Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 53

Table of Content

1. Project Introduction 2. About Mental Stress 3. Principle Used 4. Circuit Description 5. Circuit Diagram 6. PCB Layout 7. Device Peripherals List 8. Peripherals Description 9. PCB Manufacturing process 10.Circuit Fabrication 11. Initializing & Working 12. Application 13.Farther Development 14. Chronology 15. Bibliography

--------------------- 1 --------------------- 2 --------------------- 5 --------------------- 6 --------------------- 8 ----------------------9 ----------------------10 ----------------------11 ----------------------37 ----------------------39 ----------------------47 ----------------------49 ----------------------50 -----------------------51 ----------------------52



Our project MENTAL STRESS IDENTIFIER is an instrument that measures the mental stress or tension of human body. This stress Monitor lets you assess your emotional pain. If the stress is very high, it gives visual indication through a light emitting diode (LED) display along with a warning beep. The device is small enough to be worn around the wrist.

This device needs to initialize for person using it. We have to set device in initial state which is for relaxed state, then it ready for use.

This is a low cost device may be useful in many areas where psychological presence being tested. A set of component connected in a manner so that the change of resistance of body can be detected, which is key objective of device.


Page 1


'What is stress and how it affects the body' is a common query that is heard everywhere nowadays. The stress definition is very simple. When our body or mind cannot meet the demands made upon them, stress arises! Let us explore more about what stress is...

WHAT IS STRESS: - Researchers view stress as the psychological and

physiological condition that a person experiences when a situation is perceived as threatening, harmful or demanding.

DEFINITION: Hans Selye, the father of modern stress research, defined Stress as "any event which may make demands upon the organism, and set in motion a non-specific bodily response which leads to a variety of temporary or permanent physiological or structural changes".


Page 2

The three important clauses of definition:1. Demands upon the organism: Stress calls for action (response) from our body. 2. Non Specific Bodily Response: Whether the stress inducing event is negative/harmful (death of a dear friend), or positive/exciting (winning a 1 million lottery), the physiological response of our body will be same! Meaning, there is no specific response to a particular event. All events evoke the same type of response, though the emotional intensity may vary. Temporary or permanent physiological or structural changes: The after effects of stress can cause either temporary or permanent changes in our body. What these changes are we will see later.

Definition of Stress by Richard S Lazarus

Stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that 'demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. STRESS MODEL & EFFECT ON BODY
General adaptation syndrome: It is a stress model. It has three

stages which are defined by Dr. Selye. Alarm Resistance Exhaustion ALARM When the threat or stressor is identified or realized, the body's stress response is a state of alarm. During this stage adrenaline will be produced in order to bring about the fight-or-flight response. There is also some activation of the HPA axis, producing cortisol.


Page 3

RESISTANCE Resistance is the second stage. If the stressor persists, it becomes necessary to attempt some means of coping with the stress. Although the body begins to try to adapt to the strains or demands of the environment, the body cannot keep this up indefinitely, so its resources are gradually depleted.

EXHAUSTION Exhaustion is the third and final stage in the GAS model. At this point, all of the body's resources are eventually depleted and the body is unable to maintain normal function. The initial autonomic nervous system symptoms may reappear (sweating, raised heart rate etc.). If stage three is extended, long term damage may result as the capacity of glands, especially the adrenal gland, and the immune system is exhausted and function is impaired resulting in decompensation. The result can manifest itself in obvious illnesses such as ulcers, depression, diabetes, trouble with the system or even cardiovascular problems, along with other mental illnesses.

Page 4

This Instrument is based on the principle that the resistance of skin varies in accordance with your emotional states. If the stress level is high the skin offers less resistance, and if the body is relaxed the, skin resistance is high.

The low resistance of the skin during high stress is due to an increase in the blood supply to the skin. This increases the permeability of the skin and hence the conductivity for electric current.

This property of the skin is used here to measure the stress level. The touch pads of stress meter sense the voltage across the touch pads and convey the same to the circuit. The circuit is very sensitive and detects even a minute voltage variation across the touch pads.


Page 5

The circuit comprises signal amplifier and analogue display sections.
PARTS LIST Semiconductors: IC1 T1 D1 ZD1 Resistors: LED1-LED5 R1 R2 R3,R4 R5 R6 VR1 VR2 Capacitors: C1 C2,C3 Miscellaneous: PZ1 B S X -piezo electric buzzer -9V battery -Switch -Touch Pads - 10F, 16V - 100F, 16V - 5mm light-emitting diode - 560E - 1.2 kilo ohm - 470E -1 kilo ohm - 47 kilo ohm -1M -47 K - LM3915 ,3-25V supply operated -BC548 CE amplifier mode - 1N4148 rectifier diode -5.1V, 0.5W


Page 6

Voltage variations from the sensing pads are amplified by transistor BC548 (T1), which is configured as a common-emitter amplifier. The base of T1 is connected to one of touch pads through resistor R1 and to ground rail through potmeter VR1.

Diode D1 maintains proper biasing of T1 and capacitor C1 keeps the voltage from the emitter of T1 steady.

IC LM3915 is used as main component of the circuit. This is a monolithic integrated circuit that senses analogue voltage levels at its pin 5 and displays them through LEDs providing a logarithmic analogue display.

The circuit has 5 LEDs as visual indicator. The LEDs are connected to the IC LM3915 from pin 14-18. Higher stress signals can be led out by pin 14, hence there is a piezo-electric buzzer PZ1 is connected between LED5 & pin 14.

Resistors R4 and R5 and capacitor C2 form the flashing elements. Resistor R3 maintains the LED current. Zener diode ZD1 in series with resistor R6 provides regulated 5V to the circuit.


Page 7


Fig: Stress Meter Circuit Using LM3915


Page 8



Page 9


Name 1. IC -LM3915 2. Transistor BC548 3. Diode 1N4148 4. Zener Diode 0.5W 5. LEDs (2 red, 2 green, 1 yellow) 6. Variable Resistor 1M 7. Variable Resistor 47k 8. Resistor 560E 9. Resistor 1.2k 10. Resistor 470E 11. Resistor 1k 12. Resistor 47k 13. Capacitor 10F, 16V 14. Capacitor 100 F, 16V 15. Piezo Buzzer 16. Switch 17. Battery 9V 18. Touch Pad

1 pc. 1 pc. 1 pc. 1 pc. 5 pc. 1pc. 1pc. 1pc. 1pc. 2pc. 1pc. 1pc. 1pc. 2pc. 1pc. 1pc. 1pc. 1pc.


Page 10

RESISTORS: A Resistor is a heat-dissipating element and in the electronic circuits it is mostly used for either controlling the current in the circuit or developing a voltage drop across it, which could be utilized for many applications. There are various types of resistors, which can be classified according to a number of factors depending upon: (I) (II) Material used for fabrication Wattage and physical size

(III) Intended application (IV) Ambient temperature rating (V) Cost

Basically the resistor can be split in to the following four parts from the construction viewpoint. (1) Base (2) Resistance element (3) Terminals (4) Protective means.


Page 11

The following characteristics are inherent in all resistors and may be controlled by design considerations and choice of material i.e. Temperature coefficient of resistance, Voltage coefficient of resistance, high frequency characteristics, power rating, tolerance & voltage rating of resistors. Resistors may be classified as (1)Fixed (2)Semi variable (3)Variable resistor.

In our project carbon resistors are being used. A resistor is a block of material that limits the flow of current. The greater the resistance, the lower the current will be. Since conductors have an "electron cloud" around the atoms, they behave like a wide pipe filled with water, and have low resistance to a flow of water. Resistance can vary from very small to very large. A superconductor has zero resistance, while something like the input to an op-amp can have a resistance near 1012 , and even higher resistances are possible. For most materials, as temperature increases resistance tends to increase as well. Resistance converts electrical energy into heat. Resistors which dissipate large amounts of power are cooled so that they are not destroyed, typically with finned heat sinks.


Page 12

Function Resistors restrict the flow of electric current, for example a resistor is placed in series with a light-emitting diode (LED) to limit the current passing through the LED. Resistor values are normally shown using coloured bands. Each colour represents a number as shown in the table. Most resistors have 4 bands: The first band gives the first digit. The second band gives the second digit. The third band indicates the number of zeros. The fourth band is used to shows the tolerance (precision) of the resistor, this may be ignored for almost all circuits but further details are given below.



Page 13

This resistor has red (2), violet (7), yellow (4 zeros) and gold bands. So its value is 270000 = 270 k . On the circuit diagrams is usually omitted and the value is written 270K.

CAPACITORS:The fundamental relation for the capacitance between two flat plates separated by a dielectric material is given by:C=0.08854KA/D Where: C= capacitance in pf. K= dielectric constant A=Area per plate in square cm. D=Distance between two plates in cm Design of capacitor depends on the proper dielectric material with particular type of application. The dielectric material used for capacitors may be grouped in various classes like Mica, Glass, air, ceramic, paper, Aluminum, electrolyte etc. The value of capacitance never remains constant. It changes with temperature, frequency and aging. The capacitance value marked on the capacitor strictly applies only at specified temperature and at low frequencies.


Page 14

Function Capacitors store electric charge. They are used with resistors in timing circuits because it takes time for a capacitor to fill with charge. They are used to smooth varying DC supplies by acting as a reservoir of charge. They are also used in filter circuits because capacitors easily pass AC (changing) signals but they block DC (constant) signals. Capacitance This is a measure of a capacitor's ability to store charge. A large capacitance means that more charge can be stored. Capacitance is measured in farads, symbol F. However 1F is very large, so prefixes are used to show the smaller values. Three prefixes (multipliers) are used, (micro), n (nana) and p (picot): means 10-6 (millionth), so 1000000F = 1F n means 10-9 (thousand-millionth), so 1000nF = 1F p means 10-12 (million-millionth), so 1000pF = 1nF Capacitor values can be very difficult to find because there are many types of capacitor with different labeling systems!


Page 15

There are many types of capacitor but they can be split into two groups, polarized and Unpolarised. Each group has its own circuit symbol. Electrolytic Capacitors Electrolytic capacitors are polarized and they must be connected the correct way round, at least one of their leads will be marked + or -. They are not damaged by heat when soldering. There are two designs of electrolytic capacitors; axial where the leads are attached to each end (220F in picture) and radial where both leads are at the same end (10F in picture). Radial capacitors tend to be a little smaller and they stand upright on the circuit board. It is easy to find the value of electrolytic capacitors because they are clearly printed with their capacitance and voltage rating. The voltage rating can be quite low (6V for example) and it should always be checked when selecting an electrolytic capacitor. If the project parts list does not specify a voltage, choose a capacitor with a rating which is greater than the project's power supply voltage. 25V is a sensible minimum for most battery circuits.


Page 16

Tantalum Bead Capacitors Tantalum bead capacitors are polarized and have low voltage ratings like electrolytic capacitors. They are expensive but very small, so they are used where a large capacitance is needed in a small size. Modern tantalum bead capacitors are printed with their capacitance, voltage and polarity in full. However older ones use a colour-code system which has two stripes (for the two digits) and a spot of colour for the number of zeros to give the value in F. The standard colour code is used, but for the spot, grey is used to mean 0.01 and white means 0.1 so that values of less than 10F can be shown. A third colour stripe near the leads shows the voltage (yellow 6.3V, black 10V, green 16V, blue 20V, grey 25V, white 30V, pink 35V). The positive (+) lead is to the right when the spot is facing you: 'when the spot is in sight, the positive is to the right'. For For For example: example: example: blue, blue, blue, grey, grey, grey, black white grey spot spot spot means means means 68F 6.8F 0.68F


Page 17

Unpolarised capacitors (small values, up to 1F)


Circuit symbol: Small value capacitors are Unpolarised and may be connected either way round. They are not damaged by heat when soldering, except for one unusual type (polystyrene). They have high voltage ratings of at least 50V, usually 250V or so. It can be difficult to find the values of these small capacitors because there are many types of them and several different labeling systems! Many small value capacitors have their value printed but without a multiplier, so you need to use experience to work out what the multiplier should be! For example 0.1 means 0.1F = 100nF. Sometimes the multiplier is used in place of the decimal point: For example: 4n7 means 4.7nF.


Page 18

Capacitor Number Code A number code is often used on small capacitors where printing is difficult: the 1st number is the 1st digit, the 2nd number is the 2nd digit, The 3rd number is the number of zeros to give the capacitance in pF. Ignore any letters - they just indicate tolerance and voltage rating. For example: 102 means 1000pF = 1nF (not 102pF!) For example: 472J means 4700pF = 4.7nF (J means 5% tolerance).


Page 19

Capacitor Colour Code

Fig (3.13)

Colour Code

A colour code was used on polyester capacitors for many Colour Number years. It is now obsolete, but of course there are many still around. The colours should be read like the resistor Black 0

code, the top three colour bands giving the value in pF. Brown 1 Ignore the 4th band (tolerance) and 5th band (voltage rating). For example: Red 2

Orange 3

Brown, black, orange means 10000pF = 10nF = 0.01F. Yellow 4 Note that there are no gaps between the colour bands, so Green 5 2 identical bands actually appear as a wide band. For example: wide red, yellow means 220nF = 0.22F. Blue 6

Violet 7 Grey 8

White 9


Page 20


Circuit symbol


Fig (3.6) Diodes allow electricity to flow in only one direction. The arrow of the circuit symbol shows the direction in which the current can flow. Diodes are the electrical version of a valve and early diodes were actually called valves.


Page 21

Forward Voltage Drop Electricity uses up a little energy pushing its way through the diode, rather like a person pushing through a door with a spring. This means that there is a small voltage across a conducting diode, it is called the forward voltage drop and is about 0.7V for all normal diodes which are made from silicon. The forward voltage drop of a diode is almost constant whatever the current passing through the diode so they have a very steep characteristic (current-voltage graph). Reverse Voltage When a reverse voltage is applied a perfect diode does not conduct, but all real diodes leak a very tiny current of a few A or less. This can be ignored in most circuits because it will be very much smaller than the current flowing in the forward direction. However, all diodes have a maximum reverse voltage (usually 50V or more) and if this is exceeded the diode will fail and pass a large current in the reverse direction, this is called breakdown. Ordinary diodes can be split into two types: Signal diodes which pass small currents of 100mA or less and Rectifier diodes which can pass large currents.


Page 22

Zener diodes:-


Circuit symbol: a = anode, k = cathode


Zener diodes are used to maintain a fixed voltage. They are designed to 'breakdown' in a reliable and non-destructive way so that they can be used in reverse to maintain a fixed voltage across their terminals. The diagram shows how they are connected, with a resistor in series to limit the current.


Page 23

Zener diodes can be distinguished from ordinary diodes by their code and breakdown voltage which are printed on them. Zener diode codes begin BZX... or BZY... Their breakdown voltage is printed with V in place of a decimal point, so 4V7 means 4.7V for example. Zener diodes are rated by their breakdown voltage and maximum power: The minimum voltage available is 2.7V. Power ratings of 400mW and 1.3W are common.

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs):-


Circuit symbol: Fig(3.9)


Page 24

Function LEDs emit light when an electric current passes through them. A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. When a diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. However, they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources. Current LED products for general lighting are

Page 25

more expensive to buy than fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.

Connecting and soldering

Fig(3.10) LEDs must be connected in the correct way round, the diagram may be labeled a or + for anode and k or - for cathode (yes, it really is k, not c, for cathode!). The cathode is the short lead and there may be a slight flat on the body of round LEDs. If you can see inside the LED the cathode is the larger electrode (but this is not an official identification method). LEDs can be damaged by heat when soldering, but the risk is small unless you are very slow. No special precautions are needed for soldering most LEDs.


Page 26

Testing an LED Never connect an LED directly to a battery or power supply! It will be destroyed almost instantly because too much current will pass through and burn it out. LEDs must have a resistor in series to limit the current to a safe value, for quick testing purposes a 1k resistor is suitable for most LEDs if

your supply voltage is 12V or less. Remember to connect the LED the correct way round!

Colour of LEDs LEDs are available in red, orange, amber, yellow, green, and blue and white. Blue and white LEDs are much more expensive than the other colours. The colour of an LED is determined by the semiconductor material, not by the colouring of the 'package' (the plastic body). LEDs of all colours are available in uncolored packages which may be diffused (milky) or clear (often described as 'water clear'). The coloured packages are also available as diffused (the standard type) or transparent.


Page 27

Tri-colour LEDs

Fig (3.11) Tri-colour LEDs

The most popular type of tri-colour LED has a red and a green LED combined in one package with three leads. They are called tri-colour because mixed red and green light appears to be yellow and this is produced when both the red and green LEDs are on. The diagram shows the construction of a tri-colour LED. Note the different lengths of the three leads. The centre lead (k) is the common cathode for both LEDs; the outer leads (a1 and a2) are the anodes to the LEDs allowing each one to be lit separately, or both together to give the third colour.


Page 28

Bi-colour LEDs A bi-colour LED has two LEDs wired in 'inverse parallel' (one forwards, one backwards) combined in one package with two leads. Only one of the LEDs can be lit at one time and they are less useful than the tricolour LEDs described above. Sizes, Shapes and Viewing angles of LEDs LEDs are available in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. The 'standard' LED has a round cross-section of 5mm diameter and this is probably the best type for general use, but 3mm round LEDs are also popular. Round cross-section LEDs are frequently used and they are very easy to install on boxes by drilling a hole of the LED diameter, adding a spot of glue will help to hold the LED if necessary. LED clips are also available to secure LEDs in holes. Other cross-section shapes include square, rectangular and triangular. LED Clip


Page 29

TRANSISTOR: A transistor consists of two junctions formed by sandwiching either p-type or n-type semiconductor between a pair of opposite types. Accordingly, there are two types of transistors namely: (1) n-p-n transistor (2) p-n-p transistor



An n-p-n transistor is composed of two n-type semiconductors separated by a thin section of p type. However a p-n-p transistor is formed by two p sections separated by a thin section of n-type. In each type of transistor the following points may be noted.


There are two p-n junctions, therefore a transistor may be regarded as combination of two diodes connected back to back.


There are three terminals taken from each type of semiconductor.


Page 30


The middle section is a very thin layer, which is the most important factor in the functioning of a transistor.


Transistor can be used as an Amplifier also. A transistor raises the strength of a weak signal and thus acts as

an amplifier. The weak signal is applied between emitter base junction and output is taken across the load Rc connected in the collector circuit (in common emitter configuration). In order to achieve faithful amplification, the input circuit should always remain forward biased. To do so, a dc voltage is applied in the input in addition to the signal. This dc Voltage is known as biasing voltage and its magnitude and polarity should be such that it always keeps the input circuit forward biased regardless of the polarity to the signal to be amplified. As the input circuit has low resistance a small change in signal voltage causes an appreciable change in emitter current. This causes change in collector current (by a factor called current gain of transistor) due to transistor action. The collector current flowing through a high load resistance Rc produces a large voltage across it. Thus a weak signal applied to the input circuit appears in the amplified form in the collector circuit. This is how a transistor acts as an amplifier. Transistor may be used in different configuration like CB (common base) & CC (common collector) according to requirements of amplifier (impedance matching, buffer amplifier etc.).

Page 31

TRANSISTOR BC548In our project transistor BC 548 is used for amplifying purpose and configured in CE (common emitter) mode.

Maximum Ratings Rating

Collector-Emitter Voltage CollectorBase Voltage EmitterBase Voltage Collector Current Continuous Total Device Dissipation @ TA = 25C Derate above 25C Total Device Dissipation @ TC = 25C Derate above 25C Operating and Storage Junction Temperature Range


Qty. 30 30 6.0 100 625 5.0

Unit Vdc Vdc Vdc mAdc mW mW/C mW mW/C


1.5 1.2

TJ , Tstg

-55 to C + 150


Page 32

IC LM3915:The LM3915 is a monolithic integrated circuit that senses analog voltage levels and drives at most 10 LEDs, LCDs or vacuum fluorescent displays, providing a logarithmic 3 dB/step analog display. One pin changes the display from a bar graph to a moving dot display. LED current drive is regulated and programmable, eliminating the need of current limiting resistors. The whole system can be operate from a single supply as low as 3V or as high as 25V. The IC contains an adjustable voltage reference and an accurate tenstep voltage divider. The high-impedance input buffer accepts signals down to ground and up to within 1.5V of the positive supply. Further, it needs no protection against inputs of g35V. The input buffer drives 10 individual Comparators referenced to the precision divider. Accuracy is typically batter than 1 dB. The LM3915s 3 dB/step display is suited for signals with wide dynamic range, such as audio level, power, light intensity or vibration. Audio applications include average or peak level indicators, power meters and RF signal strength meters. Replacing conventional meters with an LED bar graph, results in a faster responding, more rugged display with high visibility that retains the ease of interpretation of an analog display.


Page 33

The LM3915 is extremely easy to apply. A 1.2V full-scale meter requires only one resistor in addition to the ten LEDs. One more resistor programs the full-scale anywhere from 1.2V to 12V independent of supply voltage. LED brightness is easily controlled with a single pot. The LM3915 is very versatile. The outputs can drive LCDs, vacuum fluorescents and incandescent bulbs as well as LEDs of any color. Multiple devices can be cascaded for a dot or bar mode display with a range of 60 or 90 dB. LM3915s can also be cascaded with LM3914s for a linear/ log display or with LM3916s for an extended-range VU meter.

FEATURES:3 dB/step, 30 dB range. Drives LEDs, LCDs, or vacuum fluorescents. Bar or dot display mode externally selectable by user. Expandable to displays of 90 dB. Internal voltage reference from 1.2V to 12V. Operates with single supply of 3V to 25V. Inputs operate down to ground. Output current programmable from 1 mA to 30 mA. Input withstands g35V without damage or false outputs. Outputs are current regulated, open collectors. Directly drives TTL or CMOS. The internal 10-step divider is floating and can be referenced to a wide range of voltages. The LM3915 is rated for operation from 0C to +70C.


Page 34


Page 35


Page 36


It is an important process in the fabrication of electronic equipment. The design of PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards) depends on circuit requirements like noise immunity, working frequency and voltage levels etc. High power PCBs requires a special design strategy. The fabrication process to the printed circuit board will determine to a large extent the price and reliability of the equipment. A common target aimed is the fabrication of small series of highly reliable professional quality PCBs with low investment. The target becomes especially important for customer tailored equipments in the area of industrial electronics. The layout of a PCB has to incorporate all the information of the board before one can go on the artwork preparation. This means that a concept which clearly defines all the details of the circuit and partly defines the final equipment, is prerequisite before the actual lay out can start. The detailed circuit diagram is very important for the layout designer but he must also be familiar with the design concept and with the philosophy behind the equipment.


Page 37

BOARD TYPES: The two most popular PCB types are: 1. Single Sided Boards The single sided PCBs are mostly used in entertainment electronics where manufacturing costs have to be kept at a minimum. However in industrial electronics cost factors cannot be neglected and single sided boards should be used wherever a particular circuit can be accommodated on such boards.


Double Sided Boards Double-sided PCBs can be made with or without plated through holes. The production of boards with plated through holes is fairly expensive. Therefore plated through hole boards are only chosen where the circuit complexities and density of components does not leave any other choice.


Page 38


Design Specification: (I) (A) STEPS TAKEN WHILE PREPARING CIRCUIT PCB DESIGNING The main purpose of printed circuit is in the routing of electric currents and signal through a thin copper layer that is bounded firmly to an insulating base material sometimes called the substrate. This base is manufactured with integrally bounded layers of thin copper foil which has to be partly etched or removed to arrive at a pre-designed pattern to suit the circuit connections or other applications as required. The term printed circuit board is derived from the original method where a printed pattern is used as the mask over wanted areas of copper. The PCB provides an ideal baseboard upon which to assemble and hold firmly most of the small components. From the constructors point of view, the main attraction of using PCB is its role as the mechanical support for small components. There is less need for complicated and time consuming metal work of chassis contraception except perhaps in providing the final enclosure. Most straight forward circuit designs can be easily converted in to printed wiring layer the thought required to carry out the inversion cab footed

Page 39

high light an possible error that would otherwise be missed in conventional point to point wiring .The finished project is usually neater and truly a work of art. Actual size PCB layout for the circuit shown is drawn on the copper board. The board is then immersed in FeCl3 solution for 12 hours. In this process only the exposed copper portion is etched out by the solution. Now the petrol washes out the paint and the copper layout on PCB is rubbed with a smooth sand paper slowly and lightly such that only the oxide layers over the Cu are removed. Now the holes are drilled at the respective places according to component layout as shown in figure. (B) LAYOUT DESIGN: When designing the layout one should observe the minimum size (component body length and weight). Before starting to design the layout we need all the required components in hand so that an accurate assessment of space can be made. Other space considerations might also be included from case to case of mounted components over the printed circuit board or to access path of present components.


Page 40

It might be necessary to turn some components around to a different angular position so that terminals are closer to the connections of the components. The scale can be checked by positioning the components on the squared paper. If any connection crosses, then one can reroute to avoid such condition.

All common or earth lines should ideally be connected to a common line routed around the perimeter of the layout. This will act as the ground plane. If possible try to route the outer supply line to the ground plane. If possible try to route the other supply lines around the opposite edge of the layout through the center. The first set is tearing the circuit to eliminate the crossover without altering the circuit detail in any way.

Plan the layout looking at the topside to this board. First this should be translated inversely; later for the etching pattern large areas are recommended to maintain good copper adhesion. It is important to bear in mind always that copper track width must be according to the recommended minimum dimensions and allowance must be made for increased width where termination holes are needed. From this aspect, it can become little tricky to negotiate the route to connect small transistors.

Page 41

There are basically two ways of copper interconnection patterns underside the board. The first is the removal of only the amount of copper necessary to isolate the junctions of the components to one another. The second is to make the interconnection pattern looking more like conventional point wiring by routing uniform width of copper from component to component.



Etching process requires the use of chemicals. Acid resistant dishes and running water supply. Ferric chloride is mostly used solution but other etching materials such as ammonium per sulphate can be used. Nitric acid can be used but in general it is not used due to poisonous fumes.

The pattern prepared is glued to the copper surface of the board using a latex type of adhesive that can be cubed after use. The pattern is laid firmly on the copper using a very sharp knife to cut round the pattern carefully to remove the paper corresponding to the required

Page 42

copper pattern areas. Then apply the resistant solution, which can be a kind of ink solution for the purpose of maintaining smooth clean outlines as far as possible. While the board is drying, test all the components.

Before going to next stage, check the whole pattern and cross check with the circuit diagram. Check for any free metal on the copper. The etching bath should be in a glass or enamel disc. If using crystal of ferric- chloride these should be thoroughly dissolved in water to the proportion suggested. There should be 0.5 lt. of water for 125 gm of crystal.

To prevent particles of copper hindering further etching, agitate the solutions carefully by gently twisting or rocking the tray.

The board should not be left in the bath a moment longer than is needed to remove just the right amount of copper. Inspite of there being a resistive coating there is no protection against etching away through exposed copper edges. This leads to over etching. Have running water ready so that etched board can be removed properly and rinsed. This will halt etching immediately.


Page 43

Drilling is one of those operations that call for great care. For most purposes a 0.5mm drill is used. Drill all holes with this size first those that need to be larger can be easily drilled again with the appropriate larger size.


From the greatest variety of electronic components available, which runs into thousands of different types it, is often a perplexing task to know which is right for a given job.

There could be damage such as hairline crack on PCB. If there are, then they can be repaired by soldering a short link of bare copper wire over the affected part.

The most popular method of holding all the items is to bring the wires far apart after they have been inserted in the appropriate holes. This will hold the component in position ready for soldering.


Page 44

Some components will be considerably larger .So it is best to start mounting the smallest first and progressing through to the largest. Before starting, be certain that no further drilling is likely to be necessary because access may be impossible later.

Next will probably be the resistor, small signal diodes or other similar size components. Some capacitors are also very small but it would be best to fit these afterwards. When fitting each group of components mark off each one on the circuit as it is fitted so that if we have to leave the job we know where to recommence.

Although transistors and integrated circuits are small items there are good reasons for leaving the soldering of these until the last step. The main point is that these components are very sensitive to heat and if subjected to prolonged application of the soldering iron, they could be internally damaged.

All the components before mounting are rubbed with sand paper so that oxide layer is removed from the tips. Now they are mounted according to the component layout.


Page 45

(E) SOLDERING: This is the operation of joining the components with PCB after this operation the circuit will be ready to use to avoid any damage or fault during this operation following care must be taken.

A longer duration contact between soldering iron bit & components lead can exceed the temperature rating of device & cause partial or total damage of the device. Hence before soldering we must carefully read the maximum soldering temperature & soldering time for device. The wattage of soldering iron should be selected as minimum as permissible for that soldering place. To protect the devices by leakage current of iron its bit should be earthed properly. We should select the soldering wire with proper ratio of Pb & Tn to provide the suitable melting temperature. Proper amount of good quality flux must be applied on the soldering point to avoid dry soldering.


Page 46


Our Mental Stress Identifier needs to initialize before use.

INITIALIZATION: The device is first taking the reference resistance from the body of the user. There are two self locking straps provided with the touch pad. Two self locking straps can be used to tie the unit around your wrist. After tying the unit around users wrist (with touch pads in contact with the skin), we check the battery connection. The device power supply should ON & slowly very variable resistor VR1 until LED1 glows. In this condition we assume that the user is in relaxed state. After that adjust VR2 if the sensitivity of IC LM3915 i.e. IC1 is very high. Now the device is ready to use.

We have to maintain the Wrist contact still bond with the pads in power switch ON mode and keep body relaxed. Adjust VR1 until the green LED (LED1) lights up and the device is ready. Adjust VR2 in case he sensitivity of IC LM3915 i.e. IC1 is very high. This indicates normal resistance of the skin, provided the body is fully relaxed.


Page 47

If user stressed or has ill feeling, skin resistance is decreases and the green LED lights up followed by the red LED. In short, the red LED indicate you are stressed, and the green LED indicate you are relaxed. Now practice some relaxation technique and observe how much your body is relaxed.

WORKING: When the metal plates come in contact of the body the transistor amplify the voltage variations from the sensing pads. Since the base of T1 is connected to VR1 through resistor R1 hence we can adjust the T1 by varying VR1. The amplified signal from transistor T1 is given to the input of IC1 (IC LM3915) through VR2. LEDs are directly connected to the IC1. IC1 senses the analog voltage level at pin 5 and displays them through LEDs providing a logarithmic display. Every variation of input resistance is sensed and by its voltage the respective LED glows which help us to determine the stress level of the user.


Page 48

The mental stress identifier can be very useful device in medical application, psychological treatments, Crime application such as Narcotic Test etc. 1. Psychological Observation of Patients. 2. Observing Behavior of patient during given time. 3. In Interviews where we can test the stability of the candidates in stressed conditions. 4. Military & Intelligence operations. 5. It helps to doctors to monitor the current mental and physical state of patient.


Page 49

The device can be used in very advance manner. We can develop the device as data saving facility, remote applications with infrared transceiver & micro-controller based modern designs. The micro-controller based design can be shown in fig.

16x4 LCD display

Atmel 89C51

Stress Meter Circuit

Operating Panel


Page 50


The following steps have been followed in carrying out the project.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Study the books on the relevant topic. Understand the working of the circuit. Prepare the circuit diagram. Prepare the list of components along with their specification. Estimate the cost and procure them after carrying out market survey.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Plan and prepare PCB for mounting all the components. Fix the components on the PCB and solder them. Test the circuit for the desired performance. Trace and rectify faults if any. Give good finish to the unit.

10. Prepare the project report.


Page 51



1. Electronics For You September 2005 2. Integrated Electronics by Millman & Hawlkiwas. 3. Basic Electronics by J. B. Gupta REFERENCE FOR ARTICLES & TECHNICAL INFORMATION ON REMOTE ACCESS TERMINAL FROM FOLLOWING SITES:

http://www.google.co.in (google search engine) http://www.whereisdoc.com http://www.electronicsforu.com http://www.lesstress.net/what-is-stress.htm http://www.plugtek.com/morearticles.shtml http://www.electronicprojects.com http://www.datasheetcatalog.org/datasheets/150/128424_DS.pdf


Page 52