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This paper presents previously unavailable constants for the Sellars and Tegart constitutive model for hot metalworking. The materials considered are aluminium alloys 2024, 5083, 6061, 7050, 7075 and 356, carbon steel 1018, stainless steel 304, titanium alloy 6Al4V, and magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61. These materials and their mechanical properties at high temperature are of great interest for latest generation manufacturing processes involving deformation to accomplish solid state joining, such as friction stir welding, cold spray and magnetic impulse welding. The results are also useful to model established processes, such as hot rolling, forging and creep. The methodology used to obtain the constants consists on non-linear regressions based on partial data sets as it was conducted previously. The input data were obtained from published values for hot compression experiments. All regressions presented here have a coefficient of determination R2.0?95. When possible, the results obtained were compared to previous published regressions.

Keywords: Friction stir welding, ZenerHollomon, Aluminium alloys, Ferrous alloys, Titanium alloys, Magnesium alloys

Introduction

Reliable material properties at high temperatures, strains and strain rates are required to model the plastic behaviour in the latest generation manufacturing processes, such friction stir welding (FSW), cold spray and magnetic impulse welding, as well as established processes, such as hot rolling, forging and creep. Because of the numerous challenges involved in measuring mechanical properties at high temperature, there is a dearth of experimental measurements at high temperatures, high strain rates and high strains expected in the processes mentioned above. For FSW in particular, reproducing experimentally the conditions expected in the shear layer is extremely difcult,1 and there is a wide agreement in the community that the shortage of suitable mechanical properties data is one of the greatest challenges to be overcome in the creation of reliable FSW simulations. Atomistic simulations offer some potential to infer mechanical properties of pure metals; however, simulating alloys with grain sizes larger than 1 mm is presently not feasible.2 In the absence of direct measurements at high temperatures, strain rates and strains, the next best option is the (cautious) use of reasonable extrapolations based on trusted constitutive models. The constitutive model for hot deformation proposed by Sellars and Tegart3,4 is one of the most widely used model used for summarising and extrapolating experimental data; it has

1 2

(1)

Colorado School of Mines,1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401, USA University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4, Canada

where A (s21), n, sR (MPa) and Q (kJ mol21) are constants determined from tting the curve to experimentally obtained mechanical testing data. This equation is similar to the constitutive equation developed by Garofalo5 for creep, and it is feasible to correlate data over a wide range of stresses and strain rates at different temperatures, even in ranges for which a simpler power law expression (in which the sinh is replaced by a linear function) breaks down.4 Because of its good tting abilities over wide ranges, the expression of equation (1) is especially appealing to extrapolate the experimental data into the untested conditions expected during FSW, cold spray, or magnetic impulse welding. The purpose of this paper is to provide previously unavailable values of constants for this model. The focus of this work is on the synthesis of experimental mechanical behaviour data in the form of equation (1). A complete interpretation of the metallurgical mechanisms at play is beyond the scope of this paper. In the tting of the model constants, it is assumed that the material ow stress is determined by either the dynamic recovery or recystallisation processes occurring at high temperature, with an activation energy Q related to the rate controlling dynamic softening process.6 Experimental outliers at extreme temperatures or strain rates indicate a possible change in deformation mechanism, and are not considered in the tting of the constants. These data are still indicated in the corresponding graphs for reference.

2010 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining Published by Maney on behalf of the Institute Received 7 January 2010; accepted 21 January 2010 DOI 10.1179/136217110X12665778348380

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1 Typical se family of curves from hot compression tests corresponding to different strain rates (as cast Al2024 at 773 K)20

Equation (1) has been used by several authors in the FSW community to determine the viscosity of the material being welded for solving the equation of conservation of momentum.713 A competing constitutive model by Johnson and Cook,14 was developed for the study of explosive deformation. Experimental data for this model is typically determined using split Hopkinson bar testing, which can seldom reach strain rates below 100 s21 or strains above 0?2. The Johnson Cook model provides an accurate t of experimental data and has been used in FSW by Schmidt and Hattel;15 however, its functional form does not have a ready physical interpretation like the Sellars and Tegart expression. Equation (1) is the most widely used constitutive model in the FSW community for extrapolating the plastic deformation at high temperatures, stresses and strain rates. Recent examples of the use of equation (1) for extrapolations include numerical computational uid dynamics modelling in which the calculated strain rates of up to 760 s21 in 7449 aluminum alloy,16 180 s21 in Al 6061,7 and 130 s21 in stainless steel.17 In the case of the 6061 simulation, it was argued that the simulated ow stresses are likely reasonable, since experimental data for 6061 does not show there is a major deviation from values predicted by

the constitutive equations until strain rates are above 1000 s21. Because equation (1) requires a non-linear tting, the proper calculation of the constant values requires computational power and methodologies not available in some of the earliest publications. Garofalo5 developed a graphical method to obtain the values of a (51/sR), A, n and Q using subsets of the data. Later, Sheppard and Wright18 developed the original non-linear tting methodology using a truncated expansion of the sinh function. They used the methodology suggested by Garofalo5 to calculate the value of a, and then, it was incorporated into the simplied equation to solve for the remaining constants. This is the methodology used subsequently by Sheppard and Jackson.19 This approach does not make full use of the dataset, and introduces errors in the truncated expansion of the sinh. Prasad et al.20,21 solved for the constants of A, n and Q using the power law form of equation (1) which is valid only at low stress, where the sinh can be replaced by a linear function. Haghshenas et al.22 performed hot compression test on thixocast A356 aluminium alloy and they manually tted equation (1) to their data. In the present work, the constants A, n, sR and Q were simultaneously tted from currently published mechanical testing data using a least squares regression based on the fminsearch routine in Matlab. The following objective function was used to obtain the constants w~

n X 2 log(smodel ){log(sexp ) i

(2)

where w is the function to minimise, smodel was obtained from equation (1), and sexp corresponds to the experimental ow stress obtained from mechanical testing. The new data synthesised in this work corresponds to aluminium alloys 2024, 5083, 6061, 7075, carbon steel 1018 (in the austenitic region), and stainless steel 304,20 aluminium alloy 7050,23 titanium alloy 6Al4V commercial grade in the b region,24 casting aluminium alloy A356,22 and magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61.25 The prior history of materials considered is described in Tables 1 and 2. The new data used for the ttings are compared, when possible, to regressions for the same material available in the literature.

Data selection

A typical true stresstrue strain curve obtained from hot compression test is presented in Fig. 1, which is also

Table 1 Strain, strain rates and temperature ranges considered in regression analysis* Material Al 2024 Al 5083 Al 6061 Al 7050 Al 7075 AISI 1018 AISI 304 Ti6Al4V Al 356 AZ31 AZ61 Prior history AC HE at 773 K AC SST at 750 KzWQ DCC HE at 1443 K HRzCSzA at 1323 K for 30 min MA TX W (temper F, extrusion) W (temper F, extrusion) e 0?5 0?5 0?5 0?3 0?5 1?0 0?5 0?5 _ emin , s

21

_ emax , s

21

Tmin, K 623 623 623 653 573 1173 1173 1,273 723 366 422

Tmax, K 773 773 823 733 723 1473 1523 1373 813 755 755

Reference 20 20 20 23 20 20 20 24 22 25 25

0?001 0?001 0?001 0?0001 0?001 0?0078 0?001 0?0003 0?001 0?00083 0?00083

*AC, as cast; HE, hot extruded; DCC, direct chill cast; SST, solid solution treated; WQ, water quenched; HR, hot rolled; CS, cold swage; A, annealed; MA, mill annealed; TX, semisolid thixocast; W, wrought; , information not available.

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consistent with observations by Sellars and Tegart4 and hot torsion tests.18,26 In this gure, the curves correspond to as cast aluminum 2024 at 773 K. In these curves the stress increases to a maximum value and then decreases to a steady state, relatively constant ow stress; at this point isothermal conditions of deformation are attained, in which the heat generated by deformation does not signicantly increase the temperature of the sample. In this steady state, the high temperatures, strain, and strain rates establish a new microstructure that is relatively unrelated to the prior history of the material, except for the presence or absence of difcult to dissolve precipitates. The damped oscillations _ observed at e~10 for strains up to e<0?2 are consistent with the behavior of dynamic recrystallisation in the sample. At very high strain rates, the deformation conditions can become adiabatic, resulting in sample temperature increase during testing, and affecting the resulting stress measurements. In Fig. 1, an isothermal _ condition is observed up to e10 s{1 , but at the highest strain rate [_ ~100 S{1 the decreasing ow stress e stress suggests adiabatic conditions in which signicant thermal softening likely occurred. Data suggesting nonisothermal conditions were not considered in the curve tting of this work. Table 1 presents the range of data in which the regressions were performed. Friction stir welding is a high strainstress process in which the material deforms in the steady state region of the curves of Fig. 1; in this region, because of the nearly constant value of stress, the exact amount of strain considered is of secondary importance. When possible, a strain value of e50?5 was chosen for the stress values used in this work, with the exception of AISI1018 and Al7050, for which e51 and e50?3 were used respectively. It is well understood that these critical strain values vary with alloy and initial microstructure, and are related to the amount of deformation required to establish a quasisteady grain size by recrystallisation.27 Potential changes in the deformation mechanism were observed in aluminium alloys 2024, 7075, 6061, and magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 at the lowest reported temperatures, while aluminium alloy 7075 also showed anomalies at the highest reported temperatures. These cases were not considered in the curve tting, but the data points are included in the graphs for reference. Table 1 summarises the strain rate and temperature ranges considered in the regression procedure; this table also details the prior history of the material. Detailed composition and microstructural information (both

(Ref. 20)

and

its

tting:

prior and during deformation) of the alloys considered is contained in the original references.

The results of the regression analysis are summarised in Table 2. Figures 212 show the experimental data points considered for the regressions in this work, and the continuous lines represent the results from the regression analysis. In all cases, the regressions had a coefcient of determination R2512SSerr/SStot larger than 0?95, with SSerr being the sum of squared errors (SSerr5w) and SStot being the total sum of squares given by SStot ~

n X i

log(sexp ){log(sexp )

(3)

where, sexp is the average value of the experimental data. When available, parameters from the literature were used to compare the regressions obtained in this work. Table 3 presents values of constants for equation (1) reported in the literature. The dashed lines in Figs. 26 correspond to the constants reported by Sheppard and Jackson19 for aluminium alloys, and the dashed lines in Figs. 7 and 8 correspond to the constants reported by McQueen and Ryan26 for ferrous alloys. The constants for all the dashed lines were obtained from peak ow stress values instead of steady state ow stress. According to McQueen and

Table 2 Parameters for equation (1) resulting from regression analysis on recent hot deformation data* Material Al 2024 Al 5083 Al 6061 Al 7075 Al 7050 AISI 1018 AISI 304 Ti6Al4V Al 356 AZ31 AZ61 Prior history AC HE at 773 K AC SST at 750 KzWQ DCC HE at 1443 K HRzCSzA at 1323 K for 30 min MA TX W (temper F, extrusion) W (temper F, extrusion) A, s21 2?2961011 1?6461010 1?6361013 5?346108 3?286105 2?3661013 1?6261016 3?926106 1?496107 7?786108 7?806109 n 5?46 2?44 5?33 3?47 2?59 4?32 4?69 3?60 2?85 4?36 3?90 Q, kJ mol21 178 173 191 160 123 371 441 176 136 129 143 sR, MPa 47?7 34?8 60?7 33?9 20?1 56?6 119 46?9 17?8 53?3 54?5 R2 0?987 0?988 0?996 0?972 0?956 0?992 0?995 0?996 0?959 0?995 0?998

*AC, as cast; HE, hot extruded; DCC, direct chill cast; SST, solid solution treated; WQ, water quenched; HR, hot rolled; CS, cold swage; A, annealed; MA, mill annealed; TX, semisolid thixocast; W, wrought; , information not available.

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(Ref. 20)

and

its

tting:

(Ref. 20)

and

its

tting:

Ryan,26 the austenitic ferrous alloys exhibit classical dynamic recrystallisation in which a pronounced peak in the ow stress occurs before steady state is established, and it is more conventional to use the stress at the peak value in this situation. Seshacharyulu et al.24 used the power law form of equation (1) for Ti6Al4V commercial grade; and the activation energy they obtained (210 kJ mol21) is higher than what was obtained in this work (176 kJ mol21). In the case of the aluminium alloy 7075 a potential change in deformation is observed at high temperatures which might be related to incipient melting of S phase which may be present in the as cast microstructure even after homogenisation,28 and have a melting point higher than the matrix.29 Kowzloski et al.30 obtained constants for equation (1) from stressstrain curves of carbon steel considering hardening effects at high temperatures and low strain rates. In those conditions, their constants were dependent on the temperature and carbon content of the alloy tested, except the activation energy which behaved like a true constant. The activation energy value reported in Ref. 30 (373 kJ mol21) was similar to that obtained here for AISI 1018 (371 kJ mol21).

The two magnesium alloys considered (AZ31 and AZ61) are unique in that they show a marked curvature, meaning that for the experimental conditions, these alloys experienced both the low stress and high stress regimes. This behaviour might be related to unusual recrystallisation behaviour which has been observed during hot deformation testing of AZ31.31 In this case recrystallised grains formed in necklace-like patterns at the boundaries of the original grains, and a rather high strains were required for an equilibrium grain size and to be established. However, one should note that the Q value for AZ31 obtained here (129 kJ mol21) is almost identical to that observed by regression in the previous work (130 kJ mol21).31 As the aluminum content is increased in Mg alloys to 6 wt-% in the case of AZ61, there is an increasing likelihood that Mg17Al12 intermetallics will be retained in the base material microstructure.32 The dissolution of this phase during high temperature deformation, and possible incipient melting of aMgzMg17Al12 eutectics at temperatures above 710 K may have a signicant inuence in the ow stress and recrystallisation mechanisms. This may account for the highly non-linear outputs shown for the Mg based alloys in Figs. 11 and 12.

Table 3 Parameters for equation (1) published in existing literature* Material Al 2024 Al 5083 Al 6061 Al 7050 Al 7075 Ni Ni20%Fe Fe23%Cr17%Ni Fe26%Cr10%Ni AISI 1018 AISI 304 1S (1xxx){ M57S (5xxx){ Ti6Al4V A356 Prior history DCCzH DCCzH DCCzH DCCzH DCCzH EzWS at 773 Kz30 min at 1287 K Cz4 h at 1453 K W C EzH EzH MA TX A, s21 3?256108 1?0961010 2?416108 8?396109 1?036109 3?1661013 4?5761014 3?8261011 4?2561010 n 4?27 4?99 3?55 2?86 5?41 5?70 5?70 5?30 5?40 4?60 4?50 3?84 5?24 3?60 2?90 Q, kJ mol21 149 171 145 152 129 234 393 402 418 350 407 157 155 210 154 sR, MPa 62?5 66?7 22?2 372 70?9 69?9 83?3 27?0 62?5 12?5 Reference 19 19 19 19 19 4 4 4 4 26 26 18 18 24 22

*DCC, direct chill cast; H, homogeneisation; E, extrusion; MA, mill annealed; TX, semisolid thixocast; C, cast; WS, warm swage; , information not available. {similar to Al 1050. {similar to Al 5050.

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(Ref. 23)

and

its

tting:

8 Data for stainless steel 304 (Ref. 20) and its tting: dashed lines from Ref. 26

(Ref. 20)

and

its

tting:

10 Data for aluminium 356 (Ref. 22) and its tting 7 Data for steel 1018 (Ref. 20) and its tting: dashed lines from Ref. 26

The total amount of strain and strain rate for FSW and other important manufacturing processes might exceed the ranges considered for the experimental data and summarised in Table 1, for example the strain rates observed during FSW of aluminum alloys have been

estimated from thermomechanical simulation experiments to be in the range of 1?617?3 s21,33,34 and work based on analytical modelling of a torsional deformation zone around the pin has suggested strain rates from 1 to 100 s21 are likely.35 In these cases, the extrapolation of the material behavior using the constants presented in Table 2 must be conducted with great caution.

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and a CONICYT Graduate Fellowship Abroad from the Government of Chile (KET). PFM and KET gratefully acknowledge the writing help of Collin Donohoue and conversations with Professor Chester van Tyne at Colorado School of Mines.

References

1. K. A. A. Hassan, B. P. Wynne and P. B. Prangnell: Proc. 4th Int. Symp. on Friction stir welding, Park City, UT, USA, May 2003, TWI, Paper S02P3. 2. A. P. Gerlich, L. Yue, P. F. Mendez and H. Zhang: Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline aluminum at high temperatures and strain rate, Acta Mater., 2009, 58, 21762185. 3. C. Sellars and W. M. Tegart: On the mechanism of hot deformation, Acta Metall., 1966, 14, (9), 11361138. 4. C. Sellars and W. M. Tegart: Hot workability, Int. Metall. Rev., 1972, 17, 123. 5. F. Garofalo: An empirical relation defining the stress dependence of minimum creep rate in metals, Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME, 1963, 227, 351356. 6. J. Jonas, C. Sellars and W. J. M. Tegart: Strength and structure under hot-working conditions, Metall. Rev., 1969, 14, (130), 124. 7. R. Nandan, G. G. Roy and T. Debroy: Numerical simulation of three-dimensional heat transfer and plastic flow during friction stir welding, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2006, 37A, (4), 12471259. 8. R. Nandan, G. Roy, T. Lienert and T. Debroy: Three-dimensional heat and material flow during friction stir welding of mild steel, Acta Mater., 2007, 55, 883895. 9. A. P. Reynolds, Z. Khandkar, T. Long, W. Tang and J. Khan: Utility of relatively simple models for understanding process parameter effects on FSW, Mater. Sci. Forum, 2003, 426432, 29592964. 10. T. U. Seidel and A. P. Reynolds: Two-dimensional friction stir welding process model based on fluid mechanics, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2003, 8, (3), 175183. 11. P. Ulysse: Three-dimensional modeling of the friction stir-welding process, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 2002, 42, (14), 15491557. 12. P. A. Colegrove and H. R. Shercliff: 3-dimensional CFD modelling of flow round a threaded friction stir welding tool profile, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2005, 169, 320327. 13. R. Crawford, G. E. Cook, A. M. Strauss, D. A. Hartman and M. A. Stremler: Experimental defect analysis and force prediction simulation of high weld pitch friction stir welding, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2006, 11, (6), 657665. 14. G. Johnson and W. Cook: Fracture characteristic of three metals subjected to various strains, strain rates, temperatures and pressures, Eng. Fract. Mech., 1985, 21, (1), 3148. 15. H. Schmidt and J. Hattel: A local model for the thermomechanical conditions in friction stir welding, Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2005, 13, (1), 7793. 16. P. Colegrove: CFD modelling of friction stir welding of thick plate 7449 aluminium alloy, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2006, 11, 429 441. 17. R. Nandan, G. G. Roy, T. J. Lienert and T. DebRoy: Numerical modelling of 3D plastic flow and heat transfer during friction stir welding of stainless steel, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2006, 11, (5), 526537, 13621718. 18. T. Sheppard and D. S. Wright: Determination of flow stress: Part 1 constitutive equation for aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures, Met. Technol., 1979, 6, 215223. 19. T. Sheppard and A. Jackson: Constitutive equations for use in prediction of flow stress during extrusion of aluminum alloys, Mater. Sci. Technol., 1997, 13, 203209. 20. Y. Prasad and S. Sasidhara: Hot working guide: a compendium of processing maps; 1997, Materials Park, OH, ASM International. 21. Y. Prasad, T. Seshacharyulu, S. Madeiros, W. Frazier and J. M. III: Hot deformation mechanisms in Ti6Al4V with transformed b starting microstructure commercial v. extra low interstitial grade, Mater. Sci. Technol., 2000, 16, 10291036. 22. M. Haghshenas, A. Zarei-Hanzaki, S. Fatemi-Varzaneh and H. Abedi: Hot deformation behaviour of Thixocast A356 aluminium alloy during compression at elevated temperature, Int. J. Mater. Form., 2008, 1, 10011005. 23. H. Hu, L. Zhen, L. Yang, W. Shao and B. Zhang, Deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of 7050 aluminum alloy during high temperature deformation, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2008, A488, (12), 6471.

Conclusions

Previously unavailable constants for the Sellars and Tegart constitutive model [equation (1)] are presented for aluminum alloys 2024, 5083, 6061, 7050, 7075 and 356, carbon steel 1018, stainless steel 304, titanium alloy 6Al4V, and magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 (Table 2). The regressions were performed for a constant parent phase, with large variations in temperature and stress, and strain rates spanning many orders of magnitude (Table 1). In all cases the coefcient of determination R2 was greater than 95%. Published information for aluminum alloys and steels was compared to the new experimental data considered, showing comparable trends. The ultimate goal of this paper is to provide the hot metalworking community with constitutive models of materials of current interest. These models can be readily integrated into models with an understanding of the origin and limitations of the constants used.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation CAREER award DMI-0547649 Innovation in materials processing using scaling principles by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), Discovery grant no. 372104-09 (PFM),

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24. T. Seshacharyulu, S. C. Medeiros, W. G. Frazier and Y. V. R. K. Prasad: Hot working of commercial Ti6Al4V with an equiaxed [alpha]-[beta] microstructure: materials modeling considerations, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2000, A284, (12), 184194. 25. M. Avedesian and H. Baker (eds.): ASM specialty handbook: magnesium and magnesium alloys; 1993, Materials Park, OH, ASM International. 26. H. McQueen and N. Ryan: Constitutive analysis in hot working: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2002, A322, (12), 4363. 27. R. D. Doherty, D. A. Hughes, F. J. Humphreys, J. J. Jonas, D. J. Jensen, M. E. Kassner, W. E. King, T. R. McNelley, H. J. McQueen and A. D. Rollett: Current issues in recrystallization: a review, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 1997, A238, (2), 219274. 28. C. Mondal and A. Mukhopadhyay: On the nature of T(Al2Mg3Zn3) and S(Al2CuMg) phases present in as-cast and annealed 7055 aluminum alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2005, A391, (12), 367376. 29. X. Li and M. Starink: Effect of compositional variations on characteristics of coarse intermetallic particles in overaged 7000 aluminium alloys, Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17, 13241328.

30. P. Kozlowski, B. Thomas, J. Azzi and W. Hao: Simple constitutive-equations for steel at high-temperature, Metall. Trans. A, 1992, 23A, (3), 903918. 31. E. Essadiqi, W. J. Liu, V. Kao, S. L. Yue and R. Verma: Recrystallization in AZ31 magnesium alloy during hot deformation, Mater. Sci. Forum, 2005, 475479, 559562. 32. S. Kamado and Y. Kojima: Development of magnesium alloys with high performance, Mater. Sci. Forum, 2007, 546549, 5564, part 1. 33. O. Frigaard, O. Grong and O. T. Midling: A process model for friction stir welding of age hardening aluminum alloys, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2001, 32A, (5), 11891200. 34. K. Masaki, Y. S. Sato, M. Maeda and H. Kokawa: Experimental simulation of recrystallized microstructure in friction stir welded Al alloy using a plane-strain compression test, Scr. Mater., 2008, 58, (5), 355360. 35. C. Chang, C. Lee and J. Huang: Relationship between grain size and ZenerHolloman parameter during friction stir processing in AZ31 Mg alloys, Scr. Mater., 2004, 51, (6), 509514.

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