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Aerodynamics and Firepower

or how to slug the enemy from a distance


G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Quotable Quote

Cpt Liddell-Hart*

It is the fire power, and fire power alone, that arrives at the correct time and place that counts in the modern war

* Sir Basil Henry Liddell-Hart (31 Oct 189529 Jan 1970) English military historian known for his ideas on armoured warfare and strategic theory
G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Stalin Artillery is the God of War

USSR - Vladimir Triandafilov (1929), Character of the Operations of Modern Armies estimated that 50-60 guns/km of front needed for break down of enemy defenses.

WW2 (1944) Russian armies used 200-300 guns/km of front for 2 hr barrage

Ref : Walter S. Dunn Jr, Hitlers Nemesis : The Red Army, 1930-1945, Praeger, 1994

G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Firepower

The rate of energy delivered from point A to point B for destructive purposes

Question : So how much energy can be delivered by modern weapon systems ?

G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Example : FH2000 Field Howitzer

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Example : Primus Self Propelled Artillery

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Example : M107 155mm Projectile


Weight Length (excluding fuze) Body diameter Driving band diameter Payload : Composition B: TNT : Supplementary charge : Range
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605.3 mm 154.89 mm 157.98 mm 6.985 kg 6.62 kg 0.136 kg TNT

Example : XM982 Extended Range Ammo


Joint development by Bofors & Raytheon Based on standard 155mm projectile Canards aerodynamic controls GPS/INS unit CEP* = 10m radius at a distance of 50km

G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Energy of a 155mm HE projectile


= = =

Consider the kinetic energy for the 175mm Romach SP

K.E.

Assuming a payload fraction of

The chemical energy =


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Total energy

Energy of a GPMG cartridge

Cartridge, 7.62mm, AP, M61

Weight(cartridge) :

Weight (projectile):

M60 machine gun

Max effective range Muzzle velocity: Rates of fire:

G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Energy of a GPMG cartridge


= = =

Consider the kinetic energy for a 7.62mm M61 AP projectile

K.E.

Sustained rate of fire is = =


G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Muzzle power

Galilei Galileo (1564-1642)

Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences A projectile which is carried by a uniform horizontal motion compounded with a naturally accelerated vertical motion describes a path which is a semi-parabola.
G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Artillery Projectile Trajectory

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Factors affecting a real trajectory


or what Galileo didnt consider

Air resistance - aerodynamic drag

Air disturbances cross wind, gust

Variable atmospheric properties with altitude

Drift caused by projectile spin

Earths rotation

G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Ballistic coefficient - a measure of air resistance


=
=

C ballistic coefficient mass of projectile cross-sectional area of projectile drag coefficient (air resistance)

m/A Cd

sectional density form factor

C: m: A: Cd :

Note : the ballistic coefficient has units of kg/m2

G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Ballistic coefficient of 155mm HE projectile

For the M107 155mm HE projectile

mass = diameter = Cd (estimated) = = =

The ballistic coefficient

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Ballistic coefficient of a bullet

In S.I. units, ballistic coefficient

= =

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Effect of air resistance

Simulated 155mm HE trajectory

Trajectory parameters for max range 25 deg 17.5 km 51 s 3.5 km


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elevation : range : time of flight : max ordinate :

Work against air resistance - loss of kinetic energy

|V| m/s

time s

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Comparison : 88mm Pak43 Anti Tank Gun

Muzzle velocity AP projectile Penetration

: : :
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Simulated 88mm Armour Piercing (AP) trajectory

Trajectory parameters (CD = 0.25) 0.65 deg 2 500m 8m 2.5 s

elevation : range : max ordinate : time of flight :

G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Comparison : Energy loss against air resistance

|V | m/s

time s

KE of AP projectile at impact

= =

G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Spinning of artillery projectiles

Spinning = flight stability

Achieved by a rifled barrel and corresponding rotating band on projectile

Example 155mm howitzer


Rifling of gun barrel

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Corresponding rotating band

Aerodynamic consequences of spinning


The Magnus effect*

* G. Magnus , On the deviation of projectiles; and on a remarkable phenomenon of rotating bodies.", Memoirs of the Royal Academy, Berlin, 1852 .
G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Spinning and shell drift

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Point to Ponder
Seasoned old gunner : Shell drift is always to the left

G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Application example

G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS