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Assignment 2

NAME: - R.MOHANAKANTH INDEX NO: - 080307U LEVEL: - 4 DATE OF SUB:-26.03.2012

Introduction
Pinch analysis assignment was based on Coogee methanol production plant Australia. After modified plant according Pinch analysis, additionally 2881kW heat required to do the process. That heat give by electricity. In this assignment, I mentioned alternate energy source to full fill the energy requirement. There are lot of renewable or non renewable energy source. But some of them is very suitable to take energy.

Available energy source


Bio mass Wind energy Coal Electricity from outside Biomass, as a renewable energy source, is biological material from living, or recently living organisms. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly, or converted into other energy products such as bio fuel. In the first sense, biomass is plant matter used to generate steam for directly heating or generate electricity with steam turbines & gasifiers for produce heat, usually by direct combustion. Examples include forest residues (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including bio fuels. In order to generate steam using biomass boiler for direct heat is very suitable in this plant. Because factory is located between the forest and rural area. So we can easily get biomass (forest residues, yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste... etc) The potential benefits of biomass include: Reducing carbon emissions if managed (produced, transported, used) in a sustainable manner Enhancing energy security by diversifying energy sources and utilizing local Resources Reducing the problem of biomass waste management Possible additional revenues for the agricultural and forestry sectors.

Sources of biomass There are a variety of biomass residues available. The most important of these are crop residues, but there are significant quantities of forestry residues and livestock residues as well, which can also be used to produce energy. Wheat, barley, and oats all produce copious amounts of straw. Rice produces both straw in the fields and rice husks at the processing plant; both of these can be conveniently and easily converted into energy. Recent legislation has made straw burning illegal in some parts of the world. Since the straw must still be removed from fields, such legislation could make it cost-effective to convert these residues into energy. When maize is harvested, significant quantities of biomass remain in the field. Much of this needs to be returned to the soil, but when the harvested maize is stripped from its cob the latter remains, constituting more biomass which can easily be converted into energy on-site. Sugar cane harvesting leaves harvest trash in the fields, while processing produces fibrous biogases. The latter is a valuable source of energy. Harvesting and processing of coconuts produces quantities of shell and fiber that can be utilized. Peanuts leave shells, which are a great source of biomass energy.

Energy losses
Loss of heat due to dry flue gas
Loss of heat due to combustion of hydrogen Loss of heat due to moisture in fuel and combustion air Loss of heat due to radiation Loss of heat due to unburnts Due to unused steam Heat loss from Stem distribution pipe line

Optimal energy supply and energy efficiency


Biomass Energy Conversion There are a number of ways of converting biomass into heat energy. The simplest approach is to burn the biomass in a furnace, exploiting the heat generated to produce steam in a boiler. This approach, often called direct firing, is the most widespread means of deriving heat from biomass. It is also generally rather inefficient, though new technologies will be able to improve efficiency significantly.

Type of Boilers 1. Step grate furnace 2. Stationary grate furnace 3. Stoker combustion 4. Suspension combustion 5. Fluidized bed combustion Step grate furnace boiler is most suitable to full fill our require energy.

Step grate furnace The simplest tool for direct firing of biomass with a smoke boiler is a step grate furnace. Biomass such as rice husks, peanut shells, groundnut shells, coffee husks, and sawdust can be easily burned in a step grate furnace. Such materials can be placed in a smallcapacity boiler with up to 2 tons/hour steam generation capacity. The step grate furnace concept is generally used in cases of retrofitting for oil/coal fired boilers.

Step grate furnace

Advantages of the step grate furnace It is easy to install with local resources. Not much technical skill is required for boiler operation. Dust emission level is low compared to other biomass combustion systems such as fluidized bed or stoker firing. It is easy to switch over from oil/coal-fired boiler to biomass. Low capital investment is required Disadvantages Of The step grate furnace The equipment operates at high excess air levels There is a high percentage of unburnts in the ash. Further details Different fuel sizes can be used Not many maintenance problems. Natural draft / forced draft/ balanced draft Bed temperature 12501350 C

Energy Cost analysis


Previous energy cost = energy required 8760 tariff

= 2881 8760 0.04 = 1009502 per annum Assumed average biomass price (include transport and labour cost) = 180 per tonne Average energy from biomass 4,800 kWh/t Required biomass = Energy Cost by bio mass = 5257 = 5257 tons per year 180

= 946260 per annum (Without capital boiler cost) Profit per year = 1009502 946260 = 63242 per annum

Emissions
Using biomass as a fuel produces air pollution in the form of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, NOx (nitrogen oxides), VOCs (volatile organic compounds), particulates and other pollutants.

Effect of environment
Burning biomass for energy emits large amounts of air pollution, and endangers human healthBiomass incinerators produce hundreds of tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) two ingredients of the ground-level ozone dangerous to human respiratory health and the environment. Biomass burning also produces tons of fine particulate matter (PM), a pollutant associated with asthma, heart disease, and cancer for which no safe level is known. Use of biomass is not carbon neutral. It will dramatically increase greenhouse gasesThe concept of carbon neutrality assumes that biogenic carbon dioxide released by burning can be readily re-sequestered in new growth. Biomass energy wastes water and pollutes rivers. A large-scale biomass plant requires close to a million gallons a day of water for cooling, water that is often taken from nearby rivers. Hundreds of thousands of gallons of this water are vaporized in the cooling process Impacts of water takings will worsen as climate warming and droughts further stress rivers

Biomass power plant size is often driven by biomass availability in close proximity as transport costs of the (bulky) fuel play a key factor in the plant's economics.

Reference
Harmful Impacts Of Biomass Energy, accessed on 20 march 2012 [ Http://massenvironmentalenergy.org/docs/biomass fact sheet from MEEA.pdf ] Fuel prices, bio mass , accessed on 21 march 2012 [http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/portal/page?pageid=75,59188&_dad=portal] Biomass boiler , accessed on 25 march 2012 [http://www.apotokyo.org/publications/files/gp-17-biomass.pdf] Biomass energy , accessed on 25 march 2012 [http://www.conserve-energyfuture.com/BioMassEnergy.php] Energy , accessed on 25 march 2012, [http://www.learnaboutenergy.org/renewable_energy/RenewableEnergy3.htm]