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Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE

1
Courses In
Electrical
Engineering
Volume V
POWER ELECTRONICS
EXAM QUESTIONS WITH SOLUTIONS
(2012 academic year)
By
Jean-Paul NGOUNE
DIPET I (Electrotechnics), DIPET II (Electrotechnics)
M.Sc. (Electrical Engineering)
Teacher in the Electrical Department, GTHS KUMBO, Cameroon.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
2
Foreword
This is a compilation of some exam questions that I gave to my students during this
academic year. They are accompanied by solutions proposed by me. I will be delight
if this book can be of any use for you. I will also be very happy to receive any critic or
suggestion from you. I dedicate this book to my students of Class 6, Electrical
Technology, GTHS Kumbo, 2012 batch. They are a bit stubborn, but I like to teach
them. May you be blessed as you are using this book.
NGOUNE Jean-Paul.
17 May 2012.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
3
Acknowledgement
Most of the questions treated in this book are Probatoire Technique past questions
proposed by the Cameroon General Certificate of Education Board (GCEB) and the
Office du Baccalaureat du Cameroun (OBC).
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
4
Contents
Item Page
Foreword 2
Acknowledgment 3
Contents 4
First sequence exam with solution 5
Second sequence exam with solution 16
Third sequence exam with solution 24
About the author 34
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
5
Courses In
Electrical
Engineering
Volume V
POWER ELECTRONICS
FIRST SEQUENCE EXAM WITH SOLUTION
By
Jean-Paul NGOUNE
DIPET I (Electrotechnics), DIPET II (Electrotechnics)
M.Sc. (Electrical Engineering)
Teacher in the Electrical Department, GTHS KUMBO, Cameroon.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
6
Exercise 1: Power electronics components.
The diagram of figure 1 below is used to vary the voltage across the load R.
The thyristors are perfect and are controlled by signals produced by the circuit of
figure 2.
RL
R1
R3
R2
u(t)
T1
T2
UL
V1
V3
V2
i1
i3
i2
IC
T1
T2
Figure 1 Figure 2
t t u 100 sin 2 120 ) ( = , R = 10 .
The firing angle of T1 is while T2 is fired at + . The operational amplifier is ideal
and works in linear regime.
1. Draw in synchronism, the waveforms of u(t), u
L
(t), v
T1
(t) and v
T2
(t).
2. Calculate the average value and the effective value of u
L
(t), v
T1
(t) and v
T2
(t).
3. Considering the circuit of figure 2, express in terms of V1, V3, R1, and R3 the
currents i1, i2, i3 and the voltage V2.
4. Determine the expression of V2 if R1 = R2 = R3 = R.
Exercise 2: Single phase non controlled rectification.
Consider the following figures:
D
R
R
Uo(t)
Uo(t)
u(t) u(t)
Monoalternance Double alternance
REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON
Peace Work Fatherland

GTHS KUMBO/ ELECT DPT


FIRST SEQUENCE EXAM
Class: F
3
7
Option: Electrotechnology
Duration: 3H
Coefficient: 3
POWER ELECTRONICS
No document is allowed except the one given to
the candidates by the examiners
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
7
. 100 sin 2 10 ) ( t t u = R = 500 .
For each of the above circuits:
1. Draw in synchronism with u(t), the waveform of u
o
(t) and that of the current
i
R
(t) flowing through the resistive load R.
2. Calculate the average value of u
o
(t) and i
R
(t).
3. Calculate the effective value of u
o
(t) and i
R
(t).
4. Calculate the power dissipated by the load R.
Exercise 3: Periodic signals.
0
T/2 T t
0
T/4 T
T/6 2T/6 T/2
4T/6 5T/6
T
Vmax
Im
Im/2
Imax
- Imax/3
T/3 T
Signal 1 Signal 2
Signal 3
Signal 4
0 0 t
t
t
Vmax
For each signal given above, calculate the average value and the effective value.
Proposed by Mr. NGOUNE Jean-Paul,
PLET Electrotechnics, GTHS KUMBO.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
8
PROPOSITION OF SOLUTION
Exercise 1: Power electronics components.
Let us consider the diagram of figure 1 below used to vary the voltage across the
load R. It is assumed that the thyristors T1 and T2 are perfect and controlled by
signals produced by the circuit of figure 2.
RL
R1
R3
R2
u(t)
T1
T2
UL
V1
V3
V2
i1
i3
i2
IC
T1
T2
Figure 1 Figure 2
1. Waveforms of u(t), u
L
(t), v
T1
(t) and v
T2
(t) in synchronism.
RL
vT1
vT2
uL
u(t)
t t u 100 sin 2 120 ) ( = , O = 10 R
a) Study of the functioning of the system:
It is assumed that the firing angle of T1 is and that of T2 is + .
(

e + +
(

e
T
T T
t
T
t
2 2
2
0
0
0

Where T is the period of the supply u(t).


During the positive half cycle:
- For | |
0
0 t t e
U(t)>0 and T1 is not yet fired. Therefore, T1 is OFF and T2 is OFF.
The equivalent diagram of the system is as follows:
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
9
RL
u(t)
0V
0A
-u(t)
u(t)
vT1= u(t)
vT2 = -u(t)
uL(t) = 0
- For
(

e
2
0
T
t t , u(t)>0, The thyristor is fired. T1 is ON and T2 is OFF.
The equivalent diagram of the system is as follows:
RL
u(t)
0V
u(t)
uL(t) = u(t)
vT1 = vT2 = 0V
During the negative half cycle:
- For

+ e
0
2 2
t
T T
t T2 is not yet fired. So, T2 is OFF, T1 is also OFF.
The equivalent diagram of the system is as follows:
RL
u(t)
0V
0A
-u(t)
u(t)
vT1= u(t)
vT2 = -u(t)
uL(t) = 0
- For
(

+ e T t
T
t
0
2
. T1 is OFF and T2 is ON, The equivalent diagram of the
system is given as follows:
RL
u(t)
u(t)
0 V
uL(t) = u(t)
vT1 =vT2 = 0
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
10
b) waveforms:
to T/2 T T+to T/2+to
0
0
0
0
uL(t)
vT1(t)
vT2(t)
t
t
t
t
2. Calculation of average and effective values:
Signal uL(t):
0 =
av
UL Because u
L
(t) is periodic and symmetric.
} }
= =
2
2 2
) (
2 2
sin

2
) (
1
T
to
T
L
eff tdt U
T
dt t u
T
UL
But
2
2 cos 1
sin
2


=
Hence
( )
(

+ =
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(

= = |
.
|

\
|
=
} }

2
2 sin
2

2
2 sin
2
sin
2

2
2 sin

2 cos 1

2
2 cos 1

2
0
0
2
0
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
t
t
T
T
U t
t
T T
T
U
UL
t
t
T
U
dt t
T
U
dt
t
T
U
UL
eff
T
to
T
to
T
to
eff
Finally,
Signal v
T1
(t):
VT1
av
= 0 Because v
T1
(t) is periodic and symmetric.

4
2 sin
2
1

0 0
t
T
t
U UL
eff
+ =
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
11
(

= =
}

2
2 sin

) (
2
0
0
2
0
2
1
2
t
t
T
U
dt t u
T
V
to
eff T finally
Signal v
T2
(t):
VT2
av
= 0
VT2
eff
= VT1
eff
Numerical application: Do the calculation of the above values for
12 6
T
=

.
3. Let us consider the circuit of figure 2:
R3
R1
R2
V1
V3
V2
i1
i3
i2
Let us express in terms of V1, V3, R1 and R3 the currents i1, i2, i3, and the voltage
v2.
Voltage V
3
.
3 2 1
3
3
2
2
1
1
3
3
2
2
1
1
3 2 1
1 1 1
0
R R R
R
V
R
V
R
V
e
R
V e
R
V e
R
V e
i i i
+ +
+ +
=

= + +

4
2 sin

0 0
1
t
T
t
U V
eff T
=
1
1
1
R
V
i =
3
3
3
R
V
i =
3
3
1
1
2
3 1 2
R
V
R
V
i
i i i
+ =
+ =
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
12
But 0 = =
+
e e
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
= + +
3
3
1
1
2
2
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
R
V
R
V
R
V
R
V
R
V
R
V
4. Expression of V2 for R1 = R2 = R3 = R
This circuit is an analogical adder.
Exercise 2: Single phase non controlled rectification.
Let us consider the following circuits:
D
R
R
Uo(t)
Uo(t)
u(t) u(t)
Monoalternance Double alternance
A. Half wave:
1. Waveforms of u
0
(t) and i
R
(t).
0
0
T/2 T
t
t
u(t)
uo(t)
iR(t)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
3
3
1
1
2 2
R
V
R
V
R V
( )
3 1 2
V V V + =
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
13
2. Calculation of average values:
;
NA: V U
oav
503 . 4
2 10
= =

, mA I
Rav
9 =
3. Calculation of effective values:
5. Power dissipated in the load:
NA: 2 5 =
oeff
U ; mA I
ff
14 . 14
Re
= ; W P 1 . 0 =
B. Full wave:
1. Waveforms of u
0
(t) and i
R
(t).
0
0
T/2 T
t
t
u(t)
uo(t)
iR(t)
| |

U
t
T
U
tdt U
T
U
T T
av

cos

sin

1
2
0
2
0
0
= = =
}
R
U
I
Rav

=
2

2
2 sin
2

sin

0
2
2
2
0
2
0
2
2
2
2
U
U
U t
t
T
U
tdt
T
U
U
eff
T
T
oeff
=
=
(

= =
}

R
U
I
ff
2

Re
=
R
U
R
U
R RI P
4 2

2
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
14
2. Calculation of average values:
;
NA: V U
oav
007 . 9 = ; mA I
Rav
18 = .
3. Calculation of effective values:
;
NA: V U
oeff
10 = ; mA I
ff
20
Re
= .
4. Power dissipated by the load:
NA: mW P 200 = .
Exercise 3: Periodic signals.
Signal 1:
;
Signal 2:

U
t
T
U
tdt U
T
U
T
T
oav

2
cos
1

2
sin

2
2
0
2
0
=
(

= =
} R
U
I
Rav

2
=
2

2
2 sin

sin

2
2
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
2
U
U
U t
t
T
U
tdt
T
U
U
oeff
T
T
oeff
=
=
(

= =
}

Re
R
U
I
ff
=
R
U
R
U
R RI P
2

2
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

U
V
av

2
=
2

V
V
eff
=
| |

1
4
0
4
0
V
t Sin
T
V
tdt Cos V
T
V
T T
av
= = =
}
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
15
Signal 3:
I
av
= 0 Because the signal is periodic and symmetric.
Signal 4:
END
2 2

2
2
2

2
2
4
0
2
4
0
2
2
2
V
V
V t Sin
t
T
V
tdt Cos
T
V
V
eff
T
T
eff
=
=
(

+ = =
}

2
2
2
6 2 6 6 2
2
2
2
2
2
m
eff
m
m
m
m
eff
I
I
I
T
T I T
I
T I
I
=
=

(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
=
m
m
m
av
I
T
T I T
I
I
18
5
3
2
3 2
=

=
27
11
27
11 3
2
3 3
2
2
2
2
2
m eff
m
m
m
eff
I I
I
T
T I T
I
I
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
16
Courses In
Electrical
Engineering
Volume V
POWER ELECTRONICS
SECOND SEQUENCE EXAM WITH SOLUTION
By
Jean-Paul NGOUNE
DIPET I (Electrotechnics), DIPET II (Electrotechnics)
DEA (Electrical Engineering)
Teacher in the Electrical Department, GTHS KUMBO, Cameroon.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
17
Exercise 1: Single phase non controlled rectifier
A single phase half wave rectifier circuit is composed of the following elements:
A perfect transformer T delivering a secondary voltage sin 2 12 ) ( = u where
=314t;
A rectifier diode D which is supposed to be perfect;
A load composed of a resistance R = 200 in series with an inductance L
whose value is such that the blocking of the diode D is at
4
5
0

= .
1.1 Draw the diagram of the circuit so described.
1.2 Represent in synchronism the following waveforms:
a. The secondary voltage u(t).
b. The load voltage u
L
.
c. The voltage u
D
across the diode.
d. The load current i
L
.
1.3 Calculate the average load voltage.
1.4 Calculate the effective load voltage.
1.5 Calculate the average load current.
Exercise 2: Battery charger
An accumulator has a capacity of 345 Ah and an emf E = 90V. It is recharged by
means of a Wheatstone bridge consisting of 4 ideal diodes and a perfect transformer
whose primary is supplied by 220V-50Hz. The accumulator is connected in series
with a resistance R which limits the current to 50 A. The secondary voltage of the
transformer is sin 2 ) ( V v = , where t = and V = 90V.
REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON
Peace Work Fatherland

GTHS KUMBO/ ELECT DPT


SECOND SEQUENCE EXAM
Class: F
3
7
Option: Electrotechnology
Duration: 03H
Coefficient: 3
Written paper
POWER ELECTRONICS
No document is allowed except the one given to
the candidates by the examiners.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
18
A. Qualitative study:
2.1 Sketch the circuit diagram described above.
2.2 Draw in a synchronous manner, the following waveforms:
The voltage v at the transformer secondary, and u
C
across the load;
The current i
C
flowing through the load.
2.3 Let t1 and t2 be the opening and closing times of the circuit respectively.
Determine the conducting and blocking states of the diodes by completing the
table below.
Intervals
Diodes 0 to t1 t1 to t2 t2 to T/2
D1
D2
D3
D4
B. Quantitative study:
2.4 Calculate:
a. The conducting angle of each diode.
b. The transformer ratio.
c. The value of the resistance R.
2.5 Give the expression of the current i
C
flowing through the load in terms of .
2.6 Determine:
a. The average and r.m.s values of the current i
C
in the battery.
b. The charging time.
c. The efficiency of the operating system.
Exercise 3: Single phase controlled rectification.
A thyristor is connected in series with a load resistance R = 10 . The supply voltage
is t t u 314 sin 2 120 ) ( = . For a delay angle
o
45 = :
a. Draw in synchronism u(t) and u
R
(t).
b. The average load voltage and current.
c. The effective load voltage and current.
d. The power consumed.
Subject Master: NGOUNE Jean-Paul, PLET
Electrotechnics, GTHS Kumbo.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
19
PROPOSITION OF SOLUTION :
Exercise 1: Single phase non controlled rectifier.
Data: t t u 314 sin 2 12 ) ( = ; R = 200 ;
4
5
0

= ; the diode is assumed to be perfect.


1. Diagram of the circuit:
T D
R
L
u(t)
2. Waveforms.
pi 2pi
wt
T/2
T
5pi/4
2T
u(t)
uL(t)
uD(t)
iL(t)
0
0
0
0
3T/2
wt
wt
wt
3. Average load voltage.
| | ( )
0
max
0
max
0
max
cos 1
2
cos
2
sin
2
1
0
0

= = =
}
U U
d U U
LAV
N.A.: U
LAV
= 4.6128V.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
20
4. Effective load voltage:
|
.
|

\
|
=
(

= |
.
|

\
|
= =
} }
2
2 sin
4
2
2 sin
4 2
2 cos 1
2
sin
2
1
0
0
2
max
0
0
2
max
0
2
max 2
0
2
max
2
0 0


U
U
U
d
U
d U U
Lf
Lf
N.A: U
Lf
= 8.86V
5. Average load current:
mA
R
U
I
LAV
LAV
06 . 23
200
6128 . 4
= = =
Exercise 2: Battery charger.
Data: Q = 345Ah; E = 90V; U = 220V 50Hz; I
max
= 50A; t t v sin 2 90 ) ( = .
1. Circuit diagram:
T
E
R
u(t) v(t)
D1 D2
D3
D4
2. Waveforms.
t
t
0
0
v(t)
uL(t)
iL(t)
T/2 T 3T/2
E
t1 t2
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
21
3. Table of functioning.
Intervals
Diodes 0 to t1 t1 to t2 t2 to T/2
D1 0 1 0
D2 0 0 0
D3 0 0 0
D4 0 1 0
4. a. Conducting angle of each diode.
1
being the angle at which the conduction start, we have:
2
2
2
1
2 90
90
sin sin
max
1 1 max
= = = = =
U
E
E U
Hence,
0
1
45 = ;
0 0
2
135 45 = =
Therefore, the conducting angle for each diode is given as follows:
0 0 0
1 2
90 45 135 = = =
C
4. b. Transformer ratio.
409 . 0
220
90
= = =
U
V
m
4. c Value of R.
O =

= + = 745 . 0
50
90 2 90
max
max
max max
I
E V
R RI E V
5. Expression of the load current in terms of .
A
R
E v
i 8 . 120 sin 836 . 170
745 . 0
90 sin 2 90 ) (
) ( =

6.a. Average load current.


The average load current is given by the following formula.
( ) A E V
R
I
C LAV
51 . 16 90
2
14 . 3
45 cos 2 90 2
745 . 0 14 . 3
1
cos 2
1
0
1 max
= |
.
|

\
|

= =

R.m.s value.
A I I
c
Lf
25
2
2
50
2
max
= = =

Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE


22
6.b. Charging time.
s h h t t I Q
LAV
45 min 53 20 896 . 20
51 . 16
345
. = = = =
6.c. Efficiency.
0
0
2 2
14 . 76 7614 . 0
51 . 16 90 25 745 . 0
51 . 16 90
. .
.
= =
+

=
+
=
+
=
LAV
Lf
LAV
u J
u
I E I R
I E
P P
P

Exercise 3: Single phase controlled rectification.


Let us consider the following figure:
T
R
u(t)
t t u 314 sin 2 120 ) ( = . The delay angle of the thyristor is 45.
a. Waveforms.
t
t
u(t)
uR(t)
0
0 T/2 T
T/8 9T/8
b. Average load voltage.
| | ( ) ( ) V
U U
d U U
LAV
131 . 46 45 cos 1
14 . 3 2
2 120
cos 1
2
cos
2
sin
2
1
0
0
max max
max
0
0
= +

= + = = =
}

Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE


23
Average load current.
A
R
U
I
LAV
Lav
6131 . 4 = =
c. Effective load voltage.
V U
U U
d U U
f
Lf
89 . 80
2
2 sin
4 2
2 sin
4
sin
2
1
0
0
2
max
2
max 2
max
2 2
0
0
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
(

= =
}

Effective load current.


I
f
= 8.089A.
d. Power consumed.
A I R P
f
31 . 654
2
= = .
END
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Exercise 1 and exercise 2 solved in this document are past Baccalaureat Technique
examination questions proposed by the Cameroon General Certificate of Education
Board (CGCEB).
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
24
Courses In
Electrical
Engineering
Volume V
POWER ELECTRONICS
THIRD SEQUENCE EXAM WITH SOLUTION
By
Jean-Paul NGOUNE
DIPET I (Electrotechnics), DIPET II (Electrotechnics)
M.sc. (Electrical Engineering)
Teacher in the Electrical Department, GTHS KUMBO, Cameroon.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
25
Exercice 1 : Battery charger
A battery having an emf of 60V and a negligible internal resistance is charged
by means of a Graetz bridge through a transformer whose primary is supplied by a
sinusoidal voltage 220V-50Hz. A resistor is placed in series with the battery such as
to limit the current to a maximal value of 30A.
1. Draw the diagram of the circuit so described.
2. Knowing that the transformer ratio of the transformer is m = 0.386, calculate
the effective value of the voltage at the secondary of the transformer.
3. Calculate the conducting angle of each diode in degree, and deduce the
duration of conduction in milliseconds.
4. Calculate the value of the resistor in series with the battery.
5. Calculate the average load current.
6. Calculate the charging time of the battery assuming that its capacity is 500Ah.
7. Determine the effective current that flows in the battery.
8. Determine the maximal reverse voltage across the diodes.
Exercise 2: Three phase rectification.
Consider the diagram of the figure below.
D1
D2
D3
RP
E
A
B
C
v1
v2
v3
u
All the diodes are perfect.
REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON
Peace Work Fatherland

GTHS KUMBO/ ELECT DPT


THIRD SEQUENCE EXAM
Class: F
3
7
Option: Electrotechnology
Duration: 03H
Coefficient: 4
Written paper
POWER ELECTRONICS
No document is allowed except the one given to
the candidates by the examiners.
AH Q
V E
Hz f
t t v
t t v
t t v
60
12
50
3
4
cos 2 30 ) (
3
2
cos 2 30 ) (
cos 2 30 ) (
3
2
1
=
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=

Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE


26
1. Draw in synchronism the waveforms of the voltages v1, v2, v3 and u.
2. Calculate the average and the effective values of the voltage u.
3. Determine the value of RP if the maximal value of the current 30.4A
4. Calculate the charging time of the battery.
5. Determine the power absorbed by the resistor RP
6. Calculate the maximal reverse voltage supported by each diode.
7. The battery is replaced by a resistor R having a value of 500 .
7.1Calculate the average load current.
7.2Calculate the effective load current; deduce the power absorbed by R.
8. Let the diodes be replaced by three perfect thyristors having a firing angle ,
where
3
2
0

; the load remaining R = 500 .
8.1Repeat question 1 above taking
3

= .
8.2Show that the expression of the average voltage across the load is:

cos
2
3 3
max
V U
av
=
8.3Draw the graph U
av
as a function of .
Exercise 3: Three phase Graetz bridge.
A three phase Graetz bridge is supplying two phases of the stator of a three
phase asynchronous motor whose windings are star connected. The bridge is
connected to the secondary of a three phase transformer 380/220V-50Hz. The
voltages at the secondary of that transformer are expressed as follows:
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
3
4
sin 2 127 ) (
3
2
sin 2 127 ) (
sin 2 127 ) (
3
2
1

t t v
t t v
t t v
1. Give the role of this circuit and precise how the secondary of the transformer is
connected, justify your answer.
2. Draw the diagram of the circuit described above.
3. Sketch the waveform of the load voltage and that of the voltage across the
diode D1.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
27
4. Calculate the average voltage across the load.
5. The stator windings of the motor are assumed to be pure resistance. Calculate
the value of the resistance measured between two phases of the stator,
knowing that the average load current is 70A. Deduce the resistance of one
winding of the stator.
6. Calculate the power consumed by the load.
Exercise 4: Control of a resistive load by thyristors and TRIACs
Three TRIACs are controlling a three phase balanced resistive load as show
by the figure below. The line voltage (between two phases) is 380V. The firing angle
of the TRIACs is equal to zero. The total power absorbed by the load is 15kW.
R
R
R
N
1
2
3
u
1. Calculate the effective value the current flowing through each TRIAC.
2. Calculate the maximal reverse voltage across each TRIAC.
3. The TRIACs are replaced by three thyristors; the firing angle still being equal
to zero.
3.1 Determine the effective value of the current flowing in each thyristor.
3.2 Calculate the maximal reverse voltage across each thyristor.
Subject Master: NGOUNE Jean-Paul, PLET
Electrotechnics, GTHS Kumbo.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
28
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The exercises solved in this document are past Baccalaureat Technique
examination questions proposed by the Cameroon General Certificate of Education
Board (CGCEB) and the Office du Baccalaureat du Cameroun (OBC).
Exercise 1: Battery charger
1. Diagram of the circuit.
D1
D4 D3
D2
R
E
220V
50Hz
E = 60V; I
max
= 30A.
2. Effective voltage at the secondary of the transformer.
92 . 84 220 386 . 0
1 2
1
2
= = = = mU U
U
U
m
3. Conducting angle of each diode.
The angle at the beginning of the conduction (opening angle) is
1
, such that,
o
U
E
U
E
30
5 . 0
09 . 120
60
2 92 . 84
60
2

sin
1
2 2
1
=
~ = = = =

Then we can deduce the conducting angle


C
.
The duration of conduction can therefore be deduced.
ms
f
T T
t t
C
C c C
67 . 6
50 3
1
3
1
3 2 3
2
=

= = = = = =


4. Value of the resistor in series with the battery.
O =

= 2
30
60 120

2 2
I
E U
R
R
E U
I
o
C
120 30 2 180 2
1
= = =
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
29
5. Average load current.
It is known that,
( )
A I
E U
R
I
LAV
C LAV
086 . 13 60
3
14 . 3 2
2
3
120 2
2 14 . 3
1
cos

2
1
1 2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
=

6. Charging time of the battery.


sec 31 min 12 38
086 . 13
500
h
I
Q
t t I Q
LAV
ch ch LAV
= = = = .
7. Effective current in the battery.
It is known that,
A I
T
t
I I I
Leff
C C
Leff
32 . 17
3
30
3
1
30
2
)
3
2
(
30

= = = =
= =

8. Maximal reverse voltage across the diodes.


V U U
D
120
max max
= =
Exercise 2: Three phase rectification.
Let us consider a three phase rectifier circuit made up
of 3 diodes with an R-E load.
D1
D2
D3
RP
E
A
B
C
v1
v2
v3
u
2

V
E < , the conduction of current in the load in not interrupted.
1. Waveforms of v1, v2 v3 and u in synchronism.
AH Q
V E
Hz f
t t v
t t v
t t v
60
12
50
3
4
cos 2 30 ) (
3
2
cos 2 30 ) (
cos 2 30 ) (
3
2
1
=
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=

Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE


30
The waveform of u is made up of the upper parts of v1,v2 and v3. The sketch of the
waveforms of v1, v2 and v3 is shown below.
v1 v2 v3 v1 v2 v3
0
-T/6 T/6 2T/6 3T/6 4T/6 5T/6 T t
v3
2. Average and effective load voltage.
| |
V U
V
V
d V U
LAV
LAV
104 . 35 2 30
28 . 6
3 3

2
3 3
sin
2

3
cos

2
3
3
3
3
3
= =
= = =

( )
V
V
U
V V
d
V
d V U
f
f
66 . 35
4
3 3
1
2
2 30
4
3 3
1
2

4
3 3
1
2

2
2 sin
4

3
cos 1
4

3
cos

2
3
2
3
3
2 3
3
2
2
3
3
2 2
= + = + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
(

+ = + = =


} }

3. Value of RP.
O ~

= 1
4 . 30
12 2 30

I
E V
RP
RP
E V
I
4. Charging time of the battery
LAV
ch ch LAV
I
Q
t t I Q = = with A
R
E U
I
LAV
LAV
104 . 23
1
12 104 . 35
=

=
Therefore, . sec 48 min 35 2 596 . 2
104 . 23
60
h h t
ch
= = =
5. Power absorbed by the resistor RP.
( ) W I RP P
f
79 . 559 66 . 23 1
2 2
= = =
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
31
6. Maximal reverse voltage supported by each diode.
V V V
D
48 . 73 6
max
= =
7. The battery is replaced by a resistor R = 500 .
Average load current.
mA
R
U
I
LAV
LAV
2 . 70
500
104 . 35
= = =
Effective current and power dissipated.
mA
R
U
I
f
f
32 . 71
500
66 . 35
= = =
W RI P
f
54 . 2
2
= =
8. The diodes be replaced by three perfect thyristors having a firing angle ,
where
3
2
0

; the load remaining R = 500 .
Waveforms of v1, v2, v3 and u (pending).
Expression of the verage load voltage:
| |

cos

2
3 3
sin
2

3
cos

2
3
3
3
3
3
}
+
+
+
+
= = = V
V
d V U
LAV
Graph of U
LAV
as function of .

cos cos

2
3 3
= = V U
LAV
We can deduce the following table of values:
0
6

3
2
U
LAV

2
3
2
0
2

The graph of U
LAV
as function of is drawn as follows.
0
pi/6 pi/3 pi/2 2pi/3
Uavmax
-Uavmax
Alpha
Uav
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
32
Exercise 3: Three phase Graetz bridge.
1. This circuit is used for the breaking of the asynchronous motor by injection of
direct current. The resistance of stator windings can also be easily determined
using this method. The secondary of the transformer is star connected.
2. Diagram of the circuit described.
R
R
R
v1
v2
v3
3. Waveform of the load voltage and that of the voltage across the diode D1
(PENDING).
4. Average load voltage.
V V U
LAV
21 . 297 3
14 . 3
2 127 3

3 3
=

= =

5. Resistance measured between two windings of the stator.


O = = = 24 . 4
LAV
LAV
LAV LAV
I
U
R RI U
We can then deduce the resistance of one winding of the stator.
O = = = 12 . 2
2
24 . 4
2
R
r
6. Power consumed by the load.
2
I R P = .
Let us first determine the effective load current I.
08 . 70
2
3 3
1
2
6
= + = =
R
V
R
U
I
f
; ( ) W P 51 . 20823 08 . 70 24 . 4
2
= =
Exercise 4: Control of a resistive load by thyristors and TRIACs
Three TRIACs are controlling a three phase balanced resistive load as show
by the figure below. The line voltage (between two phases) is 380V. The firing angle
of the TRIACs is equal to zero. The total power absorbed by the load is 15kW.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
33
R
R
R
N
1
2
3
u
1. Effective current flowing through each TRIAC.
Since the firing angle is 0, the load is assumed to be supplied with a three phase
sinusoidal voltage. Hence.
3
3
U
P
I UI P = = (Resistive load)
A I 7904 . 22
3 380
15000
= = .
2. Maximal reverse voltage across each TRIAC.
Because of the fact that the firing angle of the TRIACs is 0, they will conduct
throughout the period. Hence the maximal reverse voltage across each TRIAC is 0V
(the TRIAC is never blocked.
3. TRIACs are replaced by thyristors, the firing angle being still 0.
Effective value of current in each thyristor.
The current flows through each period during a half of period, hence.
V
I
I
Th
12 . 16
2
7904 . 22
2
= = =
Maximal reverse voltage across each thyristor.
V V
D
311 2 220
max
= =
END.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
34
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
NGOUNE Jean-Paul was born in Forek-Dschang,
Republic of Cameroon in 1984. He is a holder of a
Master Degree in electrical engineering, obtained in
2010 in the Doctorate School of the University of Douala
(UFD-PSI). He is also a holder of a DIPET II and a
DIPET I respectively obtained in 2009 and 2007 in the
Advanced Teacher Training College for Technical
Education (ENSET de Douala).
He is currently a permanent teacher of Electrical
Engineering at the Government Technical High School
of Kumbo, North-West region, Cameroon. His domain of
research concerns the improvement of energy
conversion techniques for an efficient generation of
electrical energy from renewable sources (especially
wind and solar energy, small and medium scale
hydropower) and digital designing using FPDs.
The author is looking for a Ph.D program in his domain
of research (he has not yet found it). Any suggestion for
this issue will be warmly welcome.
NGOUNE Jean-Paul, M.Sc., PLET.
P.O. Box: 102 NSO, Kumbo, Cameroon.
Phone: (+237) 7506 2458.
Email : jngoune@yahoo.fr
Web site: www.scribd.com/jngoune