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Local Area Networks (LAN)

Bus topologies (e.g. Ethernet)

Network Hosts

Drop cable

Main cable

(a) Simple bus topology

Hosts Repeater

(b) Branching bus topology




Ring topology (e.g. Toke ring)

Monitor station

Hosts

Station repeator

A typical campus internetwork


Token ring

PSE Router

Wide area connections

Ethernet Bridge

Router

Token ring

Ethernet

Bridge: same network type. Router:


O O O

Different network type. Special-purposes computer. Two or more networks.

PSE: packet-switch exchange. Gateways


O O O

General-purpose computers. Connecting two networks. Host.

Wide Area Networks (WAN)

Host

PSE

PSE

The links may be:


O O O O O

Leased telephone lines Optical fibers Coaxial cable Satellite links Microwave links

Purpose: Share links and resources.




Switching Techniques
Circuit switching:
10Mb/sec 5Mbits/sec 10Mb/sec 10Mb/sec 10Mb/sec 10Mb/sec 5Mbits/sec

source

destination

Each communication link is broken into smaller pieces and each piece is assigned exclusively to a session.
O O

Blocking may occur inefficiency due to idleness of communication links ( particularly with bursty sources)
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Store-and-forward switching
Message switching

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Sessions share the communication resources (links and buffers) dynamically.

O O

Variable delay in crossing a link Messages may be lost due to buffer overflow

Packet switching A message is split into packets.

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Reasons for breaking-up messages into packets

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Advantages: smaller delay, easier buffering, flexibility in routing. Disadvantages: overhead, reassemble problems.


Two types of packet switching 3


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(b) Routing in a virtual-circuit network.




Types of store-and-forward switching

packet switching
(message are broken into packets)

message switching
(message are not broken into packets)

datagram switching
(each packet is routed independently)

virtual-circuit switching
(all packet follow the same path)

Datagram switching: flexibility in routing. Virtual-circuit switching: packets arrive in the correct order, small overhead, less processing. Cut-through switching: A packet starts getting transmitted by a node, before it is fully received.

source


destination

HERE IS A TENDENCY TOWARDS INTEGRATING DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRAFFIC ON THE SAME NETWORK. Interactive traffic : messages are short. message arrival rate is small. fast response needed. high reliability required. File transfer : messages are long. traffic is bursty. high reliability required. large delays can be tolerated.

Packetized voice : packets are short. traffic is smooth. small delay required. reliability not important. Graphics & video: messages are long. delay may or may not be important. variability of the delay must be small (for video). traffic may be smooth or bursty.


Layered Network Architecture


ISO (international standards organization ) proposed the OSI standard (open systems interconnection )

Network is organized as a modular, hierarchical and distributed system.

Modular: should consist of simpler components with agreed upon interfaces e.g: CPU Control Unit I/O

Advantages: interchangeability, standardization



Operational environments

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Overall structure of the ISO reference model

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AP = Application Process 

Block box

Higher layer black box communication system

Module

Peer processes

Module

Module

Lower layer black box communication system Lower layer peer processes

Module

Peer processes communicate through a lower-layer black box communication system.



Hierarchical:
O O O

Service (that the layer provides above) Functions (implementation of service) Interfaces (common language for provision of service)
e.g. Master Module Servant Module Servant of Servant Module Interface Analysts/Managers Programs Compiler Hardwave

Distributed: The various layers are in fact distributed


e.g. Human Terminal Modem Human Terminal Modem Lower layers are seen as black box from higher layers.

Telephone line


OSI Standard
Application Application

(virtual network service)


Presentation Presentation

(virtual session) Session (messages) Transport (end-to-end packets) Network


(packets)

Session

Transport

Network
(packets)

Network

Network
(packets)

Data link control Physical interface (modem)

DLC

DLC

DLC

DLC

Data link control

(bit pipe)

(bit pipe)

(bit pipe)

Physical Physical interface interface

Physical Physical interface interface

Physical interface (modem)

waveforms

waveforms

waveforms

Physical link user's machine node of subnet

Physical link node of subnet

Physical link user's machine



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