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QUESTION 1 a) Define the term Human Resource Management and explain its function in the modern business era.

Human Resource Management has come to be recognized as an inherent part of management, which is concerned with the human resources of an organization. Its objective is the maintenance of better human relations in the organization by the development, application and evaluation of policies, procedures and programmes relating to human resources to optimize their contribution towards the realization of organizational objectives. The process of defining HRM leads us to two different definitions. The first definition of HRM is that it is the process of managing people in organizations in a structured and thorough manner. This covers the fields of staffing (hiring people), retention of people, pay and perks setting and management, performance management, change management and taking care of exits from the company to round off the activities. This is the traditional definition of HRM which leads some experts to define it as a modern version of the Personnel Management function that was used earlier. The second definition of HRM encompasses the management of people in organizations from a macro perspective i.e. managing people in the form of a collective relationship between management and employees. This approach focuses on the objectives and outcomes of the HRM function. What this means is that the HR function in contemporary organizations is concerned with the notions of people enabling, people development and a focus on making the employment relationship fulfilling for both the management and employees. Human Resource Management has come to be recognized as an inherent part of management, which is concerned with the human resources of an organization. Its objective is the maintenance of better human relations in the organization by the development, application and evaluation of policies, procedures and programmes relating to human resources to optimize their contribution towards the realization of organizational objectives. In other words, HRM is concerned with getting better results with the collaboration of people. It is an integral but distinctive part of management, concerned with people at work and their relationships within the enterprise. HRM helps in attaining maximum individual development, desirable working relationship between employees and employers, employees and employees, and effective modelling of human resources as contrasted with physical resources. It is the recruitment, selection, development, utilization, compensation and motivation of human resources by the organization.

b) Explain the role of Human Resource Management in improving productivity in an organization. Human Resource Management: Objectives To help the organization reach its goals. To ensure effective utilization and maximum development of human resources. To ensure respect for human beings. To ensure reconciliation of individual goals with those of the organization. To achieve and maintain high morale among employees. To provide the organization with well-trained and well-motivated employees. To increase to the fullest the employee's job satisfaction and self-actualization. To develop and maintain a quality of work life. To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs of society. To develop overall personality of each employee in its multidimensional aspect. To enhance employee's capabilities to perform the present job. To equip the employees with precision and clarity in transaction of business. To inculcate the sense of team spirit, team work and inter-team collaboration.

QUESTION 2 a) Define and explain the purpose of a job analysis with an example or examples. Job analysis is a systematic study of jobs to determine what activities and responsibilities are included, their relationships with other jobs, the personal qualifications necessary for performance of the jobs, and the conditions under which work is performed. The purpose of job analysis is to establish and document the 'job relatedness' of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal. Job analysis investigates the frequency and importance of duties, the percentage of time that employees spend completing duties, whether a duty constitutes a fundamental part of the job, and the extent to which duties can readily be assigned to other employees. Job analysis is the first stage in this process. It involves asking questions and gathering information to identify the key elements of the job and the required and desired characteristics of the post-holder. This analysis forms the basis of the job description and person specification. Purpose of Job Analysis Job Analysis plays an important role in recruitment and selection, job evaluation, job designing, deciding compensation and benefits packages, performance appraisal, analyzing training and development needs, assessing the worth of a job and increasing personnel as well as organizational productivity.

Recruitment and Selection: Job Analysis helps in determining what kind of person is required to perform a particular job. It points out the educational qualifications, level

of experience and technical, physical, emotional and personal skills required to carry out a job in desired fashion. The objective is to fit a right person at a right place. Performance Analysis: Job analysis is done to check if goals and objectives of a particular job are met or not. It helps in deciding the performance standards, evaluation criteria and individuals output. On this basis, the overall performance of an employee is measured and he or she is appraised accordingly. Training and Development: Job Analysis can be used to assess the training and development needs of employees. The difference between the expected and actual output determines the level of training that need to be imparted to employees. It also helps in deciding the training content, tools and equipments to be used to conduct training and methods of training. Compensation Management: Of course, job analysis plays a vital role in deciding the pay packages and extra perks and benefits and fixed and variable incentives of employees. After all, the pay package depends on the position, job title and duties and responsibilities involved in a job. The process guides HR managers in deciding the worth of an employee for a particular job opening. Job Designing and Redesigning: The main purpose of job analysis is to streamline the human efforts and get the best possible output. It helps in designing, redesigning, enriching, evaluating and also cutting back and adding the extra responsibilities in a particular job. This is done to enhance the employee satisfaction while increasing the human output.

b) Explain the different between Job Specification and Job Description and provide an example for each.

Job description and job specification are two integral parts of job analysis. They define a job fully and guide both employer and employee on how to go about the whole process of recruitment and selection. Both data sets are extremely relevant for creating a right fit between job and talent, evaluate performance and analyze training needs and measuring the worth of a particular job Both job description and job specification are essential parts of job analysis information. Writing them clearly and accurately helps organization and workers cope with many challenges while onboard.

Though preparing job description and job specification are not legal requirements yet play a vital role in getting the desired outcome. These data sets help in determining the necessity, worth and scope of a specific job. Job Description Job description includes basic job-related data that is useful to advertise a specific job and attract a pool of talent. It includes information such as job title, job location, reporting to and of employees, job summary, nature and objectives of a job, tasks and duties to be performed, working conditions, machines, tools and equipments to be used by a prospective worker and hazards involved in it. JOB DESCRIPTION is an organized factual statement of job contents in the form of duties and responsibilities of a specific job. The preparation of job description is very important before a vacancy is advertised. It tells in brief the nature and type of job. This type of document is descriptive in nature and it constitutes all those facts which are related to a job such as : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Title/ Designation of job and location in the concern. The nature of duties and operations to be performed in that job. The nature of authority- responsibility relationships. Necessary qualifications that are required for job. Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern. The provision of physical and working condition or the work environment required in performance of that job.

Purpose of Job Description

The main purpose of job description is to collect job-related data in order to advertise for a particular job. It helps in attracting, targeting, recruiting and selecting the right candidate for the right job. It is done to determine what needs to be delivered in a particular job. It clarifies what employees are supposed to do if selected for that particular job opening. It gives recruiting staff a clear view what kind of candidate is required by a particular department or division to perform a specific task or job. It also clarifies who will report to whom.

Advantages of Job Description 1. It helps the supervisors in assigning work to the subordinates so that he can guide and monitor their performances. 2. It helps in recruitment and selection procedures. 3. It assists in manpower planning. 4. It is also helpful in performance appraisal. 5. It is helpful in job evaluation in order to decide about rate of remuneration for a specific job. 6. It also helps in chalking out training and development programmes. Job Specification Also known as employee specifications, a job specification is a written statement of educational qualifications, specific qualities, level of experience, physical, emotional, technical and communication skills required to perform a job, responsibilities involved in a job and other unusual sensory demands. It also includes general health, mental health, intelligence, aptitude, memory, judgment, leadership skills, emotional ability, adaptability, flexibility, values and ethics, manners and creativity, etc. JOB SPECIFICATION is a statement which tells us minimum acceptable human qualities which helps to perform a job. Job specification translates the job description into human qualifications so that a job can be performed in a better manner. Job specification helps in hiring an appropriate person for an appropriate position. The contents are : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Job title and designation Educational qualifications for that title Physical and other related attributes Physique and mental health Special attributes and abilities Maturity and dependability Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.

Purpose of Job Specification

Described on the basis of job description, job specification helps candidates analyze whether are eligible to apply for a particular job vacancy or not. It helps recruiting team of an organization understand what level of qualifications, qualities and set of characteristics should be present in a candidate to make him or her eligible for the job opening. Job Specification gives detailed information about any job including job responsibilities, desired technical and physical skills, conversational ability and much more. It helps in selecting the most appropriate candidate for a particular job.

. Advantages of Job Specification 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. It is helpful in preliminary screening in the selection procedure. It helps in giving due justification to each job. It also helps in designing training and development programmes. It helps the supervisors for counseling and monitoring performance of employees. It helps in job evaluation. It helps the management to take decisions regarding promotion, transfers and giving extra benefits to the employees.

EXAMPLE Job description tells about the responsibilities to be done by the new employment but Job specification tells the requirement to fulfill the target or easy to achieve. For example, one of the universities in Bangkok needs a management lecturer to give a lecture to management's student and do whatever the boss asks. The new lecturer must be qualified to be a management lecturer and have at least 10 years past experience of teaching management at university level in English. Job description is all about execution of duties while job specification is all about the education and qualification of the employee before his recruitment. Suppose an organization wants to recruit a data entry operator. Then the organization will give an advertisement that a position of male Data entry operator is lying vacant with World Vision Organization, a candidate is required who is MA in computer science and have at least 5 years experience in the data entry system and efficient in MS excel and MS office. He should be between 30 - 35 years. He should have good command in written and verbal English. He should be able to keep good liaison with his supervisors and collateral partners. He should be able to work for 10

hours a day and for 7 days a week. In this example MA and experience in MS Excel and MS office is Job Specification while the other qualities and demands like 7 days a week, and keeping liaizon with colleagues; required for running the job is his job description.

QUESTION 3 a) Why and when is training necessary in an organization?

Training is essential to the achievements of a business. Perhaps its most positive benefit is better employees. A company develop the potential of an employee, and part of the way a company encourages improvement is through training. Often, good training is just as important as a good benefits package for an employee. For employers, training allows them to locate a wider range of people with the kind of outlook that matches the company mission statement. The right kind of perspective is a hard thing to cultivate, whereas workplace specific proficiencies are easier to nature. The other advantage employers should remember about training is it offers them an improved retention rate. Employees are more loyal to companies that value their growth and want to cultivate it, and thusly provide a better performance and decrease the rollover rate at any company, no matter how small or large. If an employee thinks a company values him or her, that sentiment will go into whatever the employee is designing, selling, manufacturing, etc. Improving employee skills is not only about improving skills related to their specific field, but also improving skills related to the interpersonal and communication. These abilities are constantly developing and perhaps more important than field related abilities. A person can be average in their field skills, but an excellent communicator with fantastic people skills is an asset to a company. These kinds of employees tend to fit better with a company. Other skills that should be emphasized besides those related to industry and interpersonal include how management time effectively, how to deal with disputes, and how to build a strong team. If organizations are to survive and prosper in the modern world of rapid change, they need to be more flexible, faster-moving and faster-learning than before. Their ability to do this rests upon the abilities of their workforce to have these characteristics hence the value of training. If individuals are able to learn, develop and change, then so can the organizations. It is important for any organization, large or small, to plan the training that its people may need. While there can be enormous benefits in developing the capabilities of the workforce, training doesnt come cheaply. Training needs to be for the right people, it needs to be the right type of training and it needs to be at the right time. Training is necessary because: 1. Rapid technological innovations impacting the workplace have made it necessary for people to consistently update their knowledge and skills 2. People have to work in multidimensional areas , which usually demand far more from their area of specialisation. 3. Change in the style of management. 4. Due to non-practical college education.

5. Lack of proper and scientific selection procedure. 6. For career advancement. 7. For higher motivation and productivity. 8. To make the job challenging and interesting 9. For self and development 10. For employee motivation and retention 11. To improve organisational climate 12. Prevention of obsolescence 13. To help an organisation to fulfil its future manpower needs. 14. To keep in pace with times 15. To bridge gap between skills requirement and skills availability 16. For survival and growth of organisation and nation

b) What do u understand by i) training ii) education iii) development? Provide examples in your answers.

Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Education is theoretical learning in classroom.

Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. An employee, for example, who undergoes training is presumed to have had some formal education. Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education. In fact, the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgements and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. For instance, employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent decision regarding their work and their relationship with clients. Hence, organization must consider elements of both education and training while planning their training programmes. Development refers to those leaning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management developmental programmes, are generally voluntary. To bring the distinction among training, education and development into sharp focus, it may be stated that training is offered to operatives whereas developmental programmes are meant for employees in higher position. Education however is common to all the employees, there grades notwithstanding.

Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into distant future. In addition to these, there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision-making and problem-solving abilities a) Training Training, at was stated earlier, is imparting skills to employees. A worker needs skills to operate machines, and use other equipments with least damage or scrap. This is a basic skill without which the operator will not be able to function. There is also the need for motor skills. Motor skills refer to performance of specific physical activities. These skills involve training to move various parts of ones body to response to certain external and internal stimuli. Common motor skills include walking, riding a bicycle, tying a shoelace, throwing a ball and driving a car. Motor skills are needed for all employees- from the clerk to the general manager. Employees, particularly supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills popular known as the people skills. Interpersonal skills are needed to understand one self and others better, and act accordingly. Examples of interpersonal skills include listening, persuading, and showing and understanding of others feeling. b) Development Another component of training and development is development which is less skill oriented but stressed on knowledge. Knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of the company. c) Education The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgement. That any training and development programme must contain an element of education is well understood by HR specialist. Any such programme has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topic proposed to be discussed. In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis. Chief Executive Officer (CEOs) are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Education is important for managers and executive s than for lower-cadre workers.


QUESTION 4 a) What is the main purpose of carrying out a performance appraisal? You are to include the advantages and pitfalls in your answer. Performance appraisals are probably the most misused and abused management tool in history. When asked, the majority of human resource managers will swear blind that it is their most important device for reviewing members of the team. The reality is that, on the whole, managers, supervisors, and employees hate the thoughts of them and they rarely get done. Human resource professionals spend a lot of time whipping people into doing them, while managers look for a variety of reasons to delay the process. The reason for this is that it's often an uncomfortable practice to carry out, people undertake performance appraisal for the wrong reasons and from the wrong perspective. This can end up putting the manager and the employee on different "sides". Appraisals are used for determining pay increases, who gets let go, who gets promoted. Most commonly, they are used to focus on what people have done wrong. So what is the real point of performance appraisals? Generally, the aim of the practice is to:

Give feedback on performance to employees. Identify employee training needs. Document criteria used to allocate organizational rewards. Form a basis for personnel decisions: salary increases, promotions, disciplinary actions, etc. Provide the opportunity for organizational diagnosis and development. Facilitate communication between employee and administrator. Validate selection techniques and human resource policies to meet federal Equal Employment Opportunity requirements

The most important purpose or goal of the appraisal is to improve performance in the future, in both employees and team leaders. Managers can get valuable information from staff to help them make their jobs more productive. Through feedback given in performance appraisals work units can identify problems that interfere with everyone's, and take steps to rectify them. If there is a shift from affixing blame to identifying barriers to performance the fear and dread associated with appraisals will be removed.

The main purpose of appraisals are:

To ensure all employees meet with their line managers to review past performance and discuss future performance and development / training needs To improve the services we provide

To help the management in exercising organizational control. To diagnose the training and development needs of the future. To judge the gap between the actual and the desired performance. Provide information to assist in the HR decisions like promotions, transfers etc. Provide clarity of the expectations and responsibilities of the functions to be performed by the employees. To judge the effectiveness of the other human resource functions of the organization such as recruitment, selection, training and development. To reduce the grievances of the employees. To review the performance of the employees over a given period of time. Helps to strengthen the relationship and communication between superior subordinates and management employees.

What are the benefits of an appraisal?

Enable individuals to understand the Councils objectives & see where their jobs fit in Set new objectives Measure performance against expected standards (including competency standards) Discuss any issues which impact on the employees ability to do their job Identify high performers (link to Succession Planning) Identify development needs Encourage continuous improvement Manage under- performance Increase job satisfaction Identify strengths and weaknesses within the organisation

Advantages of doing performance appraisals:

They provide a record of performance over a period of time. They provide an opportunity for a manager to meet and discuss performance with an employee. Provide the employee with feedback about their performance and how they completed their goals. Provide an opportunity for an employee to discuss issues and to clarify expectations with their manager. Offer an opportunity to think about the upcoming year and develop employee goals. Can be motivational with the support of a good reward and compensation system.

Disadvantages of performance appraisal

If not done appropriately, can be a negative experience. Are very time consuming, especially for a manager with many employees. Are based on human assessment and are subject to rater errors and biases. If not done right can be a complete waste of time.

Can be stressful for all involved.

b) How would you design a performance appraisal for i) management staff e.g. supervisor levels, ii) production workers. Your performance management system should be: - job-related - practical - have measurable standards Perhaps the most important design consideration is to develop a process that is practical and easy to understand and use. The focus should be on the results of the performance management process - effective and motivated staff - not the steps of the process. When developing a new performance management process, use a committee made up of employees and managers. A collaborative approach will increase employee buy-in, understanding and support of the process. Once the process has been developed, communicate with all staff about the purpose and the steps in the performance management process. You should be prepared to make adjustments to your new system as necessary. Different Types of Performance Management Systems There are a variety of ways to measure performance including: Self Appraisal: the employee is asked to evaluate his/her own work Peer Appraisal: staff of equal rank within the organization are asked to evaluate the employee Team Appraisal: similar to peer appraisals; employees who work as part of a team are asked to evaluate the team's work Assessment Centre: the employee is assessed by professional assessors using several types of evaluation such as work simulations and actual activities 360-Degree or Full Circle Appraisal: the employee's work is reviewed by gathering

input from representatives of all the groups the employee interacts with such as supervisor, peers, subordinates and clients. Management-by-Objectives: the employee's achievement of work objectives that are set in collaboration with his/her supervisor are assessed. Combination of Methods: Some organizations combine different methods into their performance management process. In particular some organizations include an evaluation of competencies - the knowledge, skills and abilities that distinguish superior performance. Establishing competencies for performance management in an organization requires careful thought. Without careful preparation, evaluating competencies can be very subjective. In the voluntary sector, 360-degree appraisals are sometimes used for evaluating the Executive Director. Management-by-objectives is an effective approach to performance management for all other employees. Because it's the most practical system for most non-profit organizations, we will be focusing in this section of the website on Management-by-Objectives. Management-by-Objectives Performance management using a management-by-objectives (results-based) approach has three phases: Phase 1 - Planning i) a work plan for the next year is developed; ii) measures for assessing progress are established. Phase 2 - Monitoring i) progress toward the goals identified in the work plan is monitored; ii) the plan is adjusted if required; iii) corrective action is taken if necessary. Phase 3 - Reviewing i) at the end of the performance management cycle the manager and employee meet to document the work of the past year; ii) accomplishments and shortfalls relative to the work plan are summarized using a performance management form;

QUESTION 5 a) Identify the five major legislations governing and regulating employment laws and state their purpose. This is the five major legislations governing and regulating employment laws and their purpose: 1) Employment Act 1955 The Employment Act 1955 is the main legislation which applies to employees residing in Peninsular Malaysia and Federal Territory of Labuan earning salary not exceeding RM1500 per month. Those whose salary range between RM1500 aand RM5000 can seek consultation on their terms and conditions of employment with the Labour Court, in case of seeking justice, or submitting inquiries. 2) The Labour Ordinance, Sabah and Sarawak The Labour Ordinance is considered the Employment Act Of Sabah and Sarawak. A lot similarities, with some differences. 3) Industrial Relations Act 1967 The enactment of the Industrial Relations Act 1967 is in recognition of the importance of good labour relationship between the workers and the employers. The principles of trade unionism and collective bargaining are embodied in the provision of the act. The act also established a framework to settle trade disputes between employee union and the company. 4) Employee Provident Fund Act 1991 The act makes it compulsory for employers who do not offer pension scheme to make compulsory contribution to their workers Employee Provident Fund (EPF) account. The common applicable rate of contribution is as follows: Employers min 12% of the employees monthly salary Employee min 11% of the employees monthly salary 5) Employees Social Security Act 1969 This is where SOCSO contribution comes into place. The act streamlines two social security scheme for workers, which are the Employment Injury Insurance Scheme and the Invalidity Pension Scheme. The two schemes provide medical coverage and financial protection in terms of disablement or death rising from workplace injury.

b) Identify the steps in grievance handling and give a sample situation to explain the application.

Identify the grievance and acknowledge the same. Listen carefully to the complainant. Define the grievance clearly. Gather the complete information with facts and figures. Analyze and search for multiple solutions to the grievance and finally select the best feasible and possible solution and implement the same. Ensure that there is follow-up at each stage for successful grievance procedure. Prescriptions During Grievance Procedure: If you are not the appropriate person, refer to the right person. Spend adequate time with the complainant. Be cool and composed during the process. Check for facts and figure rather than hearsay. Practice attentive listening skills. Find out what bugs the complainant. Dont have any preconceived notions about the involved parties. Dont threaten people. Always try to settle the grievance at the lower level amicably rather than dragging to the higher levels where it might become more complicated. Conduct the grievance hearing privately. Make necessary changes, if there are any irregularities in policies and procedures. Keep the entire grievance process confidential. Always make the process win-win. Ensure you're familiar with the procedure and apply it correctly Hold any grievance hearing in private without interruptions Where a grievance relates to the person's line manager, ensure that the employee can raise the grievance with someone else Listen carefully to the person's explanation of the problem and consider whether there is a deeper issue which might be the root cause of the grievance Listen to any conflicting points of view Weigh up all evidence to see whether there is an issue you need to address Decide what action to take, trying to balance fairness to the person without compromising the business or other workers Inform all concerned parties of your decision and the appeal process Ensure you resolve any problems relating to policies, procedures or conduct where the grievance procedure highlights these Keep the process as confidential as possible