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M Alamgir, QH Bari, IM Rafizul, SMT Islam, G Sarkar & MK Howlader (Eds.) ISBN: 978-984-33-2705-5, pp. 81 (1-6)

Proceedings of the WasteSafe 2011 – 2 nd International Conference on Solid Waste Management in the Developing Countries 13-15 February 2011, Khulna, Bangladesh

Enabling Solid Waste Management through Different Institutional Education in Bangladesh: An Analysis of Existing Curriculum

Ahmad Kamruzzaman Majumder, K. M. Nazmul Islam, K. Maudood Elahi and Jussi Dayna Biswas

Department of Environmental Science, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to have a comprehensive status paper on Solid Waste Management education available In Bangladesh. The present evaluation report results of a review of existing syllabi of environmental science and environmental management taught at the School, Collage and University levels. A simple evaluation scheme was designed to assess the representation of topics and subtopics under the selected categories of Solid waste management.The study found that, in the primary level of educationin any class no course has designated to know about the solid waste except in class Three. In the secondary and higher secondary level only in class Seven and Intermediate science group have one course of which one or two chapter could be relate to waste related knowledge.On average, in university level Solid Waste Management courses contain 3-6 credit out of 137-160 credit or 100-200 marks out of 4800 marks.

Keywords: hazardous waste, medical waste, recycle, reuse, garbage.

INTRODUCTION

Solid waste can be defined as “any discarded items, things destined for reuse, recycle, or reclamation of sludge and hazardous waste” (Biswas, 2007). The generation of solid waste is increasing with the competition to the growing rate of population in Bangladesh as well as round the world (Majumder, et al 2007). It is estimated that, the population within only the (Dhaka City Corporation) DCC’s limits generates about 3,500 metric tons of municipal solid waste per day (DCC, 2002). This huge generation of waste comes up with the prime problem of its management. Methods of waste disposal have not changed in Bangladesh in over ten thousand years. (BCAS, 2001). But the traditional practices will not be able to solve this waste hazard, more improvement in the management sector is a must for the sustainability of the society. Education is an essential tool for achieving sustainability. People now recognize that current economic development trends are not sustainable and that public awareness, education, and training are the key to moving society towards sustainability (McKeown, 2002). Being a developing country Bangladesh is confronting issues like rapid urbanization; urban migration making the solid waste situation management even harder. So incorporation of the study and research in the field of solid waste management in the academic curriculum is a very important tool to make the situation better for Bangladesh. With the growing population of the country, Bangladesh is struggling with the service to fulfill the basic need; education, to every level. Now a day environmental studies is offered at the primary level of education. In the primary and junior secondary syllabus, an integrated subject called studies was introduced in 1978(Sharafuddin, 1991). The curriculum is mostly concentrated on the pollution, prevention and conservation, which includes a little conception about the waste management as well. But this conception does not fulfill the standard level of understanding of the issue. Until 1995, the coverage of the environment in the higher education system was rather disjoined and poorly developed (Sharafuddin, 1991). Then different public universities like Khulna University, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka University, Sylhet University, Rajshahi University, Chittagong University, Maulana Vhasani University has incorporated the environmental education in there different course curriculum of related departments. But as far the waste management education is concern they it is in the affiliation with the environment management course. Some of the private universities like Stamford University Bangladesh, North-South University, BRAC University, State University of Bangladesh are offering environmental education with the integration of specific course on waste management. Other then

these people from different backgrounds conduct individual researches for either academic or professional interest. But still the study of Solid Waste Management is not sufficient enough to improve the current Solid waste condition of the country. Extensive generation of solid waste is not only affecting the soil quality on which it is dumped on but also the water beneath the soil layer including the surrounding air. By the inhalation of this polluted air the human health is also facing an adverse condition upon the human health. The main objective of the study is to analyzing the existing curriculum to find out the current status of the study of solid waste management in Bangladesh. Identification of the possible field where the solid waste management study could be incorporated along with the review of the current curricula of environmental science of all the universities of Bangladesh. Through this study it is expected that, a scenario on the waste management education can be presented and some new areas are expected to be explored where solid waste management study can be assimilated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The total report is based on the literature reviewed from different printed and internet sites. A very simple numerical method was designed for the completion of the paper by the assessment of the available existing syllabi of Bangladesh which integrate environmental studies. Review of the course curriculum of the primary and secondary education level was conducted on the basis of class, book, chapter and contents. Close exemplifications of all the official and published syllabi of different public and private universities of Bangladesh, related to the field of Environmental Science and Environmental management were taken into account. For the total study the university level syllabi were listed according to level (BSc, MSc) along with the Department, Years the Program, Course Name, Duration of the Course Offered (In the Semester/Year), Course Structure. The tables were then analyzed to identify the current status of the Solid Waste Management study in Bangladesh.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Table 1: Environmental Education in the Formal Curricula of Primary and Secondary School

Level

Class

Book

Chapter

Contents

Primary

III

Introduction

to

Chapter

1:

Our

Waste is the cause of pollution

 

Environment

Environment:

(Sociology)

Environment

 
 

Pollution

 

IV

No

V

No

Secondary

VI

No

VII

General Science

Chapter

20:

Reuse

 

Making Necessary

Things

From

Waste Materials

 

Chapter

23:

More people cause more waste

Population

Increase

and

Environmental

Pollution

 

VIII

No

IX-X (Science)

Biology

Chapter

14:

Waste is a cause of pollution

 

Environmental

Pollution

and

Conservation

Source: Chakraborty, T.A. and Rahman, A.A

Table 1 show that at the primary level the conception of waste is only to mark it as a source of pollution. At the secondary level the study of the waste was little bit concentrated on the management issue by pointing it towards reuse. It can be said that at the primary level the education of waste is biased discussing the role of the waste as a source of pollution other than management aspect.

Table 2: Waste Management Related Courses in Bachelor Programs

University

School/

Program

(4

Course

Duration

Offered In

Course

 

Department

Years)

Name

Of

The

The

Structure

 

Course

Semester/

 
 

Year

University

Of

Institute

Of

Bachelor

Of

Solid

Waste

1

3 rd

Year,

Total Marks- 100 Theory- 50 Marks Practical/ Term Paper- 25 Marks

Chittagong

Forestry And

Science

With

Disposal And

Semester

6 th

Environment

Honours

In

Management

/6

Semester

al Sciences

Environmental

Months

 

Sciences

University

Of

Institute

Of

Bachelor

Of

Soil Pollution

1

3 rd

Year,

Total Marks- 100 Theory- 50 Marks Practical/ Term Paper- 25 Marks

Chittagong

Forestry And

Science

With

Management

Semester

6 th

Environment

Honours

In

/6

Semester

al Sciences

Environmental

 

Months

 

Sciences

University

Of

Institute

Of

Bachelor

Of

Water Quality

1

3 rd

Year,

Total Marks- 100 Theory- 50 Marks Practical/ Term Paper- 25 Marks

Chittagong

Forestry And

Science

With

Management

Semester

6 th

Environment

Honours

In

/6

Semester

al Sciences

Environmental

 

Months

 

Sciences

University

Of

Institute

Of

Bachelor

Of

Environment

1

4 th

Year,

Total Marks- 100 Theory- 50 Marks Practical/ Term Paper- 25 Marks

Chittagong

Forestry And

Science

With

al

Semester

7 th

Environment

Honours

In

Management

/6

Semester

al Sciences

Environmental

Months

 

Sciences

University

Of

Institute

Of

Bachelor

Of

Environment

1

4 th

Year,

Total Marks- 100 Theory- 50 Marks Practical/ Term Paper- 25 Marks

Chittagong

Forestry And

Science

With

al

Semester

7 th

Environment

Honours

In

Engineering

/6

Semester

al Sciences

Environmental

Months

 

Sciences

Mawlana

Department

Bachelor

Of

Waste

And

1

3 rd

Year,

Total Marks- 100

Bhashani

Of

Science

Effluent

Semester

2 nd

3

Credit

Hour

Sciences And

Environment

Degree

In

Management

/6

Semester

Theoretical

Technology

al

Science

Environmental

Months

Course

 

University

And

Science

And

Resource

Resource

Management

Management

 

Mawlana

Department

Bachelor

Of

Waste

And

1

3 rd

Year,

1

Credit

Hour

Bhashani

Of

Science

Effluent

Semester

2 nd

Practical Course

Sciences And

Environment

Degree

In

Management

/6

Semester

Technology

al

Science

Environmental

- Sessional

Months

 

University

And

Science

And

Resource

Resource

Management

Management

 

Mawlana

Department

Bachelor

Of

Agriculture

1

3 rd

Year,

Total Marks- 100

Bhashani

Of

Science

And

Semester

1 st

3

Credit

Hour

Sciences And

Environment

Degree

In

Environment

/6

Semester

Theoretical

Technology

al

Science

Environmental

Months

Course

 

University

And

Science

And

Resource

Resource

Management

Management

 

Mawlana

Department

Bachelor

Of

Coastal

And

1

3 rd

Year,

Total Marks- 100

Bhashani

Of

Science

Marine

Semester

1 st

3

Credit

Hour

Sciences And

Environment

Degree

In

Environment

/6

Semester

Theoretical

Technology

al

Science

Environmental

Management

Months

Course

 

University

And

Science

And

Resource

Resource

Management

Management

 

Jahangirnaga

Department

B.Sc.

(Hon’s)

Industrial And

1 Year

4 th Year

Total Marks - 100 1 Unit Theoretical Course

r University

Of

In

Agricultural

 

Environment

Environmental

Pollution And

al Science

Science

Mitigation

 

Jahangirnaga

Department

B.Sc.

(Hon’s)

Laboratory

1 Year

2 nd Year

Total Marks - 50

r

University

Of

In

And

Field

½

Unit

Practical

 

Environment

Environmental

Work

In

Course

al Science

Science

Environment

 
 

al

Earth

Sciences And

 

Soil Science

Jahangirnaga

Department

B.Sc.

(Hon’s)

Environment

1

Year

3 rd Year

Total Marks- 100

r

University

Of

In

al

Unit Theoretical Course

1

 

Environment

Environmental

Management

 

al Science

Science

Of

Soil

And

 

Water

In

Floodplains

 

And

Coastal

Zones.

 

Jahangirnaga

Department

B.Sc.

(Hon’s)

Biological

1

Year

4 th Year

Total Marks- 100

r

University

Of

In

Pollution And

 

Unit Theoretical Course

1

 

Environment

Environmental

Mitigation

al Science

Science

 

Jahangirnaga

Department

B.Sc.

(Hon’s)

Environment

1

Year

4 th Year

Total Marks- 100

r

University

Of

In

al

Unit Theoretical Course

1

 

Environment

Environmental

management

 

al Science

Science

 

North

South

Department

B.Sc.

(Hon’s)

Waste

 

1

4 th

Year,

Total Marks- 100

University

of

In

Management

Semester

1 st

3

Credit

Hour

Environment

Environmental

/6

Semester

Theoretical

al

Science

Science

and

Months

Course

and

B.Sc.

(Hon’s)

Management

In

 

Environmental

 

Management

North

South

Department

B.Sc.

(Hon’s)

Waste

 

1

4 th

Year,

Total Marks- 100

University

of

In

Treatment

Semester

2 st

3

Credit

Hour

Environment

Environmental

/6

Semester

Theoretical

al

Science

Science

and

Months

Course

and

B.Sc.

(Hon’s)

Management

In

 

Environmental

 

Management

Stamford

Department

B.Sc.

(Hon’s)

Pollution and

1

4 th

Year,

Total Marks- 100

University

of

In

Waste

 

Trimester

3 rd

3

Credit

Hour

Bangladesh

Environment

Environmental

Management

/3

Trimester

Theoretical

al Science

Science

Months

Course

Table-2 summarizes the waste management related courses that are being taught at different private and public universities of Bangladesh at the Bachelors level. All the data have been collected from the existing syllabi of different universities. it has been observed that, Jahangirnagar University, University Of Chittagong, Mawlana Bhashani Sciences And Technology University, North South University, Stamford University Bangladesh has incorporated the solid waste management course at their institution as credit specific course in the syllabus. In most of the cases the solid waste management course is being taught in the last two years of their degree achievement. It can also be said that solid waste management is studied in the advanced level after building up the basic knowledge. It also has been observed that other then the individual one it is assimilate with other course where pollution and management is the key concern. It is also observed that Institute Of Forestry And Environmental Sciences of University Of Chittagong, Department Of Environmental Science And Resource Management of Mawlana Bhashani Sciences And Technology University, Department Of Environmental Science of Jahangirnagar University Department of Environmental Science and Management of North South University, Department of Environmental Science of Stamford University Bangladesh offers 5,4,5, 2 and 1 solid waste management related course respectively.

Table 3: Waste Management Related Courses in Masters Programs

University

School/

Program

Course

Duration

Offered In

Course

 

Department

Name

Of

The

The

Structure

 

Course

Semester/

 
 

Year

Mawlana

Department

Master

Of

Advanced

1

1 st

Year,

Total Marks- 100

Bhashani

Of

Science

(MS)

Waste Water

Semester

2 nd

3

Credit

Hour

Sciences And

Environment

In

Engineering

/6

Semester

Theoretical

Technology

al

Science

Environmental

Months

Course

 

University

And

Science

Resource

Management

BUET

Civil

Theory

of

Engineering

 

Water

 

Treatment

 

BUET

Civil

Theory

of

Engineering

 

Sewage

 
 

Treatment

BUET

Civil

Biology

of

Engineering

 

Sewage

and

 
 

Polluted

Water

BUET

Civil

Environment

 

Engineering

 

al Sanitation

BUET

Civil

Industrial

 

Engineering

 

Water

and

 

Sewage

 

Treatment

BUET

Civil

Municipal

 

Engineering

 

and

Rural

 

Sanitation

 

BUET

Civil

Sewage

and

 

Engineering

 

Drainage

 

Engineering

Design

Stamford

Department

Master

Of

Waste

and

1

1 st

Total Marks- 100

University

of

Science

(MS)

Pollution

Trimester

Year/2 nd

3

Credit

Hour

Bangladesh

Environment

In

Management

/3

Trimester

Theoretical

al Science

Environmental

Months

Course

 
 

Science

State

Department

Master

of

Solid

Waste

1

1 st

Year,

Total Marks- 100

University

of

of

Science

in

Management

Semester

2 nd

3

Credit

Hour

Bangladesh

Environment

Environmental

/6

Semester

Theoretical

al Science

Science

Months

Course

 

University

of

Institute

of

Postgraduate

Waste

1 Year

1 st Year

Total Marks- 50

Rajshahi

Environment

Course

Management

 

2

Credit

Hour

al Science

 

Theoretical

 

Course

 

Table-3 summarizes the solid waste management education at the Masters level in different universities of Bangladesh. It has been observed that Mawlana Bhashani Sciences and Technology University, BUET, Stamford University Bangladesh, State University of Bangladesh University of Rajshahi offers specific courses at the master’s level. It can also be observed that only BUET offers several courses related to the solid waste management whereas for the rest of the universities; they offer only 1 course at the during Masters degree. It can be also observed from Table-1 & 2 that, at the public university level the duration of the course is 1 year with the 3 credit hour and 100 marks. Where in the case of private universities it is concise into 3 to 6 months according to the period of their semester with the same credit hours and mark distribution. It can also be observed from the Table-1 & 2 that total 29 courses related to the solid waste management is being taught by the 8 universities of the Country where 9 courses are taught with the specific concentration on Solid Waste Management.

CONCLUSION

Extensive generation of solid waste is one of the major problems of the world and a developing country like Bangladesh it is a big nuisance. In order to solve this problems extensive research and training is very much needed. From the study it can be said that, the solid waste management education is still a passive field of education in the country. but in order to solve the solid waste generation problem our own solid waste management system should be introduced. Although the universities are trying to come up with the education but it should also be notified that not all the students of our country can reach to the university level. So this education should be incorporated at the primary and secondary level at a full phase so that everyone can have the minimum knowledge of solid waste management.

REFERENCE

Biswas, J. D. 2007. Characterization of Solid Waste of Dhaka city, B,sc. thesis, Department of Environmental Science, Dhaka : Jahangirnagar University. DCC. 2002. Report on Solid Waste disposal and Treatment Sites. Dhaka: Dhaka City Corporation BCAS. 2001. A Proposal on Waste Management and Recycling Program in Non-formal Schools of Bangladesh, submitted to the British Council, British High Commission, Dhaka, by Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, Dhaka Majumder, A.K., Hossain,E., Islam, N and Sarwar, I. “Urban environmental quality mapping: a perception study on Chittagong metropolitan city” Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 1, No. IV, August, 2007. http://www.ku.edu.np/kuset/index.php?go=vol1no4 McKeown, R. July 2002. Education for Sustainable Development Toolkit, vol. 2, University of Tennessee, USA. , <http://www.esdtoolkit.org> (September, 2004) Sharafuddin, A.M. (1991), Towards Sustainable Development: Environmental Awareness and in Bangladesh, A background paper prepared for National Conservation Strategy, September, published jointly by ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh and National Conservation Strategy of Bangladesh.