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Choke calculations

Choke calculations are performed for Dagny subsea case 2A for the forecast production in years 2015 to 2019. The choke is assumed to be non collapsible labyrinth type choke. Worst case scenario mal operation is based on start-up with gas filled riser from maximum pressure with fully open choke. The choke calculations are based on not exceeding the capacity of three of the four installed PSVs on the inlet separator when the choke is mal operated. The PSV`s capacity is calculated for each case using HEM-method. The capacity is dependent on relieving pressure, temperature and composition. KO drum and flare capacity checks are not performed. The choke CV will control the pressure drop over the choke and the maximum pressure u/s choke in order to not exceeding the PSV`s capacity. A low CV will give high pressure drop over the choke and a high maximum pressure u/s the choke in a choke mal operation scenario, the opposite with a high choke CV. In a normal choke calculations, shut-in pressure is used as the pressure u/s choke in a choke mal operation scenario. But because the choke size would be low and the pressure drop too high, the pressure u/s choke must be reduced with an active shutdown function on the wells and topside EV. Then the pipeline settle-out pressure can be used as the pressure u/s choke in a choke mal operation scenario. The settle out pressure can be found using formula 1.1 below which gives an approximation to the real settle out pressure. Pipeline simulations are done in HYSYS for pressure drop calculations.
p p1 where : p settle out pressure p1 SLA arrival pressur e, PAHH topside p 2 SLA dispatch pressure , PAHH subsea 2 p 2 p1 3

(1.1)

There will be no production if the required pipeline inlet pressure during normal operation is greater than subsea PAHH set pressure.

Figure 1-1: Simulation model

Finding the optimal choke CV is not easy in this case because the wellhead pressure is decreasing fast while the production is increasing from start-up in year 2015 to year 2017. Also the production profile is based on 5 bar pressure drop over the topside choke, which is low in year 2016 and year 2017. See graph 1-1 and table 1-1 below.

Graph 1-1: (Statoil) Flowing wellhead pressure for each well in year 2015 and year 2016. In this period the wellhead pressure will be higher than required pipeline inlet pressure.

Table 1-1: (Statoil) Results from OLGA simulations of Dagny SLA pipeline with corresponding production profile. It is assumed 5 bar pressure drop over the topside choke. The production profile will be altered if the pressure drop over the choke is grater then 5 bara after year 2017 and partly in year 2016.
Pressure SLA 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 95 95 95 40 40 40 40 40 15 Flowrate oil (Sm/d) Flowrate gas (Sm/d) Pressure Dagny Temperature SLA 9000 2.1 114 72 10200 4.3 125 79 12000 6.0 157 87 5644 5.0 100 70 8000 3.4 101 74 5706 4.1 110 71 3865 3.7 106 67 2634 3.2 88 62 1864 4.0 85 51

Three solutions for choke operation are developed, where none of them is an optimal solution. See Appendix A, B and C. The first alternative is based on changing the choke in year 2016, 2017 and year 2018. The new choke CV for each year is based on having 5 bar pressure drop over the choke when the choke is changed. Since the production is increasing from start-up to 2017, the pressure drop over the choke will increase until next choke change. Appendix A shows the estimated increase in pressure drop in-between the choke changes. The pressure drop is estimated based on interpolating on actual total flow through the choke and assuming that the production is constantly increasing between each year. Alternative two and three are outer limits with choke internal change in year 2018. Alternative two is based on having a high subsea PSHH set pressure and high pressure drop over topside choke under normal operation. Alternative 3 is based on having a maximum of 5 bar pressure drop over the topside choke. Subsea PSHH set pressure is close to required pipeline inlet pressure in alternative 3. In all three alternatives the choke must be changed in year 2018 when the operating pressure in inlet separator is reduced to 35 bara. The optimal solution will probably be a compromise between alternative 2 and 3 where we accept 10 bar pressure drop over the choke in year 2017. This will give a better margin between pipeline inlet pressure and subsea PSHH set pressure, but the Dagny will have a reduced production in year 2016 and 2017 due to increased pipeline outlet pressure.

Appendix
Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Overview over the different alternatives with dp over choke, choke CV, settle out pressure and PSHH subsea set pressure Results from choke calculations Sketches showing wellhead pressure, requires pipeline dispatch pressure, PSHH set pressure and topside choke pressure drop for alternative 1 and 3 in year 2015 to year 2019.

Appendix A
Pressure drop over choke interpolated on actual volume flow through topside choke
Alt 1: Maintaining low pressure with choke internal changes Settle out Production profile Simulation Pressure Choke pressure Oil Gas actual flow drop over choke Month Sm/d MSm/d m/h CV bara 11 9000 2,117 1031 5,0 320 225 12 1159 6,3 1 1287 7,7 2 1415 9,0 3 1543 10,3 4 1671 11,7 5 1799 13,0 6 1927 14,3 7 2055 15,7 8 10200 4,293 2183 5,0 607 157 9 2268 5,6 10 2353 6,3 11 2438 6,9 12 2523 7,5 1 2608 8,2 2 2693 8,8 3 2779 9,5 4 2864 10,1 5 2949 10,7 6 3034 11,4 7 3119 12,0 8 12000 6,000 3204 5,0 764 147 9 3157 4,9 10 3110 4,9 11 3062 4,8 12 3015 4,7 1 2968 4,6 2 2921 4,6 3 2873 4,5 4 2826 4,4 5 2779 4,3 6 2732 4,3 7 2684 4,2 8 5644 5,023 5667 5,0 537 93 9 5515 4,8 10 5364 4,7 11 5213 4,5 12 5061 4,3 1 4910 4,2 2 4758 4,0 3 4607 3,8 4 4455 3,7 5 4304 3,5 6 4153 3,3 7 4001 3,2 8 8000 3,435 3850 3,0 93 PAHH Subsea bara 228 168 164 107 101 Alt 2: Minimizing choke internal changes, High PAHH Settle out Production profile Simulation Pressure Choke pressure Oil Gas actual flow drop over choke Sm/d MSm/d m/h CV bara 9000 2,117 1031 5,0 320 225 1159 6,3 1287 7,7 1415 9,0 1543 10,3 1671 11,7 1799 13,0 1927 14,3 2055 15,7 10200 4,293 2183 17,0 219 2268 17,7 2353 18,3 2438 19,0 2523 19,7 2608 20,3 2693 21,0 2779 21,7 2864 22,3 2949 23,0 3034 23,7 3119 24,3 12000 6,000 3204 25,0 233 3157 24,6 3110 24,3 3062 23,9 3015 23,5 2968 23,1 2921 22,8 2873 22,4 2826 22,0 2779 21,7 2732 21,3 2684 20,9 5644 5,023 5667 5,0 537 93 5515 4,8 5364 4,7 5213 4,5 5061 4,3 4910 4,2 4758 4,0 4607 3,8 4455 3,7 4304 3,5 4153 3,3 4001 3,2 8000 3,435 3850 3,0 93 PAHH Subsea bara 228 235 107 101 Alt 3: Minimizing choke internal changes, Low PAHH Settle out Production profile Simulation Pressure Choke pressure Oil Gas actual flow drop over choke Sm/d MSm/d m/h CV bara 9000 2,117 1031 1,0 764 147 1159 1,3 1287 1,5 1415 1,8 1543 2,0 1671 2,3 1799 2,5 1927 2,8 2055 3,0 10200 4,293 2183 3,3 148 2268 3,4 2353 3,6 2438 3,7 2523 3,9 2608 4,0 2693 4,2 2779 4,3 2864 4,4 2949 4,6 3034 4,7 3119 4,9 12000 6,000 3204 5,0 147 3157 4,9 3110 4,9 3062 4,8 3015 4,7 2968 4,6 2921 4,6 2873 4,5 2826 4,4 2779 4,3 2732 4,3 2684 4,2 5644 5,023 5667 5,0 537 93 5515 4,8 5364 4,7 5213 4,5 5061 4,3 4910 4,2 4758 4,0 4607 3,8 4455 3,7 4304 3,5 4153 3,3 4001 3,2 8000 3,435 3850 3,0 93 PAHH Subsea bara 151 159 164 107 101

Year 2015 2015 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2018 2019 2019 2019 2019 2019 2019 2019 2019

Year Month 2015 11 2015 12 2016 1 2016 2 2016 3 2016 4 2016 5 2016 6 2016 7 2016 8 2016 9 2016 10 2016 11 2016 12 2017 1 2017 2 2017 3 2017 4 2017 5 2017 6 2017 7 2017 8 2017 9 2017 10 2017 11 2017 12 2018 1 2018 2 2018 3 2018 4 2018 5 2018 6 2018 7 2018 8 2018 9 2018 10 2018 11 2018 12 2019 1 2019 2 2019 3 2019 4 2019 5 2019 6 2019 7 2019 8

Year Month 2015 11 2015 12 2016 1 2016 2 2016 3 2016 4 2016 5 2016 6 2016 7 2016 8 2016 9 2016 10 2016 11 2016 12 2017 1 2017 2 2017 3 2017 4 2017 5 2017 6 2017 7 2017 8 2017 9 2017 10 2017 11 2017 12 2018 1 2018 2 2018 3 2018 4 2018 5 2018 6 2018 7 2018 8 2018 9 2018 10 2018 11 2018 12 2019 1 2019 2 2019 3 2019 4 2019 5 2019 6 2019 7 2019 8

Appendix B
Results from choke calculations
Alternative 1 Year 2015 settle out pressure 225 bara 1 Choke CV with settle out pressure 225 bara CV 320 PSV capacity 1086213 kg/h Choke mal operation 1086213 kg/h 2 Pressure drop over choke when CV = 320 dp over choke 5 bar 3 PAHH from pipeline calculations PAHH sub sea 228 bara PAHH topside 219 bara Settle out pressure 225 bara Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Year 2015 with year 2017 choke and new PSHH 1 Pressure drop over choke when CV = 764 dp over choke 1,0 bar 2 Max settle out pressure when CV = 764 and PSV`s are full utilized Settle out pressure 147 bara PSV capacity 1030364 kg/h Choke mal operation 1030364 kg/h 3 PAHH from pipeline calculations PAHH sub sea 151 bara PAHH topside 140 bara Settle out pressure 147 bara Year 2016 with year 2015 choke and PAHH 1 PAHH from pipeline calculations PAHH sub sea 228 bara L= 30 PAHH topside 219 bara U= 4 Settle out pressure 219 bara ID = 16 2 Pressure drop over choke when CV = 320 dp over choke 17 bar 3 Choke mal operation rate when CV = 320 and settle out pressure = 219 bara PSV capacity 1069572 kg/h Choke mal operation 1028461 kg/h Excess capacity 41111 kg/h Year 2017 with year 2015 choke and new PSHH 1 Pressure drop over choke when CV = 320 dp over choke 25 bar 2 Max settle out pressure when CV = 320 and PSV`s are full utilized Settle out pressure 223 bara PSV capacity 1059168 kg/h Choke mal operation 1059168 kg/h 3 PAHH from pipeline calculations PAHH sub sea 235 bara PAHH topside 199 bara Settle out pressure 223 bara

L= U= ID =

30 4 16

km W/m C in

L= U= ID =

30 4 16

km W/m C in

Year 2016 with 5 bar over new topside choke 1 Choke CV with 5 bara over choke Min CV 607 2 Max settle out pressure when CV = 607 and PSV`s are full utilized Settle out pressure 157 bara PSV capacity 1026721 kg/h Choke mal operation 1026721 kg/h 3 PAHH from pipeline calculations PAHH sub sea 168 bara PAHH topside 135 bara Settle out pressure 157 bara

km W/m C in

Year 2016 with year 2017 choke and new PSHH 1 Pressure drop over choke when CV = 764 dp over choke 3,3 bar 2 Max settle out pressure when CV = 764 and PSV`s are full utilized Settle out pressure 148 bara PSV capacity 1020506 kg/h Choke mal operation 1020506 kg/h 3 PAHH from pipeline calculations PAHH sub sea 159 bara PAHH topside 125 bara Settle out pressure 148 bara

L= U= ID =

30 4 16

km W/m C in

L= U= ID =

30 4 16

km W/m C in

Year 2017 with 5 bar over new topside choke 1 Choke CV with 5 bara over choke Min CV 764 2 Max settle out pressure when CV = 764 and PSV`s are full utilized Settle out pressure 147 bara PSV capacity 1008409 kg/h Choke mal operation 1008409 kg/h 3 PAHH from pipeline calculations PAHH sub sea 164 bara PAHH topside 113 bara Settle out pressure 147 bara

Year 2017 with 5 bar over topside choke 1 Choke CV with 5 bara over choke Min CV 764 2 Max settle out pressure when CV = 764 and PSV`s are full utilized Settle out pressure 147 bara PSV capacity 1008409 kg/h Choke mal operation 1008409 kg/h 3 PAHH from pipeline calculations PAHH sub sea 164 bara PAHH topside 113 bara Settle out pressure 147 bara

L= U= ID =

30 4 16

km W/m C in

L= U= ID =

30 4 16

km W/m C in

L= U= ID =

30 4 16

km W/m C in

Year 2018 with 5 bar over new topside choke 1 Choke CV with 5 bara over choke Min CV 537 2 Max settle out pressure when CV = 537 and PSV`s are full utilized Settle out pressure 93 bara PSV capacity 566020 kg/h Choke mal operation 566020 kg/h 3 PAHH from pipeline calculations PAHH sub sea 107 bara PAHH topside 65 bara Settle out pressure 93 bara

L= U= ID =

30 4 16

km W/m C in Year 2019 with year 2018 choke CV and PAHH 1 PAHH from pipeline calculations PAHH sub sea 107 bara L= 30 km PAHH topside 65 bara U= 4 W/m C Settle out pressure 100 bara ID = 16 in 2 Pressure drop over choke when CV = 537 dp over choke 3 bar 3 Choke mal operation rate when CV = 537 and settle out pressure = 100 bara PSV capacity 562736 kg/h Choke mal operation 663398 kg/h Excess capacity -100662 kg/h

Year 2019 with year 2018 choke CV and new PSHH 1 Pressure drop over choke when CV = 537 dp over choke 3 bar 2 Max settle out pressure when CV = 537 and PSV`s are full utilized Settle out pressure 93 bara PSV capacity 559906 kg/h Choke mal operation 559906 kg/h 3 PAHH from pipeline calculations PAHH sub sea 101 bara PAHH topside 77 bara Settle out pressure 93 bara

L= U= ID =

30 4 16

km W/m C in

Appendix C
Sketches showing wellhead pressure, requires pipeline dispatch pressure, PSHH set pressure and topside choke pressure drop for alternative 1 and 3 in year 2015 to year 2019.

Dagny subsea case 2A


Year 2015 Choke CV = 320

Rev. 01

TOPSIDE CHOKE dp = 5 bar


385 BARG FLOWLINE (TYPICAL) 385 BARG PRODUCTION MANIFOLD

TO PRODUCTION SEPARATOR

72 95

71 90 PSD
HH=219 bara

WELL CHOKE 225 PT


LL=

PSD MPM PT ESD XV


LL=

385 BARG TOPSIDE 385 BARG RISER

385 BARG 385 BARG

PT PWV

LL=

ESD PSD PSD APS HH=228 bara PT HH=228 bara PT 16 ID PIPELINE TO SLA SSIV
385 BARG MANIFOLD 385 BARG PIPELINE 385 BARG PIPELINE 385 BARG RISER

PSD

EV

ESD PSD

MEG

HCV PMV PSD

114

SCSSV

ESD

Well T [C] P [bara] NOTES: 1. Only actuated valves and transmitters with shutdown function are shown. 2. PMV and PWV closes on PAHH from a pressure transmitter installed downstream of the choke valve on the well production flowlines from Dagny production wells. 3. PMV and PWV also closes on PSD signal and ESD signal from SLA. 4. SCSSV closes on ESD signal from SLA. 5. Pipeline settle-out pressure at active shutdown of Dagny wells on topside PAHH estimated to 225 bara.

Typical well

Dagny subsea case 2A


Year 2015 alternative Choke CV = 764

Rev. 01

TOPSIDE CHOKE dp = 1 bar


385 BARG FLOWLINE (TYPICAL) 385 BARG PRODUCTION MANIFOLD

TO PRODUCTION SEPARATOR

72 91

71 90 PSD
HH=140 bara

WELL CHOKE 225 PT


LL=

PSD MPM PT ESD XV


LL=

385 BARG TOPSIDE 385 BARG RISER

385 BARG 385 BARG

PT PWV

LL=

ESD PSD PSD APS HH=151 bara PT HH=151 bara PT 16 ID PIPELINE TO SLA SSIV
385 BARG MANIFOLD 385 BARG PIPELINE 385 BARG PIPELINE 385 BARG RISER

PSD

EV

ESD PSD

MEG

HCV PMV PSD

110

SCSSV

ESD

Well T [C] P [bara] NOTES: 1. Only actuated valves and transmitters with shutdown function are shown. 2. PMV and PWV closes on PAHH from a pressure transmitter installed downstream of the choke valve on the well production flowlines from Dagny production wells. 3. PMV and PWV also closes on PSD signal and ESD signal from SLA. 4. SCSSV closes on ESD signal from SLA. 5. Pipeline settle-out pressure at active shutdown of Dagny wells on topside PAHH estimated to 147 bara.

Typical well

Dagny subsea case 2A


Year 2016 Choke CV = 607

Rev. 01

TOPSIDE CHOKE dp = 5 bar


385 BARG FLOWLINE (TYPICAL) 385 BARG PRODUCTION MANIFOLD

TO PRODUCTION SEPARATOR

79 95

78 90 PSD
HH=135 bara

WELL CHOKE 175 PT


LL=

PSD MPM PT ESD XV


LL=

385 BARG TOPSIDE 385 BARG RISER

385 BARG 385 BARG

PT PWV

LL=

ESD PSD PSD APS HH=168 bara PT HH=168 bara PT 16 ID PIPELINE TO SLA SSIV
385 BARG MANIFOLD 385 BARG PIPELINE 385 BARG PIPELINE 385 BARG RISER

PSD

EV

ESD PSD

MEG

HCV PMV PSD

125

SCSSV

ESD

Well T [C] P [bara] NOTES: 1. Only actuated valves and transmitters with shutdown function are shown. 2. PMV and PWV closes on PAHH from a pressure transmitter installed downstream of the choke valve on the well production flowlines from Dagny production wells. 3. PMV and PWV also closes on PSD signal and ESD signal from SLA. 4. SCSSV closes on ESD signal from SLA. 5. Pipeline settle-out pressure at active shutdown of Dagny wells on topside PAHH estimated to 157 bara.

Typical well

Dagny subsea case 2A


Year 2016 alternative Choke CV = 764

Rev. 01

TOPSIDE CHOKE dp = 3.3 bar


385 BARG FLOWLINE (TYPICAL) 385 BARG PRODUCTION MANIFOLD

TO PRODUCTION SEPARATOR

79 93

78 90 PSD
HH=125 bara

WELL CHOKE 175 PT


LL=

PSD MPM PT ESD XV


LL=

385 BARG TOPSIDE 385 BARG RISER

385 BARG 385 BARG

PT PWV

LL=

ESD PSD PSD APS HH=159 bara PT HH=159 bara PT 16 ID PIPELINE TO SLA SSIV
385 BARG MANIFOLD 385 BARG PIPELINE 385 BARG PIPELINE 385 BARG RISER

PSD

EV

ESD PSD

MEG

HCV PMV PSD

123

SCSSV

ESD

Well T [C] P [bara] NOTES: 1. Only actuated valves and transmitters with shutdown function are shown. 2. PMV and PWV closes on PAHH from a pressure transmitter installed downstream of the choke valve on the well production flowlines from Dagny production wells. 3. PMV and PWV also closes on PSD signal and ESD signal from SLA. 4. SCSSV closes on ESD signal from SLA. 5. Pipeline settle-out pressure at active shutdown of Dagny wells on topside PAHH estimated to 148 bara.

Typical well

Dagny subsea case 2A


Year 2017 Choke CV = 764

Rev. 01

TOPSIDE CHOKE dp = 5 bar


385 BARG FLOWLINE (TYPICAL) 385 BARG PRODUCTION MANIFOLD

TO PRODUCTION SEPARATOR

87 95

88 90 PSD
HH=113 bara

WELL CHOKE 158 PT


LL=

PSD MPM PT ESD XV


LL=

385 BARG TOPSIDE 385 BARG RISER

385 BARG 385 BARG

PT PWV

LL=

ESD PSD PSD APS HH=164 bara PT HH=164 bara PT 16 ID PIPELINE TO SLA SSIV
385 BARG MANIFOLD 385 BARG PIPELINE 385 BARG PIPELINE 385 BARG RISER

PSD

EV

ESD PSD

MEG

HCV PMV PSD

157

SCSSV

ESD

Well T [C] P [bara] NOTES: 1. Only actuated valves and transmitters with shutdown function are shown. 2. PMV and PWV closes on PAHH from a pressure transmitter installed downstream of the choke valve on the well production flowlines from Dagny production wells. 3. PMV and PWV also closes on PSD signal and ESD signal from SLA. 4. SCSSV closes on ESD signal from SLA. 5. Pipeline settle-out pressure at active shutdown of Dagny wells on topside PAHH estimated to 147 bara.

Typical well

Dagny subsea case 2A


Year 2018 Choke CV = 537

Rev. 01

TOPSIDE CHOKE dp = 5 bar


385 BARG FLOWLINE (TYPICAL) 385 BARG PRODUCTION MANIFOLD

TO PRODUCTION SEPARATOR

70 40

66 35 PSD
HH=93 bara

WELL CHOKE 101 PT


LL=

PSD MPM PT ESD XV


LL=

385 BARG TOPSIDE 385 BARG RISER

385 BARG 385 BARG

PT PWV

LL=

ESD PSD PSD APS HH=107 bara PT HH=107 bara PT 16 ID PIPELINE TO SLA SSIV
385 BARG MANIFOLD 385 BARG PIPELINE 385 BARG PIPELINE 385 BARG RISER

PSD

EV

ESD PSD

MEG

HCV PMV PSD

100

SCSSV

ESD

Well T [C] P [bara] NOTES: 1. Only actuated valves and transmitters with shutdown function are shown. 2. PMV and PWV closes on PAHH from a pressure transmitter installed downstream of the choke valve on the well production flowlines from Dagny production wells. 3. PMV and PWV also closes on PSD signal and ESD signal from SLA. 4. SCSSV closes on ESD signal from SLA. 5. Pipeline settle-out pressure at active shutdown of Dagny wells on topside PAHH estimated to 93 bara.

Typical well

Dagny subsea case 2A


Year 2019 Choke CV = 537

Rev. 01

TOPSIDE CHOKE dp = 3 bar


385 BARG FLOWLINE (TYPICAL) 385 BARG PRODUCTION MANIFOLD

TO PRODUCTION SEPARATOR

74 38

71 35 PSD
HH=77 bara

WELL CHOKE 100 PT


LL=

PSD MPM PT ESD XV


LL=

385 BARG TOPSIDE 385 BARG RISER

385 BARG 385 BARG

PT PWV

LL=

ESD PSD PSD APS HH=101 bara PT HH=101 bara PT 16 ID PIPELINE TO SLA SSIV
385 BARG MANIFOLD 385 BARG PIPELINE 385 BARG PIPELINE 385 BARG RISER

PSD

EV

ESD PSD

MEG

HCV PMV PSD

99

SCSSV

ESD

Well T [C] P [bara] NOTES: 1. Only actuated valves and transmitters with shutdown function are shown. 2. PMV and PWV closes on PAHH from a pressure transmitter installed downstream of the choke valve on the well production flowlines from Dagny production wells. 3. PMV and PWV also closes on PSD signal and ESD signal from SLA. 4. SCSSV closes on ESD signal from SLA. 5. Pipeline settle-out pressure at active shutdown of Dagny wells on topside PAHH estimated to 93 bara.

Typical well

Choke Calculations for Field 15/5-2 in year 2015 - Gas filled Riser Case

Results from Choke failure calculations with gas filled riser

Notes:
1. Mass flowrate through the choke is equal to maximum massrate through inlet separator B PSV's. 2. Choke Cv decreases when shut in gas temperature increases. 3. Selected CV = 357

Pressure drop over Choke with CV = 357

Conclutions
Maximum pressure drop over choke with CV = 357 is 4,2 bar Temperature d/s choke = 34C when operated with 21 bar differential pressure (arrival pressure - inlet separator B operation pressure).

Choke Calculations for Field 15/5-2 in year 2015 - Wellstream case

Results from Choke failure calculations with gas filled riser

Notes:
1. Mass flowrate through the choke is equal to maximum massrate through inlet separator B PSV's. 2. Choke Cv decreases when shut in gas temperature increases. 3. Selected CV = 344

Pressure drop over Choke with CV = 344

Conclutions
Maximum pressure drop over choke with CV = 344 is 4,5 bar Temperature d/s choke = 34C when operated with 21 bar differential pressure (arrival pressure - inlet separator B operation pressure).

Choke calculations
1. Gas filled riser case With gas filled riser case the wellflow is separated at shut in pressure = 220 bara and minimum arrival temperature = 30C. 1.1. PSV, inlet separator B To get the correct temperature down stream PSV, the gas from gas filled riser is flashed through the choke to PSV reliving pressure 114 barg + 10% = 126.5 bara. The temperature is calculated to be 12.5C. HEM method is used to calculate maximum flow through PSVs 037, 038, 277 and 278 where one is spare. Maximum acceptable choke failure rate was calculated to be 1 204 402 kg/h. 1.2. Choke CV A CCI program is used to calculate choke CV. To simulate a gas filled riser, wellflow is separated at shut in pressure = 220 bara and 5 different arrival temperatures where the CV calculated with 30 C will be design. The flow through choke is set to be equal to maximum choke failure rate calculated in chapter 1.1.1. The pressure down stream choke is set to be 126.5 bara. CCI program is based on: - Custom Drag choke whit: - Body Type: Angle - Flow Direction: Flow to Open (UTP) - Trim Type: Drag, Multi-Path, Multi Stage - Plug Type: Balanced - One phase: Gas - Gas Type: Natural gas - Critical Pressure: True critical pressure is not calculated in HYSYS so Pseudo critical pressure = 47 bara is used. - Critical temperature: True critical temperature is not calculated in HYSYS so Pseudo critical temperature = -65C is used. - Design pressure is set to be 220 bara - Design temperature is set to be 130/-20 Figure 1.1.2-1: Results from CCI program

Design CV is calculated to be 357 with gas filled riser.

1.3. pressure drop over choke A CCI program is used to calculate pressure drop over the choke. Operating conditions are used when simulating pressure drop over choke. Normal operating conditions is set to be 101 bara and 40C. The pressure drop over chock is changed until CV calculated in chapter 1.1.2 is reached. CCI program is based on: - Custom Drag choke whit: - Body Type: Angle - Flow Direction: Flow to Open (UTP) - Trim Type: Drag, Multi-Path, Multi Stage - Plug Type: Balanced - Two phases: Gas and liquid - Critical Gas Pressure: True critical pressure = 58 bara - Critical Gas Temperature: True critical temperature = -67C - Critical Liquid Pressure: True critical pressure = 587 bara - Design pressure is set to be 220 bara - Design temperature is set to be 130/-20 Figure 1.1.3-1: Results from CCI program

Pressure drop over choke with CV = 357 in gas filled riser case is calculated to be 4.2 bar. 2. Wellstream case With the wellstream case, the wellflow is operated shut in pressure = 220 bara and minimum arrival temperature = 30C.

2.1. PSV To get the correct temperature down stream PSV, the wellstream is flashed through the choke to PSV reliving pressure 114 barg + 10% = 126.5 bara. The temperature is calculated to be 15.1C. HEM method is used to calculate maximum flow through PSVs 037, 038, 277 and 278 where one is spare. Maximum acceptable choke failure rate was calculated to be 1 211 640 kg/h.

2.2. Choke CV A CCI program is used to calculate choke CV. Wellflow down stream the choke is operated at shut in pressure = 220 bara. 5 different arrival temperatures where the CV calculated with 30 C will be design. The flow through choke is set to be equal to maximum choke failure rate calculated in chapter 1.2.1. The pressure down stream choke is set to be 126.5 bara. CCI program is based on: - Custom Drag choke whit: - Body Type: Angle - Flow Direction: Flow to Open (UTP) - Trim Type: Drag, Multi-Path, Multi Stage - Plug Type: Balanced - Two phases: Gas and liquid - Critical Gas Pressure: True critical pressure is not calculated in HYSYS so Pseudo critical pressure = 47 bara is used. - Critical Gas Temperature: True critical temperature is not calculated in HYSYS so Pseudo critical temperature = -65C is used. - Critical Liquid Pressure: True critical pressure = 225 bara - Design pressure is set to be 220 bara - Design temperature is set to be 130/-20 Figure 1.1.2-1: Results from CCI program

Design CV is calculated to be 344 with wellstream case.

2.3. pressure drop over choke A CCI program is used to calculate pressure drop over the choke. Operating conditions are used when simulating pressure drop over choke. Normal operating conditions is set to be 101 bara and 40C. The pressure drop over chock is changed until CV calculated in chapter 1.2.2 is reached. CCI program is based on: - Custom Drag choke whit: - Body Type: Angle - Flow Direction: Flow to Open (UTP) - Trim Type: Drag, Multi-Path, Multi Stage - Plug Type: Balanced - Two phases: Gas and liquid - Critical Gas Pressure: True critical pressure = 58 bara - Critical Gas Temperature: True critical temperature = -67C - Critical Liquid Pressure: True critical pressure = 587 bara - Design pressure is set to be 220 bara - Design temperature is set to be 130/-20 Figure 1.1.3-1: Results from CCI program

Pressure drop over choke with CV = 344 in gas filled riser case is calculated to be 4.5 bar. 3. Normal choke operation Under normal operation in year 2015, 15/5-2 will arrive at 101 bara and the inlet separator B will be operated at 80 bara. The differential pressure over the choke will be 21 bar and with 40C d/s temperature the u/s temperature will be 34C