Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 66

1. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS. TENSILE PROPERTIES

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Stress and Strain. Tensile tests

1.3 Stress State

1.4 Elastic Deformation and Plastic Deformation

1.5 Elastic Properties of Materials

1.6 Tensile Properties

1.7 Elastic Recovery. Strain Hardening

1.8 True Stress/True Strain Curve. Necking Criterion

1.6 Tensile Properties 1.7 Elastic Recovery. Strain Hardening 1.8 True Stress/True Strain Curve. Necking Criterion

1. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS. TENSILE PROPERTIES

TOPIC’S OBJECTIVES

- Concepts of stress and strain

- Define the state of stress in a point of a solid

- Introduce the Hooke’s law in three dimensions

- Describe the tensile tests

- Define the parameters that describe the mechanical behavior of materials

dimensions - Describe the tensile tests - Define the parameters that describe the mechanical behavior of

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION • Why must the mechanical properties of materials be known? - To assure performance,

• Why must the mechanical properties of materials be known?

- To assure performance, safety and durability of devices, instruments and structures

- The knowledge of the mechanical properties provides the basis for preventing failure of materials in service

How

materials?

are

determined

the

mechanical

properties

of

- Mechanical characterization, i.e. studying of their deformation and cracking

the me chanical properties of - Mechanical characterization, i.e. studying of their deformation and cracking

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

• What is the failure of a material?

- Any change in the material that induces the lost or worsening of its structural capabilities

- Deformation and fracture

Any change in the material that induces the lost or worsening of its structural capabilities -

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION
DEFORMATION
DEFORMATION
1.1 INTRODUCTION DEFORMATION MATERIALS FAILURE Time Independent ■Elastic ■Plastic Time Dependent ■Creep

MATERIALS

FAILURE

1.1 INTRODUCTION DEFORMATION MATERIALS FAILURE Time Independent ■Elastic ■Plastic Time Dependent ■Creep
Time Independent ■Elastic ■Plastic
Time Independent
■Elastic
■Plastic
MATERIALS FAILURE Time Independent ■Elastic ■Plastic Time Dependent ■Creep FRACTURE Static Loading
Time Dependent ■Creep
Time Dependent
■Creep
Independent ■Elastic ■Plastic Time Dependent ■Creep FRACTURE Static Loading ■Brittle ■Ductile ■
FRACTURE Static Loading ■Brittle ■Ductile ■ Enviromental ■ Creep Rupture Fatigue: Cyclic Loading ■Low
FRACTURE
Static Loading
■Brittle ■Ductile
■ Enviromental
■ Creep Rupture
Fatigue: Cyclic Loading
■Low cycle ■High cycle
■ Fatigue crack growth
■ Corrosion fatigue

1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN

1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN
P P P P Tensile test Compression test F δ Shear stress: τ= A o
P
P
P
P
Tensile test
Compression test
F
δ
Shear stress:
τ=
A
o
a
δ
γ = tanθ =
Shear strain:
a
Shear deformation
Dashed lines represent the shape before deformation, and solid line after
deformation.

Engineering stress:

σ=

P

A

o

Engineering strain:

ε=

l l

o

=

Δ

l

o

l

o

l

o

1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN

TENSILE TESTS

1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN TENSILE TESTS

Tensile test machine

1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN TENSILE TESTS Tensile test machine 6 mm Standard specimens for tensile tests
1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN TENSILE TESTS Tensile test machine 6 mm Standard specimens for tensile tests

6 mm

Standard specimens for tensile tests

test machine 6 mm Standard specimens for tensile tests 35 mm 3 mm 1.5 mm t
35 mm 3 mm 1.5 mm t 2 mm 6 mm 11 mm
35 mm
3 mm
1.5 mm
t
2 mm
6 mm
11 mm
test machine 6 mm Standard specimens for tensile tests 35 mm 3 mm 1.5 mm t

t =0.5 – 1.5 mm

1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN

TENSILE TESTS

1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN TENSILE TESTS
1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN TENSILE TESTS

1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN

TENSILE TESTS

1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN TENSILE TESTS Tensile Tensile Specimens Specimens and and Apparatus Apparatus

TensileTensile SpecimensSpecimens andand ApparatusApparatus

1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN TENSILE TESTS Tensile Tensile Specimens Specimens and and Apparatus Apparatus
1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN TENSILE TESTS Tensile Tensile Specimens Specimens and and Apparatus Apparatus
1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN TENSILE TESTS Tensile Tensile Specimens Specimens and and Apparatus Apparatus

TensileTensile SpecimensSpecimens andand ApparatusApparatus

Tensile Tensile Specimens Specimens and and Apparatus Apparatus
Tensile Tensile Specimens Specimens and and Apparatus Apparatus

TensileTensile SpecimensSpecimens andand ApparatusApparatus

Tensile Tensile Specimens Specimens and and Apparatus Apparatus
Tensile Tensile Specimens Specimens and and Apparatus Apparatus

TensileTensile SpecimensSpecimens andand ApparatusApparatus

Tensile Tensile Specimens Specimens and and Apparatus Apparatus
Tensile Tensile Specimens Specimens and and Apparatus Apparatus

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept
Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept Crosshead & Load Cell Clamp Specimen Clamp
Crosshead & Load Cell Clamp Specimen Clamp
Crosshead & Load Cell
Clamp
Specimen
Clamp

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept
Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept
Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept
Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept
Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept
Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept
Tensile Tensile Test Test Concept Concept

DuringDuring thethe TensileTensile TestTest

During During the the Tensile Tensile Test Test
During During the the Tensile Tensile Test Test

DuringDuring thethe TensileTensile TestTest

During During the the Tensile Tensile Test Test Elongation Force
Elongation Force
Elongation
Force

DuringDuring thethe TensileTensile TestTest

During During the the Tensile Tensile Test Test Elongation Force
During During the the Tensile Tensile Test Test Elongation Force
Elongation Force
Elongation
Force

DuringDuring thethe TensileTensile TestTest

During During the the Tensile Tensile Test Test Elongation Force
During During the the Tensile Tensile Test Test Elongation Force
During During the the Tensile Tensile Test Test Elongation Force
Elongation Force
Elongation
Force

DuringDuring thethe TensileTensile TestTest

During During the the Tensile Tensile Test Test Elongation Force
During During the the Tensile Tensile Test Test Elongation Force
During During the the Tensile Tensile Test Test Elongation Force
During During the the Tensile Tensile Test Test Elongation Force
Elongation Force
Elongation
Force

ResultsResults andand AnalysisAnalysis

Results Results and and Analysis Analysis
Results Results and and Analysis Analysis
Results Results and and Analysis Analysis

Nominal stress

ResultsResults andand AnalysisAnalysis

Nominal stress Results Results and and Analysis Analysis Nominal strain
Nominal stress Results Results and and Analysis Analysis Nominal strain

Nominal strain

Nominal stress Results Results and and Analysis Analysis Nominal strain

ResultsResults andand AnalysisAnalysis

Results Results and and Analysis Analysis
Results Results and and Analysis Analysis
Results Results and and Analysis Analysis

ResultsResults andand AnalysisAnalysis

Results Results and and Analysis Analysis
Results Results and and Analysis Analysis
Results Results and and Analysis Analysis

ResultsResults andand AnalysisAnalysis

C2600 Brass, Cold Rolled half hard 1018 Steel Copper Annealed 1018 Steel 6061-T651 Aluminum Stress
C2600 Brass,
Cold Rolled
half hard
1018 Steel
Copper
Annealed
1018 Steel
6061-T651
Aluminum
Stress (Mpa)
Brass, Cold Rolled half hard 1018 Steel Copper Annealed 1018 Steel 6061-T651 Aluminum Stress (Mpa) Strain

Strain (mm/mm)

Brass, Cold Rolled half hard 1018 Steel Copper Annealed 1018 Steel 6061-T651 Aluminum Stress (Mpa) Strain
Brass, Cold Rolled half hard 1018 Steel Copper Annealed 1018 Steel 6061-T651 Aluminum Stress (Mpa) Strain

1.3 STRESS STATE

1.3 STRESS STATE
F A o F ⊥ F // θ O A θ F
F
A o
F ⊥
F //
θ
O
A θ
F
1.3 STRESS STATE F A o F ⊥ F // θ O A θ F σ

σ=

r

F

A

o

r

is the applied stress

r

F = F + F ⊥ // F F cos θ ⊥ 2 σ ′=
F
=
F
+
F
//
F F cos
θ
2
σ
′=
=
=
σ
cos
A
A
o
θ
cos
θ
and
F sin
θ
τ
′=
F //
=
=
σ θ
sin
A
A
o
θ
cos
θ

θ

cos

θ

σ’ is the normal stress acting on the plane pp’

τ’ is the resolved shear stress in the specific direction p-p’

1.3 STRESS STATE

STRESS COMPONENTS

1.3 STRESS STATE STRESS COMPONENTS v r r r F = F i + F j
v r r r F = F i + F j + F k tX
v
r
r
r
F =
F i
+
F j
+
F k
tX
tY
tZ
r
r
F F tX Z F nZ ΔΑ F tY Y r r
F
F tX
Z
F nZ
ΔΑ
F tY
Y
r
r

r

s =

lim

Δ A

0

F

F

tX

F

tY

F

lim

Δ A

0

lim

Δ →

A

0

lim

Δ →

A

0

nZ

Δ

A

Δ

A

Δ

A

Δ

A

=

+

+

r

i

r

j

=σ +σ +σ

tx

ty

nz

r

k

The stress state at a point of a given plane is define by two stress
The stress state at a point of a given plane is define by
two stress components tangent to the plane, σ tx and σ tx , and
one component normal to the plane, σ nz !!

1.3 STRESS STATE

STRESS COMPONENTS

1.3 STRESS STATE STRESS COMPONENTS The state of stress at a point is completely defined when

The state of stress at a point is completely defined when the stress components are known on three mutually perpendicular planes

Z r s 3 σ zz σ zy r σ zx σ yz s 2
Z
r
s
3
σ zz
σ zy
r
σ zx
σ yz
s
2
r
σ xz
s
1
σ yy
σ yx
σ xy
σ xx
Y
X

Stress component notation:

•The first subscript is the direction of the normal to the plane, and the second the

direction of the stress component.

•A normal stress is positive if the direction of the unit normal vector and the direction of the stress component are both in the positive direction or both in the negative direction of the coordinate system.

or both in the negative direction of the coordinate system. •Tensile stresses are defined as positive

•Tensile stresses are defined as positive and compressive stresses are negative.

σ τ

ij

ij

i

j are shear stress components

1.3 STRESS STATE

STRESS COMPONENTS

1.3 STRESS STATE STRESS COMPONENTS r r r s = σ Z r i + σ
r r r s = σ Z r i + σ j + 1 xx
r
r
r
s
=
σ
Z
r
i
+
σ
j
+
1
xx
xy
s
σ
3
r
r
r
zz
s
=
σ
i
+
σ
j
+
2
yx
yy
σ zy
r
r
r
r
σ zx
σ yz
S
s
=
σ
i
+
σ
j
+
σ
r
2
3
zx
zy
xz
s
1
σ yy
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
i
=
e
;
j
=
e
;
k
=
e
σ
1
2
3
yx
s
σ xy
2
s r
e r
σ xx
Y
i
ij
j
X
r
It can be proven imposing the static equilibrium,
F =
0

σ

xz

r

k

σ

yz

r

k

σ

zz

r

k

;

M =

0 that

σ zz r k ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ → ; ∑ M =

1.The stress at a point is a second-order tensor

2.The stress tensor is symmetric

3.The stress tensor is related to the strain tensor

1.4 ELASTIC DEFORMATION

1.4 ELASTIC DEFORMATION E → Young’s modulus or elastic modulus Unload Unload σ 2 Δ σ
E → Young’s modulus or elastic modulus Unload Unload σ 2 Δ σ = Tangent
E → Young’s modulus or elastic modulus
Unload
Unload
σ 2
Δ
σ
= Tangent modulus
Δ
ε
E
σ 1
Δ
σ
= Secant modulus
Δ
ε
E
Load
Load
STRAIN
STRAIN
STRESS
STRESS

• The amount of strain depends on the magnitude of applied stress. For most metals when the applied stress is small the strain is also small, and stress and strain are proportional each other through the Hooke’s law

are proportional each other through the Hooke’s law σ= E ε 45 GPa< E < 400
σ= E ε
σ= E ε

45 GPa< E < 400 GPa for metals

Elastic regime for structural materials ε < 0.5 %

1.4 ELASTIC DEFORMATION

1.4 ELASTIC DEFORMATION Elastic strain is produced by small re versible changes in the equilibrium interatomic

Elastic strain is produced by small reversible changes in the equilibrium interatomic spacing

Attraction force ⎛ d ⎞ σ ⎛ d ⎞ ⎛ dx ⎞ ⎫ σ E
Attraction force
⎛ d ⎞
σ
⎛ d ⎞ ⎛ dx ⎞ ⎫
σ
E =
=
d
ε
dx
d
ε
⎛ dx ⎞ 1 ⎛ dF ⎞
x
x
x
e
e
e
E
=
x
d
ε
A ⎝ dx
e
F
x
σ
e
=
A
x, Interatomic distance
A is the cross-sectional area of material per atom
Repulsión force
x-x
e
ε =
x
=
x
+
ε
x
e
e
x
e
1 ⎛ dF ⎞ ⎛ dx ⎞
E =
d
F
⎛ ⎞
⎝ dx ⎠ ex
Fig. 1.7. Interatomic force as a function of the interatomic spacing.
A dx
⎠ ⎝
d
ε
x
x
e
e
F, Force
dx ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ d ε ⎠ ⎪ x x ⎭ e e F, Force For

For shear forces :

G the shear modulus

τ= Gγ

E =

A

⎜ ⎝

dx

x

e

x

e

dF

x

e

NOMINAL STRESS NOMINAL STRESS

1.4 PLASTIC DEFORMATION

NOMINAL STRESS NOMINAL STRESS 1.4 PLASTIC DEFORMATION σ σ ε=ε +ε = + ε=ε +ε =
σ σ ε=ε +ε = + ε=ε +ε = + ε ε E E I
σ σ
ε=ε +ε = +
ε=ε +ε = +
ε ε
E E
I
I
I
I
E E
loading loading
unloading unloading
Time independent → plastic strain
Time independent → plastic strain
Inelastic
Inelastic
ε ε I I
strain
strain
Time dependent → creep strain
Time dependent → creep strain
Elastic Elastic limit limit
Plastic
Plastic
deformation
deformation
bond
bond
breaking
breaking
between
between
neighbor atoms and reforming bonds between new
neighbor atoms and reforming bonds between new
neighbor neighbor atoms atoms ⇒ slip process; dislocation motion
Total Total Strain Strain
Slip Process
&
Plastic
ε Plastic
Elastic Elastic
NOMINAL STRAIN
NOMINAL STRAIN
Formation and motion of
dislocations
ε
p
E
ε
ε
p
E

σ

Fig. Fig. 1.8. 1.8. Stress-strain Stress-strain curve curve showing showing elastic elastic and and plastic plastic deformation deformation

Stress-strain Stress-strain curve curve show ing show ing elastic elastic and and plastic plastic deformation deformation

σ x stress

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

σ x stress 1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS A homogeneous and isotropic material is subjected to

A homogeneous and isotropic material is subjected to an axial stress σ x

Y A o σ =− E ε x z X ν d o Z l
Y
A o
σ =−
E ε
x
z
X
ν
d o
Z
l o
A X d o d σ Z x l l − l Δ l ε
A
X
d
o
d
σ
Z
x
l
l − l
Δ l
ε =
o
=
x
l
l
o
o
d
d
Δ
d
ε =ε =
o
=
y
z
d
d
o
o
O
ε x strain
ν
ε y , ε z

Y

σ =−

x

E ε

z ν σ x =Eε x E/ν E O
z
ν
σ x =Eε x
E/ν
E
O

ε x , ε y , ε z strain

Fig. 1.9. Longitudinal extension and transversal contraction

transversal contraction ε ε ⎫ y z Poisson's ratio ⇔ ν =− =− =− ⎪
transversal contraction
ε
ε
y
z
Poisson's ratio ⇔
ν =−
=− =−
longitudinal strain
ε
ε
x
x
σ E ε
=
x
x
strain ε ε ⎬ x x ⎪ σ E ε = ⎭ x x ⇒ σ

σ =−

x

E E ε

ε

ν y

=−

ν

z

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

HOOKE’S LAW FOR 3 D

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES HOOKE’S LAW FOR 3 D A homogeneous and isotropic 1 × 1 ×

A homogeneous and isotropic 1×1×1 body be subjected to an axial stress σ ZZ

Z σ zz ε yy /2 ε zz /2 ε xx /2 (1+ε zz )
Z
σ zz
ε
yy /2
ε zz /2
ε xx /2
(1+ε zz )
1
Y
X
σ zz

Fig. 10. Unit cube being pulled along direction Z.

X σ zz Fig. 10. Unit cube being pulled along direction Z. Deformation produced by the

Deformation produced by the normal stress σ ZZ :

νσ σ zz zz = and ε = ε = − ε zz xx yy
νσ
σ zz
zz
=
and
ε
=
ε
= −
ε zz
xx
yy
E
E
Similarly, normal stresses σ xx and σ yy
produce strains:
σ
νσ
ε
xx
xx
=
and
ε
= =−
ε
xx
E yy
zz
E
σ
νσ
yy
yy
ε
=
and
ε
= =−
ε
yy
E zz
xx
E

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

HOOKE’S LAW FOR 3 D

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES HOOKE’S LAW FOR 3 D Consider an isotropic body under a general stress

Consider an isotropic body under a general stress state

Z σ zz σ zy σ zx σ yz σ xz σ yy σ yx
Z
σ zz
σ zy
σ zx
σ yz
σ xz
σ
yy
σ yx
σ xy
σ xx
Y
X
ε zz

STRESS

RESULTING LONGITUDINAL STRAIN

X-direction

Y-direction

Z-direction

ε

xx

 

ε

yy

 

ε

zz

 

σ

 

νσ

xx

 

νσ

σ

 

xx

xx

xx

E

 

E

E

σ

νσ

yy

 

σ

 

νσ

yy

yy

E

yy

E

E

 

νσ

 

νσ

   

σ

 

zz

zz

 

σ

zz

zz

E

 

E

E

Shear stresses σ xy = σ yx , σ yz = σ zy and σ zx = σ xz produce only shear strains given by

z x = σ x z produce only shear strains given by ε = ε =

ε =ε =

xy

yx

σ

σ

σ

xy

yz

G

,

G

,

G

ε

xz

=

ε

zx

xz

=

ε

=

ε

zy

=

yz

,

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

HOOKE’S LAW FOR 3 D

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES HOOKE’S LAW FOR 3 D These equations, taken together, are the generalized Hooke’s

These equations, taken together, are the generalized Hooke’s law for a isotropic material

or

1 [ σ νσ ( )] ε = − + σ xx xx yy zz
1
[
σ νσ
(
)]
ε
=
+
σ
xx
xx
yy
zz
E
1
[
)]
ε
=
σ νσ σ
(
+
yy
yy
xx
zz
E
1
[
)]
ε
=
σ νσ σ
(
+
zz
zz
xx
yy
E
σ
σ
σ
xy
yz
γ
xz
=
ε
=
,
γ
=
ε
=
,
γ
=
ε
=
,
xy
xy
xz
xz
yz
yz
G
G
G
1
ν
ν
0
0
0
E
E
E
ν
1
ν
ε
σ
xx
0
0
0
xx
⎟ ⎛ ⎜
E
E
E
ε
σ
yy
ν
ν
1
yy
0
0
0
ε
σ
zz
E
E
E
zz
=
ε
1
σ
xy
0
0
0
0
0
xy
G
ε
σ
yz
yz
1
0
0
0
0
0
ε
σ
⎟ ⎝
zx
G
zx
1
0
0
0
0
0
G ⎠
0 0 0 0 0 ⎜ ⎟ ε σ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ zx
0 0 0 0 0 ⎜ ⎟ ε σ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ zx

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

Relationships between E, G and ν

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES Relationships between E, G and ν Consider a cube a × a ×

Consider a cube a×a×a subjected to pure shear stresses on a plane

F a d F F F F F 2 F 2 • CM F b
F
a
d
F
F
F
F
F
2
F
2
CM
F
b
c
d 2
F
d 1
δ
d o
γ
a
Δd 1
δ
Equilibrium condition
+
diagonal of undeformed body
d o
a
2
A
=
a
2
diagonal cross section area
a'
Δ
d
d
d
1 =
1
0
b
Δ
d
d
d
2 =
2
0
b'
δ
Δ d =
δ cos 45º
=
⇒ δ=Δ d
2
1
1
2
1
F 2
Δ d
Δ d 1
=
⎟ ⎞
− ν
2
Strain along diagonal d
1 →
⎜ ⎜
d
E
A
o
⎟ ⎠
d o
Δ
d
1
F
2
1
F
2
1
⎛ F ⎞
2
Strain along diagonal d
=− ⎜
=− ⎜
=−
2 →
2
2
d
E
A
E a
2
E ⎝ a
o

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

Relationship between E, G and ν

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES Relationship between E, G and ν Δ d δ 1 + ν ⎛
Δ d δ 1 + ν ⎛ F ⎞ ⎫ 1 = = ⎜ ⎟
Δ
d
δ
1
+
ν
F ⎞ ⎫
1
=
=
δ
2
(
1 +
ν
)
2
⎛ F ⎞
d
d
2
E
a
=
o
o
2
a
E
a
d
= a
2
o
δ τ
1 ⎛ F ⎞
Now,
γ
=
=
=
2
a
G
G ⎝ a

G

⇒ =

2(1+ν)

E

⎪ d = a 2 ⎭ o δ τ 1 ⎛ F ⎞ Now, γ =

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

Volume strain and bulk modulus

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES Volume strain and bulk modulus

Consider a block of a isotropic material subjected to normal stresses

Z Volume: V = l × w × h σ zz σ xx ∂ V
Z
Volume:
V
= l × w × h
σ zz
σ xx
V
V
V
dV
=
dl +
∂ dw +
∂ dh
=
whdl lhdw lwdh
+
+
h
l
∂ w
∂ h
h+dh
Y
σ yy
l+dl
Volume strain is defined by:
l
w+dw
⎛ dV ⎞
dl
dw
ε
=
=
+
+ dh =ε +ε +ε
V
xx
yy
zz
X
w
V
l
w
h
+ dh =ε +ε +ε V xx yy zz X w ⎝ V ⎠ l w

Fig. Volume strain induce by normal stresss

Using the strain values given by the generalized Hooke’s law

⎛ dV ⎞ 1 − 2 ν ε = ⎜ ⎝ ⎟ = ( σ
⎛ dV ⎞
1
2
ν
ε
=
=
(
σ
+
σ
+
σ
)
V
xx
yy
zz
V
E

1

[

(

= ⎜ ⎝ ⎟ = ( σ + σ + σ ) V xx yy zz

ε = σ νσ +σ

ii

E

ii

jj

kk

)]

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

Volume strain and bulk modulus

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES Volume strain and bulk modulus

The bulk modulus B of a material is defined by

dV

1

V

B

=ε =

V

p

where p is the hydrostatic pressure acting on the material.

It will be demonstrated that p, or hydrostatic stress, is the mean normal stresses acting on the body. i.e.

ε

V

=

is the mean normal stresses acting on the body. i.e. ε V =   p =
 

p =

σ

H

=

σ

xx

+

σ

yy

+

σ

zz

 

3

dV

=

1

2

ν

(

σ

+

σ

+

σ

)

=

3(1

2

ν

)

⎜ ⎝

   

V

 

E

xx

1

yy

zz

 

E

 

ε

V

=

B

p

p

V ⎠   E xx 1 yy zz   E   ε V = B p

B =

E

3(12ν )

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES Yielding and yield strength • Most structures are designed to ensure that
1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES
Yielding and yield strength
• Most structures are designed to ensure that only elastic deformation will
result when stresses are applied.
• It is very important to know the stress level at which plastic deformation
starts, that is, where the phenomenon of yielding occurs.
starts, that is, where the phenomenon of yielding occurs. Fig. 1.13. (a) Determination of the elastic
starts, that is, where the phenomenon of yielding occurs. Fig. 1.13. (a) Determination of the elastic

Fig. 1.13. (a) Determination of the elastic limit and the yield strength in a typical stress-strain curve for a metal. (b) Stress-strain curve for a material exhibiting the yield point phenomenon.

The magnitude of the yield strength is a measure of the resistance to plastic deformation

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

Yielding and yield strength

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES Yielding and yield strength • Luder’s Bands

• Luder’s Bands

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES Yielding and yield strength • Luder’s Bands
1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES Yielding and yield strength • Luder’s Bands
1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES Yielding and yield strength • Luder’s Bands

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

Tensile strength

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES Tensile strength • Ultimate tensile strength, or tensile strength ↔ the maximum stress

• Ultimate tensile strength, or tensile strength the maximum stress in stress-strain curve.

• Necking formation of a small constriction or neck in the specimen.

• Fracture strength stress at the fracture point

• Fracture strength ↔ stress at the fracture point Necking; UTS point σ uts Uniform strain
Necking; UTS point σ uts Uniform strain Strain at the neck Strain Engineering stress-strain curve
Necking; UTS point
σ
uts
Uniform strain
Strain at the neck
Strain
Engineering stress-strain curve showing the ultimate tensile strength and the fracture point.
Stress

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

σ-ε curves

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES σ - ε curves • Ultimate tensile strength ranges from 40 MPa (Mg

• Ultimate tensile strength ranges from 40 MPa (Mg alloys) to 3000 MPa (W alloys).

• For design purposes, the yield strength is used instead of the tensile strength.

• Fracture

design

strength

are

not

normally

specified

for

engineering

purposes

tensile strength. • Fracture design strength are not normally specified for engineering purposes
tensile strength. • Fracture design strength are not normally specified for engineering purposes

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

Ductility

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES Ductility • Ductility is the capability of a material to sustain plastic deformation

• Ductility is the capability of a material to sustain plastic deformation before fracture

• Ductility is quantitatively expressed as either percent elongation or percent reduction in area at fracture

%

l

f

l

EL = ⎜

o

l

o

%

A

o

A

RA = ⎜

f

A

o

o % ⎛ A o A ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ RA = ⎜ ⎜ − f

×100

×100

A ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ RA = ⎜ ⎜ − f ⎝ A o × 100

Engineering stress-strain curve for brittle and ductile materials

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

Resilience

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES Resilience • Resilience is the capability of a material to store elastic energy

Resilience is the capability of a material to store elastic energy during loading, and to realease it during unloading.

Resilience is the capability of a material to store elastic energy during loading, and to realease

Resilience is measured by the resilience modulus U r

energy during loading, and to realease it during unloading. • Resilience is measured by the resilience
• Resilience is measured by the resilience modulus U r Representation of the resilience modulus 2

Representation of the resilience modulus

2

y

σ

1

ε

0

y

U

r

σ ε

d =

=

2

2 E

σε

y

y

=

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

Toughness

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES Toughness • Thoughness is the capability of a material to absorb energy up
• Thoughness is the capability of a material to absorb energy up to fracture •
• Thoughness is the capability of a material to absorb energy up to
fracture
• For static loading conditions, that is, at low strain rate, toughness
may be determined from a tensile stress-strain curve up to fracture.
This toughness is referred to as tensile toughness.
σ uts
(
σ+σ
)
y
uts
2
σ y
(
)
σ σ
+
ε f
uts
Tensile Toughness:
σε d
y
ε
f
0
2
0.002
ε f
Strain
Stress

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

σ-ε curves

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES σ - ε curves C2600 Brass, Cold half hard Rolled 1018 Steel Copper
C2600 Brass, Cold half hard Rolled 1018 Steel Copper Annealed 1018 Steel 6061-T651 Aluminum Stress
C2600 Brass,
Cold
half hard
Rolled
1018
Steel
Copper
Annealed
1018 Steel
6061-T651
Aluminum
Stress

Strain

Annealed 1018 Steel 6061-T651 Aluminum Stress Strain Menu.2ip Engineering σ - ε curve for different materials

Menu.2ip

Engineering σ-ε curve for different materials

Stress Strain Menu.2ip Engineering σ - ε curve for different materials Temperature effect on the σ
Stress Strain Menu.2ip Engineering σ - ε curve for different materials Temperature effect on the σ

Temperature effect on the σ-ε for iron

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

σ-ε curves

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES σ - ε curves Irradiation effect on the tensile properties of ODS RAFM
1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES σ - ε curves Irradiation effect on the tensile properties of ODS RAFM
Irradiation effect on the tensile properties of ODS RAFM steels MPa
Irradiation effect on the tensile properties
of ODS RAFM steels
MPa

Kimura et al, ISFNT-7, May 2005

Irradiated

Un-irradiated

ODS oxide dispersion strengthened RAFM reduced activation ferritic/martensitic

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

True stress and true strain

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES True stress and true strain • The engineering stress, calculated by load divided

The engineering stress, calculated by load divided by initial cross-sectional area, does not take into account the reduction in the cross-sectional area due to deformation and necking

During plastic deformation there is no volume change, i.e. The volume of the unloaded specimen is equal to that of the plastically deformed specimen

P A o l 0 P
P
A
o
l
0
P
of the plastically deformed specimen ⇒ P A o l 0 P Volume conservation: Engineering stress
Volume conservation: Engineering stress P True stress: A l = A l P o o
Volume conservation:
Engineering stress
P
True stress:
A l = A l
P
o o
i
i
σ
=
P
T
A
σ=
i
A
P P l
P l +Δ
l
o
σ
i
o
=
=
=
σ
=
σ
(1
+
ε
)
T
T
A i A l
A
l
0
o
0
o
A
l
i
i
True strain:
Engineering strain
dl
⎛ l
i
i
ε
=
∫ l
d
ε
⎛ l ⎞ ⎟
i
o
=
∫ l
= ln
= ln ⎜
l ⎞ ⎟
ε
=
ln(1
+
ε
)
T
T
l
l
l
l
l
o
o
⎠ ⎟
o
o
Δ l
ε =
l
P
o
EQUATIONS VALID ONLY FOR UNIFORM DEFORMATION,
NOT VALID ABOVE THE NECKING ONSET !!

1.7 ELASTIC RECOVERY. STRAIN HARDENING

1.7 ELASTIC RECOVERY. STRAIN HARDENING • If during the course of a tensile test in the
• If during the course of a tensile test in the plastic region the applied
• If during the course of a tensile test in the plastic region the applied load is discharged,
some fraction of total strain is recovered as elastic strain.
• During the unloading cycle, the curve follows a near straight-line path from the point of
unloading.
• If the load is applied again, the curve follows the same linear path in the direction
opposite to unloading.
• Yielding will again occur at the stress level,
σ
where the unloading began. Yield stress
yi
is higher than the one observed during the first loading → strain- or work hardening
phenomenon
Plastic strain measured after
unloading:
σ
(
ε
)
T
=
ln(1
+
ε
)
T unloaded
E
σ
ε
= ε
T
→ Plastic deformation or
(
ε
)
p
T
T unloaded
E
Plastic strain
σ
=
E

1.8 TRUE STRESS/TRUE STRAIN CURVE

Necking Criterion

1.8 TRUE STRESS/TRUE STRAIN CURVE Necking Criterion • When does necking form? σ uts Engineering Strain

• When does necking form?

σ uts Engineering Strain Engineering Stress
σ
uts
Engineering Strain
Engineering Stress

Increase in stress due to strain

hardening (for a σ T -ε T curve)

T

d

σ

d

ε

T

T

d

σ =

T

d ε

Increase

in

stress

due

to

cross-section reduction

P ⎞ ⎟ =−

⎝ ⎜

 

P

dA

i

dA

i

A i

A

2

i

=−σ

T

A

i

d σ

T

= d

A 2 i =− σ T A i d σ T = d ⎜ d σ
d σ dA T i d ε >− σ T T d ε A T
d
σ
dA
T
i
d
ε
>−
σ
T
T
d
ε
A
T
i
d
σ
dA
T
d
ε
<−
σ
i
T
T
d
ε
A
T
i

Homogeneous or stable deformation

Nonhomogeneous or unstable deformation

NECKING CRITERION!

1.8 σ T -ε T CURVE Necking Criterion A A l = o o •
1.8 σ T -ε T CURVE
Necking Criterion
A A l
= o o
• Notice that volume conservation ⇒
i ⇒ A =
ln
ln
(
A l
)−
ln
l
i
o o
i
l
i
dA
dl
d
(
l − l
)
i
i
i
o
=− =
=−ε
d
T
A
l
l
i
i
i

Then, the necking criterion, or instability condition, becomes

d σ dA d σ d σ T ε σ i T ε σ ε
d
σ
dA
d
σ
d
σ
T
ε
σ
i
T
ε
σ ε
T
d
<−
d
<
d
=
σ
T
T
T
T
T
T
d
ε
A
ε
d
ε
i d
T
T
T

Let us demonstrate that the above condition occurs at the point of maximum load

dP

= 0 σ

T

P =σ A

T

i

dA

i

+ A d σ= 0

i

T

d

σ

T

dA

i

d

σ

T

d

σ

T

A

i

d

ε

T

=−

=

ε

T

d

σ

T

=

σ ε

T

T

d

σ

T

=

At the point of maximum load appears inestability in tension and it satisfies:

maximum load appe ars inestability in tension and it satisfies: d σ T d ε T

d

σ

T

d

ε

T

= σ

T

Necking criterion!

1.8 σ T -ε T CURVE

Graphical Interpretation of Necking Criterion

T CURVE Graphical Interpretation of Necking Criterion • At the point of maximum load appears instability

At the point of maximum load appears instability in tension (non-homogeneous deformation) and it satisfies:

d σ T = σ Necking criterion! T d ε T σ T σ T,uts
d
σ
T
=
σ
Necking criterion!
T
d
ε
T
σ
T
σ
T,uts
ε
T,uts
ε
1
T

Determination of the point of necking at maximum load in the true stress/true strain curve

σ T,uts ε T,uts ε 1 T Determination of the point of necking at maxi mum

1.8 σ T -ε CURVE

Graphical Interpretation of Necking Criterion

- ε CURVE Graphical Interpretation of Necking Criterion • Necking criterion for a σ T -ε
• Necking criterion for a σ T -ε curve: ⎫ ⎪ d σ ⎪ T
• Necking criterion for a σ T -ε curve:
d
σ
T
= σ
T
d
ε
d
σ
T
σ
T
=
T
d
σ
d
σ
d
ε
d
ε
T
T
T
=
d
ε
d ε
d ε
d
σ
d
l
d
σ
T
σ T
T
T
i
T
=
=
(1 +
ε)
dl
d
ε
d
ε
l
d
ε
T
o
i
d
ε
l
=
o
d
ε
dl
i
T
l
i
i ⎪ d ε l = o d ε dl i T ⎪ ⎪ l ⎭

d

σ T

σ T

=

d

ε

(1

+ ε)

Necking Criterion

1.8 σ T -ε CURVE

Graphical Interpretation of Necking Criterion

- ε CURVE Graphical Interpretation of Necking Criterion • Consideré’s construction for the determination of

Consideré’s construction for the determination of

the maximum load point

d

σ T

σ T

=

d

ε

(1

+ ε)

Necking Criterion

σ T,uts ε uts True stress σ T
σ T,uts
ε uts
True stress σ T
1 ε uts
1
ε uts

Engineering strain ε

Consideré’s construction for determination of ultimate tensile true stress σ T,uts .

strain ε Consideré’s construction for determination of ultimate tensile true stress σ T , u t

1.8 TRUE STRESS/TRUE STRAIN CURVE

1.8 TRUE STRESS/TRUE STRAIN CURVE • Above the necking onset, true strain can not be determined

Above the necking onset, true strain can not be determined as ln(1+ε) from the measured strain ε, because deformation is not uniformly distributed any more.

because deformation is not uniformly distributed any more. • Now, ε T V = ln(1 =

Now,

ε

T

V

=

ln(1

=

cte

+

ε

l − l l ⎫ i o i ) = ln(1 + ) = ln
l
− l
l ⎫
i
o
i
)
=
ln(1
+
) = ln
⎛ A ⎞
l
l
o
ε
= ln ⎜
o
o
T
A i ⎠
A l
=
A l
o o
i
i

For cylindrical specimens of diameter D,

 

=

ln ⎛ ⎜ A

⎟ =

o

D

⎟ ⎟

2ln

o

ε

T

 

⎝ ⎜

A i

⎝ ⎜

D i

The formation of a necked region introduces triaxial stresses that make difficult to determine accurately the longitudinal tensile stress from the onset of necking until fracture occurs

make difficult to determine accurately the longitudinal tensile stress from the onset of necking until fracture

1.8 TRUE STRESS/TRUE STRAIN CURVE

1.8 TRUE STRESS/TRUE STRAIN CURVE True stress/true strain curve Corrected for necking Engineering stress/strain curve
True stress/true strain curve Corrected for necking Engineering stress/strain curve Maximum load / necking onset
True stress/true strain curve
Corrected for necking
Engineering stress/strain curve
Maximum load / necking onset
Fracture
STRESS

STRAIN

Why use engineering curve?

-It shows clearly tensile strength.

- No corrections

-No differences in E and

engineering σ-ε curve and the corresponding σ T -ε T curve.

values determined from the

σ y

and engineering σ - ε curve and the corresponding σ T - ε T curve. values

1.8 σ T -ε T CURVE

True stress at maximun load

1.8 σ T - ε T CURVE True stress at maximun load TRUE TENSILE STRENGTH •

TRUE TENSILE STRENGTH

• If A u is the cross-sectional area at maximun load, then

A u is the cross-sectional ar ea at maximun load, then σ T , uts σ

σ T , uts

σ uts

=

P ⎫ max = ⎪ A ⎪ A u ⎬ ⇒ σ o = σ
P
max
=
A
A
u
σ
o
=
σ
T , uts
uts
P
A
max
u
A
⎭ ⎪
o

True stress at maximum load

• If ε T,uts is the true strain at maximum load, also called true uniform strain, then

⎛ A ⎞ ⎫ ⎛ l ⎞ ⎟ u o = ln = ln ⎜
⎛ A ⎞ ⎫
⎛ l ⎞ ⎟
u
o
=
ln
= ln ⎜
ε T , uts
l
A
σ
⎜ ⎜ ⎝
⎟ ⎠
o
u
T , uts
ε
= ln ⎜
T , uts
A
σ
uts
σ
o
=
σ
T , uts
uts
A
u
• Also,
σ T , uts
= ln ⎜
⎟ ⎞
σ
= σ
e
ε T , uts
ε T , uts
T , uts
uts
σ uts
, uts ε T , uts ⎜ ⎟ T , uts uts ⎝ ⎠ σ uts

True strain at maximum load

or true uniform strain

True stress at maximum load

1.8 σ T -ε T CURVE

True fracture stress and true fracture strain

1.8 σ T - ε T CURVE True fracture str ess and true fracture strain

The true fracture stress is the load divided by the cross-sectional

fracture stress is the load divided by the cross-sectional area at fracture . The data required

area at fracture. The data required for determining this quantity frequently are not measured.

• If A f is the cross-sectional area after fracture, the true fracture strain

ε f is

ε T , f

= ln

f

A

⎜ ⎜

A

o

True fracture strain

The true local necking strain is the strain required to deform the specimen from maximum load to fracture, i.e.

f dA A f ε = ∫ ε d ε i u =− ∫ A
f dA
A
f
ε
=
∫ ε
d ε
i
u
=−
∫ A
= ln
T , n
T
ε
A
u A
uts
i A
f
i u =− ∫ A = ln T , n T ε A u A uts
True stress/true strain curve Corrected for necking Engineering stress/strain curve Maximum load / necking onset
True stress/true strain curve
Corrected for necking
Engineering stress/strain curve
Maximum load / necking onset
Fracture
ε T,u
STRAIN
ε t,f
STRESS

1.8 σ T -ε T CURVE

Strain-hardening exponent and strain-hardening rate

1.8 σ T - ε T CURVE Strain-hardening exponent and strain-hardening rate
CURVE Strain-hardening exponent and strain-hardening rate • For many metals and alloys, the region of uniform

• For many metals and alloys, the region of uniform deformation in the flow curve, that is the region from the onset of plastic deformation to the necking onset may be approximated by a simple power curve (Hollomon equation):

σ T

n

T

= K ε

K

n

Strength coefficient

Strain - or work - hardening exponent

• For perfect elastic solids, n=1. n=0 for perfect plastic solids. For metals

0.1<n<0.5

• The strain- or work-hardening rate is

d σ σ T T = T d ε ε T T
d
σ
σ
T
T
=
T
d
ε
ε
T
T

nK

ε

n 1

=

n

• Many times the flow curve in the uniform plastic deformation range satisfies the called Ludwik equation:

• Remember,

range satisfies the called Ludwik equation : • Remember, σ T n p = σ +

σ T

n

p

=σ + Kε

o

p

(

)

T unloaded

T

σ

T

E

ε

= ε

= ε