Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

Chapter3Homeworks:Duedate:Thursday,February24,2011,at9:00a.m.

3.7 Iron has a BCC crystal structure, an atomic radius of 0.124 nm, and an atomic weight of
55.85g/mol.Computeandcompareitstheoreticaldensitywiththeexperimentalvaluefound
insidethefrontcover.

Solution

Thisproblemcallsforacomputationofthedensityofiron.AccordingtoEquation3.5

nAFe

VC N A

ForBCC,n=2atoms/unitcell,and

4 R 3
VC =

3

Thus,

nAFe

4 R 3

NA
3

(2 atoms/unit cell)(55.85 g/mol)

(4) (0.124

10 -7

cm) / 3

/(unit cell) (6.022 10 23 atoms/mol)

=7.90g/cm3

Thevaluegiveninsidethefrontcoveris7.87g/cm3.


3.20Belowisaunitcellforahypotheticalmetal.

(a)Towhichcrystalsystemdoesthisunitcellbelong?

(b)Whatwouldthiscrystalstructurebecalled?

(c)Calculatethedensityofthematerial,giventhatitsatomicweightis141g/mol.

Solution

(a) The unit cell shown in the problem statement belongs to the tetragonal crystal
systemsincea=b=0.30nm,c=0.40nm,and = = =90 .

(b)Thecrystalstructurewouldbecalledbodycenteredtetragonal.
(c)AswithBCC,n=2atoms/unitcell.Also,forthisunitcell
VC = (3.0 108 cm) 2 ( 4.0 108 cm)

= 3.60 1023 cm3/unit cell

Thus,usingEquation3.5,thedensityisequalto

nA

VC N A

(2 atoms/unit cell) (141 g/mol)


=

-23
(3.60 10 cm3/unit cell)(6.022 10 23 atoms/mol)

=13.0g/cm3
3.22 ListthepointcoordinatesforallatomsthatareassociatedwiththeFCCunitcell(Figure
3.1).

Solution

FromFigure3.1b,theatomlocatedoftheoriginoftheunitcellhasthecoordinates000.
Coordinatesforotheratomsinthebottomfaceare100,110,010,and 1 1 0 .(Thezcoordinate
22

forallthesepointsiszero.)

Forthetopunitcellface,thecoordinatesare001,101,111,011,and 1 1 1.
22

Coordinatesforthoseatomsthatarepositionedatthecentersofbothsidefaces,and
centersofbothfrontandbackfacesneedtobespecified.Forthefrontandbackcenterface
atoms,thecoordinatesare 1 1 1 and 0 1 1 ,respectively.Whilefortheleftandrightsidecenter
22

22

faceatoms,therespectivecoordinatesare 1 0 1 and 1 1 1 .
2

2 2

3.31Determinetheindicesforthe
directionsshowninthe
followingcubicunitcell:


Solution
DirectionAisa [01 1 ] direction,whichdeterminationissummarizedasfollows.Wefirst

of all position the origin of the coordinate system at the tail of the direction vector; then in
termsofthisnewcoordinatesystem

Projections
Projectionsintermsofa,b,andc
Reductiontointegers
Enclosure

0a
0

b
1
notnecessary
[01 1 ]

c
1

DirectionBisa [ 210] direction,whichdeterminationissummarizedasfollows.Wefirst


of all position the origin of the coordinate system at the tail of the direction vector; then in
termsofthisnewcoordinatesystem

y
z

Projections

Projectionsintermsofa,b,andc

2
1
2

0c
0

Reductiontointegers
2
1
0
[ 210]

Enclosure

DirectionCisa[112]direction,whichdeterminationissummarizedasfollows.Wefirst
of all position the origin of the coordinate system at the tail of the direction vector; then in
termsofthisnewcoordinatesystem

y
z

Projections

Projectionsintermsofa,b,andc

Reductiontointegers
Enclosure

2
1

2
1

1
[112]

c
1
2


DirectionDisa [112] direction,whichdeterminationissummarizedasfollows.Wefirst
of all position the origin of the coordinate system at the tail of the direction vector; then in
termsofthisnewcoordinatesystem

x
y
z
a

Projections

Projectionsintermsofa,b,andc

2
1

2
1
2

Reductiontointegers
1
1
[112 ]

Enclosure

3.40Sketchwithinacubicunitcellthefollowingplanes:

(a) (01 1 ) ,

(e) (1 11 ) ,

(b) (112 ) ,

(f) (12 2 ) ,

(c) (102 ) ,

(g) (1 23 ) ,

(d) (13 1) ,

Solution

(h) (01 3 )

c
1
2

Theplanescalledforareplottedinthecubicunitcellsshownbelow.

3.60UsingthedataforaluminuminTable3.1,computetheinterplanarspacingsforthe(110)
and(221)setsofplanes.

Solution

(a)Fromthedatagivenintheproblem,andrealizingthat69.22 =2 ,theinterplanar
spacingforthe(220)setofplanesforiridiummaybecomputedusingEquation3.13as

d220 =

n
(1)(0.1542 nm)
=
= 0.1357 nm

69.22
2 sin
(2) sin

(b) In order to compute the atomic radius we must first determine the lattice
parameter, a, using Equation 3.14, and then R from Equation 3.1 since Ir has an FCC crystal
structure.Therefore,

a = d220 (2) 2 + (2) 2 + (0) 2 = (0.1357 nm) ( 8 ) = 0.3838 nm

And,fromEquation3.1

R =

a
0.3838 nm
=
= 0.1357 nm
2 2
2 2

3.61ThemetaliridiumhasanFCCcrystalstructure.Iftheangleofdiffractionforthe(220)set
of planes occurs at 69.22 (firstorder reflection) when monochromatic xradiation having a
wavelengthof0.1542nmisused,compute(a)theinterplanarspacingforthissetofplanes,and
(b)theatomicradiusforaniridiumatom.

Solution

(a)Fromthedatagivenintheproblem,andrealizingthat27.00 =2 ,theinterplanar
spacingforthe(321)setofplanesforRbmaybecomputedusingEquation3.13asfollows:

d321 =

n
(1)(0.0711 nm)
=
= 0.1523 nm

27.00
2 sin
(2)sin

(b) In order to compute the atomic radius we must first determine the lattice
parameter, a, using Equation 3.14, and then R from Equation 3.3 since Rb has a BCC crystal
structure.Therefore,

a = d321 (3) 2 + (2) 2 + (1) 2 = (0.1523 nm) ( 14 ) = 0.5700 nm

And,fromEquation3.3

R=

a 3 (0.5700 nm) 3
=
= 0.2468 nm
4
4