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Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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Section B Shell & Tube Exchangers

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

Page B-1

Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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Selecting Exchanger Geometry


Poor geometry selection: MAJOR reason for poor heat exchanger performance Selection depends on good engineering judgment - NOT computer calculations Rules of thumb help eliminate worst selections Every rule has exceptions

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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Shell & Tube Exchangers


Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) designations

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David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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TEMA Classifications
TEMA R (BP Standard for ALL Streams)
Severe requirements (refining)

TEMA C
Moderate requirements (commercial)

TEMA B
Chemical processing

Differences minor, see article by Rubin


Hydrocarbon Processing, 59, 92, June 1980.
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TEMA Designations
Example

BEM
Front head Shell type Rear head

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David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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TEMA Types

Ready Reference 1

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Heat Exchanger Geometry


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Stationary Head --- Channel Stationary Head --- Bonnet Stationary Head Flange --- Channel or Bonnet Channel Cover Stationary Head Nozzle Stationary Tubesheet Tubes Shell Shell Cover Shell Flange --- Stationary Head End Shell Flange --- Rear Head End Shell Nozzle Shell Cover Flange Expansion Joint Floating Tubesheet Floating Head Cover Floating Head Flange Floating Head Backing Device Split Shear Ring 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. Slip-on Backing Flange Floating Head Cover --- Exter Floating Tubesheet Skirt Packing Box Flange Packing Packing Gland Lantern Ring Tie Rods and Spacers Transverse Baffles or Support Plates Impingement Plate Longitudnal Baffle Pass Partition Vent Connection Drain Connection Instrument Connection Support Saddle Lifting Lug Ready Support Bracket Reference Weir Liquid Level Connection

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

Page B-4

Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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Heat Exchanger Geometry

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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Heat Exchanger Geometry

Tie Rod Spacer


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Tie Rod Nut Baffles Spacer

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Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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Heat Exchanger Geometry

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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Heat Exchanger Geometry

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

Page B-6

Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

Heat Exchanger Geometry

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David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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TEMA Front Head Types

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

Page B-7

Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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Front A and B Heads

Channel and removable cover


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Bonnet (integral cover)

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Front A and B Heads


A head advantages
Channel with removable cover Easy access to tubesheet Tube side can be cleaned without breaking piping Refinery standard

B head advantages
Bonnet integral with channel Single flange means lower cost Chemical company standard
David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

Page B-8

Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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Front C, N, and D Heads

Channel integral with tubesheet and has removable cover (removable tube bundle only)
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Tubesheet integral with channel and shell and has removable cover

Special high pressure closure

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Front C, N, and D Heads


C head advantages
Removable bundle only Works well with higher pressure Suitable for hazardous fluids Easy access to tubesheet

N head advantages
Channel integral with tubesheet; removable cover Least expensive design Suitable for hazardous fluids

D head advantages
Special high pressure services
David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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TEMA Shell Types

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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E, F, and J Shells

One-pass shell

Two-pass shell with longitudinal baffle

J
Courtesy of HTRI
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Divided flow

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Page B-10

Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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E-shell

Most commonly used Single tubepass


Handles temperature crosses

Multiple tubepasses
No temperature cross allowed

Nozzles on same or opposite sides


Depends on number and type of baffle
David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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F-shell

Fitted with longitudinal baffle


Fluid and thermal leakage possible Fluid leakage controlled by seals

Replaces two E-shells in series


Handles temperature crosses

Multiple tubepasses
David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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J-shell

Called divided flow shell Replaces two shells in parallel Options


One inlet & two outlets Two inlets & one outlet
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G, H, K, and X Shells
G H

Split flow

Double-split flow

Kettle-type reboiler
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Crossflow
Courtesy of HTRI

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Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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G-shell

Also called split-flow Similar to four E-shells: 2 in series / 2 in parallel Nozzles at center of shell Fitted with longitudinal baffle
Thermal and fluid leakage similar to F-shells
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H-shell

Also called double split-flow Like cross flow design Similar to two G-shells in parallel Fitted with longitudinal baffle
Thermal and fluid leakage similar to F-shells
David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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X-shell

Also called cross flow Low pressure drop

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K-shell

Kettle reboiler Exclusively for boiling services Liquid level controlled by weir or level controllers Demister pads provided to reduce liquid entrainment in vapor outlet
David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

Page B-14

Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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Kettle Reboiler

Demister Pads

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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TEMA Rear Head Types

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

Page B-15

Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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Rear L, M, N, and U Heads

L
Fixed tubesheet like stationary A head

M
Fixed tubesheet like stationary B head

U N
Fixed tubesheet like stationary N head
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U-tube bundle

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Rear L, M, and N Heads Fixed Tube Sheet


L head same as front A head M head same as front B head N head same as front N head

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David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

Page B-16

Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

Rear L, M, and N Heads Fixed Tube Sheet


Advantages
Moderately priced Easy access to tubesheet Easy to clean tube side Easy to retube

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Disadvantages
Difficult to clean shell side Fixed tubesheet design may require expansion joint for differential thermal expansion (Tshell Ttube > 55oC [100oF])
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Rear U Heads
Advantages
U Removable bundle Easy to clean shell side Good for differential thermal expansion Least expensive: no flanges

Disadvantages
Difficult to clean tube side Cannot retube easily Suspended solids can erode U bends
David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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Rear P, S, T, and W Heads

S
Floating head with backing device (split ring)

Outside-packed floating head

T
Pull-through floating head
David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

W
Externally sealed floating tubesheet

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Rear P, S, T, and W Heads


Floating head designs most expensive Larger shells required Least efficient heat transfer Good for differential thermal expansion

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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P Head
Outside-Packed Floating Head (Stuffing-Box)

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

P Head
Only shellside fluid in contact with packing material Easy access to tubesheet Shellside and tubeside fluids cannot mix

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Outside-Packed Floating Head (Stuffing-Box) Advantages

Disadvantages
Shellside fluid cannot be volatile or toxic Shellside design temperature and pressure limited by packing Rarely used (NOT PERMITTED BY BP)
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David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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W Head
Outside-Packed Floating Head (Lantern-Ring)

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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W Head
Outside-Packed Floating Head (Lantern-Ring) Advantages
Easy access to tubesheet Least expensive floating head design

Disadvantages
Tube and shellside fluids cannot be volatile or toxic Tube and shellside design temperature and pressure limited by packing Rarely used (NOT PERMITTED BY BP)
David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

Page B-20

Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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S Head
Split-Ring Floating Head

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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S Head
Split-Ring Floating Head Advantages
Highest surface area of all floating head designs Can have multiple tubepasses Refinery standard

Disadvantages
Shell cover, split ring, and floating head cover must be removed to remove tube bundle
David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

Page B-21

Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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T Head
Pull-Through Floating Head

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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T Head
Pull-Through Floating Head Advantages
Can have multiple tubepasses Bundle can be removed without disturbing shell cover

Disadvantages
Most expensive design Least surface area of floating head designs

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

Page B-22

Basic Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

Section B

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Exercise 1
Go to page EX1-1 in the Exercise section at the end of your materials and prepare written answers to the questions.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

David L Johnson, BP p.l.c.

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