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# CS 441 Discrete Mathematics for CS Lecture 8

## Sets and set operations: cont. Functions.

Milos Hauskrecht milos@cs.pitt.edu 5329 Sennott Square

## CS 441 Discrete mathematics for CS

M. Hauskrecht

Midterm 1: Week of October 4, 2009 Covers chapter 1 and 2.1-2.3 of the textbook Closed book Tables for equivalences and rules of inference will be given to you Course web page: http://www.cs.pitt.edu/~milos/courses/cs441/

## CS 441 Discrete mathematics for CS

M. Hauskrecht

Set
Definition: A set is a (unordered) collection of objects. These objects are sometimes called elements or members of the set. (Cantor's naive definition) Examples: Vowels in the English alphabet V = { a, e, i, o, u } First seven prime numbers. X = { 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17 }

## CS 441 Discrete mathematics for CS

M. Hauskrecht

Sets - review
A subset of B: A is a subset of B if all elements in A are also in B. Proper subset: A is a proper subset of B, if A is a subset of B and A B A power set: The power set of A is a set of all subsets of A

## CS 441 Discrete mathematics for CS

M. Hauskrecht

Sets - review
Cardinality: The number of elements of in the set An n-tuple An ordered collection of n elements Cartesian product of A and B A set of all pairs such that the first element is in A and the second in B

M. Hauskrecht

## Sets operations- review

Set operations: Union of A and B: Intersection of A and B Difference of A and B Complement of A

## CS 441 Discrete mathematics for CS

M. Hauskrecht

Set identities
Double complement A=A Commutative A B = B A A B = B A Associative A (B C) = (A B) C A (B C) = (A B) C Distributive A (B C) = (A B) (A C) A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

## CS 441 Discrete mathematics for CS

M. Hauskrecht

Set identities
DeMorgan (A B) = A B (A B) = AB Absorbtion Laws A (A B) = A A (A B) = A Complement Laws A A=U A A=

## CS 441 Discrete mathematics for CS

M. Hauskrecht

Set identities
Set identities can be proved using membership tables. List each combination of sets that an element can belong to. Then show that for each such a combination the element either belongs or does not belong to both sets in the identity. Prove: (A B) = A B
_ A 0 0 1 1 _ B 0 1 0 1 ____ AB 0 0 0 1 _ _ A B 0 0 0 1

A 1 1 0 0

B 1 0 1 0

M. Hauskrecht

## Generalized unions and intersections

Definition: The union of a collection of sets is the set that contains those elements that are members of at least one set in the collection.

UA
i =1

= { A1 A2 ... An }

## Example: Let Ai= {1,2,...,i} i =1,2,...,n n

A i = { 1 , 2 ,..., n }

i=1

M. Hauskrecht

## Generalized unions and intersections

Definition: The intersection of a collection of sets is the set that contains those elements that are members of all sets in the collection.

IA
i =1

= { A1 A2 ... An }

Ai = { 1 }

i=1

M. Hauskrecht

## Computer representation of sets

Idea: Assign a bit in a bit string to each element in the universal set and set the bit to 1 if the element is present, otherwise use 0 Example: All possible elements: U={1 2 3 4 5} Assume A={2,5} Computer representation: A = 01001 Assume B={1,5} Computer representation: B = 10001

M. Hauskrecht

## Computer representation of sets

Example: A = 01001 B = 10001 The union is modeled with a bitwise or A B = 11001 The intersection is modeled with a bitwise and A B = 00001 The complement is modeled with a bitwise negation A =10110

M. Hauskrecht

Functions

## CS 441 Discrete mathematics for CS

M. Hauskrecht

Functions
Definition: Let A and B be two sets. A function from A to B, denoted f : A B , is an assignment of exactly one element of B to each element of A. We write f(a) = b to denote the assignment of b to an element a of A by the function f.
A f: A B B

M. Hauskrecht

Functions
Definition: Let A and B be two sets. A function from A to B, denoted f : A B , is an assignment of exactly one element of B to each element of A. We write f(a) = b to denote the assignment of b to an element a of A by the function f.
A f: A B B

## Not allowed !!!

M. Hauskrecht

Representing functions
Representations of functions: 1. Explicitly state the assignments in between elements of the two sets 2. Compactly by a formula. (using standard functions) Example1: Let A = {1,2,3} and B = {a,b,c} Assume f is defined as: 1c 2a 3c Is f a function ?
M. Hauskrecht

Representing functions
Representations of functions: 1. Explicitly state the assignments in between elements of the two sets 2. Compactly by a formula. (using standard functions) Example1: Let A = {1,2,3} and B = {a,b,c} Assume f is defined as: 1c 2a 3c Is f a function ? Yes. since f(1)=c, f(2)=a, f(3)=c. each element of A is assigned an element from B
M. Hauskrecht

Representing functions
Representations of functions: 1. Explicitly state the assignments in between elements of the two sets 2. Compactly by a formula. (using standard functions) Example 2: Let A = {1,2,3} and B = {a,b,c} Assume g is defined as 1c 1b 2a 3c Is g a function? No. g(1) = is assigned both c and b.
M. Hauskrecht

Representing functions
Representations of functions: 1. Explicitly state the assignments in between elements of the two sets 2. Compactly by a formula. (using standard functions) Example 3: A = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9}, B = {0,1,2} Define h: A B as: h(x) = x mod 3. (the result is the remainder after the division by 3) Assignments: 0 0 3 0 1 1 4 1 2 2
M. Hauskrecht

## Important sets in discrete math

Definitions: Let f be a function from A to B. We say that A is the domain of f and B is the codomain of f. If f(a) = b, we say that b is the image of a and a is a pre-image of b. The range of f is the set of all images of elements of A. Also, if f is a function from A to B, we say f maps A to B. Example: Let A = {1,2,3} and B = {a,b,c} Assume f is defined as: 1 c, 2 a, 3 c What is the image of 1? 1c c is the image of 1 What is the pre-image of a? 2a 2 is a pre-image of a. Domain of f ? {1,2,3} Codomain of f ? {a,b,c} Range of f ? {a,c}
M. Hauskrecht

Image of a subset
Definition: Let f be a function from set A to set B and let S be a subset of A. The image of S is a subset of B that consists of the images of the elements of S. We denote the image of S by f(S), so that f(S) = { f(s) | s S }.
A S f: A B B f(S)

Example: Let A = {1,2,3} and B = {a,b,c} and f: 1 c, 2 a, 3 c Let S = {1,3} then image f(S) = ?
M. Hauskrecht

Image of a subset
Definition: Let f be a function from set A to set B and let S be a subset of A. The image of S is a subset of B that consists of the images of the elements of S. We denote the image of S by f(S), so that f(S) = { f(s) | s S }.
A S f: A B B f(S)

Example: Let A = {1,2,3} and B = {a,b,c} and f: 1 c, 2 a, 3 c Let S = {1,3} then image f(S) = {c}.
M. Hauskrecht

Injective function
Definition: A function f is said to be one-to-one, or injective, if and only if f(x) = f(y) implies x = y for all x, y in the domain of f. A function is said to be an injection if it is one-to-one. Alternative: A function is one-to-one if and only if f(x) f(y), whenever x y. This is the contrapositive of the definition.
A f: A B B

M. Hauskrecht

Injective function
Definition: A function f is said to be one-to-one, or injective, if and only if f(x) = f(y) implies x = y for all x, y in the domain of f. A function is said to be an injection if it is one-to-one. Alternate: A function is one-to-one if and only if f(x) f(y), whenever x y. This is the contrapositive of the definition.
A f: A B B A f: A B B

Not injective

Injective function
M. Hauskrecht

Injective functions
Example 1: Let A = {1,2,3} and B = {a,b,c} Define f as 1c 2a 3c Is f one to one? No, it is not one-to-one since f(1) = f(3) = c, and 1 3. Example 2: Let g : Z Z, where g(x) = 2x - 1. Is g is one-to-one (why?) Yes. Suppose g(a) = g(b), i.e., 2a - 1 = 2b - 1 => 2a = 2b `` => a = b.
M. Hauskrecht

Surjective function
Definition: A function f from A to B is called onto, or surjective, if and only if for every b B there is an element a A such that f(a) = b. Alternative: all co-domain elements are covered

f: A

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Surjective functions
Example 1: Let A = {1,2,3} and B = {a,b,c} Define f as 1c 2a 3c Is f an onto? No. f is not onto, since b B has no pre-image. Example 2: A = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9}, B = {0,1,2} Define h: A B as h(x) = x mod 3. Is h an onto function? Yes. h is onto since a pre-image of 0 is 6, a pre-image of 1 is 4, a pre-image of 2 is 8.
M. Hauskrecht

Bijective functions
Definition: A function f is called a bijection if it is both one-toone and onto.
A f: A B B

M. Hauskrecht

Bijective functions
Example 1: Let A = {1,2,3} and B = {a,b,c} Define f as 1c 2a 3b Is f is a bijection? Yes. It is both one-to-one and onto. Note: Let f be a function from a set A to itself, where A is finite. f is one-to-one if and only if f is onto. This is not true for A an infinite set. Define f : Z Z, where f(z) = 2 * z. f is one-to-one but not onto (3 has no pre-image).
M. Hauskrecht

Bijective functions
Example 2: Define g : W W (whole numbers), where g(n) = [n/2] (floor function). 0 [0/2] = [0] = 0 1 [1/2] = [1/2] = 0 2 [2/2] = [1] = 1 3 [3/2] = [3/2] = 1 ... Is g a bijection? No. g is onto but not 1-1 (g(0) = g(1) = 0 however 0 1.

M. Hauskrecht