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# 1.

## or how to slug the enemy from a distance

G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Quotable Quote

Cpt Liddell-Hart*

It is the fire power, and fire power alone, that arrives at the correct time and place that counts in the modern war

* Sir Basil Henry Liddell-Hart (31 Oct 189529 Jan 1970) English military historian known for his ideas on armoured warfare and strategic theory
G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

## Stalin Artillery is the God of War

USSR - Vladimir Triandafilov (1929), Character of the Operations of Modern Armies estimated that 50-60 guns/km of front needed for break down of enemy defenses.

WW2 (1944) Russian armies used 200-300 guns/km of front for 2 hr barrage

Ref : Walter S. Dunn Jr, Hitlers Nemesis : The Red Army, 1930-1945, Praeger, 1994

## G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Firepower

The rate of energy delivered from point A to point B for destructive purposes

## Example : M107 155mm Projectile

Weight Length (excluding fuze) Body diameter Driving band diameter Payload : Composition B: TNT : Supplementary charge : Range
G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

## Example : XM982 Extended Range Ammo

Joint development by Bofors & Raytheon Based on standard 155mm projectile Canards aerodynamic controls GPS/INS unit CEP* = 10m radius at a distance of 50km

= = =

K.E.

## The chemical energy =

G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Total energy

## Cartridge, 7.62mm, AP, M61

Weight(cartridge) :

Weight (projectile):

= = =

K.E.

## Sustained rate of fire is = =

G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Muzzle power

## Galilei Galileo (1564-1642)

Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences A projectile which is carried by a uniform horizontal motion compounded with a naturally accelerated vertical motion describes a path which is a semi-parabola.
G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

## Factors affecting a real trajectory

or what Galileo didnt consider

Earths rotation

## Ballistic coefficient - a measure of air resistance

=
=

C ballistic coefficient mass of projectile cross-sectional area of projectile drag coefficient (air resistance)

m/A Cd

C: m: A: Cd :

= =

## Trajectory parameters for max range 25 deg 17.5 km 51 s 3.5 km

G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

|V| m/s

time s

## Muzzle velocity AP projectile Penetration

: : :
G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

## Comparison : Energy loss against air resistance

|V | m/s

time s

KE of AP projectile at impact

= =

## Example 155mm howitzer

Rifling of gun barrel

## Aerodynamic consequences of spinning

The Magnus effect*

* G. Magnus , On the deviation of projectiles; and on a remarkable phenomenon of rotating bodies.", Memoirs of the Royal Academy, Berlin, 1852 .
G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

## G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Point to Ponder
Seasoned old gunner : Shell drift is always to the left

## G. Leng, ME Dept, NUS

Application example