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Engineering Fundamentals 2

Dec 2009
1a) 3x2 -8x +2=0

a=3 ;

b=-8 ; c=2

Substituting the values in the equation we have

Either

B) V=2R/R-r
V(R-r)= 2R
VR-Vr=2R
VR-2R=Vr
R(V-2)=Vr
R=
C) Log4 10
=log10/log4
=1/0.6
=1.66

or

2) 10.1 ,9.9, 10.6, 11.0, 10.2, 10.8, 9.9, 10.6, 11.2, 10.7
i)

mean value = sum of all values/no.of values


= 105/10
= 10.5

ii)

Standard Deviation Table:


Time(min) X
10.1
9.9
10.6
11.0
10.2
10.8
9.9
10.6
11.2
10.7

Deviation d=x-
-0.4
-0.6
0.1
0.5
-0.3
0.3
-0.6
0.1
0.7
0.2

Squared Deviation d2=(x-)2


0.16
0.36
0.01
0.25
0.09
0.09
0.36
0.01
0.49
0.04
d2 = 1.86

So Standard Deviation = d /n
= 1.86/10
= 0.43mins
Bi) Cumulative frequency table:
Comp. Strength (Nmm2)
11.97
11.98
11.99
12.0
12.01
12.02

Frequency (F)
5
5+8=13
13+16=29
29+22=51
51+17=68
68+4=72

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
11.97

3a) y=2x2+5

11.98

11.99

12

12.01

12.02

x between 0 & 4

x
Y=2x2+5

0
5

1
7

2
13

3
23

4
37

Y-Values
H4

40
35
30

H3

25
20

Y-Values

H2

15
10

H1

5
0
0

b=1

Area of 1st strip, A1= b


=1
(7+13)
=10 units2
Area of 2nd strip, A2= b
=1
(13+23)
=18 units2

Area of 3rd strip, A3= b


=1
(23+37)
=30units2
Total Area= A1+A2+A3
=10+18+30
=58units2
B) Drawing the phasor diagram to scale:
The resultant magnitude and direction are:

8kN

Resultant= 9 kN

4kN

4a) r = 68mm ; =1.8 radians


Area= r2
= (68)2 1.8
= 4161.6mm2
b)y= 2x2-3x+4
= 4x-3
Substituting x=2
4(2)-3=5
Gradient =5
c. i)
=
=
ii) sinx dx
=-cosx
iii) e2x dx
e2x

5A)

For Equilibrium : Clockwise moments = anti-clockwise moments


(42) + (63)
= 4 RB
RB= 26/4= 6.5KN
For equilibrium: Upward forces = Downward Forces
4+6
= 6.5 + RA
10
= 6.5 + RA
RA
=10 6.5
RA
= 3.5kN
B) Hooks law states that within the elastic limit, the extension of a material is proportional to the applied
force.
C) 500N = 3mm
1mm = 500/3 =166.67N
7.5mm= 1250N

6a) d=500mm r=250mm n= 360rev/min


=0.5m
=0.25m
=6 rev/sec
i) Angular Velocity, = 2n
=2 6
= 37.70rad/sec
ii) Linear velocity,V= r
= 376.99 0.25
V=9.42m/s
B) Frictional force = 36N; Normal force=92N
Coefficient of friction,
= 0.39
c)

i) V= u + at
V= 0 + (1.2 4)
V= 4.8m/s
ii)a= v-u/t
= 4.8-0/3
= 1.6m/s2
(i.e.) Deceleration= 1.6m/s2

7a) Load = 120Kg 9.81 = 1177.2N


Effort = 680N
i)
= 1.73
ii)V.R = 2
iii)
= 86.6%
b) V1= 4m3 ; P1=150KPa ; t1= 90oC = 363K ;P2=180KPa ;t2= 30oC = 303K

V2= 2.78m2

8ai)

= 10+2
= 12
ii)IT = VT/RT
= 24/12
= 2A
V(R1) = IT R1
= 2 10
= 20V
iii)

(
(

)
)

IR2 = 1.33A
B) R=10 ; I= 0.5A
P= I2R
= (0.5)2 10
=2.5W
C) l = 2000m ; 8010-6m2

; P= 0.0310-6m

R = L/A
= (0.03 10-6) 2000 /8010-6
= 0.75

9a) V.RMS = 12V ; f=50Hz


i) V.RMS= 0.707 Vp
Vp= V.RMS/ 0.707
= 12/0.707
=16.97V

ii)

T= 1/f = 1/50 = 0.02s


B)i)

i) Vs = VR2 + Vc2
Vs = 602 + 402
Vs = 72.11V
ii)tan = Vc/VR
Tan =40/60
tan = 0.67
=tan-1 0.067
= 33.70
cos= 0.83lag

10a)
i)

N1 = 100(20)
N1 = 2000 turns
ii)
I2 =
I2 = 0.1A
Bi) Specialized starter equipment is needed to provide an initial starting torque for electric motors then it is
allowed to run from its main supply.
ii) Protection devices are required to protect the motor and installation from over current and overloading
situations
c) 1.99V
Resolution = 9
3 Digit display ; max:1.999V
Resolution = minimum display value/max display value
Minimum= 0.001v
0.001/1.999=0.0005