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June 2002

Building Integration Common Work Package


Workpackage 3

Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development

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Building Integration Report .

Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development

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Building Integration Report .

Table of contents Building integration of PV-modules ................................................................... 4 Types of PV-modules. ................................................................................... 6 Examples of building integration of PV-modules ........................................... 9 Total economic analysis concerning building integrated PV-modules together with general energy saving measures............................................................. 19 Total economic analysis concerning use of PV-modules for a housing scheme........................................................................................................ 19 Total economic analysis concerning use of PV-modules and energy savings in connection with renovation of a one-family house from 1970. ................. 24 Energy consumption.................................................................................... 24 Economy ..................................................................................................... 25 Environmental improvements ...................................................................... 26 Total economic analysis concerning use of PV-modules for a new school in Ovnhallen in Valby, Copenhagen.............................................................. 27

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Building integration of PV-modules


Already today PV-modules are utilised in many places as so-called stand alone systems where an alternative electricity supply would be expensive (e.g. calculating machines, monitoring, pleasure boats, lighthouses, traffic lights and mountain cottages). But within the last few years the interest has increased concerning demonstration of PV-modules in buildings for local electricity production with connection to the electricity supply system and with sale of PV electricity in the same way as it is usual with windmills. It is, however, expensive to install grid connected PV-systems. But due to the quick increase in the production, see figure 1.1, and the decreasing price of PV-modules, where the price has been reduced by 50% every fifth to seventh year since 1978 there is anyway in many countries a belief that this technology can play an important role in a future solar energy society. To obtain the best possible integration and economy for grid connected PVmodules it is necessary to focus on the possibilities to integrate these in south, south-east and south-west facing facades and roofs on buildings and other constructions. The possibilities are great. A German investigation has e.g. documented that building integrated PV-systems can cover up to 40% of the existing electricity consumption in households. And e.g. the World Watch Institute has the opinion that on a long view PVmodules can be part of a hydrogen based energy system that also includes fuel cells and a possibility to store the energy. There will also be decentralised solutions here which can e.g. be used in the transport sector too. In a number of countries, the development of building integrated PV-modules that are connected to the electricity supply system has been quite fast, also supported by large national plans for PV-implementation in building. The initial cost of PV-modules has until now been high and has thus prevented the extension. But improved efficiency, the increasing environmental awareness and improved agreements concerning network connected PVsystems and an improved support policy are, however, now expected to turn the standstill and create a genial soil for an intensive development and use of PV-modules that within the next years can get a decisive importance to the pricing. Integration of PV-modules has in addition to the energy effect a considerable and challenging influence on the architecture. In recent years a number of good examples of PV-integrated building parts have been developed and several producers of building units, e.g. window producers, have presented systems for integration of PV-modules.

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D eve lo p m e n t in the prod u ctio n k ap ac ity fo r P V -m o du les a t w o rld le vel


MW

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E urope ex. G erm any G erm any

61

T hin film

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O the r P h oto w att M its ub is h i S a ny o Is o fo to n R W E s ola r A stro P o w e r S ie m e ns & S h ell So la r

3 50

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14 14 16

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288

A ustra lia
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M on o c ry s tallin e

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K yo c e ra

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74

50

S h arp

0
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

D istrib utio n a re a

T y pe s o f P Vm odu le s

Pro d ucers

Figure 1.1. Development of the production capacity for PV-modules at world level (Ref. Photon 1998-2002) Figure 1.2. Examples of PV-modules integrated windows.

A: Example from a utility companys headquarter in Aachen in Germany from outside.

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B: PV-modules integrated in a roof window in the energy balance house in Amersfoort in Holland.

C: Window integrated PV-modules constitute the facade on the library in Mataro near Barcelona in Spain. 1.1 Types of PV-modules. PV-modules do in most cases consist of silicon. There are in principle two types of silicon based PV-modules: crystalline and amorphous, of which the last type is a so-called thin film PV-module where a very thin PV layer is applied to a glass plate. The crystalline module exists in two types: monocrystalline and polycrystalline. The monocrystalline is the most efficient with up to 15-17% utilisation of the insulation but it is also the most expensive. Polycrystalline PV-modules are easier to produce and therefore cheaper. The efficiency is only a little lower than for the monocrystalline with approx. 12% efficiency. The visual appearance is different for the two types of crystalline PV-modules, as close by you can see many nuances in polycrystalline PV-modules.

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The cheapest solution per m is the amorphous thin film PV-modules which in return only has an efficiency of 4-6%. The PV-modules are produced with an output of approx. 10% but they are not constant enough to keep up this efficiency in practice. The amorphous cells have a number of advantages compared to the crystalline excluding the yield: The price is 1/3 of the crystalline; They use less energy by production; They have a uniform colour and a homogeneous appearance; They are less sensitive to partial shadow areas; They are less sensitive to temperature variations; There are great possibilities to make them cheaper.

The individual PV-modules are opaque but e.g. crystalline PV-modules can be placed with air between the cells in a glass surface with which the entire module gets some kind of a transparent appearance. Modules built with closely spaced PV-modules are not transparent. In addition to amorphous PV-modules there are a number of other new types of thin film PV-modules that are interesting especially as regards the price. This is CIS and CIGS modules, where the efficiency is apparently approx. 10%, and CdTe modules (cadmium telluride). The problem for the last mentioned is, however, that cadmium is included in the product, just as it e.g. is in rechargeable nickel cadmium batteries. Even though it is assured that they are 100% reusable, this must be demonstrated in practice before you with a clear conscience can consider to use these PVmodules that can apparently be produced at a low price. Finally the organic PV-modules can be mentioned, which can in principle be produced at a low price but that are still on the basic research phase. PV-modules are always built of a number of interconnected cells that constitute a module. One cell can only produce 0.5 V. In practice a number of series connected cells are connected in a module to obtain a useable power on e.g. 12 V. PV-modules can be put together to large surfaces. As the produced electricity are DC it is either going to be used at once for operation of electrical equipment that can use DC electricity or it is transformed into AC electricity. If an inverter is installed, a possibility to connect the system to the ordinary electricity supply system is obtained. This means that in periods where the electricity production is larger than the consumption, the electricity can be sold to the ordinary electricity supply system. Another solution is to utilise a socalled netmetering concept where you will utilise an electricity meter that can measure both ways. The result of this concept is that you will then get a payment for the PV electricity which is the same as the normal electricity price. But if it is possible to get higher
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prices, e.g. in connection to given electricity sale from PV then this is a better solution. 1.2 Advantages of building integration of PV-systems PV technology has great prospects of ensuring a renewable energy based energy supply in cities. Here good architectural solutions will, however, be a must if large-scale implementation shall be approved by the public. In connection with new building and rehabilitation projects considerable savings can be obtained, both as regards materials and installations, by integration of PV-modules in the ordinary faade or roof surfaces on a building. If a standard building integrated PV-system is used, it can in some cases be possible to obtain a lower price of the PV-module facade or roof than the price of only the PV-modules, as the possible savings of faade or roof surfaces can be considerable. New investigations show e.g. that on office blocks, where the faade surface is often very expensive, electricity from PV-modules will within a few years be competitive to ordinary electricity from the electricity supply system. In office buildings, the electricity production from the PV-modules does often follow the variations in the electricity demand which means that a peak shaving effect can be possible. By installation of building integrated PV-modules it is also easy to utilise the production of both electricity and heat from the PVmodules. This can increase the total utilisation of the solar energy from the building integrated PV-modules. The electricity production from the PVmodules can in some cases also be increased when they are cooled, e.g. by heating of ventilation air in connection with a solar wall with built-in PVmodules. The above mentioned solution has also advantages as regards obtaining the best possible balance between the energy that is used for productions of typical PV-modules and the yield that can be obtained within the lifetime of the PV-modules. Here it should in general be aimed to reduce the necessary energy consumption for production of PV-modules at the same time as obtaining the highest possible yield. PV-modules can on a long view also operate together with natural gas fired local combined heat and power systems in a beneficial way for the society. The heat demand during the summer is not very large and it sets a limit for a combined heat and power production in this period. Electricity production from PV-modules increases the local electricity production, also resulting in reduced net losses. Electricity from PV-modules does neither compete with utilisation of solar heating for hot water. When building integrated PV-modules are looked at, the experiences from carried out projects have shown examples of both very expensive solutions and in some cases solutions that does not cost extra because they are building integrated. This will in the writers opinion be an important item to focus on in connection with the next years development work about PV-modules.
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It will here be the aim to develop PV-designs at lower prices than today and therefore it is a great challenge to get integration designs developed for PVmodules for roofs and facades in buildings that does not results in considerable additional expenses. It is here an obvious possibility to aim at a close cooperation between PVmodule suppliers, PV-module specialists and building component producers. At the same time it is necessary to focus on hybrid utilisation of PV-modules to secure that a market for utilisation of building integrated PV-modules is created quickly on a normal financial basis. This can e.g. include use of PV-modules for preheating of ventilation air and use of PV-modules for direct operation of ventilation. But also use of e.g. PVmodules for direct operation of lighting systems or PV-modules as part of daylight solutions or sun protection solutions are interesting to work on. 1.3 Examples of building integration of PV-modules In the following there are a number of illustrations of how PV-modules can be integrated in buildings in different ways. Example in figure 1.2 and figure 1.81.16 are from Cenergia-coordinated projects.

Figure 1.3. Roof design in Amersfoort in Holland, where the whole roof is covered by PV-modules.

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A: Amorphous PV-modules from Fortum in Finland installed in the window parapet.

B: PV-modules integrated around a window. Figure 1.4. Examples of integration of PV-modules in the Hedebygade block at Vesterbro in Copenhagen.

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Figure 1.5. PV-modules on the facade on the cleaning firm R98s head office in Copenhagen.

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Figure 1.6. PV-module/slate roof design from Danish Eternite (new 60 60 cm solution and a smaller solution) on a sports centre in Smrum, Denmark (Based on a cooperation with the Swiss company Atlantis Solar)

Figure 1.7. PV-modules integrated in the facade on the Brundtland centre in Toftlund, Denmark.

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Figure 1.8. Sun protection with PV-modules from the Danish company ALUPV/Dasolas.

Figure 1.9. Installation of PV-modules on a gable in Viktoriagade 10B at Vesterbro, Copenhagen. Here ventilation air is preheated behind the PVmodules.

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Figure 1.10. The Danish roofing felt producer Icopal has carried out a very interesting development of an installation system for PV-modules for roofing felt roofs where they can give the usual 15 years guarantee.

PV-module Perforated place Insulation

Figure 1.11. Folehaven in Valby Copenhagen. Rockwool Prorock insulation system with PV-modules.

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SOLGREEN
New mounting structure for pv-modules on green flat roofs
PURPOSE: The goal was to develop a lightweight system, which uses the existing substrate on the flat roof to withstand the wind forces and avoids conflicts with roof vegetation and maintenance. APPROACH: The Solgreen project team realised different methods of resolution in more than 4 pilot- and demonstration-systems in order to develop a new , material saving, aesthetically pleasing and cost-efficiency mounting structure.

360.0 324.0 288.0 252.0 216.0 180.0 144.0 0 108.0 72.0 36.0 0 05:22 0 0 0 0 17:04:10 Kraftm_1 93.270 Kraftm_2 154.163 Kraftm_3 55.464 Windgesch 5.366 Windricht 353.717 0 0

00:22

01:22

02:22 MM:SS 03:22

04:22

TECHNOLOGY: Structure is fixed by the substrate of the roof vegetation flexibility for level over ground different inclination angles between 20 and 30 applicable for modules and laminates

Picture: Forces as a function of wind speed


STUDIES: Monitoring and evaluation of spontaneous and planted vegetation Investigation of wind force by data
1 2

Module fixation by glueing or by metal clamps


1

P. Toggweiler , J. Rasmussen , and J. Bonvin


1

Enecolo AG Lindhofstrasse 52 CH-8617 Mnchaltorf Phone +41 1 994 90 01 Fax +41 1 994 90 05 info@enecolo.ch
2

Solstis Srl Sbeillon 9b CH - 1004 Lausanne Tel.: 021 622 50 75 Fax: 021 622 50 71

Figure 1.19. Example of PV-modules integration system for green flats roof from Switzerland.

Solgreen - Photovoltaik und Grndach

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Unter dem Namen Solgreen wird die Kombination von Photovoltaik und Grndach angepriesen. Die gemeinsame Dachnutzung muss nicht unbedingt zu einem Konflikt fhren. Im Gegenteil, neue Lsungen sind entwickelt worden, die ein vorteilhaftes Miteinander ermglichen. Die Enecolo AG arbeitet seit 1997 gemeinsam mit EPFL-LESO und Solstis am Forschungsprojekt Solgreen, seit dem Jahr 2000 ist auch die Firma Ernst Schweizer Metallbau beteiligt. Enecolo und LESO haben1997 ein Patent angemeldet. Das BFE und das ewz haben mit Beitrgen die Entwicklungsarbeiten gefrdert. Zielsetzungen: Die neu entwickelten und erprobten Aufstnderungsvarianten sind fr flache und leicht geneigte Dcher geeignet. Die Lsungen basieren auf folgenden Grundstzen: - Dachsubstrat als Ballast fr die Unterkonstruktion (keine zustzliche Dachlast) - Minimierung von Umweltbelastungen und Kosten durch sparsamen Materialeinsatz - Erhalt und Frderung von Fauna und Flora - Sicherstellung der Wasserspeicherfhigkeit - sthetische Integration der Anlage - ausreichende Bodenfreiheit zum Schutz der Module gegen Beschattung durch Pflanzen - gnstige, rasche und einfach Montage Realisierte Anlagen: Im Rahmen vom Projekt Solgreen wurden neben zahlreichen Prototypanlagen, die 26 kWp P&D Anlage KraftWerk1 in Zrich und eine 18 kWp Anlage auf dem Schulhaus Wasgenring in Basel realisiert. Weiterentwicklung: Die ersten Anlagen zeigen deutlich: Solgreen bewhrt sich und es ist eine gute Lsung. Durch gezielte Verbesserungen und Weiterentwicklungen soll das System noch besser und konkurrenzfhiger werden.

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Figure 1.20. Example of PV-module system from the Netherlands, which has been developed for a simple and and easy flat roof integration.

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Total economic analysis concerning building integrated PV-modules together with general energy saving measures. In the following is shown three examples from Denmark of how building integrated PV-modules can be used already now in a cost effective way together with energy saving packages based on a 50% funding for the PVmodules. Total economic analysis concerning use of PV-modules for a housing scheme. In the following there is an example concerning a housing development with 42 flats. Four alternatives to a normal reference solution as shown in the following is here considered. The investment in a traditional heat supply to the houses (solution 1) is shown in the following together with four alternative solutions. There is a solution with heat recovery ventilation (solution II) and one where this is combined with utilisation of PV-modules (solution II a). There is a solution with heat recovery ventilation and air heating (solution III) and one where these are combined with utilisation of solar heating and PV-modules and additional insulation (III a). Solution I (reference): - Insulation standard according to the Danish building regulations; - Heating by radiators; - Ordinary exhaust ventilation, 60W per dwelling in electricity consumption. Solution II (reference including ventilation with heat recovery: - As I but with 80-90% efficient heat recovery, 30 W per dwelling in electricity consumption for ventilation tower. Solution II a (reference including ventilation with heat recovery ventilation and approx. 2 m PV-modules per house as basis of CO2 neutral ventilation): - As solution II but with PV-modules with a production equal to the annual electricity consumption (91 m PV-modules), including 50% funding. Solution III (As II but with additional insulation and air heating, effect demand 3 kW per house): - Efficient heat recovery ventilation; - Additional insulation; - Air heating with maximum 40-50 W electricity consumption per house for ventilation; - Heating via domestic hot water heating; - Solar heating for domestic hot water. Solution III a (as III but with approx. 3.5 m PV-modules per dwelling): - As solution III but with PV-modules (153 m) and 50% funding.

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Table 1.1. Investments for three alternative solutions for heat supply.
1. Heating plant 2. Distribution, RV 3. Heating 4. Ventilation 5. Additional insulation 6. Solar heating 7. PV-modules Total Total including VAT I 100.000 210.000 1.260.000 504.000 0 0 0 2.074.000 2.592.500 II 100.000 210.000 1.260.000 1.134.000 0 0 0 2.704.000 3.380.000 II,a 100.000 210.000 1.260.000 1.134.000 0 0 321.930 3.025.930 3.782.413 III 75.000 0 100.000 1.680.000 210.000 0 0 2.065.000 2.581.250 III,a 75.000 0 100.000 1.680.000 210.000 173.793 536.550 2.775.343 3.469.179

The table does only include the parts that are important to the comparison of the five solutions. A traditional solution with central heating and radiators and with ordinary exhaust ventilation is thus DKK 2,592,500. If efficient heat recovery ventilation is introduced, the investment will increase with DKK 787.500. If PV-modules are installed too, the investment will increase with DKK 402,000. If additional insulation and air heating are utilised together with heat recovery, the total expenses will be DKK 2,581,250, which is almost the same as the reference. If also solar heating is used as a supplemental heat source and PV-modules for electricity production is combined with an improved insulation and air heating, the investment increases with DKK 888,000 compared to a traditional solution. The last solution has more investment demanding measures but by using air heating and by using the domestic water circulation as a heat distribution network for room heating, a traditional radiator system and supply ducts with mixing loops are saved. In this way a good solution for the environment with a good indoor air climate is obtained.
Heat consumption 120 Electricity consumption

100

80 kWh/m

60

40

20

0 I II II,a III III,a

Figure 1.21. Annual heat and electricity consumption for the reference project (I) and 4 alternative solutions (ventilation with heat recovery (II), this with PVmodules (II a), ventilation with air heating (III) and this with PV-modules and solar heating III a)). Reduced CO2-emission is 17, 20, 17 and 25% respectively.

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By introducing the measures mentioned for solution III, the heat and electricity consumption will be reduced, as shown in figure 1.21. The heat consumption decreases with 35% and the electricity consumption with 15%. The total result is an environmental improvement with a reduced CO2-emission of 25%. An investment in environmental improvements will be favourable for the tenants if the total costs are not higher than if the dwelling is built with traditional solutions. The total costs can in this case be calculated as the expenses to cover the investment costs, expenses for additional maintenance and expenses for electricity and heating. Figure 1.22 shows the first years expenses for electricity, heating, maintenance and the investment in energy environmental measures. The investment is based on an annuity loan over 30 years. The figure shows that part payment of the investment and expenses for maintenance increases concurrently with introduction of different measures but the supply expenses decrease at the same time. It can be expected that the costs for the tenants increase due to the increasing district heating and electricity prices. A present value calculation includes future rise in energy prices. The result of a present value calculation is shown in table 1.1. It shows that the total present value is smaller than the reference for all four alternative solutions but it is smallest for the solution with air heating equal to the fact that the total costs during a long period are smallest for this solution. In other words, the investment in ecological measures is a favourable solution for the tenants. A considerable environmental improvement is moreover obtained.
Investment 18.000 16.000 14.000 rlig udgift pr. bolig 12.000 10.000 8.000 6.000 4.000 2.000 0 I II II,a III III,a Maintenance Heating Electricity

Figure 1.22. First years expenses in an average dwelling. The investment is repaid over 30 years and with 5% p.a. Maintenance is 2% of the investment. A reference (I) is compared to four alternative solutions (ventilation with heat recovery (II), this with PV-modules (II a), ventilation with air heating (III) and this with PV-modules and solar heating III a)). It is furthermore suggested that it as a general requirement must be documented that the dwellings are airtight and
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without cold bridges in the construction. This can be done by follow-up during the building process, including specialist assistance and by introducing a socalled blower door test.

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Table 1.2. Present value calculation of five alternative solution proposals to the heat supply.
Technical data Investments, I0 Annual maintenance, Ud Annual expenses of electricity and heating, Uf Expected financial life-span, n Financial conditions Nominal rate, Rn Rate of taxation of interests, S Expected price rate of maintenance, Iud expected price rise rate of supply, Iuf Calculation of actual interest rates Actual interest rate of maintenance, Rrud Actual interest rate of supply, Rruf Calculation of present value factors Present value factor, maintenance, Fnuud Present value factor, supply, Fnuuf Calculation of present value Present value of continuing maintenance, Ud Present value of continuing supply costs, Uf Investments, Io Result, present value = Io+Ud+Uf I 2.592.500 51.850 467.544 30 5% 0% 2% 3% 0,0304 0,0209 19,50 22,13 II 3.380.000 67.600 389.190 30 5% 0% 2% 3% 0,0304 0,0209 19,50 22,13 II,a 3.782.413 75.648 374.474 30 5% 0% 2% 3% 0,0304 0,0209 19,50 22,13 III 2.581.250 51.625 387.452 30 5% 0% 2% 3% 0,0304 0,0209 19,50 22,13 III,a 3.469.179 69.384 352.062 30 5% 0% 2% 3% 0,0304 0,0209 19,50 22,13

1.011.151 10.346.604 2.592.500 13.950.254

1.318.298 8.612.665 3.380.000 13.310.963

1.475.251 8.286.987 3.782.413 13.544.650

1.006.763 8.574.186 2.581.250 12.162.198

1.353.081 7.791.014 3.469.179 12.613.274

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Total economic analysis concerning use of PV-modules and energy savings in connection with renovation of a one-family house from 1970. The house is a 150 m one-family house that is approx. 30 years old, where we want to give the house an overall renovation where both walls, windows, floor and roof are changed. In the roof a new overhead light will be set up that will improve the daylight quality in the house. In addition to this we are interested in getting ventilation with heat recovery to obtain a good indoor air climate, just as we are interested in solar heating for domestic hot water. The question is just how economical these things are for the house owner. Energy consumption The energy consumption in the house for heating, domestic hot water, lighting and electric appliances can be put at: kWh 17,556 3,000 4,640 kWh/m 121 20,7 32

Heating Domestic hot water Electricity

The heat consumption for heating is calculated according to the European standard based on the actual measurements and an average indoor air temperature of 20C. Energy for the domestic hot water, lighting and electric appliances are assumed on the basis of what is usual in a typical one-family house. Heat consumption in addition to this is net consumption, which means without loss in the oilfired furnace. If the efficiency of the oilfired furnace is assumed to be 85%, the total annual energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water will be 24,184 kWh equal to 2,418 litre oil per year. The insulation standard of the house is equal to the requirements on the time of erection, which means below the present standard. It is therefore possible to improve the house from an energy-wise point of view. In figure 1.23 the annual calculated oil consumption for heating and domestic hot water are shown with five different improvement suggestions.

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Energy consumption
30000

25000

20000 kWh/year

15000

10000

5000

0 Basic Insulation Windows Heating Ventilation Solar heating PV-modules

Electricity

Figure 1.23. Energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water and electricity consumption shown for different energy measures when these are added to the reference. If the external walls are insulated on the outside with 100 mm insulation material and the ceiling and floor with 100 mm too, the heat consumption will be reduced with 25%. If all windows and doors are replaced by low-energy glass the heat consumption is reduced by further 22%. If ventilation with efficient heat recovery is introduced at the same time and the house is tightened carefully the consumption is reduced by approx. 11%. If solar heating is installed (contribution ratio) as a supplemental heat source to the domestic hot water, the heat consumption will be reduced by 10%. The last column shows the importance of mounting a 6 m overhead light and a 10 m PV-system. A modest increased of the heat consumption and a reduction of the electricity consumption will take place, partly from the electricity production in the PV-modules and partly from an increased insulation through the overhead light. By implementing all the measures a saving of the heat consumption of 64% can be obtained, equal to a annual oil consumption of 860 litre. The consumption can be reduced further by frequent use of a woodburning stove. The electricity consumption is expected to be reduced by 25% even though the fans in the ventilation system and the circulation pump in the solar collector system are the occasion of a small increased electricity consumption. Economy The different energy saving measures demands an investment. If it is anticipated that the investment is financed by an annuity loan (5%, 30 years) the first years expenses for repayment and expenses for energy will be as

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shown in figure 1.24. The assumed prices are: electricity 1.66 DKK/kWh, fuel oil 0.56 DKK/kWh and a 50% tax saving on interest is included. If an increase of the energy prices is considered the profitability can be calculated by means of the present value method. This is shown in table 1.3. When the present value of the investment is positive the investment is profitable. The utilisation of PV-modules gives together with the other measures a positive economy in a 30 years period when 50% funding for the PV-modules are obtained. By assessment of the profitability the increase of the value of a house is also going to be considered and it can change the result considerably.
30000

25000

20000 DKK per year

15000

10000

5000

0 Basic Insulation Windows Ventilation Solar heating Solceller

Repayment of loan

Expenses for energy

Figure 1.24. The first years expenses for heating and electricity and repayment of loan for energy saving measures. For all alternative there is an extra cost in the first years. Over 30 years there is a balance in the economy. The first years expenses for the energy saving measures are increased a little (approx. 10%) but in a number of years it is an advantage to introduce the shown measures on the basis of a total economy assessment and the CO2 emission from the house is reduced by 50%. Environmental improvements If the energy consumption is calculated to CO2 emission a reduction from 9,500 to 4,500 tons per year is obtained, equal to 52% per year. The result is shown in figure 1.25.

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Annual CO2 emission 10000 9000 8000 7000 kg CO2 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Basic Insulation Windows Heating Ventilation Electricity Solar heating PV-modules

Figure 1.25. Environmental improvement shown as reduced CO2 emission.


Basic Investment, Io (DKK) Current expenses per year, uo (DKK) Annual saving, bo (DKK) Expected economic life, n Nominal rate, Rn rate of taxation of interest, S Expected price increase for current expenses., Iu Expected price increase for energy, Ie Real interest rate, expenses, Rru Real interest rate, savings, Rrb Present value factor, savings, Fnvb Present value factor, supply, Fnvu 0 0 0 30 5% 50% 2% 3% 0,0049 -0,0049 27,84 32,38 Insulation 170.000 0 3.394 30 5% 50% 2% 3% 0,0049 -0,0049 27,84 32,38 Windows 207.500 0 6.414 30 5% 50% 2% 3% 0,0049 -0,0049 27,84 32,38 Ventilation 242.500 200 7.409 30 5% 50% 2% 3% 0,0049 -0,0049 27,84 32,38 Solar heating 272.500 450 8.677 30 5% 50% 2% 3% 0,0049 -0,0049 27,84 32,38 PV-modules 322.500 450 10.718 30 5% 50% 2% 3% 0,0049 -0,0049 27,84 32,38

Present value of current expenses, Uo Present value of savings, Bo Investeringsbelb, Io Present value of the proejct, U=Bo-Uo-Io

0 0 0 0

0 109.902 170.000 -60.098

0 207.674 207.500 174

5.567 239.887 242.500 -8.180

12.526 280.967 272.500 -4.059

12.526 347.052 322.500 12.026

Table 1.3. Calculation of present value costs over 30 years for a reference and five alternatives added to the reference. This means ref. (basic) ref. + insulation (insulation) and so on. It is seen that the combined PV/daylight solutions leads to a positive economy over 30 years. Total economic analysis concerning use of PV-modules for a new school in Ovnhallen in Valby, Copenhagen As part of the work with a PV implementation plan for the city area of Valby in Copenhagen, a suggestion for large-scale utilisation of PV-modules has been developed for a new school that is going to the made in Ovnhallen in Valby. This is one of the former industrial buildings that will be converted in connection to the so-called Example Project in Valby.

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The calculations from Cenergia show that by use of 1,400 m PV-modules it is possible to obtain a complete CO2-neutral solution for the school so the annual energy consumption for heating and electricity is equal to the energy yield from the PV-modules. Figure 1.26 shows a visualisation of up to 1,500 m PV-modules for the new school in Ovnhallen in Valby, which was used before to produce porcelean. Table 1.4 shows the investments for three different energy saving measures together with a total energy saving solution and a Zero-energy solution where 1,400 m PV-modules are used. Figure 1.27 shows savings of the electricity and heat savings by these measures. Figure 1.28 shows the saved quantity of CO2 as to these measures and how one by PV-modules can get a totally CO2neutral building. Table 1.5 shows the total economy for all the measures including PV-modules which on the basis of the given conditions will be positive for the builder over a 30 years period, including 50% funding to the PV-modules.

Figure 1.26. Calculations show that it is possible including 50% funding for PV-modules to have a positive economy over 30 years if you will build a zeroenergy school in Denmark that is totally CO2-neutral by use of 1,400 m PVmodules in the roof together with energy savings.

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Investments:
Electricity savings Reference Heat recovery Additional insulation Low-energy windows Total energy saving concept Zero-energy design with PV-modules 0 500.000 500.000 500.000 500.000 500.000 Total Heat savings Total electricity including VAT and heat savings 0 0 0 1.500.000 2.000.000 2.500.000 700.000 1.200.000 1.500.000 500.000 1.000.000 1.250.000 2.700.000 3.200.000 4.000.000 6.200.000 6.700.000 8.375.000 Total including VAT/m 0 432 259 216 691 1.447

Table 1.14.
Heat and electricity consumption 140 120 100 80 kWh/m 60 40 20 0
Reference Heat recovery Additional insulation Low-energy windows

electricity heating

-20

Total energy Zero-energy saving concept design with PVmodules

Figure 1.27. Reference situation for the school in Ovnhallen as regards heat and electricity consumption compared with 3 different energy saving measures individually and altogether. Furthermore it is shown how utilisation of 1,400 m PV-modules can result in a CO2 neutral building design that can eventually be converted to an electricity zero-energy solution by means of a heat pump.

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CO2 emission 200

150

ton CO2

100 heating electricity 50

0 Reference Heat recovery Additional insulation Low-energy Total energy Zero-energy windows saving concept

-50

Figure 1.28. Comparison of CO2 emission for the school in Ovnhallen for the reference situation and three different energy saving measures respectively, both individually and altogether. Furthermore it is shown how a CO2 neutral building can be obtained by 1,400 m PV-modules on the roof of Ovnhallen.
First year's expenses, Investment: annuity loan (5%, 30 years)
160 140 120 DKK/m 100 80 60 40 20 0 Reference Heat recovery Additional insulation Low-energy windows Total concept Zero-energy

Investment

Maintenance

Supply

Figure 1.29. Comparison of first years expenses for the three different energy saving measures, the total energy savings and for the zero energy design based on 1,400 m PV-modules. The energy saving concept has almost the same costs as the reference while the zero energy design costs more the first year.

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Technical data per living space Investment, DKK/m Maintenance costs, DKK/year/m Saving, DKK/year/m Expected service life Financial conditions Nominal estimated rate of interest Rate of taxation Expected price rise for maintenance Expected price rise for energy Calculation of real rate of interest Maintenance Saving Calculation of present value Operation Fnuud Saving Fnuuf Calculation of present value Present value of maintenance Present value of the saving Investment Result: Present value = Bo-Uo-Io Io uo bo n rn s iu ie Rrud Rruf

Reference 0 0 0 30 5% 0% 2% 3% 0,0294 0,0194

Heat recovery 432 9 47 30 5% 0% 2% 3% 0,0294 0,0194

Additional insulation 259 5 19 30 5% 0% 2% 3% 0,0294 0,0194

Low-energy windows 216 4 23 30 5% 0% 2% 3% 0,0294 0,0194

Overall concept 691 14 56 30 5% 0% 2% 3% 0,0294 0,0194

Zero-energy 1.447 29 95 30 5% 0% 2% 3% 0,0294 0,0194

19,75 22,58

19,75 22,58

19,75 22,58

19,75 22,58

19,75 22,58

19,75 22,58

Uo Bo Io

0 0 0 0

171 1.054 432 451

102 440 259 78

85 528 216 227

273 1.268 691 303

572 2.142 1.447 123

Table 1.5. Present value calculation over 30 years for three different energy saving measures and an overall energy saving solution and a zero energy design using PV-modules including 50% funding for these. It is seen that all alternative solutions have a better economy than the reference. In connection with the school project in Valby it is also suggested to look on the possibility to utilise an electric heat pump for heat supply because an electricity zero-energy solution can be obtained this way, which at the same time can have an advantageous effect as regards a reduction of problems with electricity overflow in the electricity system in the winter.

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