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PETE 512

Advanced Drilling Engineering-I


Bore hole Stability
and Pore Pressure
Borehole Stability
Geology
Rock Mechanics
Normal Pore Pressures
Abnormal Pore Pressure Gradients
Fracture Gradients
Mud Weights
Casing Seat Depths
What Causes Abnormal Pressure?
Slide 2
Movie
Please Dim the Lights
Formation / Lithology
Commonly Drilled Formation Types
Shales siltstone
clays, clays, and
siltstones
les, clays, and
siltstones
Sandstones
Carbonites such as
lime, chalk, gyp,
and dolomite
Salt domes or stringers
Sandstone
Carbonates
Chalk,
Limestone,
gypsum and
dolomites
Salt domes and
stringers
Slide 4
Basic Geology
Understanding the formations and down hole
Mechanics of the rocks
Porosity
Permeability
Pore Pressure
Rock Stress
Mud Parameters
Slide 5
Porosity
100 cubic ft of
rock
10 cubic ft.
of water
Ratio of the pore spaces in the rock matrix
Slide 6
Permeability
Flow
Ap = 1 at 14.7 psi
Ability of the porous media to allow the flow
of fluids through the pore spaces
Slide 7
Formation Pressure
Ocean or
River Bed
Seal or
Caprock
Permeable
formation
Abnormally
Pressured
Zone
Normal
Pres
sure
Geological Strata
Slide 8
Rock Stresses
Vertical Stress
V
Horizontal Stress
H2
H1
Unbalanced
Stress Causes a
Shear Force
Vertical and Horizontal Components
Slide 9
Rock Stress
Near Wellbore Stress Due to Overburden
Horizontal Hole
1/3 of Overburden
Overburden
Elliptical
Failing
Wellbore
Equal Stress
1/3 of Overburden In Gage
Stable
Wellbore
Vertical Hole
Slide 10
Rock Stress
Shale Failure in High Angle Hole at Shallow Depth
More Overburden
More 1/3 of Overburden
Failed Wellbore
Slide 11
Pore Pressure
Normal Pore Pressure
When formation pore pressure is approximately equal to
theoretical hydrostatic pressure for the given vertical depth,
formation pressure is said to be normal.
Abnormal Pore Pressure
The term abnormal pore pressure is used to describe formation
pressures that are greater than normal.
Mechanisms
1. Compaction effects
2. Diagenetic effects (chemical, physical, or biological change)
3. Differential density Effects
4. Fluid migration effects

Slide 12
Abnormal
Pressure
Gradients
Normal Pressure Gradients
West Texas: 0.433 psi/ft
Gulf Coast: 0.465 psi/ft
Normal and Abnormal Pore Pressure
Pore Pressure, psig
D
e
p
t
h
,


f
t

10,000 ft.
? ?
Slide 13
Pore Pressure vs. Depth
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Pore Pressure Equivalent, lb/gal
0


5,000


10,000


15,000


20,000
{ Density of mud required to control this pore pressure }
Normal
Abormal
0.433 psi/ft 8.33 lb/gal
0.465 psi/ft 9.0 lb/gal
Slide 14
Pore Pressure
Gradient
Fracture Gradient
Slide 16
* Pore
Pressure
Gradients

* Fracture
Gradients

* Casing
Setting
Depths
MW = Pore Press + Trip Margin
Frac. Grad kick Margin
Slide 17
Some Causes of Abnormal Pressure
1. Incomplete compaction of sediments
Fluids in sediments have not
escaped and are still helping to
support the overburden.
2. Tectonic movements
Uplift
Faulting
Slide 18
Some Causes of Abnormal Pressure
3. Aquifers in Mountainous Regions
Aquifer recharge is at higher
elevation than drilling rig location.
4. Charged shallow reservoirs due to
nearby underground blowout.

5. Large structures...
Slide 19
HIGH PRESSURE
NORMAL PRESSURE
Thick, impermeable layers of shale (or salt) restrict the movement
of water. Below such layers abnormal pressure may be found.
Slide 20
HIGH PRESSURE
NORMAL PRESSURE
Hydrostatic pressure gradient is lower in gas or oil than in water.
Slide 21
When crossing faults it is possible to go from normal
pressure to abnormally high pressure in a short interval.
Slide 22
Well A found only Normal Pressure ...
Slide 23
?
Slide 24
Indications of Abnormal Pore Pressures
Methods:
1. Seismic data
2. Drilling rate
3. Sloughing shale
4. Gas units in mud
5. Shale density
6. Chloride content
7. Change in Mud properties
8. Temperature of Mud Returns
9. Bentonite content in shale
10. Paleo information
11. Wire-line logs
12. MWD-LWD
Slide 25
Prediction and Detection of Abnormal
Pressure Zones
1. Before drilling
Shallow seismic surveys
Deep seismic surveys
Comparison with nearby wells (Offset well data)
2. While drilling
Drilling rate, gas in mud, etc. etc.
D

- Exponent
D
C
- Exponent
MWD - LWD
Density of shale (cuttings)
3. After drilling
Resistivity log
Conductivity log
Sonic log
Density log

Slide 26
.
S
D 000085 . 0
e 41 . 0

= |
Estimation of PP from seismic data
1. Determine Acoustic velocity

2. The reciprocal of the velocity,
interval travel time, is plotted.

3. Interval travel time is porosity-
dependent parameter.


( ) | |
fl ma
t t t + = 1
Slide 27
Decreasing ROP
What is d-exponent?
Is an indirect measure of
normalized penetration rate, R,
taking into account the effect of
changes in weight on bit, W,
Rotary speed, N and
Bit diameter, d
b
(used to detect the transition
from normal to abnormal
pressures)
if drilling fluid density is held constant.
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
b
d
W
N
R
d
1000
12
log
60
log
exp
Slide 28
D - Exponent
The drilling rate equation:
Where
R = drilling rate, ft/hr
K = drillability constant
N = rotary speed, RPM
E = rotary speed exponent
W = bit weight, lbs
D
B
= bit diameter, in
D = D exponent (bit wt. Exponent)
D
B
E
D
W
N K R
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Slide 29
D - Exponent
If we assume that K = 1
and E = 1

Then
D
B
E
D
W
N K R
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
B
D
W
log
N
R
log
D
D
B
D
W
N
R
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
A modified version of this equation is:
|
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|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
B
D
W
N
R
6
10
12
log
60
log
D
Slide 30
Example
Calculate the value of the D - exponent if the
drilling rate is 35 ft/hr, the rotary RPM is 100, and
the weight on the 12 1/4 bit is 60,000 lbs.
|
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.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
B
D
W
N
R
6
10
12
log
60
log
D
2308 . 1
2341 . 2
25 . 12 * 10
000 , 60 * 12
log
100 * 60
35
log
6

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
D = 1.82
Slide 31
Example
What happens to d if R doubles to 70 ft/hr?






Note that an increase in R resulted in a decrease in d.
Doubling R decreased d from 1.82 to 1.57
57 1
2308 1
9331 1
25 12 10
000 60 12
100 60
70
6
.
.
.
.
, *
log
*
log
d =

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Slide 32
D
c
Exponent
Example
D may be corrected for mud density
as follows:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
) (
) (
ppg use in weight mud actual
ppg gradient normal for weight mud
D D
c
37 . 1
12
9
* 82 . 1
12
9
., . =
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
= D
c
D g e
Slide 33
Procedure for Determining Pore
Pressure From d
c
- Exponent
Calculate d
c
over 10-30 ft intervals
Plot d
c
vs depth (use data only from
Clean shale sections)
Determine the normal line for the
d
c
vs. depth plot.
Establish where d
c
deviates from the
normal line to determine abnormal
pressure zone
Slide 34
Procedure for Determining Pore
Pressure From d
c
- Exponent
d
c
- Exponent
D
e
p
t
h

Normal
Abnormal
Slide 35
Procedure for Determining Pore
Pressure from d
c
- Exponent
If possible, quantify the magnitude of the
abnormal pore pressure using
overlays, or Ben Eatons Method
Pore
Pressure
Grad.
Overburden
Stress Grad.
Normal Pore Pressure
Grad.
2 . 1
c
c
n
normal d
calculated d
D
P
D
S
D
S
D
P
|
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.
|

\
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.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Slide 36
In normally pressured
shales, shale
compaction increases
with depth
Slide 37
Shale Density - Mud Cup Method
1. Fill mud cup with shale until the weight is 8.33.
2. Fill to top with water, and record the reading W
tot.

Note: Dry sample carefully with towel.
Do not apply heat.
tot
W 66 . 16
33 . 8
Gravity . Spec

=
Slide 38
Alternate Method: Use variable density column.
Slide 39
Pore Pressure from
Resistivity
Shale resistivity plots
may be developed
from (i) logs or
(ii) cuttings
What is the pore
pressure at the point
indicated on the plot?
[Assume Gulf Coast].
Depth=10,000 ft
0.2 0.5 1 2 3
10,000
Slide 40
From plot, R
n
= 1.55 ohms
R
obs
= 0.80 ohms

From Eaton:
BEN EATON
2 . 1
n
obs
n
R
R
D
P
D
S
D
S
D
P
|
|
.
|

\
|
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|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
( )
2 . 1
55 . 1
80 . 0
465 . 0 95 . 0 95 . 0
D
P
|
.
|

\
|
=
= 0.7307 psi/ft = 14.05 lb/gal
P = 0.7307 * 10,000 = 7,307 psi
0.2 0.5 1 2 3
10,000
D
e
p
t
h