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Comparison of Three PWM Strategies

-SPWM,SVPWM

& One-cycle Control

Bai Hua, Zhao Zhengming, Meng Shuo,Liu Jianzheng, Sun Xiaoying

Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, P. R. China

Abstract-Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) are the most popular modulation strategies applied to variable frequency and adjusting speed systems, and there are diverges in comparing the merits and demerits of their own. Also there is another modulation strategy called One-cycle Control. This paper gathers the three strategies and does some comparisons through simulation based on a simulation tool-PSIM, and has drawn some prolitable conclusions.

Ke.wordsSPWM, SVPWM, Onecycle Control

I. INTRODUCTION

The Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) makes the

inverter output the waveforms made up of many pulses

with certain rules and goals through

for the inverter. Since it is the task for DCiAC switching mode to produce a sinusoidal AC output voltage so as to make the flux linkage and frequency be controlled with ease, PWM has become the soul of adjusting speed drive systems. Among many forms of PWM. the SPWM and SVPWM are the most common hvo forms, among which the former is more familiar and the later becomes mature promptly especially in middle and high power systems “I. Different and common grounds exist between them, and also the arguments on their merits and demerits never suspend. A common acknowledge on them is that at least they only convert the DC voltage to the AC forms with the acquired frequency, that is, what they could do is to transform frequency. Also the two strategies belong to the PWM for voltage source inverter (VSI), and are ap lied to small & middle power drive systems sucessfully ‘I. And they are mainly used in the general converters like air

conditioners, rolling mills, FACTS (Flexible AC Transmissions), etc. Another method called One-cycle Control is also drawing the attention because of its capability of wave transformation. In brief, it erases the error caused by integrator in one switching period and produces less harmonics, and faultlessly track the referenced wave forms. More strictly speaking, it could not change the frequency at the same time because of its tracking characteristics. But if the reference wave could be seen variable, the frequency also could be changed. This technique has been applied successfully in power amplifier applications due to its special characteristics

supplying DC voltage

0-7803-7885-7/03/$l7.00 02003 IEEE.

such as fast response, robustness, self-adaptation. Also it has been applied to variable frequency switch control.

strategies

together and does some comparison through simulation based on PSIM, a rather flexible and effective software. The Section I brings out the principles and simulation circuit schemes based on PSIM for these three strategies, which lays particular stress on the description of One- cycle Control since the other two strategies are more familiar. Section II gives the simulation results, mainly the FFT of phase voltage from a single-phase induction machine, and also does some analysis on the guidelines of these strategies, such as Total Harmonics Distortion (THD). At the end of this paper, Section III draws some conclusions on the three modulation strategies.

This

paper

brings

the three

modulation

11. PRINCIPLES & SIMULATIONCIRCUIT SCHEMES BASEDON PSIM

Based on the analysis above, all the modules in this paper for simulation are achieved for two-level inverters, which are still the common camers of PWM. The following are three simulation circuits with SPWM, SWWM and One-cycle Control respectively based on PSIM, a powerful and compact simulation software for power electronics.

Fig. I. Simulation circuit with SPWM

1313

kL%

s

-1-0

Fig. 2. Pan ofsimulation circuit with SVPWM

SPWM & SWWM are two common strategies in adjustable speed drive system. The pulse width of SPWM is variable with sinusoidal disciplinarian so as to restrain the lower-order harmonics ['I. In fact, SVPWM is also one of SPWM since its goal is to obtain the sinusoidal flux linkage while not the line voltage. One-cycle Control may not be so familiar. The most attractive point of One-cycle Control is the capability of following an arbitrary reference I?].Suppose that a switch could be the switching function as below:

k(t) =

1

0

O<t<T,, Ton< t < T,

And the basic structure is seen in Fig. 3.

Assume that the switching frequency f,=Iis much T,

larger than that of x(t) Hence,

where,

I

T.

y(t)= -

T"

jx(/)d/

I x(r)d(r)

The strategy could be modulated so as to make it with one switching period

(3)

Hence, the average of y(t) is equal to that of the reference. That is,

I T-

y(r) = -

!x(t)dt

Ts I,

And the concept based on the equations above is called One-cycle Control. The key points of this technique are the integrator and replacement, which is listed in Fig. 4. The output of integrator is compared with that of reference. As soon as it reaches vref (I), the controller will change the state of integrator to put it to zero. Hence, the output of y(r) has no connection with that in the former period. That is, it erases the accumulated error successhlly. For the convenience of comparing the advantages & disadvantages of the three strategies, the unifications should be made with the simulation parameters assumed in Table I, and also should concern the distinguishes of their own, which is listed in Table I.

Fig. 3. Theoretic scheme with Oncsy&

Control

Fig. 4.--aidSampling proccrs

K(t)

+

I

Fig. 5. Principle schcmc for Onccyclc Control

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TABLEI

SIMULATIONPARAMETERS

ltcm

SPWM

SVPWM

Onecyclc Control

38OV

380V

380V

REL

5OHz

50Hr

50Hz

400V

Calricr

in<nu7. "_"

.-

Laad

R=O.SR

R = om

R=O.SR

L=0.00136H.

L4.00136H.

L4.00136H.

111. SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

The guide lines of THD and DC voltage ratio are the most concerned factors in modulation and control strategies, and it is also the main parameter to measure the mature deprees of those ones. The ultimate load waves forms by each strategy are described in Fig. 6-9, which respectively corresponds to the FFT of output voltage based on PSM.

Obviously, from above simulation waveforms, less harmonics and smaller THD are obtained in SVPWM & One-cycle Control, and the later does more excellent in the aspects. Restraining the harmonics also has the connection with switching frequency. The higher switching frequency, the lower the THD of voltage. But the utility ratios of DC voltage for SVF'WM & One-cycle Control strategies are comparatively lower than that of SPWM. More concretely, the utility ratio of DC voltage by SPWM is 76.8% while the other two are 56% and 50% respectively. The demerit of SPWM is that the THD of line voltage is much lager than that of the other two seen from Fig. 5. The waveforms of output voltage and reference voltage by One-cycle Control are shown in Fig. 9. The tracking curve of One-cycle Control is nearly perfect, which shows the capability of wave conversion by One- cycle Control. It shows the powerful capability of waveform transformation by One-cycle Control. Also the Fig. 10 shows another conversion when the reference is in 100 Hz.

Frequency kHz)

Fis. 6 FFT for output voltagc by SPWM

_I

.

Fig.7. FFT far output voltage by SVPWM

Fig. 8. FFT for output voltage by Onesycle Control

Fig. 9. Output voltage tracking rcfcrcnce voltape by Onecyclc Control

0

10

Time hs)

15

Fig. IO. Tracking wave farms by Onecyclc Control at 50Hz

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Comparatively larger THD appears when frequency rises in the fixed sampling period. The more the working frequency is, the larger the THD appears. The sampling device should be intellectualized to follow the working frequency so as to restrain the error caused by sampling period, which is an important parameter in fully digital system.

IV. CONCLUSIONS

From above simulation results, three modes are compared in details. One-cycle Control shows its good ability in variable waveform, despite its lower DC utility. While SVF'WM shows the great power in restraining harmonics compared to SPWM. And SPWM, the conventional strategy, shows its comparative large DC utilization. SPWM could be achieved by analogical circuits and controlled easily, while the SVPWM is mainly achieved by fully digitalized system due to its comparatively complex modulation strategy. In the full paper, more discussion would be done to catch on the key points of different strategies, and also more analysis would be done to obtain the perfect result.

REFERENCES

[I] Wei

Liniang. "Research on Dual-PWM

Motor

Control

Threc-Level

System "

Flux

. Ph.D.

Onentation Induction

dissenation, Tsinghua Univcnity, Beijing, P.R.C. 2000, ch. 1.

PPl.12

[Z] Qim Chung, "Studies on Modulation Methods of Variuble-

level

disscrtation.Tsinzhua Univcrsity, Bcijing, P.R.C.2000

lnvcners

Applied

io

Power

Amplifien",

Ph.D.

[;I Zhou Mingbao, Qu Wenlong, "Power Electronics Technique".

ChinaMachincPrcss, 1997. ch.1, pp.119-130

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