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Blood Flow in Arteries

Blood pressure due to the pumping

of the heart accounts for the flow of blood in the arteries.

Systolic pressure is high when the

heart expels the blood.

beats (diastole). Normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100-140mmHg systolic (top reading) and 60-90mmHg diastolic (bottom reading). High blood pressure is said to be present if it is persistently at or above 140/90 mmHg. Hypertension is classified as either primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension; about 9095% of cases are categorized as "primary hypertension" which means high blood pressure with no obvious underlying medical cause.[1] The remaining 510% of cases (secondary hypertension) are caused by other conditions that affect the kidneys, arteries, heart or endocrine system. Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction (heart attacks), heart failure, aneurysms of the arteries (e.g. aortic aneurysm), peripheral arterial disease and is a cause of chronic kidney disease. Even moderate elevation of arterial blood pressure is associated with a shortened life expectancy. Dietary and lifestyle changes can improve blood pressure control and decrease the risk of associated health complications, although drug treatment is often necessary in people for whom lifestyle changes prove ineffective or insufficient. Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. When used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. During each heartbeat, blood pressure varies between a maximum (systolic) and a minimum (diastolic) pressure.[1] The mean blood pressure, due to pumping by the heart and resistance to flow in blood vessels,

Diastolic pressure occurs when the

heart ventricles are relaxing. Both pressures decrease with distance from the left ventricle because blood enters more and more arterioles and arteries.

Blood Flow in Veins Venous blood flow is dependent upon:

1) skeletal muscle contraction, 2) presence of valves in veins, and 3) respiratory movements. Compression of veins causes blood to move forward past a valve that then prevents it from returning backward.

Hypertension HYPERTENSION Definition Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure, sometimes arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. This requires the heart to work harder than normal to circulate blood through the blood vessels. Blood pressure involves two measurements, systolic and diastolic, which depend on whether the heart muscle is contracting (systole) or relaxed between

decreases as the circulating blood moves away from the heart through arteries.

- Hyperthyroidism. Medications, antidepressants, NSAIDs, steroids. Signs/Symptoms: such as estrogen,

Hypertension is intermittent or
sustained elevation in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.

1.Usually asymptomatic. 2. May cause headache, dizziness, blurred vision. Nursing Management: 1. Administer medications as prescribed, such as diuretics, antihypertensiveetc 2. Provide patient and family teaching. - Advise the patient to reduce weight. - Instruct the patient to restrict sodium alcohol and caffeine intake. - Smoking cessation. - Discuss the importance of regular blood pressure monitoring. - Discuss the importance of lifelong medical follow up examination.

There are two major types, primary

(essential) hypertension and secondary hypertension. More than 90% of these cases are primary, and about 10% are secondary. Etiology:

1. Primary hypertension. a. Non modifiable risk factors. - Family history. - Gender. Men women. - Age. - Race. b. Modifiable risk factors. - Stress. - Obesity. - High dietary intake of sodium or saturated fats. - Excessive caffeine, alcohol, or cigarette smoking. - Oral contraceptives use. 2. Secondary hypertension. - Renal vascular diseases. - Coarctation of aorta. - Primary hyperaldosteronism.

Causes There are two types of high blood pressure Primary (essential) hypertension In 90 to 95 percent of high blood pressure cases in adults, there's no identifiablecause. This type of high blood pressure, called essential hypertension or primaryhypertension, tends to develop gradually over many years. Secondary hypertension The other 5 to 10 percent of high blood pressure cases are caused by an underlyingcondition. This type of high blood pressure, called secondary hypertension, tends toappear suddenly and cause higher blood pressure than does primary hypertension.Various conditions and medications can lead to secondary hypertension, including:

Kidney abnormalities Tumors of the adrenal gland Certain congenital heart defects Certain medications, such as birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants,overthe-counter pain relievers and some prescription drugs Illegal drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines Risk factors High blood pressure has many risk factors. Some you can't control. High blood pressure risk factors include: Age. The risk of high blood pressure increases as you age. Through earlymiddle age, high blood pressure is more common in men. Women are morelikely to develop high blood pressure after menopause. Race. High blood pressure is particularly common among blacks, oftendeveloping at an earlier age than it does in whites. Serious complications, suchas stroke and heart attack, also are more common in blacks. Family history. High blood pressure tends to run in families.Other risk factors for high blood pressure are within your control. Being overweight or obese. The more you weigh, the more blood you need tosupply oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. As the volume of blood circulatedthrough your blood vessels increases, so does the pressure on your arterywalls. Not being physically active. People who are inactive tend to have higher heart rates. The higher your heart rate, the harder your heart must work witheach contraction and the stronger the force on your arteries. Lack of physical activity also increases the risk of being overweight. Using tobacco. Not only does smoking tobacco immediately raise your blood pressure temporarily, but the chemicals in tobacco can damage the lining of your artery walls. This can cause your arteries to narrow, increasing your blood pressure. Too much salt (sodium) in your diet. Too much sodium in your diet cancause your body to retain fluid, which increases blood pressure.

Systolic pressure Classificatio n (JNC7)[2] mmHg kPa

Diastolic pressure

mmH kPa g



12 15.9


8.0 10.5

Prehypertensi 120 on 139

16.0 10.7 8089 18.5 11.9

Stage 1 140 hypertension 159

18.7 12.0 9099 21.2 13.2

Stage 2 160 hypertension

21.3 100

13. 3

Isolated systolic 140 hypertension

18.7 <90

<12. 0