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1.

How do I write and run a simple test? Create a class:


package junitfaq; import org.junit.*; import static org.junit.Assert.*; import java.util.*; public class SimpleTest {

Write a test method (annotated with @Test) that asserts expected results on the object under test:
@Test public void testEmptyCollection() { Collection collection = new ArrayList(); assertTrue(collection.isEmpty()); }

If you are running your JUnit 4 tests with a JUnit 3.x runner, write a suite() method that uses the JUnit4TestAdapter class to create a suite containing all of your test methods:
public static junit.framework.Test suite() { return new junit.framework.JUnit4TestAdapter(SimpleTest.class); } Although writing a main() method to run the test is much less important with the advent of IDE runners,

it's still possible:


public static void main(String args[]) { org.junit.runner.JUnitCore.main("junitfaq.SimpleTest"); }

1.

Run the test: To run the test from the console, type:
java org.junit.runner.JUnitCore junitfaq.SimpleTest

To run the test with the test runner used in main(), type:
java junitfaq.SimpleTest

2.

The passing test results in the following textual output:


3. 4. 5. Time: 0 6. 7. OK (1 tests) 8. .

2.

How do I use a test fixture?

A test fixture is useful if you have two or more tests for a common set of objects. Using a test fixture avoids duplicating the code necessary to initialize (and cleanup) the common objects. Tests can use the objects (variables) in a test fixture, with each test invoking different methods on objects in the fixture and asserting different expected results. Each test runs in its own test fixture to isolate tests from the changes

made by other tests. That is, tests don't share the state of objects in the test fixture. Because the tests are isolated, they can be run in any order. To create a test fixture, declare instance variables for the common objects. Initialize these objects in a public void method annotated with @Before. The JUnit framework automatically invokes any @Before methods before each test is run. The following example shows a test fixture with a common Collection object.
package junitfaq; import org.junit.*; import static org.junit.Assert.*; import java.util.*; public class SimpleTest { private Collection<Object> collection; @Before public void setUp() { collection = new ArrayList<Object>(); } @Test public void testEmptyCollection() { assertTrue(collection.isEmpty()); } @Test public void testOneItemCollection() { collection.add("itemA"); assertEquals(1, collection.size()); } }

Given this test, the methods might execute in the following order:
setUp() testEmptyCollection() setUp() testOneItemCollection()

The ordering of test-method invocations is not guaranteed, so testOneItemCollection() might be executed before testEmptyCollection(). But it doesn't matter, because each method gets its own instance of the collection. Although JUnit provides a new instance of the fixture objects for each test method, if you allocate any external resources in a @Before method, you should release them after the test runs by annotating a method with @After. The JUnit framework automatically invokes any @After methods after each test is run. For example:
package junitfaq; import org.junit.*; import static org.junit.Assert.*; import java.io.*; public class OutputTest { private File output; @Before public void createOutputFile() {

output = new File(...);

@After public void deleteOutputFile() { output.delete(); } @Test public void testSomethingWithFile() { ... } }

With this test, the methods will execute in the following order:
createOutputFile() testSomethingWithFile() deleteOutputFile()

3.

How do I test a method that doesn't return anything?

Often if a method doesn't return a value, it will have some side effect. Actually, if it doesn't return a value AND doesn't have a side effect, it isn't doing anything. There may be a way to verify that the side effect actually occurred as expected. For example, consider the add() method in the Collection classes. There are ways of verifying that the side effect happened (i.e. the object was added). You can check the size and assert that it is what is expected:
@Test public void testCollectionAdd() { Collection collection = new ArrayList(); assertEquals(0, collection.size()); collection.add("itemA"); assertEquals(1, collection.size()); collection.add("itemB"); assertEquals(2, collection.size()); }

Another approach is to make use of MockObjects. A related issue is to design for testing. For example, if you have a method that is meant to output to a file, don't pass in a filename, or even a FileWriter. Instead, pass in a Writer. That way you can pass in a StringWriter to capture the output for testing purposes. Then you can add a method (e.g. writeToFileNamed(String filename)) to encapsulate the FileWriter creation. 4. Under what conditions should I test get() and set() methods?

Unit tests are intended to alleviate fear that something might break. If you think a get() or set() method could reasonably break, or has in fact contributed to a defect, then by all means write a test. In short, test until you're confident. What you choose to test is subjective, based on your experiences and confidence level. Remember to be practical and maximize your testing investment. Refer also to "How simple is 'too simple to break'?". 5. Under what conditions should I not test get() and set() methods?

Most of the time, get/set methods just can't break, and if they can't break, then why test them? While it is usually better to test more, there is a definite curve of diminishing returns on test effort versus "code coverage". Remember the maxim: "Test until fear turns to boredom." Assume that the getX() method only does "return x;" and that the setX() method only does "this.x = x;". If you write this test:
@Test public void testGetSetX() { setX(23); assertEquals(23, getX()); }

then you are testing the equivalent of the following:


@Test public void testGetSetX() { x = 23; assertEquals(23, x); }

or, if you prefer,


@Test public void testGetSetX() { assertEquals(23, 23); }

At this point, you are testing the Java compiler, or possibly the interpreter, and not your component or application. There is generally no need for you to do Java's testing for them. If you are concerned about whether a property has already been set at the point you wish to call getX(), then you want to test the constructor, and not the getX() method. This kind of test is especially useful if you have multiple constructors:
@Test public void testCreate() { assertEquals(23, new MyClass(23).getX()); }

6.

How do I write a test that passes when an expected exception is thrown?

Add the optional expected attribute to the @Test annotation. The following is an example test that passes when the expected IndexOutOfBoundsException is raised:

@Test(expected=IndexOutOfBoundsException.class) public void testIndexOutOfBoundsException() { ArrayList emptyList = new ArrayList(); Object o = emptyList.get(0); }

7.

How do I write a test that fails when an unexpected exception is thrown?

Declare the exception in the throws clause of the test method and don't catch the exception within the test method. Uncaught exceptions will cause the test to fail with an error. The following is an example test that fails when the IndexOutOfBoundsException is raised:

@Test public void testIndexOutOfBoundsExceptionNotRaised() throws IndexOutOfBoundsException { ArrayList emptyList = new ArrayList(); Object o = emptyList.get(0); }

8.

How do I test protected methods?

Place your tests in the same package as the classes under test. 9. How do I test private methods?

Testing private methods may be an indication that those methods should be moved into another class to promote reusability. But if you must... If you are using JDK 1.3 or higher, you can use reflection to subvert the access control mechanism with the aid of the PrivilegedAccessor. For details on how to use it, read this article. 10. Why does JUnit only report the first failure in a single test? Reporting multiple failures in a single test is generally a sign that the test does too much, compared to what a unit test ought to do. Usually this means either that the test is really a functional/acceptance/customer test or, if it is a unit test, then it is too big a unit test. JUnit is designed to work best with a number of small tests. It executes each test within a separate instance of the test class. It reports failure on each test. Shared setup code is most natural when sharing between tests. This is a design decision that permeates JUnit, and when you decide to report multiple failures per test, you begin to fight against JUnit. This is not recommended. Long tests are a design smell and indicate the likelihood of a design problem. Kent Beck is fond of saying in this case that "there is an opportunity to learn something about your design." We would like to see a pattern language develop around these problems, but it has not yet been written down. Finally, note that a single test with multiple assertions is isomorphic to a test case with multiple tests: One test method, three assertions:
public class MyTestCase { @Test public void testSomething() { // Set up for the test, manipulating local variables assertTrue(condition1); assertTrue(condition2); assertTrue(condition3);

Three test methods, one assertion each:


public class MyTestCase { // Local variables become instance variables @Before public void setUp() { // Set up for the test, manipulating instance variables } @Test public void testCondition1() { assertTrue(condition1); } @Test public void testCondition2() { assertTrue(condition2); } @Test public void testCondition3() { assertTrue(condition3); } }

The resulting tests use JUnit's natural execution and reporting mechanism and, failure in one test does not affect the execution of the other tests. You generally want exactly one test to fail for any given bug, if you can manage it. 11. In Java 1.4, assert is a keyword. Won't this conflict with JUnit's assert() method? JUnit 3.7 deprecated assert() and replaced it with assertTrue(), which works exactly the same way. JUnit 4 is compatible with the assert keyword. If you run with the -ea JVM switch, assertions that fail will be reported by JUnit. 12. How do I test things that must be run in a J2EE container (e.g. servlets, EJBs)? Refactoring J2EE components to delegate functionality to other objects that don't have to be run in a J2EE container will improve the design and testability of the software. Cactus is an open source JUnit extension that can be used to test J2EE components in their natural environment. 13. Do I need to write a test class for every class I need to test? No. It is a convention to start with one test class per class under test, but it is not necessary. Test classes only provide a way to organize tests, nothing more. Generally you will start with one test class per class under test, but then you may find that a small group of tests belong together with their own common test fixture.[1] In this case, you may move those tests to a new test class. This is a simple object-oriented refactoring: separating responsibilities of an object that does too much.

Another point to consider is that the TestSuite is the smallest execution unit in JUnit: you cannot execute anything smaller than a TestSuite at one time without changing source code. In this case, you probably do not want to put tests in the same test class unless they somehow "belong together". If you have two groups of tests that you think you'd like to execute separately from one another, it is wise to place them in separate test classes. [1] A test fixture is a common set of test data and collaborating objects shared by many tests. Generally they are implemented as instance variables in the test class. 14. Is there a basic template I can use to create a test? The following templates are a good starting point. Copy/paste and edit these templates to suit your coding style. SampleTest is a basic test template:
import org.junit.*; import static org.junit.Assert.*; public class SampleTest { private java.util.List emptyList; /** * Sets up the test fixture. * (Called before every test case method.) */ @Before public void setUp() { emptyList = new java.util.ArrayList(); } /** * Tears down the test fixture. * (Called after every test case method.) */ @After public void tearDown() { emptyList = null; } @Test public void testSomeBehavior() { assertEquals("Empty list should have 0 elements", 0, emptyList.size()); } @Test(expected=IndexOutOfBoundsException.class) public void testForException() { Object o = emptyList.get(0); }

15. How do I write a test for an abstract class? An Abstract TestCase is a TestCase for an AbstractClass that ensures that concrete implementations of the abstract class behave as expected. The Abstract TestCase will have abstract methods to enable it to obtain concrete subclasses of the Abstract class under test, to obtain appropriate arguments for tests and expected results.

16. When are tests garbage collected? By design, the tree of Test instances is built in one pass, then the tests are executed in a second pass. The test runner holds strong references to all Test instances for the duration of the test execution. This means that for a very long test run with many Test instances, none of the tests may be garbage collected until the end of the entire test run. Therefore, if you allocate external or limited resources in a test, you are responsible for freeing those resources. Explicitly setting an object to null in the tearDown() method, for example, allows it to be garbage collected before the end of the entire test run.