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Biotechnology Diego A. Bustos South University - RPB BIO1020 S05 : Biology Jenifer Ott May 21, 2012

Biotechnology is a compilation of sciences, a multidisciplinary approach involving several disciplines and sciences. Overall Biotechnology is the use of living organisms or compounds derived from living organisms to produce valuable products, such as making bread and alcoholic beverages or simply the improvement of crops and domestic animals. This discipline involved the use of organisms. Processes like the production of beer, wine, cheese and yoghurt involve the use of bacteria or yeast to convert a natural product such as milk or grape juice, in a more desirable fermentation product such as yogurt or wine. Traditionally biotechnology has many applications; a simple example is composting, which increases soil fertility by allowing soil microorganisms decompose organic wastes, other applications including the production and use of vaccines to prevent human and animal diseases. Modern biotechnology is composed by a variety of techniques derived from research in a cell and molecular biology, which can be used in any industry that uses microorganisms or animal and plant cells. This is also important for other carbon-based industries such as energy, chemicals and pharmaceutical waste management or waste. It has enormous potential impact, because the life science research is making rapid progress and results will not only affect a range of sectors but also facilitate links between them. Successful results in this agricultural modification may affect both the economy and the energy sector, additionally it might have a positive environmental effect as well. A more accurate and specific modern biotechnology involves the deliberate manipulation of their DNA molecules. This implies a number of developments in laboratory techniques; during the last decades these have been responsible for the tremendous scientific and commercial interest in biotechnology, creating new businesses and reorientation of research and investments in established companies and universities. Biotechnology is a gradient of technologies ranging from biotechnology techniques like traditional which is a long established and widely known and used for food fermentation,

biological control, to the modern biotechnology based on new recombinant DNA techniques called genetic engineering, monoclonal antibodies and new methods of growing cells and tissues. The growing interest in biotechnology in both, academic and economic activity, has resulted, among other things, in a proliferation of definitions. This is the result of the multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology and the difficulty of setting boundaries. All definitions have in common the use of biological agents and microorganisms. Biotechnology may be define as a set of technological innovations based on the use of microorganisms and microbiological processes for obtaining goods and services and develop scientific research. Biotechnology is not new, since both the use of microorganisms in traditional fermentation processes and the empirical techniques of genetic selection and hybridization, were used throughout the history of humanity. There are the tendency to mistakenly associate the processes of fermentation with the first and the second genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is merely the most recent and spectacular development of biotechnology this enriches and expands the possible applications and uses of traditional biotechnologies.

References Journal nature Biotechnology, http://www.nature.com/nbt/index.html, May 21,2012