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EMC York 2004

July 1 & 2, 2004

Comparison of the booster transformer and auto transformer railway feeding systems, Feeding features and induction to telecom lines
Prof. Gyrgy Varju
e-mail: varju@vmt.bme.hu Budapest University of Technology & Economics

Presentation items:
1. Railway feeding voltages and recent alterations of the feeding systems in Europe 2. Qualitative analyses of the ac. feeding systems 3. Modeling and parameters of railway feeding systems

4. Systems comparison 5. Conclusions

1. Railway feeding voltages and recent alterations of the feeding systems in Europe

Feeding voltages in Europe


3000 V dc. 1500 V dc. 50 Hz 25 kV ac. 16 2/3 Hz 16 kV ac.

Recent alterations in feeding systems


dc. feeding replaced by ac. 50 Hz, 25kV or 2x25 kV
for high speed train (e.g. TGV) for high density traffic (e.g. Netherlands)

BT system replaced by AT
for heavy freight train traffic (e.g. Sweden iron ore transport) for high speed train

2. Qualitative analyses of the ac. feeding systems

Feeding systems of ac. supply


Simple feeding with rail (+ earth) return: Booster transformer with rail return: RR BTRR

Booster transformer with return conductor: BTRC Auto transformer: AT

Combined systems:

AT/BTRR

AT/BTRC; ATPF/BTRC; ATPF/SCBT

Simple feeding with rail (+ earth) return:

RR system

Simple feeding with rail (+ earth) return: RR system Quantities characterizing the current portion & profiles

Series impedance of the return rail(s)-to-earth loop, as per unit length values:
o ZRR, series impedance of the return rail(s)-to-earth loop, o ZCR, mutual impedance between the contact line system and return rail system with common earth return, o GRR the rail-to-earth leakage conductance,

Simple feeding with rail (+ earth) return: RR system Quantities characterizing the current portion & profiles
Derived quantities:
rail current portion and screening factor behind the end/effect zones: Rail current portion: Screening factor

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ZCR q = ZRR

Z CR k =1+ q =1 Z RR

length constant of the rail-earth circuit with the approximation, that LRR >> RRR:

LRR GRR

Simple feeding with rail (+ earth) return: RR system Rail current and point screening factor at 50 Hz supply

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Simple feeding with rail (+ earth) return: RR system Rail current and point screening factor at 16 2/3 Hz supply

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Booster transformer system with rail return:

BTRR system

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Booster transformer system with return conductor:

BTRC system

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Booster transformer system with return conductor: BTRC system

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Continuity of the current return path BTRC system

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Auto transformer system AT (with 2U power source)

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Auto transformer system : AT (with 1U power source)

Auto transformer system


with increased NF voltage

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AT [16/25 kV]

Auto transformer system


with increased PF and NF voltages:

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ATPF [16/2x25 kV]

Combined feeding system AT / BTRR

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Combined feeding system AT / BTRC

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Combined feeding system ATPF / BTRC

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Combined feeding system


ATPF and shunt connected BT

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ATPF / SCBT

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3. Modeling and parameters of railway feeding systems


Multiconductor line representation Representation by two phase sequence networks

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Multiconductor line representation of railway feeding (AT) system

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Two phase sequence network representation

BTRC system

Zm

Zm

Zm

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Two phase sequence network representation

AT system

Ztm

Ztm

Ztm

Two phase symmetrical components basic voltage & current expressions


Phase quantities Symmetrical components:
U0 =
U1 =

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U C = U 0 + U1
Voltages:

1 (U C + U P ) 2
1 (U C U P ) 2

U P = U 0 U1
Note: UCP = 2U1

I C = I 0 + I1
Currents

I0 = I1 =

1 (I C + I P ) 2 1 (I C I P ) 2

I P = I 0 I1

Notes: current in the balanced loop: IC = -IP = I1 current in the return path (rail+earth): Ireturn = IC + IP = 2 I0

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Two phase symmetrical component representation of two coupled lops


Coupled loop circuit Equivalent of the coupled loop

Z self =
Positive sequence loop

1 (ZCC + Z PP ) 2
Zero sequence loop

Z 0 = Z self Z CP

Z 0 = Z self + Z CP

Representation of the network elements Line configuration (Rsi Svv line)

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Representation of the network elements Multiconductor line parameters


Distributed series and shunt elements of the railway line model
Ic(x) C IR(x ) R IP(x ) P U (x) C U (x) R U (x) P Z CC Z Z R CR ZCP R Z Z P RP P C C0 G R0 R C R0 C P0 C C CP C CR C RP P

Representation of the network elements Line system


Multi-conductor network Sequence networks

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positive sequence

zero sequence

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Representation of the network elements


Power supply
(converter or transformer station)

Multi-conductor network

Sequence networks

Representation of the network elements


Traction unit (engine, motor coach)
Multi-conductor network Sequence networks

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View of auto & booster transformers


(Installed at the Kiruna Rtsi Svappavaara line in Sweden)

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Representation of the network elements


Booster transformer: detailed circuit diagram

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Representation of the network elements


Booster transformer: magnetizing impedance

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Representation of the network elements


Booster transformer:
simplified circuit diagram
Multi-conductor network Sequence networks

Zm

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Representation of the network elements


Bond (between RC and RR)

Multi-conductor network

Sequence networks

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Representation of the network elements


Auto transformer:
magnetizing impedance neglected
Multi-conductor network Sequence networks

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4. Systems comparison
S tu d y ite m s:
a) b) c) d) E qu iva le n t im p e d a n ce , vo lta ge sta b ility S yste m lo sse s P o w e r ra tin g o f a u to tra n sfo rm e rs In d u ctio n e ffe ct: o In d u cin g e a rth cu rre n t p ro file s o L e n gth -cu rre n t in te gra ls o In d u ce d lo n gitu d in a l e m f e ) R a il-to -e a rth p o te n tia l f) R a il-to -ra il p o te n tia l

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a) Equivalent impedance, voltage stability

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Equivalent impedance
vs. train position (spacing 6 km)
BTRR BTRC

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Equivalent impedance vs. train position


AT system (spacing 12 km)

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Comparison of impedances vs. train pos. for BTRC & AT systems

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Equivalent impedance vs. train position AT systems

Comparison of voltage drop for AT and BT systems


(Traction power 8 MVA)

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Comparison of normalized values of the equivalent impedances for BTRR, BRRC & AT systems

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Voltage drop, versus train location for different AT supply options


Train load: 10 MW, cos = 0.8
16 14 12

5AT 4AT 3AT

2U

U [%]

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3U
8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 train position, km 30 35 40

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d) Characterization of the induction effect


o o o Inducing earth current profiles Current-length integrals Induced longitudinal emf

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Inducing earth current profiles


Cases studied for demonstration

Earth current profiles at different train locations BTRR system


Spacing: 6 km, G=0.25 S/km, Train current: 500A

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Earth current profiles at different train locations BTRC system


Spacing: 6 km, G=0.25 S/km, Train current: 500A

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Earth current profiles at different train locations AT system


Spacing: 12 km, G=0.25 S/km, Train current: 500A

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3D surface of the inducing current BT system

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3D surface of the inducing current BT system

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Current-length integrals
Calculation principle of the current-length integral

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Maximum of the the current-length integral AT system


Integration window: 6 km Integration window: 42 km

Maximum of the normalized current-length integrals,


base the current-length integral of the BT system

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AT system

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Current-length integrals for different feeding systems


Parameter: rail-to earth leakage, G

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Average inducing current for different feeding systems


Parameter: rail-to earth leakage, G

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Induced longitudinal emf

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Map of the measured line (Kiruna Rtsi Svappavaara)

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C - R short circuit locations,


for 16 2/3 Hz measurements BT system

C - R short circuit locations,


for 16 2/3 Hz measurements AT system

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Longitudinal voltage measurements


Sections of telecommunication cable

Induced longitudinal voltage vs. train location in total cable section

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AT system
V
120 calculated G=0.5 S/km 100 80 60 40 20 0 1.329 4.314 7.128 10.330 12.222 15.174 17.423 20.412 22.572 25.490 28.810 32.424 36.500 calculated G=0.24 w S/km measured

km

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Induced longitudinal voltage vs. train location


Comparison of BT and AT systems Measured cable sections: total
V
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1.329 2.631 5.788 7.129 10.18 11.282 12.223 15.174 17.423 19.232 21.492 23.824 25.490 28.810 30.335 34.308 36.600 AT BT

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e) Rail-to-earth potential

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Real-to-earth voltage profile vs. length BTRR system


Train at 9.01 km
(BT location)

Train at 41.99 km
(at the middle of BT spacing)

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Maximum rail-to-earth voltages vs. train position BTRR system, spacing 6 km

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Real-to-earth voltage profile vs. length BTRC system


Train at 2.99 km
(BT location)

Train at 39.01 km
(at the middle of BT spacing)

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Maximum rail-to-earth voltages vs. train position BTRC system, spacing 6 km

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Real-to-earth voltage profile vs. length AT system


Train at 17.90 km
(middle of an AT spacing)

Train at 24.01 km
(AT location)

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Maximum rail-to-earth voltages vs. train position AT system, spacing 12 km

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Maximum rail-to-earth voltages for different feeding systems


BT spacing 3 km BT spacing 6 km

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Conclusions
The results of simulation calculations and site experiences
a) The equivalent impedance is significantly (about 3 times) less for the AT system than that for the BT system. b) Induction to telecommunication lines: the BT and AT systems are, practically, identical. the maximum longitudinal voltage occurred in the whole line length with the current injection at the Svv end the induction effect could significantly be reduced by the improvement of the balance for BT system balancing the mutual impedances of the catenery system and the return conductor to rail for AT system balancing the self impedances of the catenery system and the inverted feeder

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Conclusions
cont.
c) The rail potentials in personnel safety point of view, they are also similar in AT and BT supply systems with the following remark: in case of AT supply the rail-to-earth voltage can reach higher value in the relatively big AT spacing in case of BT supply, the voltages over insulated joints are higher in certain places. d) Both the induction effect and the rail potential are significantly affected by: spacing of BT or AT rail-to-earth leakage conductance, G

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Conclusions
cont. Proposals for further study
(1) The feasibility of the use of positive feeder. (2) The feasibility of the combined feeding systems. (3) Methods for balancing the AT feeding by: optimised negative feeder arrangement use of current unbalance suppression unit (CUS).

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Thank you for your attention