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1. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS. TENSILE PROPERTIES

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Stress and Strain. Tensile tests

1.3 Stress State

1.4 Elastic Deformation and Plastic Deformation

1.5 Elastic Properties of Materials

1.6 Tensile Properties

1.7 Elastic Recovery. Strain Hardening

1.8 True Stress/True Strain Curve. Necking Criterion

1. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS. TENSILE PROPERTIES

TOPIC’S OBJECTIVES

- Concepts of stress and strain

- Define the state of stress in a point of a solid

- Introduce the Hooke’s law in three dimensions

- Describe the tensile tests

- Define the parameters that describe the mechanical behavior of materials

1.1 INTRODUCTION

• Why must the mechanical properties of materials be known?

- To assure performance, safety and durability of devices, instruments and structures

- The knowledge of the mechanical properties provides the basis for preventing failure of materials in service

How

materials?

are

determined

the

mechanical

properties

of

- Mechanical characterization, i.e. studying of their deformation and cracking

1.1 INTRODUCTION

• What is the failure of a material?

- Any change in the material that induces the lost or worsening of its structural capabilities

- Deformation and fracture

1.1 INTRODUCTION

DEFORMATION

MATERIALS

FAILURE

Time Independent
■Elastic
■Plastic
Time Dependent
■Creep
FRACTURE
■Brittle ■Ductile
■ Enviromental
■ Creep Rupture
■Low cycle ■High cycle
■ Fatigue crack growth
■ Corrosion fatigue

1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN

P
P
P
P
Tensile test
Compression test
F
δ
Shear stress:
τ=
A
o
a
δ
γ = tanθ =
Shear strain:
a
Shear deformation
Dashed lines represent the shape before deformation, and solid line after
deformation.

Engineering stress:

σ=

P

A

o

Engineering strain:

ε=

 l − l o = Δ l o l o l o

1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN

TENSILE TESTS

Tensile test machine

6 mm

Standard specimens for tensile tests

35 mm
3 mm
1.5 mm
t
2 mm
6 mm
11 mm

t =0.5 – 1.5 mm

1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN

TENSILE TESTS

1.2 STRESS AND STRAIN

TENSILE TESTS

TensileTensile SpecimensSpecimens andand ApparatusApparatus

TensileTensile SpecimensSpecimens andand ApparatusApparatus

TensileTensile SpecimensSpecimens andand ApparatusApparatus

TensileTensile SpecimensSpecimens andand ApparatusApparatus

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

Clamp
Specimen
Clamp

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

TensileTensile TestTest ConceptConcept

DuringDuring thethe TensileTensile TestTest

DuringDuring thethe TensileTensile TestTest

Elongation
Force

DuringDuring thethe TensileTensile TestTest

Elongation
Force

DuringDuring thethe TensileTensile TestTest

Elongation
Force

DuringDuring thethe TensileTensile TestTest

Elongation
Force

ResultsResults andand AnalysisAnalysis

Nominal stress

ResultsResults andand AnalysisAnalysis

Nominal strain

ResultsResults andand AnalysisAnalysis

ResultsResults andand AnalysisAnalysis

ResultsResults andand AnalysisAnalysis

C2600 Brass,
Cold Rolled
half hard
1018 Steel
Copper
Annealed
1018 Steel
6061-T651
Aluminum
Stress (Mpa)

Strain (mm/mm)

1.3 STRESS STATE

F
A o
F ⊥
F //
θ
O
A θ
F

σ=

r

F

A

o

r

is the applied stress

r

F
=
F
+
F
//
F F cos
θ
2
σ
′=
=
=
σ
cos
A
A
o
θ
cos
θ
and
F sin
θ
τ
′=
F //
=
=
σ θ
sin
A
A
o
θ
cos
θ

θ

cos

θ

σ’ is the normal stress acting on the plane pp’

τ’ is the resolved shear stress in the specific direction p-p’

1.3 STRESS STATE

STRESS COMPONENTS

v
r
r
r
F =
F i
+
F j
+
F k
tX
tY
tZ
r
r
F
F tX
Z
F nZ
ΔΑ
F tY
Y
r
r

r

s =

lim

Δ A

0

F

F

tX

F

tY

F

lim

Δ A

0

lim

Δ →

A

0

lim

Δ →

A

0

nZ

Δ

A

Δ

A

Δ

A

Δ

A

=

+

+

r

i

r

j

=σ +σ +σ

tx

ty

nz

r

k

The stress state at a point of a given plane is define by
two stress components tangent to the plane, σ tx and σ tx , and
one component normal to the plane, σ nz !!

1.3 STRESS STATE

STRESS COMPONENTS

The state of stress at a point is completely defined when the stress components are known on three mutually perpendicular planes

Z
r
s
3
σ zz
σ zy
r
σ zx
σ yz
s
2
r
σ xz
s
1
σ yy
σ yx
σ xy
σ xx
Y
X

Stress component notation:

•The first subscript is the direction of the normal to the plane, and the second the

direction of the stress component.

•A normal stress is positive if the direction of the unit normal vector and the direction of the stress component are both in the positive direction or both in the negative direction of the coordinate system.

•Tensile stresses are defined as positive and compressive stresses are negative.

σ τ

ij

ij

i

j are shear stress components

1.3 STRESS STATE

STRESS COMPONENTS

r
r
r
s
=
σ
Z
r
i
+
σ
j
+
1
xx
xy
s
σ
3
r
r
r
zz
s
=
σ
i
+
σ
j
+
2
yx
yy
σ zy
r
r
r
r
σ zx
σ yz
S
s
=
σ
i
+
σ
j
+
σ
r
2
3
zx
zy
xz
s
1
σ yy
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
i
=
e
;
j
=
e
;
k
=
e
σ
1
2
3
yx
s
σ xy
2
s r
e r
σ xx
Y
i
ij
j
X
r
It can be proven imposing the static equilibrium,
F =
0

σ

xz

r

k

σ

yz

r

k

σ

zz

r

k

;

M =

0 that

1.The stress at a point is a second-order tensor

2.The stress tensor is symmetric

3.The stress tensor is related to the strain tensor

1.4 ELASTIC DEFORMATION

E → Young’s modulus or elastic modulus
σ 2
Δ
σ
= Tangent modulus
Δ
ε
E
σ 1
Δ
σ
= Secant modulus
Δ
ε
E
STRAIN
STRAIN
STRESS
STRESS

• The amount of strain depends on the magnitude of applied stress. For most metals when the applied stress is small the strain is also small, and stress and strain are proportional each other through the Hooke’s law

σ= E ε

45 GPa< E < 400 GPa for metals

Elastic regime for structural materials ε < 0.5 %

1.4 ELASTIC DEFORMATION

Elastic strain is produced by small reversible changes in the equilibrium interatomic spacing

Attraction force
⎛ d ⎞
σ
⎛ d ⎞ ⎛ dx ⎞ ⎫
σ
E =
=
d
ε
dx
d
ε
⎛ dx ⎞ 1 ⎛ dF ⎞
x
x
x
e
e
e
E
=
x
d
ε
A ⎝ dx
e
F
x
σ
e
=
A
x, Interatomic distance
A is the cross-sectional area of material per atom
Repulsión force
x-x
e
ε =
x
=
x
+
ε
x
e
e
x
e
1 ⎛ dF ⎞ ⎛ dx ⎞
E =
d
F
⎛ ⎞
⎝ dx ⎠ ex
Fig. 1.7. Interatomic force as a function of the interatomic spacing.
A dx
⎠ ⎝
d
ε
x
x
e
e
F, Force

For shear forces :

G the shear modulus

τ= Gγ

E =

A

⎜ ⎝

dx

x

e

x

e

dF

x

e

NOMINAL STRESS NOMINAL STRESS

1.4 PLASTIC DEFORMATION

σ σ
ε=ε +ε = +
ε=ε +ε = +
ε ε
E E
I
I
I
I
E E
Time independent → plastic strain
Time independent → plastic strain
Inelastic
Inelastic
ε ε I I
strain
strain
Time dependent → creep strain
Time dependent → creep strain
Elastic Elastic limit limit
Plastic
Plastic
deformation
deformation
bond
bond
breaking
breaking
between
between
neighbor atoms and reforming bonds between new
neighbor atoms and reforming bonds between new
neighbor neighbor atoms atoms ⇒ slip process; dislocation motion
Total Total Strain Strain
Slip Process
&
Plastic
ε Plastic
Elastic Elastic
NOMINAL STRAIN
NOMINAL STRAIN
Formation and motion of
dislocations
ε
p
E
ε
ε
p
E

σ

Fig. Fig. 1.8. 1.8. Stress-strain Stress-strain curve curve showing showing elastic elastic and and plastic plastic deformation deformation

σ x stress

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

A homogeneous and isotropic material is subjected to an axial stress σ x

Y
A o
σ =−
E ε
x
z
X
ν
d o
Z
l o
A
X
d
o
d
σ
Z
x
l
l − l
Δ l
ε =
o
=
x
l
l
o
o
d
d
Δ
d
ε =ε =
o
=
y
z
d
d
o
o
O
ε x strain
ν
ε y , ε z

Y

σ =−

x

E ε

z
ν
σ x =Eε x
E/ν
E
O

ε x , ε y , ε z strain

Fig. 1.9. Longitudinal extension and transversal contraction

transversal contraction
ε
ε
y
z
Poisson's ratio ⇔
ν =−
=− =−
longitudinal strain
ε
ε
x
x
σ E ε
=
x
x

σ =−

x

E E ε

ε

ν y

=−

ν

z

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

HOOKE’S LAW FOR 3 D

A homogeneous and isotropic 1×1×1 body be subjected to an axial stress σ ZZ

Z
σ zz
ε
yy /2
ε zz /2
ε xx /2
(1+ε zz )
1
Y
X
σ zz

Fig. 10. Unit cube being pulled along direction Z.

Deformation produced by the normal stress σ ZZ :

νσ
σ zz
zz
=
and
ε
=
ε
= −
ε zz
xx
yy
E
E
Similarly, normal stresses σ xx and σ yy
produce strains:
σ
νσ
ε
xx
xx
=
and
ε
= =−
ε
xx
E yy
zz
E
σ
νσ
yy
yy
ε
=
and
ε
= =−
ε
yy
E zz
xx
E

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

HOOKE’S LAW FOR 3 D

Consider an isotropic body under a general stress state

Z
σ zz
σ zy
σ zx
σ yz
σ xz
σ
yy
σ yx
σ xy
σ xx
Y
X
ε zz
 STRESS RESULTING LONGITUDINAL STRAIN X-direction Y-direction Z-direction ε xx ε yy ε zz σ νσ xx νσ σ xx − xx xx E E − E σ νσ − yy σ νσ yy yy E yy E − E νσ νσ σ zz zz σ − − zz zz E E E

Shear stresses σ xy = σ yx , σ yz = σ zy and σ zx = σ xz produce only shear strains given by

ε =ε =

xy

yx

σ

σ

σ

xy

yz

G

,

G

,

G

ε

xz

=

ε

zx

xz

=

ε

=

ε

zy

=

yz

,

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

HOOKE’S LAW FOR 3 D

These equations, taken together, are the generalized Hooke’s law for a isotropic material

or

1
[
σ νσ
(
)]
ε
=
+
σ
xx
xx
yy
zz
E
1
[
)]
ε
=
σ νσ σ
(
+
yy
yy
xx
zz
E
1
[
)]
ε
=
σ νσ σ
(
+
zz
zz
xx
yy
E
σ
σ
σ
xy
yz
γ
xz
=
ε
=
,
γ
=
ε
=
,
γ
=
ε
=
,
xy
xy
xz
xz
yz
yz
G
G
G
1
ν
ν
0
0
0
E
E
E
ν
1
ν
ε
σ
xx
0
0
0
xx
⎟ ⎛ ⎜
E
E
E
ε
σ
yy
ν
ν
1
yy
0
0
0
ε
σ
zz
E
E
E
zz
=
ε
1
σ
xy
0
0
0
0
0
xy
G
ε
σ
yz
yz
1
0
0
0
0
0
ε
σ
⎟ ⎝
zx
G
zx
1
0
0
0
0
0
G ⎠

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

Relationships between E, G and ν

Consider a cube a×a×a subjected to pure shear stresses on a plane

F
a
d
F
F
F
F
F
2
F
2
CM
F
b
c
d 2
F
d 1
δ
d o
γ
a
Δd 1
δ
Equilibrium condition
+
diagonal of undeformed body
d o
a
2
A
=
a
2
diagonal cross section area
a'
Δ
d
d
d
1 =
1
0
b
Δ
d
d
d
2 =
2
0
b'
δ
Δ d =
δ cos 45º
=
⇒ δ=Δ d
2
1
1
2
1
F 2
Δ d
Δ d 1
=
⎟ ⎞
− ν
2
Strain along diagonal d
1 →
⎜ ⎜
d
E
A
o
⎟ ⎠
d o
Δ
d
1
F
2
1
F
2
1
⎛ F ⎞
2
Strain along diagonal d
=− ⎜
=− ⎜
=−
2 →
2
2
d
E
A
E a
2
E ⎝ a
o

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

Relationship between E, G and ν

Δ
d
δ
1
+
ν
F ⎞ ⎫
1
=
=
δ
2
(
1 +
ν
)
2
⎛ F ⎞
d
d
2
E
a
=
o
o
2
a
E
a
d
= a
2
o
δ τ
1 ⎛ F ⎞
Now,
γ
=
=
=
2
a
G
G ⎝ a

G

⇒ =

2(1+ν)

E

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

Volume strain and bulk modulus

Consider a block of a isotropic material subjected to normal stresses

Z
Volume:
V
= l × w × h
σ zz
σ xx
V
V
V
dV
=
dl +
∂ dw +
∂ dh
=
whdl lhdw lwdh
+
+
h
l
∂ w
∂ h
h+dh
Y
σ yy
l+dl
Volume strain is defined by:
l
w+dw
⎛ dV ⎞
dl
dw
ε
=
=
+
+ dh =ε +ε +ε
V
xx
yy
zz
X
w
V
l
w
h

Fig. Volume strain induce by normal stresss

Using the strain values given by the generalized Hooke’s law

⎛ dV ⎞
1
2
ν
ε
=
=
(
σ
+
σ
+
σ
)
V
xx
yy
zz
V
E

1

[

(

ε = σ νσ +σ

ii

E

ii

jj

kk

)]

1.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

Volume strain and bulk modulus

The bulk modulus B of a material is defined by

dV

1

V

B

=ε =

V

p

where p is the hydrostatic pressure acting on the material.

It will be demonstrated that p, or hydrostatic stress, is the mean normal stresses acting on the body. i.e.

ε

V

=

 p = σ H = σ xx + σ yy + σ zz 3 ⎛ dV ⎞ ⎟ = 1 − 2 ν ( σ + σ + σ ) = 3(1 − 2 ν ) ⎜ ⎝ V ⎠ E xx 1 yy zz E ε V = B p

p

B =

E

3(12ν )

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES
Yielding and yield strength
• Most structures are designed to ensure that only elastic deformation will
result when stresses are applied.
• It is very important to know the stress level at which plastic deformation
starts, that is, where the phenomenon of yielding occurs.

Fig. 1.13. (a) Determination of the elastic limit and the yield strength in a typical stress-strain curve for a metal. (b) Stress-strain curve for a material exhibiting the yield point phenomenon.

The magnitude of the yield strength is a measure of the resistance to plastic deformation

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

Yielding and yield strength

• Luder’s Bands

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

Tensile strength

• Ultimate tensile strength, or tensile strength the maximum stress in stress-strain curve.

• Necking formation of a small constriction or neck in the specimen.

• Fracture strength stress at the fracture point

Necking; UTS point
σ
uts
Uniform strain
Strain at the neck
Strain
Engineering stress-strain curve showing the ultimate tensile strength and the fracture point.
Stress

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

σ-ε curves

• Ultimate tensile strength ranges from 40 MPa (Mg alloys) to 3000 MPa (W alloys).

• For design purposes, the yield strength is used instead of the tensile strength.

• Fracture

design

strength

are

not

normally

specified

for

engineering

purposes

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

Ductility

• Ductility is the capability of a material to sustain plastic deformation before fracture

• Ductility is quantitatively expressed as either percent elongation or percent reduction in area at fracture

%

l

f

l

EL = ⎜

o

l

o

%

A

o

A

RA = ⎜

f

A

o

×100

×100

Engineering stress-strain curve for brittle and ductile materials

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

Resilience

Resilience is measured by the resilience modulus U r

Representation of the resilience modulus

2

y

σ

1

ε

0

y

U

r

σ ε

d =

=

2

2 E

σε

y

y

=

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

Toughness

• Thoughness is the capability of a material to absorb energy up to
fracture
• For static loading conditions, that is, at low strain rate, toughness
may be determined from a tensile stress-strain curve up to fracture.
This toughness is referred to as tensile toughness.
σ uts
(
σ+σ
)
y
uts
2
σ y
(
)
σ σ
+
ε f
uts
Tensile Toughness:
σε d
y
ε
f
0
2
0.002
ε f
Strain
Stress

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

σ-ε curves

C2600 Brass,
Cold
half hard
Rolled
1018
Steel
Copper
Annealed
1018 Steel
6061-T651
Aluminum
Stress

Strain

Engineering σ-ε curve for different materials

Temperature effect on the σ-ε for iron

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

σ-ε curves

Irradiation effect on the tensile properties
of ODS RAFM steels
MPa

Kimura et al, ISFNT-7, May 2005

ODS oxide dispersion strengthened RAFM reduced activation ferritic/martensitic

1.6 TENSILE PROPERTIES

True stress and true strain

The engineering stress, calculated by load divided by initial cross-sectional area, does not take into account the reduction in the cross-sectional area due to deformation and necking

During plastic deformation there is no volume change, i.e. The volume of the unloaded specimen is equal to that of the plastically deformed specimen

P
A
o
l
0
P
Volume conservation:
Engineering stress
P
True stress:
A l = A l
P
o o
i
i
σ
=
P
T
A
σ=
i
A
P P l
P l +Δ
l
o
σ
i
o
=
=
=
σ
=
σ
(1
+
ε
)
T
T
A i A l
A
l
0
o
0
o
A
l
i
i
True strain:
Engineering strain
dl
⎛ l
i
i
ε
=
∫ l
d
ε
⎛ l ⎞ ⎟
i
o
=
∫ l
= ln
= ln ⎜
l ⎞ ⎟
ε
=
ln(1
+
ε
)
T
T
l
l
l
l
l
o
o
⎠ ⎟
o
o
Δ l
ε =
l
P
o
EQUATIONS VALID ONLY FOR UNIFORM DEFORMATION,
NOT VALID ABOVE THE NECKING ONSET !!

1.7 ELASTIC RECOVERY. STRAIN HARDENING

• If during the course of a tensile test in the plastic region the applied load is discharged,
some fraction of total strain is recovered as elastic strain.
• During the unloading cycle, the curve follows a near straight-line path from the point of
• If the load is applied again, the curve follows the same linear path in the direction
• Yielding will again occur at the stress level,
σ
yi
is higher than the one observed during the first loading → strain- or work hardening
phenomenon
Plastic strain measured after
σ
(
ε
)
T
=
ln(1
+
ε
)
E
σ
ε
= ε
T
→ Plastic deformation or
(
ε
)
p
T
E
Plastic strain
σ
=
E

1.8 TRUE STRESS/TRUE STRAIN CURVE

Necking Criterion

• When does necking form?

σ
uts
Engineering Strain
Engineering Stress

Increase in stress due to strain

hardening (for a σ T -ε T curve)

T

d

σ

d

ε

T

T

d

σ =

T

d ε

Increase

in

stress

due

to

cross-section reduction

P ⎞ ⎟ =−

⎝ ⎜

 P dA i dA i ⎟ A i ⎠ A 2 i =−σ T A i

d σ

T

= d

d
σ
dA
T
i
d
ε
>−
σ
T
T
d
ε
A
T
i
d
σ
dA
T
d
ε
<−
σ
i
T
T
d
ε
A
T
i
 ⇒ Homogeneous or stable deformation ⇒ Nonhomogeneous or unstable deformation

NECKING CRITERION!

1.8 σ T -ε T CURVE
Necking Criterion
A A l
= o o
• Notice that volume conservation ⇒
i ⇒ A =
ln
ln
(
A l
)−
ln
l
i
o o
i
l
i
dA
dl
d
(
l − l
)
i
i
i
o
=− =
=−ε
d
T
A
l
l
i
i
i

Then, the necking criterion, or instability condition, becomes

d
σ
dA
d
σ
d
σ
T
ε
σ
i
T
ε
σ ε
T
d
<−
d
<
d
=
σ
T
T
T
T
T
T
d
ε
A
ε
d
ε
i d
T
T
T

Let us demonstrate that the above condition occurs at the point of maximum load

dP

= 0 σ

T

P =σ A

T

i

dA

i

+ A d σ= 0

i

T

d

σ

T

dA

i

d

σ

T

d

σ

T

A

i

d

ε

T

=−

=

ε

T

d

σ

T

=

σ ε

T

T

d

σ

T

=

At the point of maximum load appears inestability in tension and it satisfies:

d

σ

T

d

ε

T

= σ

T

Necking criterion!

1.8 σ T -ε T CURVE

Graphical Interpretation of Necking Criterion

At the point of maximum load appears instability in tension (non-homogeneous deformation) and it satisfies:

d
σ
T
=
σ
Necking criterion!
T
d
ε
T
σ
T
σ
T,uts
ε
T,uts
ε
1
T

Determination of the point of necking at maximum load in the true stress/true strain curve

1.8 σ T -ε CURVE

Graphical Interpretation of Necking Criterion

• Necking criterion for a σ T -ε curve:
d
σ
T
= σ
T
d
ε
d
σ
T
σ
T
=
T
d
σ
d
σ
d
ε
d
ε
T
T
T
=
d
ε
d ε
d ε
d
σ
d
l
d
σ
T
σ T
T
T
i
T
=
=
(1 +
ε)
dl
d
ε
d
ε
l
d
ε
T
o
i
d
ε
l
=
o
d
ε
dl
i
T
l
i

d

σ T

σ T

=

d

ε

(1

+ ε)

Necking Criterion

1.8 σ T -ε CURVE

Graphical Interpretation of Necking Criterion

Consideré’s construction for the determination of

d

σ T

σ T

=

d

ε

(1

+ ε)

Necking Criterion

σ T,uts
ε uts
True stress σ T
1
ε uts

Engineering strain ε

Consideré’s construction for determination of ultimate tensile true stress σ T,uts .

1.8 TRUE STRESS/TRUE STRAIN CURVE

Above the necking onset, true strain can not be determined as ln(1+ε) from the measured strain ε, because deformation is not uniformly distributed any more.

Now,

ε

T

V

=

ln(1

=

cte

+

ε

l
− l
l ⎫
i
o
i
)
=
ln(1
+
) = ln
⎛ A ⎞
l
l
o
ε
= ln ⎜
o
o
T
A i ⎠
A l
=
A l
o o
i
i

For cylindrical specimens of diameter D,

 = ln ⎛ ⎜ A ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ = o ⎛ D ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ 2ln ⎜ o ε T

⎝ ⎜

A i

⎝ ⎜

D i

The formation of a necked region introduces triaxial stresses that make difficult to determine accurately the longitudinal tensile stress from the onset of necking until fracture occurs

1.8 TRUE STRESS/TRUE STRAIN CURVE

True stress/true strain curve
Corrected for necking
Engineering stress/strain curve
Fracture
STRESS

STRAIN

Why use engineering curve?

-It shows clearly tensile strength.

- No corrections

-No differences in E and

engineering σ-ε curve and the corresponding σ T -ε T curve.

values determined from the

σ y

1.8 σ T -ε T CURVE

TRUE TENSILE STRENGTH

• If A u is the cross-sectional area at maximun load, then

σ T , uts

σ uts

=

P
max
=
A
A
u
σ
o
=
σ
T , uts
uts
P
A
max
u
A
⎭ ⎪
o

• If ε T,uts is the true strain at maximum load, also called true uniform strain, then

⎛ A ⎞ ⎫
⎛ l ⎞ ⎟
u
o
=
ln
= ln ⎜
ε T , uts
l
A
σ
⎜ ⎜ ⎝
⎟ ⎠
o
u
T , uts
ε
= ln ⎜
T , uts
A
σ
uts
σ
o
=
σ
T , uts
uts
A
u
• Also,
σ T , uts
= ln ⎜
⎟ ⎞
σ
= σ
e
ε T , uts
ε T , uts
T , uts
uts
σ uts

or true uniform strain

1.8 σ T -ε T CURVE

True fracture stress and true fracture strain

The true fracture stress is the load divided by the cross-sectional

area at fracture. The data required for determining this quantity frequently are not measured.

• If A f is the cross-sectional area after fracture, the true fracture strain

ε f is

ε T , f

= ln

f

A

⎜ ⎜

A

o

True fracture strain

The true local necking strain is the strain required to deform the specimen from maximum load to fracture, i.e.

f dA
A
f
ε
=
∫ ε
d ε
i
u
=−
∫ A
= ln
T , n
T
ε
A
u A
uts
i A
f
True stress/true strain curve
Corrected for necking
Engineering stress/strain curve
Fracture
ε T,u
STRAIN
ε t,f
STRESS

1.8 σ T -ε T CURVE

Strain-hardening exponent and strain-hardening rate

• For many metals and alloys, the region of uniform deformation in the flow curve, that is the region from the onset of plastic deformation to the necking onset may be approximated by a simple power curve (Hollomon equation):

σ T

n

T

= K ε

K

n

Strength coefficient

Strain - or work - hardening exponent

• For perfect elastic solids, n=1. n=0 for perfect plastic solids. For metals

0.1<n<0.5

• The strain- or work-hardening rate is

d
σ
σ
T
T
=
T
d
ε
ε
T
T

nK

ε

n 1

=

n

• Many times the flow curve in the uniform plastic deformation range satisfies the called Ludwik equation:

• Remember,

σ T

n

p

=σ + Kε

o

p

(

)

T

σ

T

E

ε

= ε

= ε