Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

Real numbers are basically actual numbers that exists.

That includes rational, irrational, whole, integers, and natural numbers. Rational numbers are numbers able to be put as a fraction. Irrational numbers cannot be put as a fraction (ex: 3.141592) Whole numbers are: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.... Natural numbers are: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5... (basically 0 is not a natural number) Integers are numbers that are both positive and negative ex: -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 (including 0) Real numbers are basically actual numbers that exists. That includes rational, irrational, whole, integers, and natural numbers. Rational numbers are numbers able to be put as a fraction. Irrational numbers cannot be put as a fraction (ex: 3.141592) Whole numbers are: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.... Natural numbers are: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5... (basically 0 is not a natural number) Integers are numbers that are both positive and negative ex: -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 (including 0)

In mathematics, a real number is a value that represents a quantity along a continuous line. The real numbers include all the rational numbers, such as the integer 5 and the fraction 4/3, and all the irrational numbers such as 2 (1.41421356... the square root of two, an irrational algebraic number) and (3.14159265..., a transcendental number). Real numbers can be thought of as points on an infinitely long line called the number line or real line, where the points corresponding to integers are equally spaced. Any real number can be determined by a possibly infinite decimal representation such as that of 8.632, where each consecutive digit is measured in units one tenth the size of the previous one. The real line can be thought of as a part of the complex plane, and correspondingly, complex numbers include real numbers as a special case. These descriptions of the real numbers are not sufficiently rigorous by the modern standards of pure mathematics. The discovery of a suitably rigorous definition of the real numbers indeed, the realization that a better definition was needed was one of the most important developments of 19th century mathematics. The currently standard axiomatic definition is that real numbers form the unique complete totally ordered field (R,+,,<), up to isomorphism,[1] Whereas popular constructive definitions of real numbers include declaring them as equivalence classes of Cauchy sequences of rational numbers, Dedekind cuts, or certain infinite "decimal representations",

together with precise interpretations for the arithmetic operations and the order relation. These definitions are equivalent in the realm of classical mathematics.

Basic properties
A real number may be either rational or irrational; either algebraic or transcendental; and either positive, negative, or zero. Real numbers are used to measure continuous quantities. They may in theory be expressed by decimal representations that have an infinite sequence of digits to the right of the decimal point; these are often represented in the same form as 324.823122147 The ellipsis (three dots) indicate that there would still be more digits to come. More formally, real numbers have the two basic properties of being an ordered field, and having the least upper bound property. The first says that real numbers comprise a field, with addition and multiplication as well as division by nonzero numbers, which can be totally ordered on a number line in a way compatible with addition and multiplication. The second says that if a nonempty set of real numbers has an upper bound, then it has a least upper bound. The second condition distinguishes the real numbers from the rational numbers: for example, the set of rational numbers whose square is less than 2 is a set with an upper bound (e.g. 1.5) but no least upper bound: hence the rational numbers do not satisfy the least upper bound property.

Integer
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Integers) Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the mathematical concept. For integers in computer science, see Integer (computer science).

Symbol often used to denote the set of integers

The integers (from the Latin integer, literally "untouched", hence "whole": the word entire comes from the same origin, but via French[1]) are formed by the natural numbers (including 0) (0, 1, 2, 3, ...) together with the negatives of the non-zero natural numbers (1, 2, 3, ...). Viewed as a

subset of the real numbers, they are numbers that can be written without a fractional or decimal component, and fall within the set {..., 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, ...}. For example, 21, 4, and 2048 are integers; 9.75, 5, and 2 are not integers. The set of all integers is often denoted by a boldface Z (or blackboard bold , Unicode U+2124 ), which stands for Zahlen (German for numbers, pronounced [tsaln]).[2] The integers (with addition as operation) form the smallest group containing the additive monoid of the natural numbers. Like the natural numbers, the integers form a countably infinite set. In algebraic number theory, these commonly understood integers, embedded in the field of rational numbers, are referred to as rational integers to distinguish them from the more broadly defined algebraic integers.

Algebraic properties
Like the natural numbers, Z is closed under the operations of addition and multiplication, that is, the sum and product of any two integers is an integer. However, with the inclusion of the negative natural numbers, and, importantly, zero, Z (unlike the natural numbers) is also closed under subtraction. Z is not closed under division, since the quotient of two integers (e.g., 1 divided by 2), need not be an integer. Although the natural numbers are closed under exponentiation, the integers are not (since the result can be a fraction when the exponent is negative). The following lists some of the basic properties of addition and multiplication for any integers a, b and c.[citation needed] Addition a + b is an integer a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c a+b = b+a a+0 = a a + (a) = 0 Multiplication a b is an integer a (b c) = (a b) c ab = ba a1 = a

Closure: Associativity: Commutativity: Existence of an identity element: Existence of inverse elements: Distributivity: No zero divisors:

An inverse element usually does not exist at all. a (b + c) = (a b) + (a c) and (a + b) c = (a c) + (b c) If a b = 0, then a = 0 or b = 0 (or both)

In the language of abstract algebra, the first five properties listed above for addition say that Z under addition is an abelian group. As a group under addition, Z is a cyclic group, since every nonzero integer can be written as a finite sum 1 + 1 + ... + 1 or (1) + (1) + ... + (1). In fact, Z under addition is the only infinite cyclic group, in the sense that any infinite cyclic group is isomorphic to Z.[citation needed]

The first four properties listed above for multiplication say that Z under multiplication is a commutative monoid. However not every integer has a multiplicative inverse; e.g. there is no integer x such that 2x = 1, because the left hand side is even, while the right hand side is odd. This means that Z under multiplication is not a group.[citation needed] All the rules from the above property table, except for the last, taken together say that Z together with addition and multiplication is a commutative ring with unity. Adding the last property says that Z is an integral domain. In fact, Z provides the motivation for defining such a structure.[citation
needed]

The lack of multiplicative inverses, which is equivalent to the fact that Z is not closed under division, means that Z is not a field. The smallest field containing the integers is the field of rational numbers. The process of constructing the rationals from the integers can be mimicked to form the field of fractions of any integral domain.[citation needed] Although ordinary division is not defined on Z, it does possess an important property called the division algorithm: that is, given two integers a and b with b 0, there exist unique integers q and r such that a = q b + r and 0 r < |b|, where |b| denotes the absolute value of b. The integer q is called the quotient and r is called the remainder, resulting from division of a by b. This is the basis for the Euclidean algorithm for computing greatest common divisors.[citation needed] Again, in the language of abstract algebra, the above says that Z is a Euclidean domain. This implies that Z is a principal ideal domain and any positive integer can be written as the products of primes in an essentially unique way. This is the fundamental theorem of arithmetic.[citation needed]

Order-theoretic properties
Z is a totally ordered set without upper or lower bound. The ordering of Z is given by:[citation needed] ... 3 < 2 < 1 < 0 < 1 < 2 < 3 < ... An integer is positive if it is greater than zero and negative if it is less than zero. Zero is defined as neither negative nor positive. The ordering of integers is compatible with the algebraic operations in the following way:
1. if a < b and c < d, then a + c < b + d 2. if a < b and 0 < c, then ac < bc.

It follows that Z together with the above ordering is an ordered ring.[citation needed] The integers are the only integral domain whose positive elements are well-ordered, and in which order is preserved by addition.[citation needed]

Construction

Red Points represent ordered pairs of natural numbers. Linked red points are equivalence classes representing the blue integers at the end of the line. The integers can be formally constructed as the equivalence classes of ordered pairs of natural numbers (a, b).[3] The intuition is that (a, b) stands for the result of subtracting b from a.[3] To confirm our expectation that 1 2 and 4 5 denote the same number, we define an equivalence relation ~ on these pairs with the following rule:

precisely when

Addition and multiplication of integers can be defined in terms of the equivalent operations on the natural numbers[3]; denoting by [(a,b)] the equivalence class having (a,b) as a member, one has:

The negation (or additive inverse) of an integer is obtained by reversing the order of the pair:

Hence subtraction can be defined as the addition of the additive inverse:

The standard ordering on the integers is given by: iff It is easily verified that these definitions are independent of the choice of representatives of the equivalence classes. Every equivalence class has a unique member that is of the form (n,0) or (0,n) (or both at once). The natural number n is identified with the class [(n,0)] (in other words the natural numbers are embedded into the integers by map sending n to [(n,0)]), and the class [(0,n)] is denoted n (this covers all remaining classes, and gives the class [(0,0)] a second time since 0 = 0.[citation needed] Thus, [(a,b)] is denoted by[citation needed]

If the natural numbers are identified with the corresponding integers (using the embedding mentioned above), this convention creates no ambiguity.[citation needed] This notation recovers the familiar representation of the integers as {... 3,2,1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ...}. Some examples are:

Integers in computing
Main article: Integer (computer science)

An integer is often a primitive datatype in computer languages. However, integer datatypes can only represent a subset of all integers, since practical computers are of finite capacity. Also, in the common two's complement representation, the inherent definition of sign distinguishes between "negative" and "non-negative" rather than "negative, positive, and 0". (It is, however, certainly possible for a computer to determine whether an integer value is truly positive.) Fixed length integer approximation datatypes (or subsets) are denoted int or Integer in several programming languages (such as Algol68, C, Java, Delphi, etc.).[citation needed] Variable-length representations of integers, such as bignums, can store any integer that fits in the computer's memory. Other integer datatypes are implemented with a fixed size, usually a number of bits which is a power of 2 (4, 8, 16, etc.) or a memorable number of decimal digits (e.g., 9 or 10).[citation needed]

Cardinality
The cardinality of the set of integers is equal to (aleph-null). This is readily demonstrated by the construction of a bijection, that is, a function that is injective and surjective from Z to N.[citation needed] If N = {0, 1, 2, ...} then consider the function:

{ ... (-4,8) (-3,6) (-2,4) (-1,2) (0,0) (1,1) (2,3) (3,5) ... } If N = {1,2,3,...} then consider the function:

{ ... (-4,8) (-3,6) (-2,4) (-1,2) (0,1) (1,3) (2,5) (3,7) ... } If the domain is restricted to Z then each and every member of Z has one and only one corresponding member of N and by the definition of cardinal equality the two sets have equal cardinality.[citation needed]