable for large networks (light-weight); allows to set priorities to data; no congestion window; Disadvantages: congestions are possible; is not compatible with TCP; suitable for particular applications only.

Ad hoc Ad-hoc transport protocol (ATP)


The following are the major difference between ATP and TCP: ATP uses rate based transmission; t b dt i i ATP separates congestion control and reliability:
network congestion information is obtained from intermediate nodes; flow control and reliability information is obtained from ATP receiver.

ATP uses assisted congestion control; ATP uses selective ACKs (SACKs). (SACKs) y g y ATP uses the information available from underlying layers for:
estimation of the initial transmission rate; detection, avoidance and control of congestion; detection of path breaks.

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ATP
The congestion information obtained from intermediate node is expressed in terms:
weighted average queuing delay DQ: contention delay DC. y

ATP
When congestion occurs TCP uses:
decrease of the CW. CW

DQ xDQnew (1 x) DQold

Instead, ATP defines three phases: increase:


If new rate (R) is higher than the current rate and beyond the threshold then:

During the connection setup phase or when ATP recovers from path break:
ATP sender determines the transmission rate sending probe packets (quick start phase);
intermediate node attaches the rate info in form of DC and DQ; ece e espo ds t C receiver responds with ACK.

Snew Sold

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R Sold k

is used (increased) where k is the fraction used to avoid rapid fluctuations.

At the uplink path the following always occurs:


DQ and DC at each intermediate node is included in rate feedback field (ABR); ATP receiver collects DQ and DC and includes them in periodic SACKs.

decrease:
If new rate is lower than current the rate is decreased to a new rate.

maintain:
if new rate is higher than current but less than the threshold.
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ATP: Advantages and disadvantages


Advantages: improved performance in ad hoc network: Disadvantages: decoupling of congestion control and reliability; avoiding fluctuations of the congestion window. lack of interoperability with TCP.

Out e Outline Introduction and challenges Which transport layer protocols?


Traditional TCP A B i f R i it t T diti Brief Revisit to Traditional TCP l

Design goals and Classification of a Transport layer protocols for wireless ad hoc networks networks. Enhancements to TCP for wireless ad hoc networks
TCP-based TCP based Others

Summary y
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Summary
The major challenges and the design goals that a transport layer protocols faces were discussed TCP is the most widely used transport protocol and is considered to be the backbone of todays Internet
It provides end-to-end, reliable, byte stream, in-order-delivery of packets to nodes Since TCP was designed to traditional wired networks, many of g , y issues that are presented in dynamic topology It is very important to employ TCP in ad hoc networks to sea ess y communicate with Internet seamlessly co u cate t te et

A classification of TCP enhancements for ad hoc networks was listed


A number of recently proposed solutions t i b f tl d l ti to improve TCP performance was f explained, in addition other non-TCP solutions were also discussed
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