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Many factors such as geology of the area and of the slope material, topography, climate and hydrology influence

the slope stability. To determine the stability of the given pit wall, slide mechanics is used.

Factor of Safety (FOS), in relation to a slope or embankment, is the ratio of tot al force available to resist sliding to the total force tending to induce slidin g. When the slope or embankment is on the point of failure, the resisting and di sturbing forces are equal and the FOS is 1.0. An FOS greater than 1.0 indicates stability Usually, a safety factor of 1.3 is considered adequate for slopes that will rema in standing for only a short time, where as value of 1.5 is desirable for long t erm stability. The Factor of Safety is 1, and such a slope is on the brink of failure. Citation: Christopher J. Bise. 2003. Mining Engineering Analysis. Society for Mi ning, Metallurgy and Exploration, Inc (SME) pp 94-95

Material profile: Material profiles in GALENA are defined as a line or series of lines, in turn ma de up of a series of x/y co-ordinate pairs, to represent the upper limit of a ma terial layer Slope surface: A slope surface is then defined, which in effect "cuts through" the defined prof iles. If analysis reveals that the slope surface chosen is unsuitable and needs to be re-positioned the process within GALENA is straightforward re-define the s lope surface.

Groundwater: Knowledge of groundwater elevations is critical for the design of cut slopes. Th e presence of groundwater within or just below a proposed cut will affect the sl ope angle required to achieve and maintain stability. For example, the presence of groundwater near the base of a proposed cut slope in loess will preclude making a near vertical slope. Substant ially more right-of-way may be required to construct a flatter slope. Measurement of groundwater and estimates of its fluct uations are also important for the design of appropriate drainage facilities. Gr oundwater that daylights within a proposed cut slope may require installation of horizontal drains (generally for coarser grained non cohesive soils) or other types of drainage facilities. Groundwater near the toe of slopes may require installation of underdrains. Groundwater measurements are also important if slope stability analysis is requi red.

http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/publications/manuals/fulltext/M46-03/Chapter10.pdf Properties of Alluvial Soil: http://books.google.com.au/books?id=JSLSnc5a_osC&pg=PA692&lpg=PA692&dq=cohesion+ in+alluvial+sand&source=bl&ots=XXpl3MjV7Q&sig=wj0sUXK4gqU6MTrB1h69sJmjCZQ&hl=en& sa=X&ei=Ume8T7m6CY2viQfblfDHDw&ved=0CFwQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=cohesion%20in%20alluv ial%20sand&f=false http://www.tubbs.com/geotech/geotech.htm