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ii

Introduction AVIATION LAW


Oxford Aviation Academy (UK) Limited 2008
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IIighl Crev Licensing AeroIanes lhe SyIIabus The SyIIabus conslilules lhe soIe aulhorilalive denilion
oflhesub|eclmaerlobesludiedinanIASAATILlheorelicaIknovIedgelrainingrogrammeNosludenl
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Cover Photograph: Approach in to Cork (EICK) Eire
Photographed by L ten Hoopen

ThisediliondislribuledbyTransairUKLldShorehamIngIand
Printed in Singapore by KHL Printing Co. Pte Ltd
iii
Introduction AVIATION LAW
Tcxtbnnk5crics
Book Title IASARefNo Subject
1 010 Air Law 010
2 020 Aircraft General Knowledge 1 021 01 Airframes & Systems
021 01 01-04 IuseIageWingsSlabiIisingSurfaces
021 01 05 Landing Gear
021 01 06 Flight Controls
021 01 07 Hydraulics
021 01 08-09 Air Systems & Air Conditioning
021 01 10 Anti-icing & De-icing
021 01 11 Fuel Systems
021 04 00 Emergency Equipment
3 020 Aircraft General Knowledge 2 021 02 Electrics Electronics
021 02 01 Direct Current
021 02 02 Alternating Current
021 02 05 Basic Radio Propagation.
4 020 Aircraft General Knowledge 3 021 00 Powerplant
021 03 01 Piston Engines
021 03 02 Gas Turbines
5 020 Aircraft General Knowledge 4 022 Instrumentation
022 01 Flight Instruments
022 03 Warning & Recording
022 02 Automatic Flight Control
022 04 Power Plant & System Monitoring Instruments
6 030 Flight Performance & Planning 1 031 Mass & Balance
032 Performance
7 030 Flight Performance & Planning 2 033 Flight Planning & Monitoring
8 040 Human Performance & Limitations 040
9 050 Meteorology 050
10 Navigalion 061 GeneraINavigalion
11 Navigalion 062 RadioNavigalion
12 070 Operational Procedures 070
13 080 Principles of Flight 080
14 090 Communications 091 VFR Communications
092 IFR Communications
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Introduction AVIATION LAW
v
Introduction AVIATION LAW
Book Contents
DIIINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
INTIRNATIONALAGRIIMINTSANDORGANISATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
AIRWORTHINISSOIAIRCRAIT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
AIRCRAITNATIONALITYANDRIGISTRATIONMARKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
ILIGHTCRIWLICINSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
RULES OF THE AIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
INSTRUMINTIROCIDURISDIIARTURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
APPROACH PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
CIRCLINGAIIROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
HOLDINGIROCIDURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
ALTIMITIRSITTINGIROCIDURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
IARALLILORNIARIARALLILRUNWAYOIIRATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
SSRANDACAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
SIIARATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
CONTROLOIAIRCRAIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
AIRONAUTICALINIORMATIONSIRVICIAIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
AIRODROMISIHYSICALCHARACTIRISTICS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
AIRODROMISVISUALAIDSMARKINGSANDSIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
AIRODROMILIGHTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
AIRODROMISIRVICISANDOSTACLIMARKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
IACILITATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
SIARCHANDRISCUI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
SICURITY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
AIRCRAITACCIDINTANDINCIDINTINVISTIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
RIVISIONQUISTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
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Introduction AVIATION LAW
1
Chapter 1 Denitions
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
AIR LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
ARIVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
DIIINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
CHAPTERONE
DEFINITION5
Contents
2
Chapter 1
Denitions
3
Chapter 1 Denitions
INTRODUCTION
The content of the Oxford Aviation College Aviation Law course meets the requirements of the
JAA-FCL syllabus (Subject 010- Air Law) and the associated Learning Objectives (LOs). The
main reference documents are the Annexes to the Convention on International Aviation (The
Chicago Convenlion and lhe associaled IANS documenls AddilionaI references are laken
from JAR FCL and JAR OPS.
AIRLAW
Thesub|eclofAirLavisamisnomerTheconlenloflhesub|ecliseecliveIyairmanshivilh
the addition of information concerning some of the international conventions that have been
adopted to regularise the administration of aviation and the aviation industry. The subject
maerisdiverserangingfrominlernalionaIagreemenlslhroughlheruIesoflheairighlcrev
IicensinginslrumenlroceduresATCandlhehysicaIcharaclerislicsofaerodromesAsludenl
doesnolneedlobeaIavyerloasslhissub|eclMosloflherequiremenlsarecommonsense
the majority of which will be familiar to a PPL holder. The ab initio student should approach the
subject from the need to know principle and be guided by the examination feedback as well as
the syllabus. The end of chapter questions are based on examination questions and should give
the student a feel for the level of knowledge required on completion of the course.
ABBREVIATION5
AirLaverhasmorelhananyolhersub|eclisinundaledvilhabbrevialionssomeofvhich
are examinabIe Where lhis is lhe case lhe abbrevialions are secied in lhe aroriale
chapter and decoded. The following is a list (not exhaustive) of abbreviations commonly used
in aviation.
AAIB Air Accident Investigation Board
AAL Above Aerodrome Level
AN Aerodromeeacon
Ac Aircrafl
ACC Area Control Centre
ADA Advisory Airspace
ADF Automatic Direction Finding
ADR Advisory Route
ADT Approved Departure Time
AFI Assistant Flying Instructor
AFIS Aerodrome Flight Information Service
AFS Aeronautical Fixed Service
AITN AeronaulicaIIixedTeIecommunicalionsNelvork
AGL Above Ground Level
AIC Aeronautical Information Circular
AIP Aeronautical Information Publication
AIREP Air Report
AIS Aeronautical Information Service
AME Authorised Medical Examiner
AMSL Above Mean Sea Level
ANO AirNavigalionOrder
AOC AirOeralorsCerlicale
ARP Aerodrome Reference Point
ARN ATSRouleNelvork
4
Chapter 1
Denitions
ASDA Accelerate-Stop Distance Available
ASR AIlimelerSeingRegion
ATAS AirTracAdvisoryService
ATC AirTracConlroI
ATCC AirTracConlroICenlre
ATCU AirTracConlroIUnil
ATCRU AirTracConlroIRadarUnil
ATIM AirTracIIovManagemenl
ATIS Automatic Terminal Information Service
ATS AirTracService
ATSU AirTracServiceUnil
ATZ AirTracZone
AUW All up weight
AWD Airworthiness Division
AWY Airvay
CAA Civil Aviation Authority
CANI CiviIAvialionNolicalionIrocedure
CAS Controlled Airspace
CofA CerlicaleofAirvorlhiness
CTR Control Zone
DA Decision Altitude
DF Direction Finding
DH Decision Height
DME Distance Measuring Equipment
DR Dead Reckoning
EAT Expected Approach Time
ECAC European Civil Aviation Authority
ED Emergency Distance
EET Estimated Elapse Time
ILT ImergencyLocalionTransmier
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
ETA Estimated Time of Arrival
ETOPS Extended Twin Jet Operations
FAL Facilitation of Air Transport
FCL Flight Crew Licensing
FI Flying Instructor
FIR Flight Information Region
FIS Flight Information Service
FL Flight Level
FLPFM Foot Launched Powered Flying Machine
FTL Flight Time Limitations
GASIL GeneraIAvialionSafelyInformalionLeael
GCA Ground Controlled Approach
H DayandNighlOeralingHours
HF High Frequency
Hz HerRadioIrequency
IAS Indicated Air Speed
Ibn Idenlicalioneacon
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation
IFR Instrument Flight Rules
ILS Instrument Landing System
IMC Instrument Meteorological Conditions
IR Instrument Rating
IRE Instrument Rating Examiner
IRVR Instrument Runway Visual Range
5
Chapter 1 Denitions
ISA International Standard Atmosphere
JAA Joint Aviation Authority
JAR JAA Regulations
KHz KiIoHer
Kt Knots
LARS Lower Airspace Radar Service
LATCC LondonAirTracConlroICenlre
LDA Landing Distance Available
LF Low Frequency
MATZ MiIilaryAirTracZone
MDH Minimum Descent Height
MEHT Minimum Eye Height (PAPIs)
MEL Minimum Equipment List
METAR Aviation Routine Weather Report
MF Medium Frequency
MHz Megaher
MNIS MinimumNavigalionIerformanceSecicalion
MoD Ministry of Defence
MOTNI MeleoroIogicaIOeralionaITeIecommunicalionsNelvork
MRSA Mandatory Radar Service Area
MTOM MaximumTakeoMass
MTWA MaximumTakeoWeighlAulhorised
NAIs NoiseAbalemenlIrocedures
NATS NalionaIAirTracServices
ND NonDireclionaIeacon
NOH NoliedOeralingHours
NOSIG NoSignicanlChange
NOTAM NoliceloAirmen
OCA Oceanic Control Area
OCA Obstacle Clearance Altitude
OCH Obstacle Clearance Height
OCL Obstacle Clearance Limit
OIS ObslacIeIdenlicalionSurface
IANS IroceduresforAirNavigalion
PAR Precision Approach Radar
PAPI Precision Approach Path Indicator
Pax Passengers
PIC Pilot in Charge
PT Public Transport
RCC Rescue Co-ordination Centre
RIS Radar Information Service
RLCE Request level change en-route
RNOTAM RoyaINOTAM
RTF Radio Telephony
RTOW ReguIaledTakeoWeighl
RTG Radio Telegraphy
RVR Runway Visual Range
RVSM Reduced Vertical Separation Minima
Rwy Runway
SAR Search and Rescue
SARP Standard and Recommended Practice (ICAO)
SARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite Tracking System
SELCAL Selective Calling
Sfc Surface
SID Standard Instrument Departure
6
Chapter 1
Denitions
SIGMIT SignicanlMeleoroIogicaIWarning
SNOCLO CIosedbySnov
SPECI Special Met Report
SPL Supplementary Flight Plan
SSR Secondary Surveillance Radar
STAR Standard Instrument Arrival
SVFR Special Visual Flight Rules
TAF Aerodrome Meteorological Forecast
TAS True Airspeed
TCA Terminal Control Area
TMA Terminal Maneuvering Area
TODA TakeoDislanceAvaiIabIe
TOM TakeoMinima
TORA TakeoRunAvaiIabIe
TR Type Rating
TRE Type Rating Examiner
TL Transition Level
TVOR Terminal VHF Omni Ranging
Twr Tower (Aerodrome Control)
UHF Ultra High Frequency
UIR Upper Information Region
Us UnserviceabIe
UTC Co-ordinated Universal Time
VASI Visual Approach Slope Indicator
VFR Visual Flight Rules
VHF Very High Frequency
VMC Visual Meteorological Conditions
VOR VHF Omni-ranging
VSTOL VeryShorlTakeoandLanding
WII Wilheeclfrom
WIP Work in Progress
Wpt Waypoint
DEFINITION5
Some of lhe examinalion queslions reIale lo lhe vording of denilions and lhe LOs require
lhesludenllobeabIeloidenlifylhecorrecldenilionfromaIislofoeredaIlernalivesThe
foIIoving are lhe denilions used in lhe Annexes lo lhe Convenlion on InlernalionaI CiviI
Aviation.
Advisnry Airspacc Airsace of dened dimensions or designaled roule vilhin vhich air
lracadvisoryserviceisavaiIabIe
AdvisnryRnutcAdesignaledrouleaIongvhichairlracadvisoryserviceisavaiIabIe
Acria!WnrkAircraItmeansanaircraflolherlhanaubIiclransorlaircraflyingorinlended
bylheoeralorloyforlheuroseofaeriaIvork
Acria!WnrkUndertaking means an undertaking whose business includes the performance of
aerial work.
AcrnbaticManncuvrcsincIudesIoossinsroIIsbunlsslaIIlurnsinverledyingandany
other similar manoeuvre.
7
Chapter 1 Denitions
AcrndrnmcmeansanyareaofIandorvalerdesignedequiedselaarlorcommonIyused
foraordingfaciIiliesforlheIandinganddearlureofaircraflandincIudesanyareaorsace
vhelheronlhegroundonlheroofofabuiIdingoreIsevherevhichisdesignedequiedor
selaarlforaordingfaciIiliesforlheIandinganddearlureofaircraflcaabIeofdescending
orcIimbingverlicaIIybulshaIInolincIudeanyarealheuseofvhichforaordingfaciIiliesfor
the landing and departure of aircraft has been abandoned and has not been resumed.
Acrndrnmc Cnntrn! 5crvicc means an air lrac conlroI service for any aircrafl on lhe
manoeuvring area or apron of the aerodrome in respect of which the service is being provided
orvhichisyinginorinlhevicinilyoflheaerodromelraczoneoflhalaerodromebyvisuaI
reference to the surface.
Acrndrnmc F!ight InInrmatinn Unit means a person appointed by the Authority or by any
other person maintaining an aerodrome to give information by means of radio signals to aircraft
yingorinlendingloyvilhinlheaerodromelraczoneoflhalaerodromeandaerodrome
ighlinformalionserviceshaIIbeconslruedaccordingIy
Acrndrnmc A dened area on Iand or valer incIuding any buiIdings inslaIIalions and
equimenlinlendedlobeusedeilhervhoIIyorinarlforlhearrivaIdearlureandsurface
movement of aircraft.
AcrndrnmcCnntrn!TnwcrAunileslabIishedlorovideairlracconlroIserviceloaerodrome
lrac
AcrndrnmcOpcratingMinimain relation to the operation of an aircraft at an aerodrome means
lhe cIoud ceiIing and runvay visuaI range for lakeo and lhe decision heighl or minimum
descenlheighlrunvayvisuaIrangeandvisuaIreferenceforIandingvhicharelheminimum
for the operation of that aircraft at that aerodrome.
AcrndrnmcTracAIIlraconlhemanoeuvringareaofanaerodromeandaIIaircraflying
in the vicinity of an aerodrome.
AcrndrnmcTracZnncAirsaceofdeneddimensionseslabIishedaroundanaerodromefor
lheroleclionofaerodromelrac
Acrnnautica!GrnundLightmeansanyIighlsecicaIIyrovidedasanaidloairnavigalion
other than a light displayed on an aircraft.
Acrnnautica!PartThat part of an aerodrome including buildings to which access is limited by
security measures (airside).
Acrnnautica!Radin5tatinnmeansaradioslaliononlhesurfacevhichlransmilsorreceives
signals for the purpose of assisting aircraft.
Acrnnautica!5tatinnAIandslalioninlheaeronaulicaImobiIeserviceIncerlaininslancesan
aeronaulicaIslalionmaybeIocaledforexamIeonboardshioronaIalformalsea
Acrnp!anc A over driven heavier lhan air aircrafl deriving ils Iifl in ighl chiey from
aerodynamicreaclionsonsurfacesvhichremainxedundergivencondilionsofighl
AircraItAny machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air
other than the reactions of the air against the earths surface.
AircraIt Catcgnry CIassicalion of aircrafl according lo secied basic characlerislics eg
aeroIaneheIicolergIiderfreebaIIoon
8
Chapter 1
Denitions
AircraItccrticdInrsing!cpi!ntnpcratinnA type of aircraft which the State of Registry has
delerminedduringlhecerlicalionrocesscanbeoeraledsafeIyvilhaminimumcrevof
one pilot.
AircraItTypcnIAIIaircrafloflhesamebasicdesignincIudingaIImodicalionslhereloexcel
lhosemodicalionsvhichresuIlinchangeinhandIingorighlcharaclerislics
AirTracAIIaircraflinighloroeralingonlhemanoeuvringareaofanaerodrome
AirTracAdvisnry5crviccAservicerovidedvilhinadvisoryairsaceloensuresearalion
insofarasraclicaIbelveenaircraflvhichareoeralingonIIRighlIans
Air Trac Cnntrn! C!carancc Authorisation for an aircraft to proceed under conditions
seciedbyanairlracconlroIunil
Ncic|crccntcnicnccincicrnairiracccnirc|c|caranccisjrcqucni|qa||rctiaic!icc|carancc
uncnusc!inapprcpriaicccnicxis
NcicTnca||rctiaic!icanc|caranccnaq|cprcxc!|qincucr!siaxiiakcc!cpariurc
cnrcuicapprcacncr|an!ingicin!icaicincpariicu|arpcriicncjigniicunicnincairirac
ccnirc|c|caranccrc|aics
AirTracCnntrn!5crviccA service provided for the purpose of:
Preventing collisions:
elveenaircrafl
Onlhemanoeuvringareabelveenaircraflandobslruclions
IxedilingandmainlaininganorderIyovofairlrac
Air Trac Cnntrn! Unit A generic lerm meaning variousIy area conlroI cenlre aroach
conlroIoceoraerodromeconlroIlover
Air Trac 5crviccs Airspaccs Airsaces of dened dimensions aIhabelicaIIy designaled
vilhinvhichseciclyesofighlsmayoeraleandforvhichairlracservicesandruIesof
oeralionaresecied
AirTrac5crviccsRcpnrtingOccA unit established for the purpose of receiving reports
concerningairlracservicesandighlIanssubmiedbeforedearlure
NcicAnairiracrcpcriingcccnaq|ccsia||isnc!asscparaicuniicrccn|inc!uiinancxisiingunii
sucnasancincrairiracscrticcsuniicrauniicjincacrcnauiica|injcrnaiicn
Air Trac 5crviccs Unit A generic lerm meaning variousIy air lrac conlroI unil ighl
informalioncenlreorairlracservicesreorlingoce
AirTranspnrtUndcrtakingmeans an undertaking whose business includes the undertaking of
ighlsforlheurosesofubIiclransorlofassengersorcargo
Airbnrnc Cn!!isinn Avnidancc 5ystcm ACA5 An aircraft system based on secondary
surveillance radar (SSR) transponder signals which operates independently of ground-based
equimenllorovideadvicelolheiIolonolenliaIconiclingaircrafllhalareequiedvilh
SSR transponders.
9
Chapter 1 Denitions
AirwayA control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor equipped with
radio navigation aids.
A!crting5crviccA service provided to notify appropriate organisations regarding aircraft in
needofsearchandrescueaidandloassislsuchorganisalionsasrequired
A!tcrnatcAcrndrnmcAn aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed when it becomes either
imossibIe or inadvisabIe lo conlinue lo or lo Iand al lhe aerodrome of inlended Ianding
Alternate aerodromes include the following:
Takeo aIlernale An aerodrome lo vhich an aircrafl can Iand shouId lhis become
necessaryshorlIyaflerlakeovhereilisnolossibIelouselheaerodromeofdearlure
En-route alternate. An aerodrome at which an aircraft would be able to land after
experiencing an abnormal or emergency condition while en route.
Destination alternate. An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed should it become
either impossible or inadvisable to land at the aerodrome of intended landing.
NcicTncacrc!rcncjrcnunicnaigni!cparisnaqa|sc|ccnrcuiccra!csiinaiicna|icrnaicacrc!rcnc
jcrinaiigni
A!titudcTheverlicaIdislanceofaIeveIaoinloranob|eclconsideredasaoinlmeasured
from mean to sea level.
Annua! Cnsts in relation to the operation of an aircraft means the best estimate reasonably
raclicabIeallhelimeofaarlicuIarighlinresecloflheyearcommencingonlhersldayof
}anuaryrecedinglhedaleoflheighloflhecoslofkeeingandmainlainingandlheindirecl
coslsofoeralinglheaircraflsuchcoslsineilhercaseexcIudingdireclcoslsandbeinglhose
acluaIIyandnecessariIyincurredvilhoulavievlorol
Annua!F!yingHnursThebesleslimalereasonabIyraclicabIeallhelimeofaarlicuIarighl
byanaircrafloflhehoursovnorlobeovnbylheaircraflinresecloflheyearcommencing
onlhersldayof}anuaryrecedinglhedaleoflheighl
ApprnachCnntrn!OccAunileslabIishedlorovideairlracconlroIserviceloconlroIIed
ighlsarrivingalordearlingfromoneormoreaerodromes
Apprnach Cnntrn! 5crvicc Air lrac conlroI service for arriving or dearling conlroIIed
ighls
ApprnachtnLandingmeanslhalorlionoflheighloflheaircraflvhenaroachingloIand
invhichilisdescendingbeIovaheighlofflabovelhereIevanlsecieddecisionheighl
or minimum descent height.
Apprnpriatc AT5 Authnrity The relevant authority designated by the State responsible for
rovidingairlracservicesinlheairsaceconcerned
ApprnpriatcAuthnrity
RegardingighloverlhehighseaslhereIevanlaulhorilyoflheSlaleofRegislry
RegardingighlolherlhanoverlhehighseaslhereIevanlaulhorilyoflheSlalehaving
sovereignlyoverlhelerrilorybeingoverovn
10
Chapter 1
Denitions
AprnnAdenedareaonaIandaerodromeinlendedloaccommodaleaircraflforlheuroses
ofIoadingorunIoadingassengersmaiIorcargofueIIingarkingormainlenance
ArcaCnntrn!CcntrcAnairlracconlroIunileslabIishedlorovideanareaconlroIservicelo
aircraflyingvilhinanoliedighlinformalionregionvhicharenolreceivinganaerodrome
control service or an approach control service.
ArcaCnntrn!5crviccAirlracconlroIserviceforconlroIIedighlsinconlroIareas
ArcaNavigatinnEquipmcntRNAVEquipment carried on board an aircraft which enables
lheaircrafllonavigaleonanydesiredighlalhvilhinlhecoverageofarorialeground
based navigation aids or within the limits of that on-board equipment or a combination of the
two.
AT5RnutcAseciedrouledesignedforchanneIinglheovoflracasnecessaryforlhe
rovisionofairlracservices
NcicTncicrnATSrcuicisusc!icncantaricus|qairuaqa!tiscrqrcuicccnirc||c!crunccnirc||c!
rcuicarrita|cr!cpariurcrcuiccic
AuthnriscdPcrsnnmcans
Any constable
Any erson aulhorised by lhe Secrelary of Slale vhelher by name or by cIass or
description) either generally or in relation to a particular case of class of cases
Any person authorised by the Authority (whether by name or class or description)
either generally or in relation to a particular case or class of cases
CabinAcndantinreIalionloanaircraflmeansaersononaighlforlheuroseofubIic
transport carried for the purpose of performing in the interests of the safety of passengers
duties to be assigned by the operator or the commander of the aircraft but who shall not act as
amemberoflheighlcrev
Captive Flight means ighl by an unconlroIIabIe baIIoon during vhich il is aached lo lhe
surface by a restraining device.
Cargo includes mail and animals.
CcrticdInrsing!cpi!ntnpcratinnmeans an aircraft which is not required to carry more than
one pilot by virtue of one or more of the following.
ChangcnvcrPnintTheoinlalvhichanaircraflnavigalingonanATSroulesegmenldened
by reference to very high frequency omni directional radio ranges (VOR) is expected to transfer
its primary navigational reference from the facility behind the aircraft to the next facility ahead
of the aircraft.
NcicCnangcctcrpcinisarccsia||isnc!icprcti!cinccpiinun|a|anccinrcspccicjsigna|sircnginan!
qua|iiq|ciuccnjaci|iiicsaia|||ctcrsic|cusc!an!iccnsurcaccnncnscurcccjazinuingui!anccjcr
a||aircrajicpcraiinga|cngincsancpcriicncjarcuicscgncni
C!caranccLimitTheoinllovhichanaircraflisgranledanairlracconlroIcIearance
11
Chapter 1 Denitions
Cloud Ceiling in relation to an aerodrome means the vertical distance from the elevation of
lheaerodromelolheIoveslarlofanycIoudvisibIefromlheaerodromevhichissucienllo
obscure more than one-half of the sky so visible.
Commander in reIalion lo an aircrafl means lhe member of lhe ighl crev designaled as
commanderoflhalaircraflbylheoeralorlhereoforfaiIingsuchaersonlheersonvhois
for the time being the pilot in command of the aircraft.
Cnmmcrcia! Pi!nt Liccncc CPL A licence held by a professional pilot which permits the
holder to:
Exercise all the privileges of a PPL
Act as PIC in any aeroplane engaged in operations other than commercial air
transport
Acl as IIC in commerciaI air lransorl in any aeroIane cerlicaled for singIe iIol
operation
To act as co-pilot in commercial air transport in aeroplanes required to be operated with
a co-pilot
CnmpctcntAuthnrityThe authority responsible under the law of the State for promoting the
safety of civil aviation.
Cnntracting5tatc means any state which is party to the Convention on International Civil
Aviation signed at Chicago on the 7 December 1944.
Cnntrn!ArcaAconlroIIedairsaceexlendinguvardsfromaseciedIimilabovelheearlh
Cnntrn!!cd Acrndrnmc An aerodrome al vhich air lrac conlroI service is rovided lo
aerodromelrac
NcicTncicrnccnirc||c!acrc!rcncin!icaicsinaiairiracccnirc|scrticcisprcti!c!icacrc!rcnc
irac|ui!ccsncincccssari|qinp|qinaiaccnirc|zcnccxisis
Cnntrn!!cdAirspaccAnairsaceofdeneddimensionsvilhinvhichairlracconlroIservice
isrovidedloIIRighlsandloVIRighlsinaccordancevilhlheairsacecIassicalion
NcicCcnirc||c!airspaccisagcncricicrnunicncctcrsATSairspaccC|asscsABCOan!|
Cnntrn!!cdF!ightAnyighlvhichissub|eclloanairlracconlroIcIearance
Cnntrn! Znnc A controlled airspace extending upwards from the surface of the earth to a
secieduerIimil
Cnnguratinnasapp!icdtnthcacrnp!ancA particular combination of the positions of the
moveabIeeIemenlssuchasvingasIandinggearelcvhichaecllheaerodynamicsoflhe
aeroplane.
Cnpi!nt A licenced pilot serving in any piloting capacity other than as pilot-in-command
bul excIuding a iIol vho is on board lhe aircrafl for lhe soIe urose of receiving ighl
instruction.
12
Chapter 1
Denitions
CPL Currcnt F!ight P!an The IIighl IIan incIuding changes if any broughl aboul by
subsequent clearances.
Crew meansamemberoflheighlcrevaersoncarriedonlheighldeckvhoisaoinled
by lhe oeralor of lhe aircrafl lo give or lo suervise lhe lraining exerience raclice and
eriodicaIleslsasrequiredandinresecloflheighlcrevorasacabinaendanl
Critica!PnwcrUnitssTheoverunilsfaiIureofvhichgiveslhemosladverseeeclonlhe
aircraft characteristics relative to the case under consideration.
Cruisc C!imb An aeroplane cruising technique resulting in a net increase in altitude as the
aeroplane mass decreases.
CruisingLcvc!AIeveImainlainedduringasignicanlorlionofaighl
DangcrArcaAnairsaceofdeneddimensionsvilhinvhichacliviliesdangerouslolheighl
ofaircraflmayexislalseciedlimes
Day means the time from half an hour before sunrise until half and hour after sunset (both
limesexcIusivesunselandsunrisebeingdelerminedalsurfaceIeveI
Decision Height in relation to the operation of an aircraft at an aerodrome means the height
in a precision approach at which a missed approach must be initiated if the required visual
reference to continue that approach has not been established.
Declared Distanceshaslhemeaningvhichhasbeennolied
Dcsign Landing Mass The maximum mass of lhe aircrafl al vhich for slrucluraI design
urosesilisassumedlobeIannedloIand
DcsignTakcnMassThemaximummassalvhichlheaircraflforslrucluraIdesignuroses
isassumedlobeIannedlobeallheslarloflhelakeorun
DcsignTaxiingMassThemaximummassoflheaircraflalvhichlheslrucluraIrovisionis
madeforIoadIiabIelooccurduringlheuseoflheaircraflonlhegroundriorlolheslarlof
lakeo
Dcstinatinn A!tcrnatc An alternate aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed should it
become either impossible or inadvisable to land at the aerodrome of intended landing.
Dua!InstructinnTimcIIighllimeduringvhichaersonisreceivingighlinslruclionfroma
properly authorised pilot on board the aircraft.
EnrnutcC!caranccWhereanATCcIearanceisissuedforlheiniliaIarlofaighlsoIeIyasa
meansofexedilingdearlinglraclhesubsequenlcIearancelolheaerodromeofinlended
landing is an en-route clearance.
EstimatcdOB!ncksTimc The estimated time at which the aircraft will commence movement
associated with departure.
Estimatcd Timc nIArriva! Ior IIR ighls lhe lime al vhich il is eslimaled lhal lhe aircrafl
viIIarriveoverlhaldesignaledoinldenedbyreferencelonavigalionaidsfromvhichilis
inlendedlhalaninslrumenlaroachrocedureviIIbecommencedorifnonavigalionaid
isassocialedvilhlheaerodromelhelimealvhichlheaircraflviIIarriveoverlheaerodrome
13
Chapter 1 Denitions
ExpcctcdApprnachTimcThelimealvhichATCexeclslhalanarrivingaircraflfoIIovinga
deIayviIIIeavelhehoIdingoinllocomIeleilsaroachloIandingNoleTheacluaIlimeof
leaving a holding point will dependnnthcapprnachc!carancc
Fina! apprnach and takcn arcaFATO cxccpt hc!icnptcrsA dened area over vhich lhe
naIhaseoflhearoachmanoeuvrelohoverorIandingiscomIeledandfromvhichlhe
lakeomanoeuvreiscommencedandvherelheIATOislobeusedbyerformancecIass
heIicolersincIudeslhere|ecledlakeoareaavaiIabIe
Fi!cd F!ight P!an The ighl Ian as Ied vilh an ATS unil by lhe iIol or a designaled
reresenlalivevilhoulanysubsequenlchanges
NcicWncnincucr!ncssagcisusc!asasuxicinisicrnii!cncicsincccnicnian!jcrnaicjinc
|c!ignip|an!aiaasiransnic!
F!ightCrcwMcmbcrA licensed crew member charged with duties essential to the operation
ofanaircraflduringighllime
F!ightInInrmatinn5crviccA service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information
usefuIforlhesafeandecienlconduclofighls
F!ightLcvc!AsurfaceofconslanlalmoshericressurevhichisreIaledloasecicressure
dalumhIaandissearaledfromolhersuchsurfacesbysecicressureinlervaIs
NcicAprcssurciqpca|iincicrca|i|raic!inacccr!anccuiinincSian!ar!Aincspncrc
WncnsciicQNHa|iincicrui||in!icaica|iiiu!c
WncnsciicQ||a|iincicrui||in!icaicncignia|ctcincQ||rcjcrcncc!aiun
WncnsciaiaprcssurccjnPanaq|cusc!icin!icaicigni|ctc|s

NcicTncicrnsncignian!a|iiiu!cusc!inNcica|ctcin!icaica|iinciricraincrinangccnciric
ncigniscra|iiiu!cs
F!ightP!anSeciedinformalionrovidedloairlracservicesunilsreIaliveloaninlended
ighlororlionofaighlofanaircrafl
F!ightPrnccdurcsTraincrSeeSynlhelicighllrainer
F!ight5imu!atnrSeeSynlhelicighllrainer
F!ightRccnrding5ystcmmeansasyslemcomrisingeilheraighldalarecorderoracockil
voice recorder or both.
F!ightTimcThelolaIlimefromlhemomenlanaircraflrslmovesunderilsovnoverforlhe
uroseoflakingounliIlhemomenlilrslcomesloreslallheendoflheighl
Ncic||igniiincasncrc!cnc!issqncnqncusuiinincicrn||cckic||cckiinccrcncckiccncck
iincingcncra|usagcunicnisncasurc!jrcninciincanaircrajinctcsjrcninc|ca!ingpciniunii|ii
sicpsaiincun|ca!ingpcini
NcicWncnctcrnc|iccpicrrcicrsarccngagc!inciincui|||cinc|u!c!inincigniiinc
F!ight Timc as 5tudcnt Pi!nt in Cnmmand IIighl lime during vhich lhe ighl inslruclor
viIIonIyobservelhesludenlaclingasIICandshaIInolinuenceorconlroIlheighloflhe
aircraft.
14
Chapter 1
Denitions
F!ightVisibi!ityThevisibiIilyforvardfromlhecockilofanaircraflinighl
Free BalloonmeansabaIIoonvhichvheninighlisnolaachedbyanyformofreslraining
device to the surface.
Free Controlled Flight means ighl during vhicha baIIoonisnolaachedlo lhe surfaceby
any form of restraining device (other than a tether not exceeding 5 metres in length which
maybeusedasarloflhelakeorocedureandduringvhichlheheighloflhebaIIoonis
conlroIIabIebymeansofadeviceaachedlolhebaIIoonandoeraledbylhecommanderof
the balloon or by remote control.
GrnundVisibi!ityThevisibiIilyalanaerodromeasreorledbyanaccrediledobserver
Gnvcrnmcnt Acrndrnmc means any aerodrome in the United Kingdom which is in the
occupation of any Government Department or visiting force.
HcadingThedireclioninvhichlheIongiludinaIaxisofanaircraflisoinledusuaIIyexressed
indegreesfromNorlhlruemagneliccomassorgrid
HcightTheverlicaIdislanceifaIeveIaoinloranob|eclconsideredasaoinlmeasuredfrom
asecieddalum
IFRThesymboIusedlodesignalelheinslrumenlighlruIes
IFRF!ightAighlconducledinaccordancevilhlheinslrumenlighlruIes
IMC The symbol used to designate instrument meteorological conditions.
InstrumcntApprnachPrnccdurcAseriesofredelerminedmanoeuvresbyreferenceloighl
inslrumenls vilh secied roleclion from obslacIes from lhe iniliaI aroach x or vhere
aIicabIefromlhebeginningofadenedarrivaIrouleloaoinlfromvhichaIandingcan
be comIeled and lhereafler if a Ianding is nol comIeled lo a osilion al vhich hoIding or
en-route clearance criteria apply.
Instrumcnt Mctcnrn!ngica! Cnnditinns Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of
visibiIilydislancefromcIoudandceiIingIesslhanlheminimaseciesforvisuaImeleoroIogicaI
conditions.

Ncic|naccnirc|zcncaV||igninaqprcccc!un!crinsiruncninciccrc|cgica|ccn!iiicnscjan!as
auincrisc!|qairiracccnirc|
InstrumcntF!ightTimcTime during which a pilot is piloting an aircraft solely by reference to
instruments and without external reference points.
InstrumcntGrnundTimcTimeduringvhichaiIolisraclisingonlhegroundsimuIaled
inslrumenlighlinasynlhelicighllrainerarovedbylheLicensingAulhorily
InstrumcnttimcInslrumenlighllimeorinslrumenlgroundlime
JAAmeanslhe}oinlAvialionAulhoriliesanassocialedbodyoflheIuroeanCiviIAvialion
Conference.
JARmeansa|oinlavialionrequiremenloflhe}AAbearinglhalnumberasilhaseeclunder
the Technical Harmonisation Regulation and reference to a numbered JAR is a reference to such
a requirement.
15
Chapter 1 Denitions
LandingArcaThalarlofamovemenlareainlendedforlheIandingorlakeoofaircrafl
Landing 5urIacc That part of the surface of an aerodrome which the aerodrome authority
has declared available for the normal ground or water run of aircraft landing in a particular
direction.
Lcvc! A generic lerm reIaling lo lhe verlicaI osilion of an aircrafl in ighl and meaning
variousIyheighlaIliludeorighlIeveI
LiIc|ackct includes any device designed to support a person individually in or on the water.
Lng Bnnk in lhe case of an aircrafl Iog book engine Iog book or variabIe ilch roeIIer Iog
bookorersonaIyingIogbookincIudesarecordkeleilherinabookorbyanyolhermeans
approved by the Authority in the particular case.
ManncuvringArcaThalarlofanaerodromelobeusedforlhelakeoIandingandlaxiing
ofaircraflexcIudingarons
Maintcnancc Tasks required to ensure the continued airworthiness of an aircraft including
any one or combinalion of overhauI reair inseclion reIacemenl modicalion or defecl
reclicalion
Mcdica!AsscssmcntThe evidence issued by a Contracting State that the licence holder meets
secicrequiremenlsofmedicaIlnessIlisissuedfoIIovinganevaIualionbylheLicensing
Aulhorily of lhe reorl submied by lhe designaled medicaI examiner vho conducled lhe
examination of the applicant for the licence.
MinimumDcsccntHcightin relation to the operation of an aircraft at an aerodrome means the
height in a non-precision approach below which descent may not be made without the required
visual reference.
Mu!tip!cPi!ntAcrnp!ancsAeroIanescerlicaledforoeralionvilhaminimumcrevofal
least two pilots.
Mu!ticrcwCnnpcratinnThefunclionoflheighlcrevasaleamofcooeralingmembers
led by the pilot-in-command.
MnvcmcntArcaThalarlofanaerodromelobeusedforlhelakeoIandingandlaxiingof
aircraflconsislingoflhemanoeuvringareaandlhearons
Nautica!mi!cmeanslheInlernalionaINaulicaIMiIelhalislosayadislanceofmelres
Nighl The hours belveen lhe end of evening civiI lviIighl and lhe beginning of morning
civiI lviIighl or such olher eriod belveen sunsel and sunrise as may be rescribed by lhe
appropriate authority.
NcicCiti|iui|ignicn!sinincctcninguncnincccnirccjincsuns!iscis!cgrccs|c|cuincncrizcn
an!|cginsinincncrninguncnincccnirccjincsuns!iscis!cgrccs|c|cuincncrizcn
NnnprccisinnApprnach means an instrument approach using non-visual aids for guidance in
azimuth or elevation but which is not a precision approach.
Privatc Pi!nts Liccncc PPL The licence held by a pilot which prohibits the piloting of an
aircraft for which remuneration is given.
16
Chapter 1
Denitions
TnPi!ntTomaniuIalelheighlconlroIsofanaircraflduringighllime
Pilot-In-Command. The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during
ighllime
PnwcrunitA system of one or more engines and ancillary parts which are together necessary
lorovidelhruslindeendenlIyoflheconlinuedoeralionofanyolheroverunilsbulnol
including short period thrust-producing devices.
Prccisinn apprnach means an inslrumenl aroach using Inslrumenl Landing Syslem
Microwave Landing System or Precision Approach Radar for guidance in both azimuth and
elevation.

Prcssurca!titudcAn atmospheric pressure expressed in terms of altitude which corresponds
to the pressure in the Standard Atmosphere.
PrncicncyChcckDemonslralionofskiIIlorevaIidaleorrenevralingsandincIudingsuch
oral examinations as the examiner may require.
PrnhibitcdArcaAnairsaceofdeneddimensionsabovelheIandareasorlerriloriaIvalers
ofaSlalevilhinvhichighlofaircraflisrohibiled
Rating An aulhorisalion enlered on or associaled vilh a Iicence and forming arl lhereof
slalingseciaIcondilionsriviIegesorIimilalionserlaininglosuchIicence
Rcncwa!The administrative action taken after a rating has expired.
RcndcringaLiccnccVa!idTheaclionlakenbyaConlraclingSlaleasanaIlernaliveloissuing
ils ovn Iicence in acceling a Iicence issued by any olher slale as an equivaIenl of ils ovn
licence.
RcpctitivcF!ightP!anRPLAighlIanreIaledloaseriesoffrequenlIyrecurringreguIarIy
oeraledindividuaIighlsvilhidenlicaIbasicfealuressubmiedbyanoeralorforrelenlion
and repetitive use by ATS units.
RcpnrtingPnintAseciedgeograhicaIIocalioninreIalionlovhichlheosilionofanaircrafl
can be reported.
RcstrictcdArcaAnairsaceofdeneddimensionsabovelheIandareasorlerriloriaIvalers
of a Slale vilhin vhich ighl of aircrafl is reslricled in accordance vilh cerlain secied
conditions.
Rcva!idatinn The administrative action taken within the period of validity of a rating or
approval that allows the holder to continue to exercise the privileges of a rating or approval for
afurlherseciederiodconsequenluonlhefuIIImenlofseciedrequiremenls
RunwayAdenedreclanguIarareaonaIandaerodromerearedforlheIandingandlakeo
of aircraft.
RunwayVisua!RangcinreIalionloarunvaymeanslhedislanceinlhedireclionoflakeo
or landing over which the runway lights or surface markings may be seen from the touchdown
zone as calculated by either human observation or instruments in the vicinity of the touchdown
zoneorvherelhisisnolreasonabIyraclicabIeinlhevicinilyoflhemidoinloflherunvay
andlhedislanceifanycommunicaledlolhecommanderofanaircraflbyoronbehaIfoflhe
person in charge of the aerodrome as being the runway visual range for the time being.
17
Chapter 1 Denitions
5chcdu!cdJnurncymeans one of a series of journeys which are undertaken between the same
two places and which together amount to a systematic service.
5igna!ArcaAn area of an aerodrome used for the display of ground signals.
5ki!!TcstDemonstration of skill for licence or rating issue including such oral examinations as
the examiner may require.
5n!nF!ightTimc Flight time during which a student pilot is the sole occupant of an aircraft.
5pccia!VFRF!ightAVIRighlcIearedbyairlracconlroIlooeralevilhinaconlroIzone
in meteorological conditions below VMC.
5tatc nI Dcsign The state having jurisdiction over the organisation responsible for the type
design.
5tatcnIRcgistry The State on whose register the aircraft is entered.
5ynthctic F!ight Traincr Any one of lhe foIIoving lhree lyes if aaralus in vhich ighl
conditions are simulated on the ground:
AIIighlSimuIalorWhichrovidesanaccuralereresenlalionoflheighldeckofa
arlicuIaraircrafllyelolheexlenllhallhemechanicaIeIeclricaIeIeclronicelcaircrafl
conlroIfunclionslhenormaIenvironmenlofighlcrevmembersandlheerformance
andighlcharaclerislicsoflhallyeofaircraflarereaIislicaIIysimuIaled
AIIighlIroceduresTrainerWhichrovidesareaIislicighldeckenvironmenland
vhichsimuIalesinslrumenlresonsessimIeconlroIfunclionsofmechanicaIeIeclric
eIeclronicelcaircraflsyslemsandlheerformanceandighlcharaclerislicsofaircrafl
of a particular class
A asic Inslrumenl IIighl Trainer Which is equied vilh aroriale inslrumenls
andvhichsimuIaleslheighldeckenvironmenlofanaircraflinighlininslrumenl
ighlcondilions
Takcn 5urIacc That part of the surface of an aerodrome which the aerodrome authority
hasdecIaredavaiIabIeforlhenormaIgroundorvalerrunofaircrafllakingoinaarlicuIar
direction.
TaxiingMovemenlofanaircraflonlhesurfaceofanaerodromeunderilsovnoverexcIuding
lakeoandIanding
Taxivay A dened alh on a Iand aerodrome eslabIished for lhe laxiing of an aircrafl and
inlendedlorovideaIinkbelveenonearloflheaerodromeandanolherincIuding
Aircraft stand taxi-lane. A portion of an apron designated as a taxiway and Intended to
provide access to aircraft stands only
Apron taxiway. A portion of a taxiway system located on an apron and intended to
provide a through taxi route across the apron
Rapid exit taxiway. A taxiway connected to a runway at an acute angle and designed
loaIIovIandingaeroIaneslolurnoalhigherseedslhanareachievedonolherexil
taxiways thereby minimising runway occupancy times
18
Chapter 1
Denitions
Tcrmina! Cnntrn!Arca TCA A conlroI area normaIIy eslabIished al lhe Conuence ofATS
routes in the vicinity of one or more major aerodromes.
Tnta! Estimatcd E!apscd Timc Ior IIR ighls lhe eslimaled lime required from lakeo lo
arrive over lhal designaled oinl dened by reference lo navigalion aids from vhich il is
inlendedlhananinslrumenlaroachrocedureviIIbecommencedorifnonavigalionaidis
associaledvilhlhedeslinalionaerodromeloarriveoverlhedeslinalionaerodromeIorVIR
ighlslheeslimaledlimerequiredfromlakeoloarriveoverlhedeslinalionaerodrome
TrackThero|ecliononlheIarlhssurfaceoflhealhofanaircrafllhedireclionofvhichalh
alanyoinlisusuaIIyexressedindegreesfromNorlhlruemagnelicorgrid
TracAvnidancc5crviccAdvicerovidedbyanairlracserviceunilsecifyingmanoeuvres
to assist a pilot to avoid a collision.
Trac InInrmatinn Informalion issued by an air lrac service unil lo aIerl a iIol lo olher
knovnorobservedairlracvhichmaybeinroximilylolheosilionorinlendedrouleof
ighlandloheIlheiIolavoidacoIIision
Transitinn A!titudc The altitude at or below which the vertical position of an aircraft is
controlled by reference to altitudes.
VFRThesymboIusedlodesignalelhevisuaIighlruIes
VFRF!ightAighlconducledinaccordancevilhlhevisuaIighlruIes
Visibi!ity The abiIily as delermined by almosheric condilions and exressed in unils of
dislanceloseeandidenlifyrominenlunIighledob|eclsbydayandrominenlIighledob|ecls
by night.
Visua!Mctcnrn!ngica!CnnditinnsMeleoroIogicaIcondilionsexressedinlermsofvisibiIily
dislancefromcIoudandceiIingequaIloorbeerlhanseciedminima
VMCThe symbol used to designate visual meteorological conditions.
19
Chapter 2 International Agreements and Organisations
CHAPTERTWO
INTERNATIONALAGREEMENT5ANDORGANI5ATION5

Contents
THICHICAGOCONVINTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
INTIRNATIONALLAW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
CUSTOMSANDIXCISIANDIMMIGRATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
INTIRNATIONALOLIGATIONSOICONTRACTIDSTATIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
DUTIES OF ICAO MEMBER STATES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
STATUSOIANNIXCOMIONINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
THIINTIRNATIONALCIVILAVIATIONORGANISATIONICAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
THIORGANISATIONOIICAO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
RIGIONALSTRUCTURIOIICAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
RIGIONALSTRUCTURIANDOIIICIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
ICAOIULICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
OTHIRINTIRNATIONALAGRIIMINTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
THICONVINTIONSOITOKYOTHIHAGUIANDMONTRIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
THIWARSAWCONVINTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
THIROMICONVINTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
IATA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
ECAC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
EASA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
JAA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
IUROCONTRO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L36
GINIVACONVINTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
20
Chapter 2
International Agreements and Organisations
21
Chapter 2 International Agreements and Organisations
THE CHICAGOCONVENTION
Histnrica! BackgrnundAs far as modes of lransorl is concerned civiI avialion has
been lhe faslesl groving and lhe mosl lechnicaIIy innovalive of any Irom lhe rsl aemls
al overed manned ighl lo reguIar sace ighl ve have onIy |usl exceeded years of
aviation and we have had scheduled commercial air services since 1919. In this day and age of
informalion lechnoIogy comulerised lickeling syslems and comulerised ighl Ians hov
did lhey coe in lhose earIy days Il is robabIy no coincidence lhal lhe rsl International
ConferenceonCiviIAvialionaIsolookIaceinalIarisSincelhenlheeIdofourchosen
rofession has been sub|ecled lo far more inlernalionaI IegisIalion and reguIalion lhan any
olherTheoverridingneedvhichisrecognisedbyaIIregardIessofoIilicaIincIinalionisfor
higher and higher safety standards. The degree of international co-operation in this respect is
oulslandingandshovslhalvherelhereisagenuinedesireloachieveinlernalionaIagreemenl
it is forthcoming.
Thc 5ccnnd Wnr!d War The Second WorId War had a ma|or eecl uon lechnicaI
development of the aeroplane telescoping a quarter of a century of normal peacetime
development into just six years. The strategic use of aeroplanes for the movement of men and
materiel to and from theatres of war laid the foundation for the air transport industry we have
today. It was foreseen that a vast network of passenger and freight services would be set up but
aIsomanyrobIemsvereforeseenlovhichsoIulionshadlobefoundlobenelandsuorla
world subsequently at peace. There was the question of commercial rights - what arrangements
vouIdbemadeforlheairIinesofonecounlryloyinloandlhroughlhelerriloriesofanolher
There vere olher concerns vilh regard lo lhe IegaI and economic conicls lhal mighl come
vilheacelimeyingacrossnalionaIborderssuchashovlomainlainexislingairnavigalion
faciIilies many of vhich vere Iocaled in sarseIy ouIaled areas Hovever inlernalionaI
commerciaI avialion vas considered lo be of such imorlance and a riorily issue lhal lhe
government of the United States conducted exploratory discussions with other allied (friendly)
nalionsduringlheearIymonlhsofSubsequenlIyinvilalionsveresenlloslaleslomeel
inChicagoinNovember
ThcMcctingatChicagnIorveveekslhedeIegalesoflhenalionsvhoaended
considered the problems of international civil aviation. The outcome was the Convention on
InlernalionaICiviIAvialionlheuroseofvhichvaslofoslerlhefuluredeveIomenlof
InlernalionaICiviIAvialionloheIlocrealeandreservefriendshiandunderslandingamong
eoIesoflhevorIdsoaslorevenlilsabusebecomingalhreallolhegeneraIsecurilylhus
promoting co-operation between peoples. The 52 states agreed on policy and arrangements
so that civil aviation may be developed in a safe and orderly manner and that international air
transport services might be established on the basis of equality of opportunity and economically
sound operation. A permanent body was subsequently charged with the administration of the
rinciIeslheInternational Civil Aviation Organisation (known throughout the world by the
acronym ICAO pronounced eye-kay-oh).
ThcChicagnCnnvcntinn. The ChicagoConvenlionconsislingofninelysixarlicIes
IegisIaliveilemsofagreemenlaccelslherinciIelhaleveryslalehascomIeleandexcIusive
sovereignty over the airspace above its territory and provides that no scheduled international air
service may operate over or into the territory of a contracting state without that states previous
consenlIleslabIishedlheriviIegesandreslriclionsofaIIconlraclingslaleslorovideforlhe
adoption of International Standards and Recommended Practices for:
Regulating air navigation
The installation of navigation facilities by contracting states
The facilitation of air transport by the reduction of customs and immigration
formalities
22
Chapter 2
International Agreements and Organisations
INTERNATIONALLAW
App!icab!c !aw. There is no world parliament or global legislative body so there is
IegaIIynosuchlhingasinlernalionaIIavHoveveralconvenlionsofslalesmeelingsforlhe
urose of reaching consensus belveen slales arrangemenls are made lo reguIale aclivilies
aeclingmorelhanoneslalelhroughcommonagreemenlTheagreemenlslhemseIvesarenol
IegaIIyenforceabIeaslhereisnogIobaIoIiceforceandaIIslalesareenlilIedlolheirsovereignly
seedenilionWhalhaensislhallhenalionaIdeIegalionlolheconvenlionIacesbeforelhe
national parliament (or legislative body) a proposal to make the text of the agreement (and any
codiciIs aendices rolocoIs elclhe Iavoflhal slale Thisrocessisknovnas adolion
andsubsequenlIyralicalionInlhismannervhalhasbeenagreedinlernalionaIIybecomes
IocaIIyenforceabIeIavinlheslalesconcernedAnoencecommiedagainslsuchIavvouId
be try-able and punishable under national penal legislation in any contracting state anywhere
in the world.
Territorial airspace. The application of national law is only applicable to the territory
over vhich lhal slale has |urisdiclion In avialion lhe exlenl of |urisdiclion is Iimiled by lhe
IaleraIIimilsoflerriloriaIairsacebulunIimiledverlicaIIyAninlereslingsilualionregarding
satellites and space craft!). Lateral territorial limits have been agreed internationally where such
a Iimil is nol coincidenl vilh a Iand boundary The airsace of SvierIand is easiIy dened
because lhe counlry is IandIocked Ior lhe UK hovever lhe Iimil is dened by lhe Iimil of
lerriloriaI valers vhich vas agreed al lhe Geneva Convenlion on lhe TerriloriaI Sea and
Contiguous Zones (1958).
High5cas. The early international maritime agreements concerned the right to use the
highseasunhinderedTherighloffreeavialionoeralionoverlhehighseasvasembodied
inlheGenevaConvenliononlheHighSeasaIsoofinvhichlhehighseasaredened
as aII lhe seas oulside of lerriloriaI seas In lhese and olher convenlions lhe eslabIished
riviIegesandfreedomsofmarinersincIudinglhoseoflheagslalelheSlaleinvhichavesseI
is regislered and lhe ag of vhich lhe vesseI is aIIoved lo y vere aIied lo aeroIanes
The righls of noncoaslaI slales lo Iy lhe seas under lhe ag of lhose counlries requires lhe
cooeralionofcoaslaIslalesloaIIovfreeaccesslolheseaInavialionsimiIarfreedomsare
embodiedinlheChicagoConvenlionloaIIovconlraclingslalesloyoverlhelerriloryofolher
contracting states for the purpose of international civil aviation operations. At the subsequent
UN Convenlion on lhe Lav of lhe Sea lhe originaI agreemenls vere udaled and
reinforced.
Territory As dened in inlernalionaI IegisIalion in avialion lerms aIies lo lhe
airsaceexislingoverlhedenedIimilsofacounlryslerriloryalgroundIeveI
5nvcrcignty. This is the right of a country (or contracting ICAO state) to impose national
law to users of the States territorial airspace.
5uzcraintyfromlheIrenchSuzerainIeudaIoverIordislheaccelancebyaSlale
ofaIIlheruIesandreguIalionsagreedbycommonconsenlalinlernalionaIconvenlionsevenif
there is no practical requirement for a state to adopt all of the rules.
23
Chapter 2 International Agreements and Organisations
COMMERCIALCON5IDERATION5
Intcrnatinna!Civi!AviatinnAmaerlovhichlheChicagoConferenceaachedgreal
importance was the question of exchange of commercial rights in international civil aviation.
The slales addressed lhe sub|ecl resuIling in conlracling slales agreeing biIaleraIIy lo granl
each other certain rights regarding the commercial exploitation of civil aviation. These rights
are now known as the IreedomsoflheAirandaredelaiIedalThefreedoms
giverighlslolransillheairsaceofconlraclingslalesloscheduIedighls
Bi!atcra!AgrccmcntsDuelooIilicaIandnalionaIrivaIriesilvasnolfoundossibIe
loreachasingIeagreemenlsalisfacloryloaIISlaleslhereforelvosuIemenlarybiIaleraI
agreements were set up which gave each state the opportunity to enter into agreements with
other states on a one-to-one basis if considered desirable between those states:
ThcIntcrnatinna!Air5crviccsTransitAgrccmcnt permits aircraft of a signatory State
loyoverorIandforlechnicaIreasonsinlhelerriloryofanolhersignaloryslale
Thc Intcrnatinna! Air Transpnrt Agrccmcnt aIIovs lhe carriage of lrac belveen
lhe Slale of Regislralion and anolher signalory slale Trac lhe carriage of maiI cargo or
passengers).
DcnitinnsThefoIIovingdenilionsarerequiredknovIedge
5chcdu!cd F!ight is a ighl for vhich agreemenl has been reached belveen
slalesalgovernmenlIeveIconcerninglhescheduIeIorinslancehovmany
ighlsvouIdbeaIIovedinanyeriodvhalaerodromescouIdbeusedvhal
lime of day lhe ighls vouId be aIIoved and vhal recirocaI arrangemenls
would be required. A state is not obliged to grant permission for an operator to
operate a schedule.
Nnnschcdu!cd ights are lhose lo vhich a scheduIe is nol aached ie
oneo ighls or charler ighls lhal are nol ovn on a reguIar basis Il is an
embodimenloflhefreedomslhalaslalecannolrefuseonoIilicaIoreconomic
groundsloaccelanonscheduIedighl
Cabotage Cabolage is dened as lhe lransorl of goods or assengers
belveenlvooinlsinlhesamecounlryInavialionlhelermcabolageisused
in association with internal (domestic) scheduled commercial air transport.
It allows a State the right to restrict internal domestic scheduled (or non-
scheduled) air services to aircraft and operators registered in that state. In
inlernalionaIavialioncabolageisermiedandlheUSislherimeexamIe
NoforeigncarrierisermiedlooeraleinlernaIIyinlheUSInlheIClhe
treaty of Rome demands free access to territory of all EC states and cabotage in
aviation within individual EC states is forbidden. This is why Ryanair (an Irish
airIineisermiedlooeralescheduIedservicesvilhinlheUKandolherIC
slalesHoveverlheICaIiescabolageanddoesnlermilnonICslaleslo
operate internally within the EC!
24
Chapter 2
International Agreements and Organisations
CU5TOM5ANDEXCI5EANDIMMIGRATION
Faci!itatinn Under inlernalionaI Iav lhe imosilion of cusloms laris and lhe
rohibilion of lhe imorlalion of roscribed ilems is aIIoved In order lo aIIov conlracling
states to maintain national CuslomsandIxcisereguIalionsinlernalionaIighlsarerequiredlo
makelhersloinlofIandinginaconlraclingslalealarecognisedinlernalionaIairorlvhich
rovides cusloms heaIlh and immigralion faciIilies In lhe UK lhese are knovn as cusloms
airorlsWilhinlheIUlheremovaIofreslriclionslofreelradenovaIIovsighlsfromone
IUslaleloanolherlomakelhersloinlofIandingalanoncuslomsaerodromeroviding
certain rules are observed. These rules are explored in the section of this manual concerning
Facilitation. Other rules apply to immigration.
INTERNATIONALOBLIGATION5OFCONTRACTED5TATE5
Natinna!andIntcrnatinna!LawInbecominganICAOConlraclingSlaleslalesagree
loobservelheInlernalionaISlandardsseciedbyICAOIromlheslandardslheinlernalionaI
ruIesandreguIalionsgoverningciviIavialionaredravnyaccelingconlracledslaluseach
state accepts the responsibility for enforcement of the rules and regulations within its sovereign
territory and airspace (through national law). Article 38 of the Chicago Convention requires
eachSovereignSlalelonolifyICAOofanydierencesbelveenlheirnalionaIreguIalionsand
the International Standards adopted. Thus a situation is recognised where national legislation
and regulations have precedent over international rules within the territorial airspace of that
Slale Where ighls are conducled over lhe high seas lhe inlernalionaI ruIes aIy vilhoul
exception. The International (ICAO) Rules of the Air are promulgated (Annex 2) to standardise
lhe rocedures for civiI avialion secicaIIy for lhe safely of aircrev and assengers Olher
reguIalions are eslabIished lo faciIilale lhe smoolh and exedilious ov of air lrac by lhe
adoption of Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS).
RighttnPrnsccutcOcndcrsWhereanoenceiscommiedinanaeroIaneconlrary
lo lhe inlernalionaI Iav lhe slale in vhose airsace lhe oence occurs has lhe righl lo lry
andunishoendersIflheoenceoccursoverlhehighseaslheslaleofregislralionoflhe
aircrafl has lhe righl lo rosecule lhe oenders Nole The inlernalionaI agreemenls obIige
states to prosecute. If a state doesnt want to (for political reasons) another state may do so. For
instance: A bomb is placed on an American aeroplane (contrary to the Montreal Convention and
IrolocoIsbyLibyansinIrankfurlorRomeTheaeroIaneexIodesoverScolIandWhohas
the power to prosecute? The order is as follows:
TheUKunderScoishIavlheoencehaenedoverScolIand
The United States the aeroplane was registered in the USA
The Italians because the bomb was placed on board in Rome
The Germans because the aeroplane made an intermediate stop in Frankfurt
AnyolherslalelhecilizensofvhichverekiIIedorin|ured
Libya because the suspects are Libyan
Nntc IflheUKhadnolroseculedlheUSmoslcerlainIyvouIdhave
5carch and Rcscuc In acceling conlracled Slale slalus each slale secicaIIy
undertakes to provide procedures and facilities for Search and Rescue (SAR) within the territory
of lhal slale The rovision of SAR services in areas of high seas and areas of undelermined
sovereignly viII be eslabIished on lhe basis of RegionaI Air Navigalion RAN agreemenls
The standards governing the provision of SAR services oblige the state to provide at least the
minimumservicecomalibIevilhlhelyeandfrequencyoflheairlracusinglheairsace
for vhich lhe slale is resonsibIe and lhal service is lo be avaiIabIe hours er day The
requirement also imposes upon the state the need to maintain a degree of co-operation with
adjacent states and the readiness to assist with SAR operations if requested.
25
Chapter 2 International Agreements and Organisations
DUTIE5OFICAOMEMBER5TATE5
5tandardsandRccnmmcndcdPracticcs5ARPs The stated aim of the Convention on
InlernalionaICiviIAvialionandsubsequenlIylheaimsofICAOareloensuresafelyreguIarily
andeciencyofinlernalionaIciviIavialionoeralionsInorderloachievelhislheconlracling
states are required to comply with the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs). There
are annexes lo lhe Convenlion of vhich are aIicabIe lo air navigalion The SARIs
are established after consultation with the contracting states and interested international
organisalionsnaIisedbylheICAOAirNavigalionCommissionandsubmiedlolheCounciI
where a two-thirds majority is required for adoption. The SARPs are considered binding on
conlracling slales bul if a slale nds il imossibIe lo imIemenl lhe SARIs il musl inform
ICAOunderlhelermsofArlicIeofanydierenceslhalviIIexislonlheaIicabiIilydale
of lhe amendmenl Such dierences viII be delaiIed in lhe nalionaI aeronaulicaI informalion
publication (AIP) and summarised in a supplement to each Annex of the Chicago Convention.
2.24 Customs Duty and ExciseICAOhasaddressedlaxalioninlheeIdofinlernalionaI
aviation and member states are required to follow the resolutions and recommendation of
lhe CounciI in lhis resecl Slales are asked lo exeml fueI Iubricanls and olher lechnicaI
consumabIes laken on an aircrafl in a slale olher lhan lhe Slale of regislry roviding such
suIies are for consumlion in ighlAIso lo reduce or eIiminale laxes on inlernalionaI air
lransorlfaresandlogranlrecirocaIIyloairlransorlenlerrisesofolherSlalesexemlion
fromlaxaliononincomeandrolsWilhinlheareaofcuslomsdulyandexcisechargesAnnex
IaciIilalionrequiresSlalesloaIyroceduresvhichaIIovexedilioushandIingofgoods
and cargo intended for import or which are passing through. The establishment of free zones
is encouraged.
AircraIt Ccrticatcs Rcgistratinn and Liccnscs Annex Aircrafl NalionaIily and
Registration Markings) requires contracting states to apply standard procedures for registration.
Il incIudes lhe formal of regislralion marks and nalionaIily symboIs incIuding lhe size and
where these are to be displayed on aircraft. The annex also calls for the registration of all aircraft
androvidesasamIeofacerlicaleofregislralionforusebySlalesAnnexAirvorlhiness
ofAircraflrequiresSlaleslorovideaCerlicaleofAirvorlhinessforeachregisleredaircrafl
decIaringlhallheaircraflislloyUnderlhelermsofAnnexIersonneILicensingSARIs
are established requiring each state to apply standardisation in the licensing of personnel
invoIvedininlernalionaIavialionincIudingighlcrevmembersiIolsighlengineersair
lracconlroIIersandmainlenancelechniciansTheoverridinguroseofsuchslandardisalion
is to ensure that all involved in air transport operations are licensed to common standards and
abIelooeralelhroughoullhevorIdlhusgeneralinggrealerlruslinavialiononlhearloflhe
traveller. A licence issued by the authority in one state is not automatically valid in another State.
InlhisinslancelheAnnexrequiresslalesloeslabIishroceduresforlhevaIidalionofIicences
issuedinolherslalesanddeneslhemelhodbyvhichsuchvaIidalionshaIIbeannolaled
CarriagcnIDangerous Cargo. More than half the cargo carried by all modes
of lransorl in lhe vorId is cIassied as dangerous ecause of lhe seed advanlages of air
lransorl a greal deaI of lhis cargo is carriedby aircraflInAnnex The Safe Transorlof
DangerousGoodsbyAirSlalesarerequiredloaccellheSARIsassocialedvilhlhecarriage
of dangerous goods and to implement the Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of
Dangerous Goods by Air.
26
Chapter 2
International Agreements and Organisations
DncumcntatinnandCcrticatcs. Other duties of member states include the provisions
forlhecarriageofholograhicequimenlinaircraflandsecicalionofvhaldocumenlalion
is required to be carried. Documentation includes:
CerlicalesofAirvorlhiness
Flight Crew licences
Load sheets
Maintenance documentation
5TATU5OFANNEXCOMPONENT5
DcnitinnAnannexismadeuoflhefoIIovingcomonenlarlsnolaIIofvhichare
necessarily found in every Annex. They have the status indicated:
5tandardsandRccnmmcndcdPracticcs5ARPs are adopted by the Council and
areconsideredbindinguonaIIconlraclingslalesunIessaslalehasnoliedadierenceas
denedunderarlicIeoflheconvenlionSARIsdenedlhus
A 5tandard is any secicalion for hysicaI characlerislics conguralion
malerieI erformance ersonneI or rocedure lhe uniform aIicalion of
which is recognised as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air
navigation and to which Contracting States will conform in accordance with
lheConvenlionInlheevenlofimossibiIilyofcomIiancenolicalionlolhe
Council is compulsory under article 38 of the Convention.
A Rccnmmcndcd Practicc is any secicalion for hysicaI characlerislics
conguralion malerieI erformance ersonneI or rocedure lhe uniform
aIicalionofvhichisrecognisedasdesirabIeinlheinlereslofsafelyreguIarily
or eciency of inlernalionaI air navigalion and lo vhich Conlracling Slales
will endeavour to conform in accordance with the Convention.
THEINTERNATIONALCIVILAVIATIONORGANI5ATIONICAO
5tatusICAOcrealedbylheChicagoConvenlionisaninlergovernmenlaIorganisalion
vhichhasbecomeaseciaIisedagencyinreIalionshivilhlheUniledNalionsTheheadquarlers
of ICAO is in Montreal and it provides the machinery to achieve standardisation and agreement
belveen Conlracling Slales of aII lechnicaI economic and IegaI asecls of inlernalionaI civiI
aviation.
27
Chapter 2 International Agreements and Organisations
ICAO Aims and Ob|cctivcs. The aims and objectives of ICAO are to develop the
principles and techniques of international civil air navigation and to foster the planning and
development of international air transport so as to:
Ensure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout
the world.
Encourage arts of aircraft design and operation.
IncouragelhedeveIomenlofairvaysairorlsandairnavigalionfaciIilies
MeellheneedforsafereguIarecienlandeconomicaIairlransorl
Prevent waste caused by unreasonable competition.
Ensure the rights of Contracting States are fully respected.
Avoid discrimination between Contracting States.
IromolelhesafelyofighlininlernalionaIavialion
Generally promote all aspect of international civil aeronautics.
THEORGANI5ATIONOFICAO

The Assembly
(all contracting States)
(The Sovereign body)
The Council
(33 members elected by the Assembly)
(The Governing body)
The Secretariat
Committees and
Commissions
ThcAsscmb!yThesovereignbodyofICAOislheAssembIyvhichmeelsalIeaslonce
every three years and is convened by the Council. Each Contracting State is entitled to one vote
and decisions of the Assembly are by majority vote of the Contracting States.
ThcCouncil. The Council of ICAO is a permanent body responsible to the Assembly
and is composed of 33 Contracting States elected by the Assembly for a three-year term. The
Council is the governing body of ICAO.
28
Chapter 2
International Agreements and Organisations
ThcCnmmissinnsandCnmmiccsofICAOarecomosedofmembersaoinledby
lheCounciIfromnominalionsofconlraclingslalesoreIecledfromamongslCounciImembers
They are:
TheAirNavigalionCommission
TheAirTransorlCommiee
TheLegaICommiee
TheCommieeon}oinlSuorlofAirNavigalionServices
TheIersonneICommiee
TheIinanceCommiee
TheCommieeonUnIavfuIInlerference
AirNavigatinnCnmmissinnThisislhebodylhalroosesformuIalesandnaIises
the SARPs and presents them for adoption by the Council.
ThcICAO5ccrctariatisdividedinloseclionseachcorresondingloaCommieeand
suIieslechnicaIandadminislraliveaidlolheCounciIIlisheadedbyaSecrelaryGeneraI
aoinledbylheCounciIandisdividedinlovemaindivisions
AirNavigalionureau
Air Transport Bureau
Technical Assistance Bureau
Legal Bureau
Bureau of Administration and Services
REGIONAL5TRUCTUREOFICAO
Rcginns and Occs ICAO mainlains seven regionaI oces angkok Cairo Dakar
LimaMexicoCilyNairobiandIarisIachregionaIoceisaccrediledloagrouofConlracling
SlalesmakinguninerecognisedgeograhicregionsandlhemainfunclionofregionaIoces
ismainlainingencouragingassislingexedilingandfoIIovingulheimIemenlalionofair
navigation plans. The nine geographic regions are:
AIIAfricaIndianOceanNAMNorlhAmericaASIAAsiaCARCaribbean
NATNorlhAlIanlicIURIuroeIACIacicMIDMiddIeIaslSAMSoulhAmerica
ThcNccdInraRcginna!5tructurcIndeaIingvilhinlernalionaIciviIavialionlhere
are many subjects that ICAO considers on a regional basis as well as on a worldwide scale. In
order to facilitate:
The planning of facilities and services
The formuIalion of suIemenlary rocedures lo suorl increases in lrac
density
Nevairroules
The introduction of new types of aircraft
29
Chapter 2 International Agreements and Organisations
REGIONAL5TRUCTUREANDOFFICE5
Rcginna! Air Navigatinn RAN meetings are held periodically to consider the
requiremenls of air oeralions vilhin secied geograhic areas The Ian vhich emerges
from a regionaI meeling is so designed lhal vhen lhe slales concerned imIemenl il il viII
IeadloaninlegraledecienlsyslemforlheenlireregionandconlribulelolhegIobaIsyslem
In addilion lo lhe dulies delaiIed above lhe regionaI oces are resonsibIe for keeing lhe
regional plans up to date.
Financia! Assistancc Through lhe regionaI oces nanciaI assislance is rovide lo
assislslalesinseciccircumslancesTherovisionofairlracconlroInavigalionaidsand
meleoroIogicaIservicesinGreenIandandIceIandareexamIesoflhissecicaidvheredue
lolheinlenseairlracusinglheairsaceoflhoseslalessuchexendilureisdisroorlionale
to the gross national product of those states.
ICAOPUBLICATION5
ThcAnncxcs. One of the major duties of the ICAO Council is to adopt International
Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) and incorporate these as annexes to the
Convention on International Civil Aviation. There are now 18 annexes to the 1944 convention
which are constantly under review to ensure that the content realistically meets the requirements
of civiI avialion nov You are required lo be abIe lo idenlify lhe annex and conlenl The
annexes are:
Annex 1. Personnel Licensing
Annex 2. Rules of the Air
Annex MeleoroIogicaIServicesforInlernalionaIAirNavigalion
Annex 4. Aeronautical Charts
Annex 5. Units of Measurement to be used in Air and Ground Operations
Annex 6. Operation of Aircraft
Annex AircraflNalionaIilyandRegislralionMarks
Annex 8. Airworthiness of Aircraft
Annex 9. Facilitation
Annex 10. Aeronautical Telecommunications
Annex AirTracServices
Annex 12. Search and Rescue
Annex 13. Aircraft Accident Investigations
Annex 14. Aerodromes
Annex 15. Aeronautical Information Services
Annex 16. Environmental Protection
Annex 17. Security - Safeguarding International Civil Aviation against Acts of
Unlawful Interference
Annex 18. The Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air
PAN5. Where the content of the SARPS is somewhat technical and requires further
exIanalion or discussion Irocedures for Air Navigalion Services IANS are ubIished by
ICAOIANSarearovedbylheCounciIunIikeSARISvhichareadoledbylheCounciI
PAN5 OP5 Doc Irocedures for Air Navigalion Services Aircrafl
Operations. This publication (in two parts) describes the Operational Procedures
recommendedforlheguidanceofighloeralionsersonneIVoIandrocedures
for specialists in the essential areas of obstacle clearance requirements for the production
ofinslrumenlighlcharlsVoI
30
Chapter 2
International Agreements and Organisations
PAN5ATMDocIroceduresforAirNavigalionAirTracManagemenl
ThisdocumenlsecieslherequiremenlsforlheeslabIishmenlofanAirTracConlroI
Service.
Rcginna! 5upp!cmcntary Prnccdurcs Doc Where navigalionaI rocedures
vhichdierfromlhevorIdvideroceduresaredeemednecessaryforasecicgeograhic
regionbylhearorialeRegionaIAirNavigalionMeelingsuchroceduresarerecordedin
lhereIevanlregionseclionofDocandareknovnasRegionaISuIemenlaryIrocedures
SUIISAs in lhe case of IANS SUIIS are aroved by lhe CounciI bul onIy for regionaI
use.
OTHERINTERNATIONALAGREEMENT5
ThcIntcrnatinna!Air5crviccsTransitAgrccmcntandthcIntcrnatinna!AirTranspnrt
AgrccmcntTheChicagoConvenlionaachedgrealimorlancelolhequeslionoflheexchange
of commercial rights in international civil aviation. It was not found possible to reach an
agreemenlsalisfacloryloaIIlheoriginaIslalesbullheconferenceselulvosuIemenlary
agreemenls lhe InlernalionaI Air Services Transil Agreemenl and lhe InlernalionaI Air
TransorlAgreemenlTherslagreemenlmaderovisionforaircraflofanyarlicialingslale
loyoverorloIandforlechnicaIreasonsinlhelerriloryofanyolherarlicialingslaleThe
second rovided among olher lhings for lhe carriage of lrac assengers maiI and cargo
between the State of Registration of the aircraft and any other signatory state.
ThcFrccdnmsnIthcAir The International Air Services Transit Agreement established
lvolechnicaIfreedomsoflheairknovnaslherslandsecondfreedomsInlhisconlexllhe
word freedom refers to the privilege conferred by virtue of signatory status to a bilateral
agreemenlecauselhelvoagreemenlsrequirebiIaleraIunderslandingsbelveenlhearlies
ICAO has produced the Chicago Standard Form for Bilateral Agreement for Regular Air
TransorlbasedonlhedenilionsforlheIreedomsoflheAirasdenedinlheInlernalionaI
Air Services Transit and the International Air Transport Agreements. For general aviation and
nonscheduIedcommerciaIoeralionslheIingofaninlernalionaIighlIanislhemelhodby
vhichaighlgivesnolicalionloexerciselheriviIegesoflhearorialefreedoms
ThcTcchnica!FrccdnmsThesecomriselhersllvofreedomsandvereeslabIished
through the International Air Services Transit Agreement:
FirstFrccdnmTheriviIegeloyacrosslhelerriloryofanolherarlicialing
state without landing.
5ccnnd Frccdnm The privilege to land in another participating state for
nonlrac uroses ie refueIIing or reair bul nol for uIifl or discharge of lrac
assengerscargoormaiI
Thc Commercial Freedoms. The International Air Transport Agreement established
lhreefurlherfreedomsThesearedenedascommerciaIandvhiIslsliIIbiIaleraIaresub|ecllo
inter-government negotiation.
ThirdFrccdnmTheriviIegelouldovninanolherslaleeglheUSAlrac
taken on in the state of registration (e.g. the UK).
FnurthFrccdnmTheriviIegelolakeoninanolherslaleeglheUSAlrac
destined for the state of airline registration (e.g. the UK).
31
Chapter 2 International Agreements and Organisations
FiIthFrccdnm The privilege for an airline registered in one state (e.g. the UK)
andenrouleloorfromlhalslalelolakeonlracinasecondslaleegGreeceand
put them down in a third state (e.g. Italy).
MndcrnFrccdnms. Due to the process of growth in air transport and the evolution of
airIinesoeralingonagIobaIbasisfurlhercommerciaIfreedomshaveevoIvedHoveverlhese
are not covered by the LOs for Air Law.
BcrmudaAgrccmcntTherslbiIaleraIAirTransorlAgreemenlATAvassignedal
Bermuda in 1946 between the UK government and the US government and set an example for
other states to follow. Currently there are some 3000 ATAs in force globally.
THECONVENTION5OFTOKYOTHEHAGUEANDMONTREAL
ThcTnkynCnnvcntinnnI. This convention provides that the State of Registration
ofanaircrafliscomelenlloexercise|urisdiclionoveroencesandaclscommiedonboardIls
ob|eclisloensurelhaloencesvherevercommiedshouIdnolgoununishedAscerlainacls
commiedonboardanaircraflmay|eoardiselhesafelyoflheaircraflorersonsandroerly
on board or may re|udice good order and disciIine on board lhe aircrafl commander and
olhersareemoveredlorevenlsuchaclsbeingcommiedandlodeIiverlheersonconcerned
to the appropriate authority. In the case of an anticipated or actual unlawful or forcible seizure
of an aircrafl in ighl by a erson on board lhe Slales arly lo lhe Convenlion are obIiged
to take all appropriate measures to restore and preserve control of the aircraft to its lawful
commander.
ThcHagucCnnvcntinnnI. After a spate of politically motivated terrorist hijackings
ofaircraflinlheslheinlernalionaIcommunilyunderlheausicesofICAOresoIvedlo
work together to prevent or deter (suppress) such acts. Otherwise known as the Convention for
lhe Suression of UnIavfuI Seizure ofAircrafl signed al The Hague in December lhe
convenliondeneslheaclofunIavfuIseizureofaircraflhi|ackingandIislsvhichconlracling
slaleshaveunderlakenlomakesuchoencesunishabIebysevereenaIliesTheconvenlion
conlainsdelaiIedrovisionsonlheeslabIishmenlof|urisdiclionbyslalesoverlheoenceon
lhelakingoflheoenderinlocuslodyandonlheroseculionorexlradilionoflheoender
ThisconvenlioncameinloeeclonOclober
ThcMnntrca!CnnvcntinnnI. This Convention is correctly titled the Convention
forlheSuressionofUnIavfuIAclsagainsllheSafelyofCiviIAvialionIlmakesilanoence
loaemlanyoflheunIavfuIaclsseciedorlobeanaccomIicelosuchaclsTheconlracling
slaleshaveunderlakenlomakelheseoencesunishabIebysevereenaIliesTheconvenlion
conlainssimiIardelaiIedrovisionsregarding|urisdiclioncuslodyroseculionandexlradilion
oflheaIIegedoenderaslheHagueConvenlionofThisconvenlioncameinloforceon
26 January 1973. It is mainly concerned with acts other than those pertaining to the unlawful
seizure i.e.:
Acts of violence on board which endanger people and property and the safety
of the aeroplane
The destruction of an aircraft in service or causing damage which renders it
incaabIeofighlorvhichisIikeIyloendangerilssafelyinighl
IIacinginanaircraflanydeviceIikeIylodeslroydamageorrenderunlfor
ighlanyaircrafl
32
Chapter 2
International Agreements and Organisations
Destroying or damaging any air navigation facility or interference with its
correct operation
The communication of information known to be false which endangers the
safelyofanaeroIaneinighl
ThcPrntncn!5upp!cmcntarytnthcMnntrca!CnnvcntinnnI. This protocol was
adoledbyaconferencevhichmelalMonlreaIinIlexlendslhedenilionofoencegiven
in lhe Convenlion lo incIude secied acls of vioIence al airorls serving inlernalionaI
civil aviation. Such acts include:
The inlenlionaI and unIavfuI use of any device subslance or veaon in
performing an act of violence against a person at an airport serving international
civiIavialionvhichcausesorisIikeIylocauseseriousin|uryordealh
TheinlenlionaIandunIavfuIuseofanydevicesubslanceorveaonlo
DeslroyorseriousIydamagelhefaciIiliesofanairorl
DeslroyorseriousIydamageaircraflnolinserviceallheairorl
Disrullheservicesalanairorl
EnInrccmcnt ConlraclingSlaleshave underlakenlomakelheseoencesunishabIe
by severe penalties. The protocol also contains provisions on jurisdiction.
Anncx. The measures taken by ICAO have resulted in the adoption of the SARPS
detailed in Annex 17 - Security. The provisions of the SARPS are applicable to all Contracting
States. The Annex requires all contracting States to:
Establish national civil aviation security programmes
To designate an authority responsible for security
To keep the level of threat under constant review
To co-ordinate activities with other relevant national agencies and liaise with
the corresponding authority in other States
Prngrammcsandp!ansInorderlomakesuchacliviliesvorkabIeandecienlSlales
areaIsorequiredloselulrainingrogrammeseslabIishairorlsecurilycommieesandlo
have contingency plans drawn up.
Intcrnatinna! cnnpcratinn As an ongoing commilmenl lo securily each Slale is
required to co-operate with other States in research and development of security systems and
equimenlvhichviIIbeersalisfyciviIavialionsecurilyob|eclives
ThcAuthnritynIthcCnmmandcr. The aircraft commander may order or authorise the
assislanceofolhercrevmembersandmayrequeslandaulhorisebulnolorderlheassislance
of assengers lo reslrain any erson he is required lo reslrain The aircrafl commander may
vhenhehasreasonabIegroundlobeIievelhalaersonhascommiedorisaboullocommil
an act which may or does jeopardize the safety of the aircraft or persons or property on board
orvhich|eoardizegoodorderanddisciIineonboardimosereasonabIemeasuresvhich
mayincIudereslrainlnecessary
Torolecllhesafelyoflheaircraflorofersonsorroerlyonboard
To maintain good order and discipline on board
To enable him to deliver such a person to competent authorities or to disembark
him in accordance with provision of the Convention
33
Chapter 2 International Agreements and Organisations
THE WAR5AWCONVENTION
Liabi!ity nI thc Carricr. The Warsaw Convention of 1929 concerned itself with
resonsibiIiliesandIiabiIiliesoflheCarrierandlheAgenlsofaircrafllogelhervilhmaersof
comensalionforIossofIifeorin|uryloassengersdeIaysandIossofbaggageThisIimiled
lhe IiabiIily excel in cases of gross negIigence lo roughIy lhe equivaIenl of US in
International Bank Special Drawing Rights (SDRs). In 1955 an amendment to the Convention
was adopted by a diplomatic conference at The Hague (known as The Hague Protocol)
which doubled the existing limits of liability and the present limit is a maximum amount of
USerersonyagreeinglolhelermsoflheWarsavagreemenlanairIineagreeslo
aycomensalionvilhoulfurlherrocessofIavhoveverlheamounlsayabIearenovadays
reIaliveIysmaIIinIiligalioncircumslancesSomeairIinesslalelhallheyviIInolbeboundby
the Warsaw agreement and will pay higher amounts of compensation if awarded by a Court.
IssucnIaTickctTheissuingofaassengerlickelIuggagelickelorcargoconsignmenl
noleformsaconlraclbelveenlhecarrierandlheersonreceivinglhelickelnoleTheconlraclis
denedbylheWarsavConvenlionincIudinglhereviousIymenlionedexcIusionorIimilalion
ofIiabiIiliesIfacarrieraccelsaassengerIuggageorcargoonboardanaeroIanevilhoula
lickelnolelhenlhecarrierisIiabIeforanyIossvhichisoccasionedvilhoullheroleclionof
lheIimilsselbylheWarsavConvenlionTheIossirreguIarilyorabsenceofalickelnoledoes
nolaecllheexislenceorlhevaIidilyoflheconlraclIfaIicabIelheOeralorisrequiredlo
dravlheassengersaenlionlolheWarsavConvenlionIimilsofIiabiIilyvhereeIeclronic
tickets are issued.
THE ROMECONVENTION
The Rome Convention of 1952 dealt with damage caused by foreign aircraft to third
parties on the ground. It permits a claimant to pursue a claim against a foreign operator through
the Court in the state of residence. Any resulting judgement would then be enforceable in the
state of the Operator.
IATA
Thc Intcrnatinna! Air
Transpnrt Assnciatinn IATA is the air
transport industry global trade
organisalion Over years IATA has
developed the commercial standards that
have buiIl a gIobaI induslry Today
IATAsmissionisloreresenlIeadand
serve the airline industry. Its members
comprise some 260 airlines - the worlds
leading passenger and cargo airlines
among them - representing 94 percent of
inlernalionaI scheduIed air lrac IATA
seeks to improve understanding of the
industry among decision makers and
increase avareness of lhe benels lhal
aviation brings to national and global
economies Il ghls for lhe inleresls of airIines across lhe gIobe chaIIenging unreasonabIe ruIes and
chargeshoIdingreguIalorsandgovernmenlsloaccounlandslrivingforsensibIereguIalion
34
Chapter 2
International Agreements and Organisations
ECAC
EurnpcanCivi!AviatinnCnnIcrcnccECAC is the driving force for a common civil
aviation policy in Europe. It was set up under the auspices of the Council for Europe and ICAO.
Membership now extends from Iceland to Turkey (all the European Commission countries are
members of ECAC). ECAC is an inter-governmental organisation founded in 1955 from the
ConferenceonlheCoordinalionofAirTransorlinIuroeCATIvilhlheaimofromoling
lheconlinueddeveIomenlofasafeecienlandsuslainabIeIuroeanairlransorlsyslem
ECAC seeks to:
Harmonise civil aviation policies and practices amongst its member states
Iromole underslanding on oIicy maers belveen member slales and olher
parts of the world
Aims Wilhin Iuroe because of ils eslabIished osilion ICAC is lhe onIy forum
for consideration of major civil aviation topics relevant to all European states. The strength of
ECAC is derived from:
Membership across Europe
Active co-operation with institutions of the EU (including the EC and the
European Parliament
Close liaison with ICAO
Established relationships with organisations representing all parts of the air
transport industry including consumer and airline interests
EA5A
2.74 European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The European Aviation Safety
Agency is the centrepiece of the European Unions strategy for aviation safety. Its
mission is to promote the highest common standards of safety and environmental
protection in civil aviation. While national authorities continue to carry out the majority
of oeralionaI lasks such as cerlicalion of individuaI aircrafl or Iicensing of iIols
- the Agency ensures common safety and environmental standards at the European
level. The agencys current responsibilities include:
Rulemaking: drafting safety legislation and providing technical advice to the
European institutions and the member states
Inseclions lraining and slandardisalion rogrammes lo ensure uniform
implementation of European aviation safety legislation in all member states
SafelyandenvironmenlaIlyecerlicalionofaircraflenginesandarls
Approval and oversight of aircraft design organisations world-wide and of
production and maintenance organisations outside the EU
DalacoIIeclionanaIysisandresearchloimroveavialionsafely
35
Chapter 2 International Agreements and Organisations
JAA

ThcJnintAviatinnAuthnritics. The Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) are
an associated body of ECAC representing the civil aviation regulatory authorities
of a number of European States who have agreed to co-operate in developing
and implementing common safety regulatory standards and procedures. This
co-operation is intended to provide high and consistent standards of safety and
aIeveIIayingeIdforcomelilioninIuroeThe}AAMembershiisbased
on signing lhe }AAArrangemenls documenl originaIIy signed by lhe lhen
current member states in Cyprus in 1990.
Ob|cctivcs. The JAA objectives and functions may be summarised as follows:
ToensurelhroughcooeralioncommonhighIeveIsofavialionsafelyvilhin
Member States
ThroughlheaIicalionofuniformsafelyslandardsloconlribulelofairand
equal competition within Member States
To aim for cosleeclive safely and minimum reguIalory burden so as lo
contribute to European industrys international competitiveness
JAA Organisatinn The }AA is conlroIIed by a Commiee vhich vorks under lhe
authority of the Plenary Conference of ECAC and reports to the JAA Board of Directors General.
The Board is responsible for review of general policy and long term objectives of the JAA.
The }AA Commiee is comosed of one member from eachAulhorily and is resonsibIe for
lheadminislraliveandlechnicaIimIemenlalionoflheArrangemenlTheCommieeandlhe
Board are supported by a Secretariat.
JAA Dncumcntatinn. The Authorities agreed to co-operate to produce common
comprehensive and detailed requirements and where necessary acceptable means of compliance
with and interpretations of them (the Joint Aviation Requirements - JARs). JARs encompass
bolh lechnicaI and adminislralive funclions In deveIoing }ARs lhe }AA lakes inlo accounl
lhe dulies and obIigalions under lhe Chicago Convenlion consuIls lhe arlies lo vhom lhe
requirements apply and takes into account other aviation codes so as to facilitate exchange of
roduclsservicesorersonsorreIianceonorganisalionsbelveenlhe}AAcounlriesandolher
countries in the world.
36
Chapter 2
International Agreements and Organisations
EUROCONTROL
Histnry and Rn!c. Eurocontrol was founded
in 1960 with the objective of providing common ATC
services in the upper airspace of Member States and
strengthening co-operation between Member States in
maers of air navigalion IuroconlroI vas eslabIished
under the International Convention Relating to Co-
oeralion for lhe Safely of Air Navigalion signed al
russeIs on December IniliaIIy six counlries
signedlheagreemenlGermanyIDReIgiumIrance
Uniled Kingdom Luxembourg and lhe NelherIands In
1999 there were 26 member states and the organisation
was greatly reformed through the revised Eurocontrol
Convention of June 1997. The Eurocontrol ATCC is at
MaaslrichlHoIIandTheroIeofIuroconlroIisnovmuch
viderlhanoriginaIIyenvisagedTheIimilofoeralions
lo |usl lhe uer airsace vas abandoned in and
IuroconlroInovhasamuchviderremilIacedonlhe
OrganisalionbyICACmoslnolabIyinlheareaofAirTracIIovManagemenlATIMvhichIedlo
the establishment of the Eurocontrol Central Flow Management Unit (CFMU) in 1988. Eurocontrol has
alrainingcenlreinLuxembourgandanexerimenlaIresearchcenlrealrelignyIrancevilhanev
ATCC in Vienna (CEATS).
GENEVACONVENTION
Thc Cnnvcntinn nn Intcrnatinna! Rccngnitinn nI Rights in AircraIt (Geneva 1947)
established the right of the seller of an aircraft to secure any lending (mortgage) granted to the
buyerbyamorlgageagainsllheaircraflSecicaIIylheconvenlion
Outlawed double registration
Made it a requirement that the registering authority address appeared on the
cerlicaleofregislralion
Contained requirements regarding salvage of aircraft
Stipulated that an aircraft could not be transferred from one register to another
unless all interested parties had been informed
Stipulated that the articles of the Convention would not prevent a State
imosingilsIavsreIalingloimmigralioncuslomsorairnavigalion
EUROCONTROL
37
Chapter 2 International Agreements and Organisations
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38
Chapter 2
International Agreements and Organisations
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39
Chapter 2 International Agreements and Organisations
S
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40
Chapter 2
International Agreements and Organisations
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41
Chapter 2 International Agreements and Organisations
QUE5TION5
1. What does Cabotage refer to?
a. Domestic air services within a state.
b. An international air carrier.
c AighlabovelerriloriaIvalers
d. Crop spraying.
2. The Convention signed by the states relating to damage caused by foreign aircraft to persons
and property on the ground is:
a. the Tokyo convention.
b. the Rome convention.
c. the Warsaw convention.
d. the Paris convention.
TheConvenliononoencesandolheraclscommiedonboardanaeroIaneis
a. the Tokyo convention.
b. the Paris convention.
c. the Rome convention.
d. the Chicago convention.
4. Which of the following is an obligation of being an ICAO contracting state?
a ICAOmuslbeinformedaboulaIInevighlcrevIicencesandanysusendedvaIidily
of such licences.
b ICAO musl be informed aboul dierences from lhe slandards delaiIed in any of lhe
annexes to the Chicago Convention.
c. ICAO must approve the pricing of tickets on international airline connections.
d. ICAO must be informed about changes to national regulations.
WhichoflhefoIIovingannexeslolheChicagoConvenlionconlainslheminimumsecicalions
for the construction of aerodromes?
a. Annex 6.
b. Annex 11.
c. Annex 10.
d. Annex 14.
6. The ICAO annex containing the standards and recommended practices for Personnel Licensing
is:
a. Annex 1.
b. Annex 2.
c. Annex 11.
d. Annex 12.
42
Chapter 2
International Agreements and Organisations
TheaircraflcommandermayvhenheshehasreasonabIegroundslobeIievelhalaersonhas
commiedorisaboullocommilanoenceagainslenaIIavonboardlheaircrafl
a. ask the person to disembark.
b. ask the crew to assist in restraining the person.
c. order the passengers to assist the crew in restraining the person.
d. deliver the person to the competent authority.
8. The international convention concerning the responsibilities of international air carriers
oeralorsforlhecarriageofassengersbaggageandfreighlislhe
a. Tokyo convention.
b. Hague convention.
c. Montreal convention.
d. Warsaw convention.
9. The Rome convention and its later amendments deals with:
a oencesandolheraclscommiedonboardanaeroIane
b. damage caused by foreign aircraft to third parties on the ground.
c. regulation of the transportation of dangerous goods.
d. damage caused by any aircraft to third parties on the ground.
10. The Warsaw convention and its later amendments deals with:
a. regulation of the transportation of dangerous goods.
b. operators licence for international scheduled operations.
c. security systems at airports.
d. limitation of the Operators liability concerning passengers and goods transported.
Theob|eclivesofICAOveredenedby
a. the Geneva Convention of 1936.
b. the Chicago Convention of 1944.
c. the Warsaw Convention of 1929.
d. the Geneva Convention of 1948.
12. The annex to the Chicago convention which deals with the entry and departure of cargo and
olherarlicIesoninlernalionaIighlsis
a. Annex 15.
b. Annex 16.
c. Annex 9.
d. Annex 8.
Which freedom of lhe air is aIicabIe lo a ighl vhich vishes lo Iand in a foreign slale for
technical reasons?
a. 1st freedom.
b. 3rd freedom.
c. 4th freedom.
d. 2nd freedom.
43
Chapter 2 International Agreements and Organisations
14. ICAO establishes:
a. aeronautical standards adopted by all states.
b. proposals for aeronautical regulations in the form of 18 annexes.
c. standards and recommended practices applied without exception by all states which
are signatory to the Chicago Convention of 1944.
d. standards and recommended practices for contracting states.
Therslfreedomoflheairis
a Therighlloboardassengersfromlheslalevherelheaircraflisregisleredandylo
any other state.
b TherighllooveryvilhoulIanding
c. The right to land for a technical stop.
d TherighllooeraleacommerciaIighlvilhassengersonboardbelveenlvoslales
TheConvenlionvhichdeaIsvilhoencesagainslenaIIavis
a. the convention of Rome.
b. the convention of Madrid.
c. the convention of Tokyo.
d. the convention of Warsaw.
17. One of the main objectives of ICAO is to:
a. develop principles and techniques for international aviation.
b. approve the ticket prices set by international airlines.
c. approve new airlines operating turbine engine powered aircraft.
d. approve new international airlines.
18. Which international convention established ICAO?
a. Chicago.
b. The Hague.
c. Warsaw.
d. Montreal.
19. The standards contained in the annexes to the Chicago convention are to be considered:
a. binding upon all airlines operating international routes.
b bindingforconlraclingslaleslhalhavenolnoliedICAOaboulnalionaIdierences
c. advice and guidance for the aviation legislation within contracting states.
d. binding for all contracting states.
WhichbodyofICAOnaIiseslheSARISlobesubmiedforadolion
a. The Council.
b TheRegionaIAirNavigalionCommiee
c TheAirNavigalionCommission
d. The Assembly.
44
Chapter 2
International Agreements and Organisations
21. The second freedom of the air is the:
a righllocabolagelrac
b righllooeraleacommerciaIassengerighlvilhassengersonboardbelveenlvo
states.
c. right to land in a foreign for a technical stop.
d righllooveryaforeignslalevilhoulIanding
WhichannexconlainsinformalionconcerningAirTracServices
a. Annex 11.
b. Annex 10.
c. Annex 14.
d. Annex 15.
45
Chapter 2 International Agreements and Organisations
46
Chapter 2
International Agreements and Organisations
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. A 2.18
2. B 2.70
3. A 2.59
4. B 2.23
5. D 2.43
6. A 2.43
7. D 2.59
8. D 2.68
9. B 2.70
10. D 2.68
11. B
12. C 2.43
13. D 2.50
14. D 2.40
15. B 2.50
16. C 2.59
17. A 2.33
18. A 2.32
19. B 2.29
20. C 2.37
21. C 2.52
22. A 2.43
47
Chapter 3 Airworthiness of Aircraft
CHAPTERTHREE
AIRWORTHINE55OFAIRCRAFT
Contents
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
AIRWORTHINISS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
48
Chapter 3
Airworthiness of Aircraft
49
Chapter 3 Airworthiness of Aircraft
INTRODUCTION
Backgrnund The Chicago Convenlion Iaced greal emhasis on safely and one
particular area of interest was in the airworthiness of aeroplanes. In order to ensure that an
aeroIanevassafelouseilvasagreedlhalaIIaeroIanesvouIdhaveacerlicalelhalslaled
lhallheaircraflvasairvorlhyvhenmanufacluredandlhallhroughlheconlinuedvaIidalion
of lhal cerlicale lhe conlinuing airvorlhiness of lhe aircrafl vouId be ensured During lhe
design and buiIding slage of lhe Iife of a lye of aeroIane rigorous ruIes and reguIalions
are aIied lo lhe manufacluring rocesses and lhe ighl lesling rocess lo ensure lhal lhe
aircraft does what it is intended to do. Once the testing procedures have been successfully
comIeledlheState of Manufacture (the USA in the case of Boeing aircraft and France in the
caseofAirbusissuesaCerlicaleofAirvorlhinesslolhelyeandlhisislhenaIicabIeloaII
subsequent production models (issued to the individual aircraft by the State of Registry after
ashorlcomIianceairleslTheiniliaIcerlicalevouIdaIsobeaIicabIeloaIIsubsequenl
marksorugradesoflhelyevilhinreasonTheIAAandUKCAAdecidedlhallhe
vas nol lhe same aeroIane as lhe originaI and required recerlicalion An exensive
rocessforoeingIorlheiniliaIighlleslinglherololyeisermiedloyunderaIermil
to Fly issued by the State of Manufacture.
5tandards. The Airworthiness standards of Annex 8 of the Chicago Convention are
reIaledlolheslandardsofAnnexarlvhichdeaIsvilhaeroIaneerformanceoeraling
limitations. An element of the safety of an operation is the intrinsic safety of the aircraft. That
isilsairvorlhinessTheairvorlhinessofanaircraflisnolfuIIydenedbylheaIicalionof
lheairvorlhinessSlandardsofAnnexbulaIsorequireslheaIicalionoflheSlandardsof
AnnexlhalarecomIimenlaryInolhervordsAnnexdeaIsvilhairvorlhinessfromlhe
engineeringoinlofvievvhereasAnnexdeaIsvilhlhesafelyslandardsnecessaryforany
oeralionTheslandardsaIylobolherformanceandyingquaIilies
App!icabi!ityTheSlandardsofAirvorlhinessdelaiIedinAnnexIarlareaIicabIe
lo aeroIanes vilh cerlicaled maximum lakeo mass grealer lhan kg inlended for
lhe carriage of assengers cargo or maiI in inlernalionaI air navigalion UnIess secicaIIy
exemledlheslandardsaIylolhecomIeleaeroIaneincIudingoverunilssyslemsand
equimenlIorlheslandardslobeaIicabIelheaircraflmuslhavealIeasllvoengines
AIRWORTHINE55
Ccrticatc nIAirwnrthincss. A Cerlicale ofAirvorlhiness CofA) is issued by the
State of Registration when satisfactory evidence is provided that the aeroplane complies with
lhe aroriale airvorlhiness requiremenls ICAO has secied a slandard form of C of A
vhichisloincIudelhenalionaIilyandregislralionmarksmanufaclureranddesignalionoflhe
aircraflieoeingaircraflseriaInumberielheairframenumberIikeacarchassis
number).
CnntinuingAirwnrthincss. The State of Registry is responsible for determining if an
aircraflconlinueslobeairvorlhyTheslaleisrequiredlomainlainasyslemforrecordingfauIls
maIfunclionsdefeclsorolheroccurrencesvhichmighlaecllheairvorlhinessofaircraflvilh
maximumlakeomassgrealerlhanKg
5tructura!IntcgrityCnrrnsinnCnntrn! The State of Design is required to ensure that
a structural integrity programme exists to ensure the airworthiness of aircraft with a maximum
lake o mass grealer lhan Kg The rogramme is lo incIude informalion concerning
corrosion control.
50
Chapter 3
Airworthiness of Aircraft
Va!idity nI C nI A The C of A will be renewed or will remain valid provided that
the continued airworthiness of the aircraft has been determined by a periodic inspection. The
eriodbelveenlheinseclionsislobeeslabIishedbylheslaleWhereanaircraflisdamagedil
is the responsibility of the State of Registry to judge whether the damage is of such a nature that
lheaircraflisnoIongerairvorlhyWhereadamagedaircraflisreairedlheSlaleofRegislryis
to specify the necessary repairs and to determine that such repairs have been properly carried
out before re-issuing a C of A.
AircraItLimitatinnsandInInrmatinnIachaircraflisrequiredlohaveaighlmanuaI
orolhermeansinvhichlhearovedIimilalionsaredenedandaddilionaIinformalionis
contained necessary for the safe operation of the aeroplane. Where the determined limiting
seedsareseciedasaMachnumberlheaircraflislobeedvilhaMach meter.
51
Chapter 3 Airworthiness of Aircraft
QUE5TION5
The Slale of Design is lo ensure lhal a conlinuing slrucluraI inlegrily rogramme incIuding
informalionconcerningcorrosionconlroIismainlainedinreseclofaeroIanes
a vilhmaximumcerlicaledlakeomassIesslhankg
b vilhmaximumcerlicaledlakeomassgrealerlhankg
c vilhmaximumcerlicaledlakeomassequaIlokg
d vilhmaximumcerlicaledlakeomassnolmorelhankg
TheconlinuingvaIidilyofaCerlicaleofAirvorlhnessofanaircraflissub|ecllolheIavsof
a. the State of Registration.
b. the State of Registration or the State of the Operator.
c. the State of Operator.
d. the State of Registration and the State of Design.
52
Airworthiness of Aircraft Chapter 3
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. B 3.6
2. A 3.5
53
Chapter 4 Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks
CHAPTERFOUR
AIRCRAFTNATIONALITYANDREGI5TRATIONMARK5
Contents
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
CIRTIIICATIONOIRIGISTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
AIRCRAITMARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
CLASSIIICATIONOIAIRCRAIT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
54
Chapter 4
Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks
55
Chapter 4 Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks
INTRODUCTION
Anncx . The Paris Convention of 1919 requires all aircraft to be registered and to
carry a nationality mark and a registration mark. Annex 7 of the Chicago Convention covers
AircraflNalionaIilyandRegislralionMarksTheAnnexconlainsonIySlandardsvilhoulany
recommendations. An Authority may temporarily exempt an aircraft from registration (test
yingofarololyeorlhecarriageofmarkingsanhisloricaircraflorexmiIilaryaeroIane
NATIONALITYANDREGI5TRATIONMARK5
Markings. The nationality and registration mark is to consist of a group of characters.
G-ABCD
In this case G is the nationality mark and is always to precede the regislralionmarkinlhiscase
ACD When lhe rsl characler of lhe regislralion mark is lhe same lye of characler as lhe
last character of the nalionaIilymarkilisberecededbyahyhenThenalionaIilymark
is selected from the series of nationality symbols included in the radio call signs allocated to
the State of Registry by the International Telecommunications Union (an agency of the United
Nalions The nalionaIily mark is lo be nolied by lhe Slale of Regislry lo ICAO and may
consislofsingIeIeersmuIliIeIeersoracombinalionofIeersandnumbersIlmayaIso
incIudeasymboIoflheSlaleeglheRedCrossinlhecaseofSvierIandTheregislralion
markmayconsislofIeersnumbersoracombinalionofbolhandisassignedbylheSlaleof
Regislry or lhe common mark regislering aulhorily from a Iisl of avaiIabIe nol reviousIy
issued) marks applicable to the State of Registry.
Cnmmnn Mark. A common mark replaces a nationality mark where the aircraft is
ovnedoeraledbyanoeralorregisleredinmorelhanonecounlryInlhiscaseacommon
mark is aIIocaled by lhe ITU and ICAO secies a slale lo exercise lhe resonsibiIilies of
the State of Registry (known as the common mark registering authority). The common mark
registering authority also performs the function of the State of Registry with regard to the
conlinuingairvorlhinessoflheaircraflIresenlIylhecommonmarkYisissuedbyICAOlo
Arab Air Cargo Incorporated (based in Jordan and Iraq) for registering aircraft operated by that
organisalionICAOhasseciedlhal}ordanerformslheolherfunclionsoflhecommonmark
registering authority.
|igurc
56
Chapter 4
Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks
Exc!usinnsCerlaincombinalionsofIeersarenolermiedlobeusedasregislralion
Ieers or arls of a regislralion mark These are lhose combinalions of Ieers used for
secic dislress lrac indicalors or inlernalionaIIy acceled communicalion abbrevialions
SecicaIIy
SOS (Distress - morse)
IANUrgency
XXXUrgencymorse
TTTSafelySecurilemorse
QcodesieQNHQRTQUGelc
IeercombinalionsoflheinlernalionaICodeofSignaIs
CERTIFICATIONOFREGI5TRATION
5tatus and Cnntcnt The cerlicale of regislralion is an ociaI documenl cerlifying
lhallheSlaleofRegislryhasregisleredanaircraflThecerlicaleislobecarriedinlheaircrafl
alaIIlimesThecerlicaleconlains
NalionaIilyorCommonmark
Regislralionmark
Manufaclurersdesignalionoflheaircrafl
SeriaInumberoflheaircrafl
Nameandaddressoflheovner
AcerlicalelhalilhasbeenenleredonlheregisleroflheSlale
Daledsignalureoflheregisleringocer
AIRCRAFTMARKING5
Lncatinn nI Natinna!ity and Rcgistratinn Marks. The nationality or common mark
andregislralionmarkarelobeainledonlheaircraflorshaIIbeaxedbyanyolhermeans
ensuring a similar degree of permanence. The marks shall be kept clean and visible at all
times.
HcavicrthanAirAircraIt. The required markings are to appear on the lower surface
undersideoflhevinglhefuseIagebelveenlhevingsandlhelaiIoronlheuerhaIfoflhe
vertical tail surface.
5izcnIMarkingsThemarkingsonlhevingsarelobealIeaslcmhighandonlhe
fuseIageandverlicaIsurfacescmhigh
57
Chapter 4 Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks

50cm
HorizontaI
Surface
30cm
VerticaI
Surface
Character Size
CLA55IFICATIONOFAIRCRAFT

NonPowered Balloon

Lighter
thanair

Powered Airship

Aircraft

NonPowered Glider

Heavier
thanair Aeroplane PoweredLift


Powered Rotorcraft


Ornithopter

|igurc
|igurc
58
Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks Chapter 4
QUE5TION5
1. What cannot be included in a registration mark?

a. LLL
b. RCC
c. TTT
d. FFF
WhalIeersarerohibiledforregislralionmarks
a IeerinlernalionaIcodes
b IeerinlernalionaIcodes
c IeercodesrecededbyQ
d. Any number referring to an ICAO document.
3. Which of the following is not allowed in a registration mark?
a NNN
b XXX
c. RCC
d. DDD
WhalregislralionisdisaIIovedbecauseofossibIeconfusionvilhdislressurgencysignaIs
a. RCC
b NNN
c XXX
d. ZZZ
WhichoflhefoIIovingisnolermiedinlheregislralionmarkofanaircrafl
a IourIeerQcodes
b IiveIeerinlernalionaIcodesignaIs
c ThreeIeerinlernalionaIcodesignaIs
d. Any number identifying an ICAO document.
ConcerningaircraflregislralionnocombinalionofIeerscanbeusedvhichcanbeconfused
vilhdislresscodesforexamIe
a. RCC
b. DDD
c. LLL
d IAN
WhichoflhefoIIovingregislralionmarksvouIdnolbeermied
a. G-PRAT
b SYIAN
c. 3T-SSS
d YTLLL
59
Chapter 4 Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks
Concerningaircraflregislralionmarkingsnocombinalionscanbeusediflheycanbemislaken
for:
a codesvhichareusedforidenlicalionofICAOdocumenls
b IeercombinalionsincIudinglheIeerQ
c IeercombinalionsvhichareusedbyinlernalionaIcodeofsignaIs
d IeercombinalionsvhichareusedbyinlernalionaIcodeofsignaIs
AccordingloAnnexlheregislralionmarkshaIIbeIeersnumbersoracombinalionofIeers
and numbers and shall be that assigned by:
a. the State of Registry or Common Mark Registering Authority.
b. the State of Registry only.
c. the International Civil Aviation Organisation.
d. the International Telecommunication Union.
10. The common mark shall be selected from the series of symbols included in the radio call signs
allocated:
a. to ICAO by the ITU.
b. to the State of Registry by ICAO.
c. to the State of Registry by the ITU.
d. to the State of the Operator.
11. The height of the markings under the wings of a heavier than air aircraft shall be:
a. at least 30 cm.
b. at least 40 cm.
c. at least 50 cm.
d. more than 40 cm but not more than 50 cm.
12. The height of the markings on the fuselage (or equivalent surface) and on the vertical tail surface
of a heavier than air aircraft shall be:
a. at least 20 cm.
b. more than 20 cm but not more than 30 cm.
c. at least 30 cm.
d. at least 40 cm.
60
Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks Chapter 4
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. C 4.4
2. B 4.4
3. B 4.4
4. C 4.4
5. B 4.4
6. D 4.4
7. B 4.4
8. D 4.4
9. A 4.2
10. A 4.3
11. C 4.8
12. C 4.8
61
Chapter 5 Flight Crew Licensing
CHAPTERFIVE
FLIGHTCREWLICEN5ING
Contents
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
DIIINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
GINIRALRULISCONCIRNINGLICINSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
LICINCISANDRATINGSIORIILOTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
IRIVATIIILOTLICINCIAIROILANIIILA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
COMMIRCIALIILOTLICINCIAIROILANICILA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
AIRLINITRANSIORTIILOTLICINCIAIROILANIATILA . . . . . . . . . 69
MULTICRIWIILOTLICINCIMIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
INSTRUMINTRATINGAIROILANIIRA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
INSTRUCTORANDIXAMINIRRATING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
}ARICLMIDICALRIQUIRIMINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
IILOTIROIICIINCY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
}AATHIORITICALKNOWLIDGIIXAMINATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
62
Chapter 5
Flight Crew Licensing
63
Chapter 5 Flight Crew Licensing
INTRODUCTION
Rcquircmcnt. The Learning Objectives and the Syllabus for 010 Air Law require the
sludenllohaveknovIedgeoflheSARISdelaiIedinAnnexIersonneILicensingHovever
the EASA requirement for Flight Crew Licensing is contained in JAR-FCL and there are questions
inlheCQreIalinglo}ARICLWherelhereare}ARdierencesfromAnnexlheseviIIbe
highlighted.
Intcrnatinna!5tandardIachAnnexlolheChicagoConvenlionincIudesasuIemenl
vhichisasummaryoflhechangesnoliedbyeachslaleinaIhabelicaIorderunderarlicIe
38 of the convention. The supplement for Annex 1 is the biggest of all the annex supplements
andsignieslhedisarilyinighlcrevIicensingaroundlhevorIdIlmuslbeslaledlhallhe
IAAlhe}AAandcerlainIylheUKCAAhavenolandneverhaveadoledlherequiremenlsof
AnnexcrevIicensingandmedicaIrequiremenlsasaslandardIachaulhorilyhassecic
ruIeslovhich}ARICLislhe}AAslandardaIiedinIuroeIlmuslbeemhasisedlhal
the inclusion of information from Annex 1 in this manual is for information only (to enable
youloasslheexamandmuslnolbereIieduonforanymaersreIalinglolheissueofor
mainlenanceofyourighlcrevIicence
Eurnpcan5tandard. The licensing of pilots (also Flight Engineers) to JAR requirements
isinaccordancevilhlherequiremenlsof}ARICLarlsand
JAR-FCL 1 covers the licensing of pilots of aeroplanes
JAR-FCL 2 covers the licensing of helicopter pilots
JAR-FCL 3 covers the medical requirements for licensing of aircrew
JAR-FCL 4 covers the licensing of Flight Engineers (Systems Panel Operators)
DEFINITION5
Dcnitinns. When the following terms are used in the standards and recommended
raclicesofAnnexlheyhavelhefoIIovingmeanings
Pi!ntinCnmmandPICThe PIC is the pilot who is responsible for the safety of the
aircraflandcomIiancevilhlheruIesoflheairduringighllime
Commander A iIol designaled by lhe oeralor vho is quaIied as IIC vho may
deIegalelheresonsibiIilyforlheconducloflheighlloanolherquaIiediIol
Cnpi!nt A licensed pilot serving in any capacity other than PIC but excluding a pilot
who is on board for the sole purpose of receiving instruction.
Flight TimeThelolaIlimefromlhemomenlanaircraflrslmovesunderilsovn
overforlheuroseoflakingounliIilcomesloreslallheendoflheighlsynonymous
with block to block or chock to chock).
Instrumcnt Grnund Timc Time during vhich a iIol is raclising on lhe ground
simuIaledinslrumenlighlinasynlhelicighllrainerseedefarovedbylheaulhorily
Rating. An authorisation entered on or associated with a licence and forming part
lhereofslalingseciaIcondilionsriviIegesorIimilalionserlaininglosuchaIicence
64
Chapter 5
Flight Crew Licensing
5ynthcticF!ightTraincr. Any one of the following three types of apparatus in which
ighlcondilionsaresimuIaledonlheground
F!ight 5imu!atnr vhich rovides an accurale reresenlalion of lhe ighl
deck of a arlicuIar aircrafl lye lo lhe exlenl lhal lhe mechanicaI eIeclricaI
eIeclronic elc aircrafl syslems conlroI funclions lhe normaI environmenl of
ighl crev members and lhe erformance and ighl characlerislics of lhal
lyeofaircraflarereaIislicaIIysimuIaled
F!ight Prnccdurcs Traincr vhich rovides reaIislic ighl deck environmenl
andvhichsimuIalesinslrumenlresonsessimIeconlroIfunclionsof
mechanicaIeIeclricaIeIeclronicelcaircraflsyslemsandlheerformanceand
ighlcharaclerislicsofaircraflofaarlicuIarcIass
Basic Instrument Flight Trainer vhich is equied vilh aroriale
inslrumenlsandvhichsimuIaleslheighldeckenvironmenlofanaircraflin
ighlininslrumenlighlcondilions
GENERALRULE5CONCERNINGLICEN5ING
AuthnritytnActasF!ightCrcwAersonshaIInolaclasaighlcrevmemberofan
aircraflunIessavaIidIicenceisheIdshovingcomIiancevilhlhesecicalionsofAnnexand
appropriate to the duties to be performed by that person. The licence shall have been issued by
the State of Registry of that aircraft or by any other Contracting State and rendered valid by the
state of Registry of that aircraft.
RcissucnIaJAALiccncc. The period of validity of a JAA licence is 5 years. Within
lhiseriodlheIicenceviIIbereissuedbylhearoriale}AAaulhorilyunderlhefoIIoving
conditions:
After initial issue or renewal of a rating
When paragraph xii. of the licence document is full
For any administrative reason
At the discretion of the JAA member State Authority when a rating is re-
validated
RcndcringaLiccnccVa!id A Contracting State may validate a licence issued by another
aulhorilyvilhlherovisolhallheeriodofvaIidilyisnolloexlendbeyondlheoriginaIeriod
ofvaIidilyoflheIicenceA}AAIicenceandassocialedralingselcissuedinaccordancevilh
JAR-FCL is to be accepted without further formality in any other JAA member state.
Va!idatinnnIannnJAA!iccnccInruscinaJAAstatc. A non JAA licence that includes
an instrument rating (IR) may be validated for use in a JAA state for a period not exceeding one
year providing the basic licence remains valid in the state of licence issue.
CrcditnIExpcricncc. The holder of a non-JAA licence may be credited with theoretical
knovIedgeandoryingexerienceallhediscrelionoflhe}AAmemberslaleaulhorilylovards
the issue of a comparable JAA licence by that member state.
Privi!cgcsnIaLiccncc. A pilot licence issued by a State grants the holder the privilege
loaclasaiIolinaircraflregisleredinlhalslaleAIicenceorralinghoIderisnolermiedlo
exercise privileges other than those granted by the licence or rating.
65
Chapter 5 Flight Crew Licensing
Mcdica! Fitncss The hoIder of a Iicence is lo hoId a medicaI assessmenl cerlicale
issued in accordance with the requirements of Annex 1 Chapter 6 (Medical Provisions for
Licensingorinlhecaseofa}AAIicence}ARICLarlHoIdersofIicencesarenolloexercise
lhe riviIeges of lheir Iicences if lhey are avare of any decrease in medicaI lness slandard
(either physical or mental). Licence holders are not to act in any capacity under their licence
vhiIslunderlheinuenceofanysychoaclivesubslanceLicencehoIdersarenolloengage
in any problematic use (or abuse) of substances. Licence holders should seek the advice of
an approved aeromedical examiner (AME) before taking any medication over a prolonged
period.
Va!idity nI Liccnccs. A licence (or rating) is only valid if the necessary ratings or
cerlicales incIuding a medicaI cerlicale are aIso vaIid A Iicence or raling hoIder is lo
maintain competence and meet the requirements for recent experience required by the licence
orralingincIudinglhemainlenanceofacurrenlmedicaIassessmenl
Va!iditynIRatings. A licence that includes a rating is only valid as long as the rating
remains valid. The periods of and methods of maintaining a rating are as follows:
InstrumcntRatingIR An IR is valid for a period of 12 months. It may be renewed
during the last three months of the period of validity of the rating. If an instrument rating test
forrenevaIofaralingisfaiIedlhecurrenlIRiscanceIIed

C!assandTypcRatings. Multi engines class ratings and Type ratings are valid for 12
months. Single pilot single engine class ratings (including touring motor glider rating) are valid
foryearsRalingsarevaIidfromlhedaleofissueorlhedaleofexiryifrevaIidaledvilhin
lhe vaIidily eriod The melhod of renevaI of ralings is by assing a iIol rociency skiII
test.
Mcdica!RcpnrtPcrindsReorlsofmedicaIlnessarelobesubmiedalinlervaIsnol
greater than:
CPLAATPLAC!ass:
ICAOandJAA: 12 months to age 60 (age 40 if engaged in single pilot
oeralionslhenmonlhslhereafler
MPLC!ass
ICAO monlhsloagelhenmonlhslhereafler
PPLAC!ass:
ICAO monl hs l o age l hen monl hs l her eaf l er
(recommended 12 months after age 50)
JAA monlhsloagelhenmonlhsloagelhenmonlhs
thereafter.
Mcdica! Examinatinn DcIcrmcnt Annex 1 permits a licence holder is operating in
aremoleareavheremedicaIexaminalionfaciIiliesdonolexislallhediscrelionoflhe
authority. It must be stressed that this is not a JAA acceptable procedure and a pilot exercising
lhe riviIeges of a }AA Iicence musl have a vaIid medicaI cerlicale in accordancevilh }AR
FCL-3. The ICAO requirement for a medical examination may be deferred as follow:
For a period of 6 months for aircrew not engaged in commercial aviation.
Two consecutive periods of three months for aircrew engaged in commercial
air transport providing a favourable report is obtained after examination or
where no approved medical examiner is available a favourable report from a
medical practising physician. Such a report is to be sent to the authority of the
State of Licence Issue.
A single period of 24 months for a PPL holder.
66
Chapter 5
Flight Crew Licensing
AgcThehoIderofaiIolIicenceviIInolbeermiedloaclaslheiIolofacommerciaI
airlransorlaircrafloncelheageofhasbeenreachedexcelvhenhesheisamemberofa
muIliiIolcrevandhesheislheonIyiIoloflhalcrevvhohasreachedlheageof
Agc Once lhe age of is reached a iIol shaII nol acl as a iIol of an aircrafl
engaged in commercial air transport. Some JAA states limit this age to 60.
LICENCE5ANDRATING5FORPILOT5
Gcncra! Rcquircmcnts A erson is nol ermied lo acl as IIC or coiIol in lhe
foIIovingcalegoriesofaircraflunIessheshehoIdslhearorialeIicenceLicencecalegories
are:
Aeroplane
Helicopter
Glider
Free balloon
Liccncctypcs. Three levels of licence are issued:
Private Pilot Licence (PPL)
Commercial Pilot Licence (CPL)
Air Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL)
Multi Crew Pilot Licence (MPL)
Note: Iiccnccsarcrcjcrrc!ic|qiqpcan!caicgcrqicaccnncrcia|pi|ci|iccnccjcranacrcp|ancisa
CPIA
Acrnp!ancC!assRatingsCIassralingsarelobeeslabIishedforaeroIanescerlicaled
for single pilot operation and are to comprise:
SingIeengineIand
SingIeenginesea
MuIliengineIand
MuIlienginesea
JARFCLC!assRating. Additional ratings are as follows:
All touring motor gliders
Each manufacturer of single engine turbo prop land plane
Each manufacturer of single engine turbo prop sea plane
TypcRatingsWhererequiredalyeralingviIIbeissuedaflersalisfaclorycomIelion
of a type rating course for the appropriate type of aeroplane and demonstration of the necessary
iIolskiIIinlhallyeWhenalyeralingisissuedIimilinglhehoIderloaclascoiIolonIylhe
rating is to be so endorsed. There is no limit to the number of type (or class) ratings that may
beheIdalanyonelimehoveverlheaulhorilysuggeslslhalnomorelhancanbemainlained
safeIyshouIdbeheIdsimuIlaneousIy
Critcria. The JAR-FCL criteria upon which type ratings are established is as follows:
Airvorlhinesslyecerlicale
Handling characteristics
CerliedminimumighlcrevcomIimenl
Level of technology
67
Chapter 5 Flight Crew Licensing
Divisinns. Type ratings are required for:
IachlyeofmuIliiIolaeroIane
or
IachlyeofsingIeiIolmuIliengineaeroIaneedvilhlurbo|elorlurbo
roengines
or
Iach lye of singIe iIol singIeengine aeroIane ed vilh a lurbo|el
engines
or
Any other type of aeroplane if considered necessary by the authority.
ICAOvariatinnsAnnexsecieslyeralingsfor
IachlyeofmuIliiIolaircrafland
IachlyeofsingIeiIoloeralionheIicolerand
HeIicolers cerlied for singIe iIol oeralion if nol covered by a cIass
rating).
VariantsWilhinalyeralingdierencelrainingmayberequiredforvarianlsoflhe
basiclyeIflhesecicvarianlhasnolbeenovnduringaeriodofyearsfurlherdierence
training is required.
Mu!tipi!nt cnnditinns According lo }ARICL an aIicanl for a muIliiIol lye
rating must have:
NolIesslhanhoursasIICofaeroIanes
A valid multi-engine IR(A)
AcerlicaleofMCC
Completed the theoretical knowledge course and passed the examinations for
ATPL(A)
NcicTnisrcquircncniisrcgar!|csscjinciqpccj|iccnccnc|!
UscnI5ynthcticTraincrs. The licensing authority may approve the use of a synthetic
ighllrainerforerforminganymanoeuvrerequiredforlhedemonslralionofskiIIforlheissue
ofaIicenceorralingaflerilhasensuredlhallhelrainerisarorialeforlhelask
Whcn an Instrumcnt Rating IR is rcquircd The State of Licence Issue is not to
permit a licence holder to act as pilot or co-pilot under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) unless
the holder also holds an Instrument Rating (IR) appropriate to the aircraft category. JAR-FCL
ermilsmemberslaleslosecifynalionaIruIesforighlunderIIRvilhoulanIRAielheUK
IMCralinghoveversuchaulhorilyisIimiledlolheairsaceoflhalslaleonIy
InstructnrRatingAConlraclingSlalehavingissuedaiIolIicenceisnolloermil
lhehoIderlocarryoulighlinslruclionforlheissueofanyIicenceorralingunIesslhehoIder
has received the proper authorisation.
Crcdit nI F!ight Timc. A student pilot (or the holder of a licence) is entitled to be
crediledinfuIIvilhaIIsoIoduaIinslruclionandIICighllimelovardslhelolaIighllime
required for the initial issue of a pilot licence or a higher-grade pilot licence. When acting as
co- pilot of an aeroplane in which a co-pilot is required the pilot is entitled to count not more
lhanoflhecoiIollimelovardslhelolaIighllimerequiredforahighergradeIicence
AiIolaclingascoiIolerformingasIICundersuervisioncancounllhefuIIhourslovards
lhelolaIighllimerequiredforahighergradeIicence
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Chapter 5
Flight Crew Licensing
5tudcnt Pi!nt Licence Issuing States are to ensure that student pilots do not pose a
hazardlonavigalionSludenliIolsareonIyermiedloysoIounderlhesuervisionofor
vilhlheaulhorisalionofanaulhorisedighlinslruclorSludenliIolsarenolermiedloy
soIooninlernalionaIighlsunIessinaccordancevilhanagreemenlbelveenlheconlracling
slalesconcernedAsludenliIolisnolermiedloysoIounIessheshehoIdsalIeaslacIass
2 medical assessment.
PRIVATEPILOTLICENCEAEROPLANEPPLA
Agc. An applicant for a PPL is to be not less than 17 years of age. Training can be started
alanyagebulasoIoighlisnolermiedunliIlhesludenlis
Knnw!cdgc An applicant for a PPL is required to demonstrate by examination a
required level of theoretical knowledge.
ExpcricnccAnaIicanlforaIILislocomIelenolIesslhanhoursighllime
WherelimeinasynlheliclrainerisermiedilisIimiledloamaximumofhoursasarlof
the required 40 hours. Flight time as pilot in other categories of aircraft may (with authority
authorisation) by credited. The applicant is required to have completed not less than 10 hours
soIovhichisloincIudehoursofsoIocrosscounlryighllimevilhalIeasloneighlofnol
IesslhankmnmvhichmuslincIudefuIIsloIandingallvodierenlaerodromes
Mcdica!Fitncss. A PPL (A) holder must hold a current class 2 medical assessment.
Privi!cgcs. The holder of a PPL (A) may as PIC or co-pilot of any aeroplane engaged
innonrevenuenoncommerciaIighlsIflheriviIegeislobeexercisedalnighllhehoIder
islohavereceivedduaIinslruclioninaeroIanesyingalnighlincIudinglakeosIandings
and navigation.
COMMERCIALPILOTLICENCEAEROPLANECPLA
Agc An applicant for a CPL(A) is to be not less than 18 years of age.
Thcnrctica! Knnw!cdgc. An applicant for a CPL(A) must have a required level of
knovIedgedemonslraledbysuccessfuIassingofexaminalionsoflhefoIIovingsub|ecls
Air Law
Aircraft general knowledge
Flight performance and planning
Human performance and limitations
Meteorology
Navigalion
Operational Procedures
IrinciIesofighl
Radiotelephony
Expcricncc An aIicanl for a CILA is lo comIele nol Iess lhan hours ighl
lime Where lime in a synlhelic lrainer is ermied il is Iimiled lo a maximum of hours
asarloflherequiredhoursIorasludenlcomIelinganinlegraledCILAcoursealIeasl
150 hours including all progress test is to be completed within which up to 5 hours may be
instrument ground time. Flight time as pilot in other categories of aircraft may (with authority
authorisation) by credited. The applicant is required to have completed not less than:
69
Chapter 5 Flight Crew Licensing
100 hours as PIC (70 in the case of approved course)
hourscrosscounlryighllimevilhalIeasloneighlofnolIesslhankm
nmvhichmuslincIudefuIIsloIandingallvodierenlaerodromes
10 hours of instrument instruction time of which not more than 5 hours may be
instrument ground time.
IflheriviIegeislobeexercisedalnighlhoursnighlighllimeincIuding
lakeosandIandingsasIIC
Mcdica!Fitncss. A CPL(A) holder must hold a current class 1 medical assessment.
Privi!cgcsThehoIderofaCILAisermiedloexerciseaIIlheriviIegesofaIILA
lo acl as IIC of any aeroIane engaged in oeralions olher lhan commerciaI air lransorl lo
aclasIICincommerciaIairlransorlinaeroIanescerlicaledforsingIeiIoloeralionloacl
as co- pilot in commercial air transport in aeroplanes that require a co-pilot (JAR-FCL requires
a CPL(A) holder to have passed the theoretical knowledge for ATPL(A) prior to starting type
rating training for multi-pilot aeroplanes engaged in commercial air transportation). If the
riviIegeislobeexercisedalnighllhehoIderislohavereceivedduaIinslruclioninaeroIanes
yingalnighlincIudinglakeosIandingsandnavigalion
AIRLINETRAN5PORTPILOTLICENCEAEROPLANEATPLA
Agc An applicant for a ATPL(A) is to be not less than 21 years of age.
Thcnrctica! Knnw!cdgc. An applicant for a ATPL(A) must have knowledge of the
same subjects detailed in paragraph 5.6.2 but to a more demanding level determined by
examination.
ExpcricnccAnaIicanlforaATILAislocomIelenolIesslhanhoursighl
time and to demonstrate the ability to pilot multi-crew aeroplanes under IFR. Where synthetic
lrainerlimeisermiedilisIimiledloamaximumofhoursasarloflherequiredhours
rovided lhal nol more lhan hours have been acquired in a ighl rocedure lrainer or a
basic instrument trainer. Flight time as pilot in other categories of aircraft may (with authority
authorisation) by credited. The applicant is required to have completed not less than:
250 hours as PIC which can be made up of not less than 100 hours PIC and the
additional hours as co-pilot acting as PIC under supervision provided that the
method is approved by he authority.
200 hours crosscounlryighllimevilhnolIesslhanhoursIICorcoiIol
acting as PIC under supervision provided that the method is approved by he
authority.
75 hours instrument time of which not more than 30 hours may be instrument
ground time.
100 hours nighlighllimeasIICorcoiIol
JAR-FCL additionally requires 500 hours muIliiIol oeralions in lransorl
commuter category aeroplanes (or equivalent code).
Mcdica!Fitncss. A ATPL(A) holder must hold a current class 1 medical assessment.
Privi!cgcsThehoIderofaATILAisermiedloexerciseaIIlheriviIegesgranled
lo lhe hoIder of a IILA and CILA and of an IRA and lo acl as IIC and coiIol of any
aeroplane engaged in commercial air transport.
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Chapter 5
Flight Crew Licensing
MULTICREWPILOTLICENCEMPL
CnnccptICAOIANSTrainingdeneslheMILasaIicencelhalermilslhehoIder
to exercise the privileges of a co-pilot in commercial air transport on multi-crew aeroplanes
aeroIanes vhich require a ighl crev of al Ieasl lvo iIols Il ermils iIols lo be lrained
directly as co-pilots rather than under the CPL or ATPL system that trains PICs.
Limitatinns As lhe Iicence is designed for coiIols of muIlicrev aeroIanes lhe
holder of an MPL will not be able to exercise the privilege of the licence on single pilot operation
aeroplanes.
Liccncc 5pccicatinn Il is execled lhal lhe secicalion for lhe MIL viII broadIy
follow the example of the JAA frozen ATPL(A)
IN5TRUMENTRATINGAEROPLANEIRA
Rcquircmcnts Inr Issuc. The knowledge requirements for an IR(A) are related to
lhe riviIege of lhe raling secicaIIy lo oeralions under IIR The skiII requiremenl aIso
secicaIIyrequireslheaIicanllodemonslralelheabiIilylooeralemuIliengineaeroIanes
soIeIyvilhreferenceloinslrumenlsvilhoneengineinoeraliveifaiIolisloyIIRinsuch
aeroplanes. The regulations permit the use of synthetic trainers to demonstrate skills.
ExpcricnccTheaIicanlislohoIdaIILAvilhanighlquaIicalionoraCILA
andhavecomIeledhoursofcrosscounlryighllimeasIICinaeroIanesorheIicolersof
which not less than 10 hours shall be in aeroplanes.
Mcdica!. Holders of PPL(A) are required to comply with the hearing requirements for
cIasscerlicalionandconlraclingslalesshouIdconsiderrequiringlheIILhoIderloasslhe
hysicaImenlaIandvisuaIrequiremenlsofcIass
Privi!cgcs nI an IRA Providing the holder of an IR(A) is also the holder of the
arorialeIicenceandismedicaIIylcerlicaledlhehoIderisermiedloyaeroIanes
underIIRIfaiIolhoIdsbolhanaeroIaneandaheIicolerIicencelheriviIegeloybolh
types under IFR may be conferred by a single instrument rating.
CnnditinnsInslalesvhereighlinVMCalnighlisnolermiedhoIdersofaIILA
oraCILAvilhoulanIRAmayundernalionaIruIesbegranledanighlralingermiing
ighlalnighlinVMCunderIIRAddilionaIIyslalesmayundernalionaIruIesgranlanIMC
ralingermiingighloulsideconlroIIedairsacevhichmayincIudeexemlionsforighlin
someCTRsinmeleoroIogicaIcondilionsIesslhanVMCduringdaylimeloiIolsvilhoulan
IR(A).
IN5TRUCTORANDEXAMINERRATING
InstructnrCatcgnrics. There are six categories of aeroplane instructor ratings:
Flight Instructor Aeroplane (FI(A))
Type Rating Instructor Aeroplane (TRI(A))
Class Rating Instructor Aeroplane (CRI(A))
Instrument Rating Instructor Aeroplane (IRI(A))
Synthetic Flight Instructor Aeroplane (SFI(A))
Multi-crew Co-operation Course Instructor - Aeroplane MCCI(A)
71
Chapter 5 Flight Crew Licensing
Prcrcquisitcs AII inslruclors are required lo hoId al Ieasl lhe Iicence raling or
quaIicalionforvhichinslruclionisgivenandshaIIbeenlilIedloaclasIICoflheaeroIane
during such instruction.
PcrindnIVa!idity. Instructor ratings are valid for 3 years.
F!ightInstructnrRatingAcrnp!ancFIA The following are the conditions which
apply to the granting of an FI(A) rating:
Minimum age 18
Must be supervised until:
x Completed 100 hours of instruction
x SuervisedsludenlsoIoighls
Prcrcquisitcs. Before beginning the course of training for a FI(A) rating the applicant
is to have:
ACILAorhoursighllimeofvhichasIICifhoIdingaIILA
The theoretical knowledge of a CPL(A) holder
Completed 30 hours in single engine piston powered aeroplanes with at least 5
hours in the last six months
Received at least 10 hours of instruction (of which not more than 5 is instrument
ground time)
Completed at least 20 hours of cross country as PIC (distance and landings as
per CPL(A))
Iassedareenlryighllesl

UnrcstrictcdPrivi!cgcs. The following are the unrestricted privileges of a FI(A) (with
secicexeriencecondilionsaser}ARICLToconduclighlinslruclionfor
The issue of a PPL(A)
The issue of class and type ratings for single engine aeroplanes
TheissueofaCILAhoursighllimehoursinslruclionaI
InslruclionalnighlrovidinganighlquaIicalionisheId
The issue of an IR(A) for single engine aeroplanes
The issue of an IR(A) for multi-engine aeroplanes
The issue of single-pilot multi-engine type or class ratings
The issue of a FI(A) rating
Examincrs. Five roles of an examiner are recognised:
Flight examiner (FE(A)).
TyeralingexaminerTRIASynlhelicighlexaminerSIIA
Class rating examiner (CRE(A)).
Instrument rating examiner (IRE(A)).
Flight instructor examiner (FIE(A)).

Rcquircmcnt. Examiners shall hold a licence and rating at least equal to the licence
orralingforvhichlheyareaulhorisedloconduclskiIIleslsorrociencychecksandunIess
seciedolherviselheriviIegeloinslruclforlhisIicenceorraling
PcrindnIVa!idity. An examiners authorisation is valid for not more than three years.
Examiners are re-authorised at the discretion of the Authority.
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Chapter 5
Flight Crew Licensing
JARFCLMEDICALREQUIREMENT5
Rcquircmcnt In order lo aIy for or lo exercise lhe riviIeges of a Iicence lhe
aIicanlorlhehoIdershaIIhoIdamedicaIcerlicaleissuedinaccordancevilhlherovisions
of JAR-FCL 3 (Medical) and appropriate to the privileges of the licence. The holder of a medical
cerlicaleshaIIbemenlaIIyandhysicaIIyllosafeIyexerciselheriviIegesoflheaIicabIe
licence.

JARFCL Mcdica! ccrticatcs }ARICL denes lvo cIasses of medicaI assessmenl
cerlicalesforiIols

Class 1 for commercial pilots (CPL and ATPL)
Class 2 for private pilots (PPL)
ICAOMcdica!CcrticatcsICAOdeneslhreemedicaIassessmenlcIasses

CIassforcommerciaIiIolIicenceandighlengineerandnavigalorIicences
Class 2 for private pilot licences (including glider and free balloon)
CIassforAirTracConlroIIers
Acrnmcdica! Dispnsitinn. After completion of the examination the applicant shall
be advised vhelher l unl or referred lo lheAulhorily The aulhorised medicaI examiner
AMIshaIIinformlheaIicanlofanycondilionsmedicaIoeralionaIorolherviselhal
may reslricl ying lraining andor lhe riviIeges of any Iicence issued In lhe evenl lhal a
reslricled medicaI cerlicale is issued vhich Iimils lhe hoIder lo exercise iIolin command
riviIegesonIyvhenasafelyiIoliscarriedlheaulhorilyviIIgiveadvisoryinformalionfor
use by the safety pilot in determining the function and responsibilities.
Pcrindic Mcdica! Examinatinn The annuaI medicaI examinalion is eecliveIy a
heaIlhcheckandlakesinloaccounllheagingrocesssincelheissueoflheoriginaIcerlicale
IrovidinglheiIolhasmedicaIexaminalionsallherequiredinlervaIslheagingrocessviIIbe
lakeninloaccounlUnderlhe}AAreguIalionsexlensionsdefermenlofmedicaIexaminalion
ofmedicaIcerlicalevaIidilyarenolermiedIorfurlherrequiremenlssee
DccrcascinMcdica!Fitncss Licence holders are not to exercise the privileges of their
licences if they are aware that they are unwell. In such circumstances they are to seek the advice
of the Authority or AME. Such circumstances are:
Hospital or clinic admission for more than 12 hours
Surgical operation or invasive procedure
The regular use of medication
The need for regular use of correcting lenses
Opcratinna!Mu!ticrcwLimitatinnOML In the circumstance where a commercial
iIoldoesnolfuIIymeellherequiremenlsforlheissueofacIasscerlicalelhecerlicalemay
be annolaled vilh lhe Iimilalion vaIid onIy as or vilh quaIied coiIol In such a case lhe
olheriIolmuslbequaIiedonlyenolbeoverandnolbesub|eclloanOML
73
Chapter 5 Flight Crew Licensing
Mcdica!Cnnditinns. Every licence holder who is aware of:
AnysignicanlersonaIin|uryinvoIvingincaacilylofunclionasighlcrev
AnyiIInessinvoIvingincaacilyloaclasighlcrevlhroughoulaeriodof
days or more
Being pregnant
ShaIIinformlheaulhorilyinvrilingofsuchin|uryorregnancyandassoonaslheeriodof
dayshaseIasedinlhecaseofiIInessThemedicaIcerlicaleshaIIbedeemedlobesusended
uonlheoccurrenceofacaboveInlhecaseofin|uryoriIInesslhesusensionshaIIbe
IifledonbeingronouncedlafleramedicaIexaminalionTheaulhorilymayexemllhe
hoIder from such an examinalion In lhe case of regnancy lhe susension may be Iifled for
sucheriodbylheAulhorilyandsub|ecllosuchcondilionsasillhinkslandshaIIceaseuon
lhehoIderbeingmedicaIIyexaminedaflerlheregnancyhasendedandbeingronouncedl
If lhis rocedure is comIied vilh lhe medicaI cerlicale shaII be susended cannol exire
duringlheeriodofiIInessorin|uryandviIIbereinslaledoncelhecrevmemberbecomesl
5uspcnsinnnIMcdica!CcrticatcIrovidedlheaulhorilyisnoliedimmedialeIyin
lheevenlofin|uryorvhenregnancyisdiagnosedoronlhesldayofroIongediIInesslhe
medicaIcerlicaleoflhehoIderviIIbesusendedunliIlhehoIderisassedaslloresume
aircrev dulyAl lhis oinl lhe cerlicale viII be reinslaled vilh a remaining vaIidily eriod
equal to that extant at the time that it was suspended. After a female pilot has been diagnosed
as regnanl she may be ermied lo conlinue ying duly unliI such a dale as lhe medicaI
authority deems that it is no longer prudent for the health of the embryonic baby or the mother
loconlinuelobeengagedinyingdulyAflerdeIiveryandafleramedicaIexaminalionshe
viIIlhenbedecIaredlloresumedulyalvhichoinllhecerlicaleviIIbereinslaled
Va!idity nI Mcdica! Ccrticatcs A medicaI cerlicale is vaIid from lhe dale of lhe
initial general medical examination. It may be renewed during the period of validity or as
beIov If a Iicence hoIder aIIovs lhe cerlicale lo exire by more lhan years renevaI viII
require initial or extended aeromedical examination (at AMEs discretion). Such an examination
shaIIbecarriedoulalanAMCvhichhasoblainedlhecerlicalehoIdersmedicaIrecordsIf
lhecerlicalehasexiredbymorelhanyearsbulIesslhanyearsaslandardorexlended
examination will be required at an AMC or by an AME (if approved by the AMS) subject to
lhe records of medicaI examinalions being made avaiIabIe If lhe cerlicale exires by more
lhandaysbulIesslhanyearsaslandardorexlendedexaminalionerformedalanAMC
orbyanAMIifarovedbylheAMSviIIberequiredIfacerlicalehasexiredbyIesslhan
daysrenevaIshaIIbeossibIebyslandardorexlendedexaminalionasrescribed
Day ru!c. If the medical revalidation is taken up to 45 days prior to the expiry
dale lhe vaIidily of lhe nev cerlicale exlends from lhe revious cerlicale exiry dale In
olher vords if your cerlicale exires on
st
December and you have your annual medical
no earlier than 15
th
NovemberlhenevcerlicaleviIIbevaIidfrom
st
January until the next
31
st
December Hovever if you have a medicaI on November lhe cerlicale viII be vaIid
from 1
st
NovemberunliIlhefoIIoving
st
October.
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Chapter 5
Flight Crew Licensing
PILOTPROFICIENCY
Pi!ntPrncicncyChccks. Pilots are required to demonstrate piloting technique and
lheabiIilyloexeculeemergencyroceduresandlhalsuchskiIIischeckedWhereighlunder
IIR is required lhe checks required are lo be carried oul lvice a year vilh any lvo simiIar
checks not conducted within four months.
Base and LincChccksAccordinglobolhICAOand}ARsoeralorsarerequiredlo
carryoulchecksofiIolrociencyalreguIarinlervaIsTheareknovnasbaseorIinechecks
and are usuaIIy coincidenl vilh olher rociency checks carried oul for vaIidalion of lye
ratings and instrument ratings. These checks meet the requirements of paragraph 5.86 above.
JAATHEORETICALKNOWLEDGEEXAMINATION5
Rcquircmcnt. Applicants for a JAA professional pilot licence or an instrument rating
are required to demonstrate a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges of the licence or
rating by means of success in passing examinations. The examination is to be set in a language
considered appropriate by the authority. The format of the examination is to be by multiple
choiceansverformalselbycomulerfromacenlraIqueslionbankCQ
Passstandards. The pass mark is 75%. All the examinations must be passed within a
eriod of monlhs from lhe end of lhe caIendar monlh in vhich lhe rsl examinalion vas
aemledAII revious examinalion asses viII be rendered invaIid if a candidale faiIs one
arlicuIar sub|ecl al lhe fourlh aeml AII revious examinalion asses viII be rendered
invaIidifacandidalefaiIslorecordaassinaIIsub|eclsvilhineilhersiingsorlheabove
mentioned 18 month period.
Acccptanccpcrind. A pass in the theoretical knowledge examinations will be accepted
for the grant of a CPL(A) or IR(A) during the 36 months from the date of gaining a pass in all the
requiredsub|eclsIrovidinglhalanIRAisoblainedvilhinlhemonlhsslaledaboveaass
in the ATPL(A) theoretical knowledge examinations will remain valid for a period of 7 years
from the last validity date of the IR(A) entered in the CPL(A) for the issue of an ATPL(A).
75
Chapter 5 Flight Crew Licensing
QUE5TION5
1. According to JAR-FCL class ratings shall be established for single pilot aeroplanes not requiring
a type rating including:
a. all touring motor gliders.
b aIIlyesofsingIeiIolsingIeengineaeroIanesedvilhalurbo|elengine
c microIighlshavingxedvingsandmoveabIeaerodynamicconlroIsurfacesaclingin
all three dimensions.
d. any other type of aeroplane if considered necessary.
2. Which of the following is the privilege of the holder of a CPL (A)?
a. To act as PIC of any aeroplane engaged in operations other than c o mme r c i a l a i r
transportation.
b. To act as PIC of any aeroplane engaged in commercial air transportation.
c ToaclasIICofanyaircraflcerlicaledforsingIeiIoloeralionolherlhancommerciaI
air transportation.
d. To act as co-pilot of any aircraft engaged in commercial air transport operations.
3. What age do you need to be to exercise the privileges of a CPL licence?
a. 18
b. 21
c. 16
d 23
WhenyouareoverandlhehoIderofanATILAhovoflenareyou required lo have a
medical examination?
a. The 12 month period reduces to 6 months.
b. The 24 month period reduces to 12 months.
c. The 6 month period reduces to 3 months.
d. The 9 month period reduces to 3 months.
YoucanusesimuIalorhourslovardslhehoursrequiredforanATILHovaresimuIalor
hours limited?
a MaximumofnolmorelhaninaroceduraIighllrainer
b MaximumofnolmorelhaninaroceduraIighllrainer
c MaximumofnolmorelhaninaroceduraIighllrainer
d MaximumofnolmorelhaninaroceduraIighllrainer
WhalislhenighlyinghoursrequiremenlforanATILAIicence
a. 75 hours PIC.
b. 100 hours PIC or co-pilot.
c. 100 hours PIC.
d. 75 hours PIC or co-pilot.
76
Chapter 5
Flight Crew Licensing
7. One of the privileges of the holder of a CPL(A) is to:
a. act as Co-pilot of aircraft in commercial air transport operations.
b. act as PIC of single engine aeroplanes in commercial air transport operations.
c aclasayinginslruclor
d. act as PIC of aeroplanes involved in operations other than commercial air
transportation.
IncIudedinlherequiremenlsforhoursanATILAhoIdermuslhave
a hours muIliiIol oeralions in lransorl commuler or equivaIenl calegory
aircraft.
b. 500 hours multipilot operations and 250 hours as PIC.
c hoursmuIliiIoloeralionsincIudingulohoursighlengineeringlime
d. 500 hours multipilot operations including 200 hours night time.
9. When are you required to tell the authorities of an illness?
a. After the period of 21 days of illness has elapsed.
b. On the 21st day of the illness.
c. After a month.
d. After medical has expired.
TooblainaCILAhovmanyhoursofcrosscounlryyingarerequired
a. 15 hrs.
b. 20 hrs.
c. 25 hrs.
d. 35 hrs.
11. What medical is required for the issue of a CPL(A)?
a. Class 2.
b. As required by particular state.
c. Class 1.
d. JAR Class A (as from 1 Jan 2001).
12. The holder of a pilot licence when acting as co-pilot under supervision of the PIC and performing
the functions and duties of the PIC shall be entitled to be credited:
a vilh of lhe ighl lime lovards lhe lolaI lime required for a higher grade of
licence.
b infuIIbulnolmorelhanhrslovardslhelolaIlimerequiredforahighergradeof
licence.
c lheighllimeinfuIIlovardslhelolaIlimerequiredforahighergradeofIicence
d lheighllimeinfuIIlovardslhelolaIlimerequiredforahighergradeofiIolIicence
according to the requirements of the licensing authority.
IoranATILAhovmanynighlhoursarerequired
a. 30
b. 75
c. 100
d. 150
77
Chapter 5 Flight Crew Licensing
IoranATILhovmanycrosscounlryhoursarerequiredandhovmanyoflhesemuslbeas
pilot in command?
a
b
c
d
15. How long would you have to spend in a clinic or hospital before you would have to inform the
authorities?
a. 24 hrs or more.
b NolIesslhandays
c. More than 12 hours.
d. 12 days or more.
WhenyouareanevIyquaIiedyinginslrucloryouhavelobesuervisedbyaquaIiedying
instructor. When will the period of supervision cease?
a. Once you have passed a competency check.
b. When you have completed 100 hours instruction and sent 25 students solo.
c. When you have completed 25 hours instruction and sent 100 students solo.
d. When you have completed 100 hours solo.
17. Between what ages can you exercise the privileges of an ATPL(A) on an unrestricted basis?

a. 21 - 60
b. 21 - 59
c. 18 - 59
d. 18 - 60
18. How long would a non JAA licence be valid for if validated for use in a JAA state?
a NolIesslhanmonlhs
b. 12 months from the date of validation.
c. 12 months providing the licence is still valid in the State of Issue.
d Nolmorelhanmonlhs
WhichoflhefoIIovingcorreclIyidenlieslhecrosscounlryhoursrequiremenlforaCILA
a. 100 hours PIC or SPIC.
b hourscrosscounlryasIICincIudingacrosscounlryighlnolIesslhankm
nminlhecourseofvhichfuIIsloIandingsaremadeallvodierenlaerodromes
c hoursincIudingalIeasloneighlofhoursduralioncoveringalIeaslnmand
to include 2 full stop landings.
d hourssoIovilhalIeasloneighlovernmvilhalIeasllvofuIIsloIandings
20. What is the minimum age for a holder of a PPL?
a. 16
b. 17
c. 18
d. 21
78
Chapter 5
Flight Crew Licensing
21. What is the period of validity of a JAR-FCL class 2 medical?
a monlhsunliIagelhenmonlhsunliIlhenmonlhs lhereafler
b monlhsunliIagelhenmonlhsunliIlhenmonlhslhereafler
c monlhsunliIagelhenmonlhsunliIlhenmonlhs lhereafler
d monlhsunliIagelhenmonlhsunliIlhenmonlhslhereafler
A IILA or CommerciaI Iicence hoIder before laking hisher Inslrumenl Raling musl have
completed ................. hours of cross country of which .............hours must be in an aeroplane ?
a. 50 15
b. 50 10
c. 40 15
d. 40 10
A IILA hoIder shaII demonslrale comelence for an IRA in a aircrafl lye vilh

a. Amphibian all engines running only


b. Seaplane one engine inoperative
c. Multi-engined one engine inoperative
d. Multi-engined all engines running

OflhehoursrequiredexerienceforanATILAhoursmaybeinasimuIalorbul
nolmorelhanhoursmaybeinabasicinslrumenllrainerorbasicrocedurelrainer
a. 100 15
b. 100 20
c. 100 25
d. 75 25
25. Which of the following types of aircraft requires a type rating?
a. Each type of multi engine aircraft.
b. Each type of single pilot multi-engined turbine.
c Iach lye of microIighl vilh xed vings and abIe lo move ils surfaces in lhree
dimensions.
d. Each type of touring motor glider.
TohaveanunreslricledIIAralingandloinslruclforlheissueofaCILAoraIILAyou
must have a CPL(A) or:
a. at least 250 hours as a pilot.
b. not less than 15 hours in the last 12 months on the relevant type.
c alIeaslhoursofighlinslruclion
d hoursighllimeofvhichnolIesslhanhoursisIIC
Accordinglo}ARICLvhalcIassesofmedicaIexisl
a. Class 1 only.
b. Classes 1 and 2.
c CIassesand
d CIassesand
79
Chapter 5 Flight Crew Licensing
Accordinglo}ARICLasingIeenginecIassralingisvaIidfor
a. 2 years.
b. 2 years up to the age of 40 then 1 year thereafter.
c. 5 years after licence issue.
d. 1 year.
29. The validity of a multi-engine class rating or a type rating shall be 1 year from:
a. date of issue or the date of expiry if re-validated within the validity period.
b. date of application received by the authority.
c. date of skill test.
d. date of medical examination.
30. In order to carry out PPL(A) instruction you must:
a. hold a PPL(A) with instrument rating.
b. have passed the CPL theoretical knowledge exams and hold a FI(A) rating.
c hoIdaCILAIRA
d. hold an ATPL(A).
IoraiIollohoIdanATILAlhehoursrequiredare
a IICorIICandascoiIolaclingasIICundersuervision
b IICorIICandascoiIolaclingasIICundersuervision
c IICorIICandascoiIolaclingasIICundersuervision
d IIC or IIC and lhe remainder of lhe hours as coiIol acling as IIC under
supervision.
32. A pilot holding a CPL(A) can act as:
a. PIC of any aircraft in non-commercial aviation.
b. PIC in any single engine aeroplane engaged in commercial aviation.
c. PIC of any single pilot aeroplane engaged in commercial aviation.
d IIC in any aircrafl for vhich heshe is cIasslye raled engaged in noncommerciaI
aviation.
IromvhaldaleisamedicaIcerlicalevaIidfrom
a. The date of the initial general medical examination.
b ThedalelhecerlicaledeIiveredlolheiIol
c. The date of licence issue.
d. The date of the revalidation of the licence.

WhichoflhefoIIovingAnnexesoflheChicagoConvenlionconlainslheminimumsecicalion
for a crew members licence to be recognised by Contracting States?
a. Annex 2.
b. Annex 3.
c. Annex 1.
d. Annex 4.
80
Chapter 5
Flight Crew Licensing
IorlhehoIderofacommerciaIiIolsIicenceforsingIeiIolxedvingandheIicolersvho
hasaainedlheageoflheeriodbelveenmedicaIreorlsdecreasesfrom
a. 12 months to 6 months.
b. 60 months to 24 months.
c. 24 months to 6 months.
d. 24 months to 12 months.
36. An applicant for an ATPL(A) for aircraft shall have at least:
a hoursnighlyingureIyasIIC
b hoursnighlyingasIICorascoiIol
c hoursnighlyingasIICorascoiIol
d hoursnighlyingasIIC
ACILAaIicanlundergoinganinlegraledcourseofighllrainingshaIIhavecomIeled
a hoursighllimeofvhichhoursmaybeinslrumenlgroundlime
b hoursighllime
c hoursighllimeincIudinghoursinslrumenlgroundlime
d hoursighllime
If an aIicanl for a CILA vishes lo exercise lhe riviIeges of lhe Iicence al nighl ighl
experience will include:
a hoursofnighlighlincIudinglakeosandIandingsasIIC
b hoursofnighlighlincIudinglakeosandIandingsasIIC
c hoursofnighlighlincIudinglakeosandIandingsasIICorcoiIol
d hoursofnighlighlincIudinglakeosandIandingsasIICorcoiIol
Accordinglo}ARICLaninslrumenlralingisvaIidfor
a. one year.
b. two years.
c. the period of validity of the licence.
d indenileIy
When acling as coiIol of an aeroIane lhal requires a coiIol lhe iIol shaII be enlilIed lo
credit not more than:
a of lhe coiIol lime lovards lhe lolaI ighl lime required for a higher grade of
licence.
b of lhe coiIol lime lovards lhe lolaI ighl lime required for a higher grade of
licence.
c hoursoflhecoiIollimelovardslhelolaIighllimerequiredforahighergrade
of licence.
d of lhe coiIol lime lovards lhe lolaI ighl lime required for a higher grade of
licence.
81
Chapter 5 Flight Crew Licensing
AnaIicanlforaCILAshaIIhavecomIeledinaeroIanesnolIesslhan
a hoursofighllimeincIudinghoursasIIC
b hoursofighllimeincIudinghoursasIIC
c hours of ighl lime or hours if comIeled during an inlegraled course of
approved training as a pilot of aeroplanes.
d hoursofighllimeincIudinghoursasIIC
The hoIders of iIol Iicences are required lo inform lhe aulhorily if lhrough iIIness lhey are
unable to undertake those functions to which the licence relates throughout a certain number of
days. The number of days is:
a. 14
b. 21
c. 28
d. 30
43. The cross-country requirement for the issue of a CPL(A) is to include:
a hourscrosscounlryvilhoneighlincIudingfuIIsloIandingsoveralolaIdislance
of 270km(150nm).
b hourscrosscounlryvilhoneighlincIudingfuIIsloIandingsoveralolaIdislance
of 540km(300nm).
c hourscrosscounlryvilhoneighlincIudingfuIIsloIandingsoveralolaIdislance
of 270km(150nm).
d hourscrosscounlryvilhoneighlincIudingfuIIsloIandingsoveralolaIdislance
of 540km(300nm).
44. An applicant for a CPL(A) shall hold:
a. a current class 3 medical assessment.
b a current class 2 medical assessment.
c. a current class 1 medical assessment.
d. a current medical assessment to a level prescribed by the authority of the state of licence
issue.
HovmanysynlhelicighllrainerhoursmaybeincIudedbyanaIicanlforanATILAas
part of the 1 500 hours necessary experience?

a hoursofvhichnolmorelhanhourshavebeencomIeledinaighlrocedures
trainer or basic instrument trainer.
b hoursofvhichnolmorelhanhourshavebeencomIeledinaighlrocedures
trainer or basic instrument trainer.
c hoursofvhichnolmorelhanhourshavebeencomIeledinaighlrocedures
trainer or basic instrument trainer.
d hoursofvhichnolmorelhanhourshavebeencomIeledinaighlrocedures
trainer or basic instrument trainer.
82
Chapter 5
Flight Crew Licensing
Accordinglo}ARICLanaIicanlforanIRAshaIIhoIdaIILAvilhanighlquaIicalion
oraCILAandhavecomIeledalIeaslhours
a. instructional time as student PIC of aeroplanes or helicopters of which at least 10 hours
is to be in aeroplanes.
b. cross country time as PIC of aeroplanes or helicopters of which at least 10 hours is to be
in aeroplanes.
c. cross country time as a pilot of aeroplanes or helicopters of which at least 10 hours is to
be in aeroplanes.
d. instructional time as student PIC of aeroplanes.
47. For which of the following are type ratings established?
a. Each type of multi-pilot aeroplane.
b IachlyeofsingIeiIolmuIliengineaeroIaneedvilhlurbineengines
c. Any type of aircraft whenever considered necessary by the authority.
d. All the above answers are correct.
Accordinglo}ARICLeslabIishmenlofsearalelyeralingforaeroIanesviIIbeassessedon
the basis of three criteria. One of these criteria is that the aeroplane has:
a. handling characteristics that require the use of more than one crew member.
b acerlicaleofairvorlhinessissuedbyanon}AAslale
c acerlicaleofairvorlhinessissuedbylhemanufaclurer
d handIingcharaclerislicslhalrequireaddilionaIyingorsimuIalorlraining
WhichAnnexlolheChicagoConvenlionconlainsminimumsecicalionsforacrevIicencelo
have international validity?
a. Annex 3.
b. Annex 4.
c. Annex 1.
d. Annex 2.

50. A type rating is applicable to:
a anaeroIanerequiringacerlicaleofairvorlhiness
b anaeroIanevilhacerlicaleofairvorlhinessissuedbylheslaleofIicenceissue
c. an aeroplane that requires multi-pilot operation.
d. an aeroplane that requires additional skills training.
Accordinglo}ARICLrecognisedinslruclorcalegoriesare
a IIATRIACRIAIRIAonIy
b IIACRIAonIy
c IIATRIAonIy
d IIATRIACRIAIRIAMCCIAandSIIAonIy
WhenaslalerendersvaIidaIicenceissuedbyanolherConlraclingSlaleasanaIlernalivelo
issuanceofilsovnIicencelheeriodofvaIidilyshaII
a. not extend beyond 15 days after the validity of the licence.
b. not extend beyond the period of validity of the licence.
c. shall be at the discretion of the validating state.
d. be at the discretion of ICAO.
83
Chapter 5 Flight Crew Licensing
53. An applicant for a JAR-FCL ATPL(A) has to demonstrate the ability to pilot:
a. training aircraft.
b. multi-crew aircraft requiring a Flight Engineer.
c. multi-crew aeroplanes under IFR.
d nighlighlsvilhassengersonboard
84
Chapter 5
Flight Crew Licensing
AN5WER5

Queslion Answer Reference Queslion Answer Reference
1. A 5.30 29. A 5.22
2. A 5.51 30. B 5.70
3. A 5.47 31. D 5.54
4. A 5.23 32. C 5.51
5. C 5.54 33. A 5.84
6. B 5.54 34. C 5.1
7. D 5.51 35. A 5.23
8. A 5.54 36. C 5.54
9. A 5.82 37. A 5.49
10. B 5.49 38. B 5.51
11. C 5.50 39. A 5.21
12. C 5.40 40. D 5.40
13. C 5.54 41. C 5.49
14. A 5.54 42. B 5.82
15. C 5.80 43. B 5.49
16. B 5.69 44. C 5.50
17. B 45. C 5.54
18. C 5.15 46. B 5.62
19. B 5.49 47. D 5.33
20. B 5.42 48. A
21. C 5.23 49. C 5.1
22. B 5.62 50. C 5.33
23. C 5.60 51. D 5.66
24. C 5.54 52. B 5.15
25. B 5.33 53. C 5.54
26. D 5.70
27. B 5.76
28. A 5.22
85
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
Contents
HISTORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
AIILICAILITYOITHIRULISOITHIAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
GINIRALRULIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
VISUAL FLIGHT RULES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
INSTRUMINTILIGHTRULIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
SIMICIRCULARILIGHTLIVILRULISANDRVSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
SPECIAL VFR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
DISTRISSANDURGINCYSIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
RISTRICTIDIROHIITIDORDANGIRARIAS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
SIGNALSIORAIRODROMITRAIIIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
CHAPTER5IX
RULE5OFTHEAIR
86
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
87
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
HI5TORY
Educatinn The ruIes of lhe air Iike lhe ruIes of lhe road have evoIved as avialion
has advanced IniliaIIy aircrafl ev vilhoul radios radio hadnl been invenled or vhen il
hadlherevasnlanaeroIanebigenoughlocarrylheequimenlSimIeruIesevoIvedlo
aemlloreducelheriskofcoIIisionsRememberinanaeroIaneyingalorkls
was travelling at a previously unimagined speed. Visual signals were required at aerodromes
loconveyinformalionloiIolsandroceduresevoIvedloaIIovorderIyighlinlhevicinilyof
aerodromesandloermilvisuaInavigalionenrouleelveenlhesandWWIIindividuaI
states passed legislation to enforce the rules that had become established in those states. With
lheexansionofcommerciaIavialionduringandaflerlhevarlheneedforslandardisalionin
the rules was evident and this was one topic that was seriously addressed at Chicago in 1944.
APPLICABILITYOFTHERULE5OFTHEAIR
Anncx. Annex 2 of the Chicago Convention details the ICAO Rules of the Air. As
menlionedabovelheruIesvererimariIyvrieninlheearIydaysfornonradiolracand
some of lhe requiremenls may nov seem oul of dale Hovever lhere is sliII a considerabIe
amounl of nonradio lrac in generaI avialion and lhose airmen are equaIIy enlilIed lo lhe
roleclionaordedlocommerciaIairlransorlandofcourselhereisaIvayslheossibiIily
of communication failure. The ICAO Rules of the Air apply to aircraft bearing the nationality
andregislralionmarksofanICAOConlraclingSlalevhereverlheymayberovidinglheydo
nolconiclvilhlheruIesubIishedbylheSlalehaving|urisdiclionoflhelerriloryoverovn
TheICAOCounciIresoIvedinadolingAnnexinAriIandAmendmenlinNovember
lhallheICAORuIesaIyvilhoulexcelionoverlhehighseasHighSeasaredenedas
lheareasofseaoulsidelhelerriloriaIIimilsofanySlaleWhenanaircraflisyingvilhinlhe
airsaceoflheslaleofregislralionlheruIesoflheairoflhalslaleinlheUKasubIishedin
CAITheANOareaIicabIeIndeedforaUKregisleredaeroIanelheUKruIesaIy
vhereverlheaeroIaneisovnrovidinglhereisnoconiclionvilhIocaIruIesWhereaUK
regisleredaircraflisyingoveraforeignslalelheruIesoflheairoflhalslaleaIyDonol
confuse Rules with Law! The application of the rules can be summarised thus:
UK registered aircraft over the UK - UK rules apply
UK registered aircraft over France - French and UK rules apply (French have
priority)
UK registered aircraft over the high seas - ICAO rules apply without exception
App!icab!cRu!csTheoeralionofanaeroIaneeilherinighloronlhemovemenl
areaofanaerodromeislobeinaccordancevilhlhegeneraIruIesandvheninighleilher
Thc visua! ight ru!cs VFR if lhe aircrafl is ovn in visuaI meleoroIogicaI
conditions (VMC)
or
The instrumcntightru!cs (IFR)
IFRnrVFRAiIolmayeIeclloyinaccordancevilhlheInslrumenlIIighlRuIesin
VMCheshemayberequiredlodosobylheATSAulhorilyincerlaincircumslancesA
iIolmuslyinaccordancevilhlheIIRinIMCIfaiIoleIeclsloyVIRheshemusldoso
only where VMC exist.
88
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
Visua! Mctcnrn!ngica! Critcria To y under VIR lhe visuaI meleoroIogicaI crileria
VMC musl exisl This is dened by aIlilude or IIighl LeveI ighl visibiIily lhe forvard
visibiIilyfromlheighldeckofanaeroIaneinighlanddislancehorizonlaIIyandverlicaIIy
from cIoud for lhe reIevanl cIasses of airsace CIasses of airsace are discussed fuIIy in
ChalerAirsacebulbasicaIIysecifyvhalruIesareermiedandvhallyeofconlroIif
anyisaIiedbylheAirTracServiceIlisimeralivelhalyouknovlheVMC
FL100 or 10 000ft
At and above
Below
8km
Flight Visibility
Flight Visibility
5km
1000ft (300m)
1000ft (300m)
1500m
1500m
CLASSES A; B; C; D and E airspace

At and above
FL100 or 10 000ft
Below
Flight Visibility
8km
5km
Flight Visibility
3000ft
1000ft (300m)
1000ft
(300m)
1500m
5km*
Clear of cloud and in sight of the ground (CCISG) * Visibility may be reduced
commensurate with aircraft speed
CLASSES F and G airspace
Distances From Cloud As Above

|igurc
|igurc
89
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
VMCCritcriaC!asscsABCDandEAirspaccAlandaboveflILlhe
ighlvisibiIilyrequiremenliskmvilhmflverlicaIIyandmhorizonlaIIyfrom
cIoudeIovflILlheighlvisibiIilyrequiremenlisreducedlokm
VMC Critcria C!asscs F and G Airspacc Al and above fl IL lhe ighl
visibiIily requiremenl is km vilh m fl verlicaIIy and m horizonlaIIy from
cIoudeIovflILbulabovefllheighlvisibiIilyrequiremenlisreducedlo
kmeIovflAMSLandvilhinfloflhesurfacevheresurfaceeIevalionisabove
fllheighlvisibiIilyremainskmbulVMCvouIdexisliflheaircraflvascIearofcIoud
and within sight of the surface.
Pi!ntInCnmmandRcspnnsibi!iticsDenilions
Cnmmandcr A designaled iIol amongsl lhe ighl crev vho is quaIied
as IiIolInCommand vho may deIegale lhe conducl of lhe ighl lo anolher
quaIiediIol
Pi!ntInCnmmand PIC: A pilot who is responsible for the operation and
safelyoflheaeroIaneduringighllime
Pi!ntF!yingPFTheiIolvhoforlhelimebeingisinchargeoflheconlroIs
of the aeroplane.
Pi!ntnntF!yingPNFTheiIolvhoisassislinglheiIolyinginaccordance
vilhlhemuIlicrevcooeralionconcelvhenlherequiredighlcrevismore
than one.
Rcspnnsibi!itics The commander is responsible for compliance with the Rules of the
AirThisaIiesvhelherornolhesheisallheconlroIsThecommanderhashoveverlhe
overriding right to depart from the rules if it is absolutely necessary to do so in the interests
ofsafelyThecommanderisresonsibIeaIsoforIanninglheighlIndoingsohesheviII
sludyaIIavaiIabIevealherreorlsandforecaslsandconsideringfueIavaiIabIeviIIIanan
aIlernalivecourseofaclionThecommanderofanaeroIanehaslhenaIaulhorilyaslolhe
disposition of the aircraft whilst in command.
Intnxicating Liqunr Narcntics nr Drugs No erson is lo iIol an aircrafl or acl as
a ighl crev member of an aircrafl vhiIsl under lhe inuence of inloxicaling Iiquor any
narcolicordrugbyreasonofvhichlhalersonscaacilyloaclisimairedICAOdoesnol
IaydovnanyreslriclionsormaximumbIoodaIcohoIIeveIsforaircrevHovever}AROIS
doesAircrevarenolermiedloexerciselheriviIegesoflheirIicencesvilhabIoodaIcohoI
IeveI exceeding romiIIe mgmI aboul one quarler of lhe UK driving Iimil ICAO
cIearIyslaleslhalnoersonmayaclasaircrevifhesheisunderlheeeclofanysycholroic
subslanceAsrofessionaIiIolsyouareexecledlobehaveinanaduIlmannercommensurale
with the responsibility placed on your shoulders concerning the safety of the passengers in
yourcareThisisanonerousdulyvhichifilisabusedviIIresuIlinlhefuIIforceoflheIav
being applied if you are found negligent in that duty.
GENERALRULE5
Minimum Hcights Ixcel vhen necessary for lake o or Ianding or excel by
ermissionoflhearorialeaulhorilyaircraflshaIInolbeovnoverlhecongesledareasof
cilieslovnsorseIemenlsoroveranoenairgalheringofersonsunIessalsuchaheighlas
viIIermilinlheevenlofanemergencyarisingaIandinglobemadevilhoulunduehazard
loersonsorroerlyonlhesurfaceNosecicheighlsaremenlionedandlhisruIeshouId
not be confused with the minimum height rules for IFR or VFR.
Note: Tncicrnaircraji|ctc|isusc!gcncra||qicncanigni|ctc|a|iiiu!ccrncigni
90
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
Minimum Height
Cruising Lcvc!s Ior ighls al or above lhe Iovesl usabIe ighl IeveI or vhere
aIicabIe above lhe lransilion aIlilude ighls shaII be conducled in lerms of ight !cvc!s.
IorighlsbeIovlheIoveslusabIeighlIeveIorvhereaIicabIealorbeIovlhelransilion
aIliludeighlsshaIIbeconducledinlermsofa!titudc
Prnximity and Right nI Way. An aircraft shall not be operated in such proximity to
|igurcAnaircrajinusi|ccunaiancignijrcnunicninincctcnicjan
cncrgcncqa|an!ingcan|cna!cuiincuiun!ucnazar!icpcrscnscrprcpcriqcninc
surjacc
K Boxall
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91
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
other aircraft as to create a collision hazard. The aircraft that has the right of way shall maintain
ilsheadingandseedbullheIICissliIIresonsibIeforavoidingcoIIisionsincIudingACAS
aIerlsAircraflvhichareobIigedlogivevayarelodosoandavoidassingoverunderorin
fronloflheolherunIessilisveIIcIearandlolakeinloaccounllheeeclofvakelurbuIence
Apprnaching Hcad On When lvo aircrafl are aroaching head on and lhere is a
danger of coIIision each shaII aIler course lo lhe righl Il is generaIIy acceled lhal vhere
anolheraircraflisvilhinasecloreilhersideofdeadaheadandaroachinglhallheaircrafl
are deemed to be approaching each other head on.
What do I
do?
What do
I do?
They are both AIRCRAFT,
so they must both turn to
the right!

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92
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
Cnnvcrging When lvo aircrafl of lhe same lye see denilion of aircrafl are
converging al aroximaleIy lhe same IeveI lhe aircrafl lhal has lhe olher on ils righl shaII
givevayInordernolloyoverunderorassinfronloflheolheraircrafllheaircrafllhalis
obIigedlogivevayshouIdassbehindlheolheraircraflInorderloachievelhislheaircrafl
givingvayshouIdlurnrighlWherelhelvoaircraflarenoloflhesamelyelhefoIIoving
orderofriorilyviIIaIyandagainlhemelhodofgivingvayislolurnlolherighl
IoverdrivenheavierlhanairaircraflaeroIanesshaIIgivevayloairshis
gliders and balloons
Power driven lighter than air aircraft (airships) shall give way to gliders and
balloons
Gliders shall give way to balloons
Power-driven aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are seen to be towing
other aircraft or objects.
(Note: A icuing ccn|inaiicn is ccnsi!crc! ic |c a sing|c qing nacninc nci |CAO
!cniiicnun!crincccnirc|cjincpi|ciinccnnan!cjincicuingaircraji
Glider on the
right he has
the right of way
have the right of way
but must be prepared
to act if the airship
doesn't give way
Powered aircraft must give way to non-powered


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93
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
A towing combination is
considered to be a single
flying machine under the
command of the pilot of
the towing machine
Power driven aircraft shaII give way to aircraft which
are seen to be towing other aircraft or objects
Aeroplane towing a
glider on the left
but he has the right
of way
Ovcrtaking. An overtaking aircraft is an aircraft that approaches another from the rear
onaIineforminganangIeofIesslhanvilhlheIaneofsymmelryoflheIaeralnighl
the approaching aircraft would see the white tail light of the aircraft in front). An aeroplane
that is being overtaken has the right of way and the overtaking aircraft whether climbing or
descendingorinhorizonlaIighlshaIIkeeouloflhevayoflheolheraircraflbyaIleringils
heading to the right and to maintain this position with regard to the other aircraft until well
clear.
70
COLLISION
AVOIDANCE AND
LIGHTS
SEE THE WHITE LIGHT
OVERTAKE ON THE RIGHT
|igurc
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94
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
LandingAnaircraflinighloroeralingonlhegroundorvalershaIIgivevaylo
aircraflIandingorinlhenaIslagesofanapproach to land seedenilionWhenlvoormore
heavierlhanairaircraflarearoachinganaerodromeloIandlheaircraflallhehigherIeveI
shaIIgivevaylolheaircraflallheIoverIeveIbullheIoveraircraflmuslnllakeadvanlage
oflhisruIeloculininfronlofanolheraircraflInanyevenloverdrivenheavierlhanair
aircraft shall give way to gliders.
EmcrgcncyLanding. An aircraft that is aware that another aircraft is in an emergency
andiscomeIIedloIandshaIIgivevaylolhalaircrafl
TakingO. An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall give way to aircraft
lakingooraboullolakeo
5tnpBars. An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all lighted
slobarsusedinoorvisibiIilyandmayonIyroceedvhenlheIighlsaresvilchedo
5urIaccMnvcmcntnIAircraIt. In the case of danger of collision between two aircraft
laxiingonlhemovemenlareaseedenilionofanaerodromelhefoIIovingshaIIaIy
Apprnachinghcadnn Both stop or where practicable alter course to the right
to keep well clear.
Converging. The one that has the other on its right shall give way. (Stop or
turn to pass behind).
Ovcrtaking. The aircraft being overtaken has the right of way. The overtaking
aircraft is to keep well clear of the other aircraft.
Note: |CAO Anncx siaics inai anq tcnic|c cpcraiing rcgu|ar|q cn inc nanccutring arca cj an
acrc!rcncnusi|ciniucuaqra!icccniaciuiinATCTncUKANO|u|cscjincAir|u|crcquircs
a||tcnic|csan!aircrajinctingcnincnanccutringarcaicgitcuaqictcnic|csicuingaircraji
AircraItLightsThesyslemsofdisIayingnavigalionIighlsanlicoIIisionIighlsand
olherIighlsdesignedlodravaenlionlolheresenceofanaircraflarecoveredinOeralionaI
IroceduresHoveveryoumaybeaskedqueslionsinlheAirLavexamonlhissub|eclTheIav
inlhismaerisreslricledlovhenyoumuslhavelheIighlsedandvhenlheymuslbeon
Aircraft Lights
Anti-collision lights
To attract the attention
to the aircraft
Navigation lights
To indicate the relative
path of the aircraft

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95
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
LightsDisp!aycdbyAircraItThefoIIovingIighlsrequiredlobeshovnbyaircrafl
arelobeiIIuminaledfromsunsellosunriseseedenilionorduringanyolhereriod
seciedbylhearorialeaulhorily
AnlicoIIisionIighlsinlendedloaraclaenlionlolheaircrafl
Navigalion Iighls inlended lo indicale lhe reIalive alh of lhe aircrafl lo an
observerNoolherIighlsshaIIbedisIayediflheyareIikeIylobemislakenfor
these lights.
5unscttnsunrisc (or during any other period required by the appropriate authority):
All aircraft moving on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display
navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft to an
observerNoolherIighlsshaIIbedisIayediflheyareIikeIylobemislakenfor
these lights.
All aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome are to display lights that
indicale lhe exlremilies of lheir slruclure unIess slalionary and olhervise
adequaleIyiIIuminaledAircraflarkedonlheAronseedenilionviIIbe
adequately illuminated because an Apron is required to be lit if it is to be used
at night. It is usual to use glim lamps to mark the extremities of aeroplanes
arkedolheAron
EngincsRunning. All aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome are to display
IighlsinlendedloaraclaenlionlolheaircraflAeroIanesvilhenginesrunningarelodisIay
IighlsloindicalelhalfaclRedanlicoIIisionIighlsviIIsuceforlhisurose
Note: |iisusua|icin!icaicinaianacrcp|ancisnannc!|qcpcraiingincaniicc||isicn|igniTnisscrtcs
icuarna||pcrscnnc|inaiinccngincsnaq|csiaric!
AntiCn!!isinnLightsAIIaircraflinighlvhichareedvilhanlicoIIisionIighls
shall display the lights by day as well as by night. (This is in addition to a. 1. above and is
intended to ensure that ifanlicoIIisionIighlsareedbutarcnntspccica!!yrcquircdbyIav
then these lights are also to be illuminated by day as well as night.
5aIctyAiIolisermiedlosvilchoorreducelheinlensilyofanyashingIighlsif
lheyareIikeIyloadverseIyaecllhesalisfacloryerformanceofduliesorsub|eclanoulside
observer to harmful dazzle.
5imu!atcdIMCDenilionReducinglheforvardvisibiIilyoflheIiIolIIyingIIso
lhalheshehasloreIyoninslrumenlsforailudeandolherighldalaThiscanbeachieved
bylheuseoffuIIorarliaIighldeckvindovscreenslorevenlforvardvisibiIilyorlheuseof
a visor to blinker the pilot. The most important factor is that simulated IMC is only necessary
in VMC. The requirements therefore represent the steps necessary to comply with VFR whilst
the visibility of the PF is impaired and he cannot maintain the lookout required by the law.
AnaircraflshaIInolbeovnundersimuIaledIMCunIess
x IuIIyfunclioningduaIconlroIsareedand
x AquaIiediIolneednolbelyeraledoccuiesaconlroIsealloacl
assafelyiIolINI
96
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
The safety pilot must have adequate forward vision and to each side of the
aircrafl If nol a comelenl observer rcquircmcnt: must know what an
aeroIaneinighlIooksIikebeabIeloreorlanyairborneconlaclcIearIyand
concisely and be able to use the internal communications system of the
aeroIaneincommunicalionvilhlhesafelyiIolislooccuyaosilioninlhe
aircraflfromvhichheshehasaeIdofvisionvhichadequaleIysuIemenls
that of the safety pilot.
F!ight in thc Vicinity nI anAcrndrnmc. (Note: The pilot of an aeroplane is to plan
lhe roule lo be ovn Al aII limes heshe is lo be avare vhen lhe aircrafl is being ovn in
lhe vicinily of an aerodromeAn aeroIane oeraled on or in lhe vicinily of an aerodrome
vhelherornolvilhinanAerodromeTracZoneseedenilionshaII
ObserveolheraerodromelracforlheuroseofavoidingcoIIisions
Conform vilh or avoid lhe aern of lrac formed by olher aircrafl in
oeralion
Make aII lurns lo lhe Iefl vhen aroaching for Ianding and afler laking o
unIessolherviseinslrucledarighlhandcircuil
Land and lake o inlo vind unIess safely lhe runvay conguralion or air
lracconsideralionsdelerminelhaladierenldireclionisreferabIe

Radius
2000ft
AGL
500ft
Wind
Up Wind
Cross Wind
Down Wind
Base
Final
Aerodrome Traffic
Zone
Long Final
|igurc
97
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
F!ightP!ans Note:Ocnciccnjuscaignip|anuiinincjcrnCAcrcquita|cniAigni
p|an is inc ncans |q unicnATC is nciic! cj qcur inicniicn ic q an! uncrc ncccssarq ic rcqucsi a
c|caranccicqasaccnirc||c!igniTncUKCAAjcrnCAisaccntcnicnian!apprctc!ncinc!
cjccnnunicaiingincncccssarqinjcrnaiicninancr!cr|qjcrn
AighlIanislobesubmiedriorlooeraling
x Anyighlororlionlhereofloberovidedvilhanairlracservicea
conlroIIedighlseedenilion
or
x AnyIIRighlvilhinadvisoryairsace
or
x AnyighlvilhinorinlodesignaledareasoraIongdesignaledroulesvhen
so required by the appropriate ATS authority to facilitate the provision of
ighlinformalionlheaIerlingandsearchandrescueservices
or
x AnyighlvilhinorinlodesignaledareasoraIongdesignaledroulesvhen
so required by the appropriate ATS authority to facilitate co- ordination
vilharorialemiIilaryunilsADIZorvilhairlracserviceunilsin
adjacent states in order to avoid the possible need for interception for the
uroseofidenlicalion
or
x AnyighlacrossinlernalionaIbordersnol|uslIIRboundaries
AighlIanshaIIbesubmiedbeforedearlureloanATSreorlingoceighl
IanningseclionosroomATCorIISoceorduringighllransmiedlolhe
arorialeATSunilorairgroundconlroIradioslalionunIessarrangemenls
havebeenmadeforlhesubmissionofreeliliveighlIans
UnIess olhervise required by lheATS aulhorily a ighl Ian for a conlroIIed
ighlislobesubmiedalIeaslminulesbeforedearlureaddilionaIruIes
aIy lo ighls enlering an Oceanic ConlroI Area OCA or if submied in
ighlalalimelhalviIIensureilsreceilbylhearorialeATSUalIeasl
minutes before the aircraft is estimated to reach:
x TheinlendedoinlofenlryinloaconlroIareaoradvisoryarea
or
x The point of crossing an airway or advisory route.
AighlIanisloconlainsuchoflhefoIIovingasareconsideredreIevanlbylhe
appropriate ATS (notelhefoIIovingarenolIIeIdnumbers
x Aircraflidenlicalion
x IIighlruIesandlyeofighl
x Numberandlyeofaircraflandvakecalegory
x Iquimenl
x Dearlureaerodrome
x IslimaledobIockslimeIOT
x CruisingseedsTASorMachNo
x CruisingIeveIs
x RoulelobefoIIoved
x DeslinalionaerodromeandeslimaledeIasedlimeIIT
x AIlernaleaerodrome
x IueIendurance
x TolaInumberofersonsonboardIOincIudingdeadbodies
98
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
x ImergencyandsurvivaIequimenl
x Olherinformalion
Wilh lhe excelion of inadverlenl devialion aII changes lo a ighl Ian
submiedforIIRighloraVIRighloeraledasaconlroIIedighlarelobe
reorledassoonasraclicabIelolhearorialeairlracservicesunilIor
olherVIRighlssignicanlchangesloaighlIanshaIIbereorledassoon
as practicable to the appropriate ATSU.
Note: |njcrnaiicnrcgar!ingjuc|cn!urancccricia|nun|crcjpccp|ccn|car!ijinccrrcciai
iinccj!cpariurcccnsiiiuicsasignicanicnangcan!nusi|crcpcric!
C!nsing a ight p!anArriva! Rcpnrt UnIess oeralor or IocaI rocedures aIy a
reorl of arrivaI is lo be made in erson by radio or via dala Iink as soon as ossibIe afler
Ianding lo lhe arorialeATSU al lhe arrivaI aerodrome for any ighl or orlion of ighl
for vhich a ighl Ian has been submied On receil of lhe arrivaI reorl al lheATSUlhe
ighl Ian shaII be cIosed When communicalions faciIilies are knovn lo be inadequale and
aIlernalivemessagehandIingfaciIiliesdonolexislamessagecomarabIeloanarrivaIreorlis
lobelransmiedbylheaircraflWheneveranarrivaIreorlisrequiredfaiIurelocomIyvilh
lheserovisionsmaycauseseriousdisrulioninlheairlracservicesandincurgrealexense
in carrying out unnecessary SAR operations. An arrival report made by an aircraft is to contain
the following:
Aircraflidenlicalion
Dearlureaerodrome
Deslinalionaerodrome
ArrivaIaerodrome
Time of arrival.
Timc. Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC) is to be used and is to be expressed in
hours and minutes of the 24 hour day beginning at midnight. It is used throughout the world
inavialionbulyoumaysliIIndreferencesloeilherZuIulimeorGMTWherealimecheckis
assedbyATCilislobelolheneareslminuleieandsecsvouIdbeand
secs would be 0942).
ATC C!carancc. An ATC clearance is to be obtained before operating a controlled
ighloraorlionofaighlasaconlroIIedighlThecIearanceshouIdberequesledbylhe
submissionofaighlIanloanATCUTheIICmayrequeslanamendedcIearanceiflheissued
cIearance is unsalisfaclory in vhich case an amended cIearance viII be issued if raclicabIe
It is normal practice for an ATC clearance to be passed to the aircraft prior to departure. At
busyaerodromesadiscrelecIearancedeIiveryfrequencyRTcaIIsignDILIVIRYisusuaIIy
eslabIished Ieaving lhe olher lover frequencies free for lhe urose inlended The erson
readinglhecIearancelolheiIolviIIinaIIrobabiIilynolbelheATCOissuinglhecIearance
eforecommencinglhereadingoflhecIearanceyouviIIbeaskedifyouareReadylocoy
Yourresonsewhen readyshouIdbeGoaheadThecIearanceviIIbereadloyousIovIyso
lhalyouhavelheoorlunilylovrileildovnandviIIbelerminaledvilhreadbackYou
are required to read back the clearance exactly asyoureceivedilIfyourreadbackisincorrecl
the ATCO will read the entire clearance to you again. This will continue until you get it right.
There is nothing unprofessional in asking for a repeat or asking for a place name to be spelled.
IfyoudonlreadilbackcorreclIyallhesubsequenlboardofenquiryinloanaccidenlilviIIbe
slaledlhalyoudidnlunderslandlhecIearanceasreadloyouandyouviIIbeheIdresonsibIe
Donl assume lhal lhe air lrac conlroIIers are infaIIibIe If you lhink somelhing is vrong
query it!
99
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
Adhcrcncc tn F!ight P!an. Flight plans are to be adhered to unless an emergency
situation arises which necessitates immediate action by the aircraft. In such a case the ATCU
is to be informed as soon as possible. If the average TAS at cruising level between reporting
points varies or is expected to vary by oflheTASgivenineIdoflheighlIanlhe
ATCUislobeinformedIfaneslimaleforlhenexlaIicabIereorlingoinlIIRboundaryor
destination aerodrome changes by more thanminulesfromlhalaIreadynoliedlherevised
time is to be communicated to the appropriate ATCU.
Note: |n Opcraiicna| Prccc!urcs jcr cpcraiicns in inc MNPSA inc rcquircncni is 3 minutes or
more.
Inadvcrtcnt Changcs ConlroIIed ighls are required lo oerale aIong lhe cenlre
line of an airway or route directly between beacons if that is how the route is delineated. If
secied changeover from one VOR beacon lo anolher is lo be al lhe secied changeover
point unless otherwise directed. Any deviation from these requirements is to be reported to
ATC If a conlroIIed ighl inadverlenlIy deviales from ils currenl ighl Ian aclion is lo be
taken immediately to regain the track as soon as practicable.
Wcathcr Dctcrinratinn bc!nw VMC If a VIR ighl is unabIe lo mainlain VMC in
accordancevilhlhecurrenlighlIancIearance
An amended clearance may be requested enabling the aircraft to continue in
VMConanolherroulelodeslinalionorloanaIlernaleaerodromeorloIeave
the airspace in which ATC clearance is required. If such an amended clearance
cannol be oblained lo conlinue lo oerale in VMC lhe iIol musl nolify lhe
ATCUoflheaclionbeinglakenloeilherIeavelheairsaceconcernedorloIand
at the nearest suitable aerodrome.
IflheighlisbeingoeraledinaconlroIzonerequeslseciaIVIRcIearance
IflheabovemeasuresareinarorialerequeslanIIRcIearanceloconlinue
PnsitinnRcpnrts. Unless advised to cease position reporting (this usually happens when
underradarconlroIaconlroIIedighlislomakereorlsalseciedosilionsassoonas
possible after reaching the position. The report is to contain:
TheaircraflRTIidenlicalioncaIIsign
The position for the report
The lime lhe aircrafl vas over lhe osilion usuaIIy lhe minules viII suce
unless there is a possibility of confusion)
The level of the aircraft when passing the point
The next en route reporting position
ITAforlhenexlseciedoinl
(According to ICAO) the name of the next ensuing point.
Note |j SS| nc!c C nas |ccn tcric! as accuraic a|iiiu!c|I naq |c cnic! jrcn inc
pcsiiicn rcpcri |j a spcc! nas |ccn assignc! |q ATC inis is ic |c inc|u!c! in inc pcsiiicn
rcpcri
This is an example of a full ICAO position report:
LnndnnAirwaysthisisGABCDPn!cHi!!atFLDcanCrnssatG!asgnw
ncxt
100
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
TcrminatinnnICnntrn!AconlroIIedighlisloadviselhearorialeATCUassoon
as il ceases lo be sub|ecl lo air lrac conlroI services This viII be done aulomalicaIIy if lhe
aircraft lands at a controlled aerodrome (one with a control tower). A pilot may be requested to
advise ATC when the aircraft leaves controlled airspace.
Communications Failure Aircrafl oeraling in accordance vilh anATC cIearance
vhere lvo vay radio communicalions are required are lo comIy vilh lhe requiremenls of
ICAO Annex TeIecommunicalions VoIume This secies lhe requiremenl for airlo
ground communications equipment and the radio frequencies allocated to the aeronautical
mobiIeleIecommunicalionsnelvorkSILCALsaliseslherequiremenllomainlainairground
voicecommunicalionsWhereConlroIIerIiIolDalaLinkCommunicalionsCIDLCexisls
the requirement for voice communications is required to be maintained.
AtaCnntrn!!cdAcrndrnmc. If the communications system of the aeroplane (receiver or
lransmierfaiIsvhenlheaeroIaneisyinginlhelracaernalaconlroIIedaerodromea
watch shall be kept for instructions issued by visual (light and ground) signals from the control
loverandsuchsignaIscomIiedvilhThesesignaIsareseciedal
In VMC If a faiIure occurs vhiIsl lhe aircrafl is ying in VMC regardIess of ighl
ruIesVIRorIIRlheaircraflisloconlinuelobeovninVMCIandedallheneareslsuilabIe
aerodrome and arrival reported by the most expeditious means to the appropriate ATCU.
InIMC. If a failure occurs in IMC:
If lhe aircrafl is in receil of a radar vecloring service lhe iIol is lo squavk
A and regain lhe ighl Ianned lrack or SID STAR roule al lhe nexl
signicanloinl
If lhe aircrafl is enroule and in an area vhere radar conlroI is rovided lhe
iIolislosquavkAandmainlainlhecurrenlighlIanforaeriodof
minulesandlhenregainlherouleandIeveIinaccordancevilhlheIedIIby
the most expeditious route.
If the aircraft is en-route outside of an area where radar control is provided the
iIolislomainlainlhecurrenlighlIanforaeriodofminulesfoIIoving
the aircrafts failure to report over a compulsory reporting point (at that point
lheATCO viII knov lhal lhere is a communicalion robIem and lhereafler
ad|uslIeveIandseedinaccordancevilhlheIedighlIanTheminules
isloaIIovlheATCOlimeloresoIveanyolenliaIconiclionslhalmayarise
duringlhelransilionlolheIedighlIanroIe
5ubscqucntActinns. After compliance with the above the pilot is to proceed as
follows:
ConlinueaccordinglolheIedighlIanroulelolhearorialedesignaled
navigalionaidservinglhedeslinalionaerodromeandvhenrequiredloensure
comIiance vilh rocedure beIov hoId over lhis aid unliI commencemenlof
descent. Then:
CommencedescenlfromlheradionavigalionaidinaabovealorascIoseas
ossibIelolheexecledaroachlimeIATIaslreceivedandacknovIedged
If no IAT has been received and acknovIedged descend al or as cIose as
ossibIelolheITAresuIlingfromlhecurrenlighlIan
ComIele a normaI inslrumenl aroach rocedure as secied for lhe
designaledaidandIandifossibIevilhinminulesaflerlheITAinbabove
orlheIaslacknovIedgedIATvhicheverislheIaler
101
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
Un!awIu!IntcrIcrcncc. Where an aircraft is the subject of unlawful interference (hi-
|ackingelccommunicalionvilhlhearorialeATCaulhorilyislobeaemledlonolify
lhe aulhorily of lhis facl logelher vilh any signicanl circumslances and of any inlended
devialionfromlhecurrenlighlIanloenabIelheATSUlogiveriorilylolheaircraflandlo
minimiseconiclvilholheraircraflAachmenlloAnnexconlainsguidancenolesforuse
inlhissilualionSecicaIIy
UnIess condilions on lhe aircrafl diclale olhervise lhe IIC is lo aeml lo
conlinueyingonlheassignedlrackandallheassignedIeveIalIeaslunliIabIe
to notify an ATCU or until within coverage of a radar unit.
IfforcedlodearlfromassignedlrackIeveIvilhoulbeingabIelonolifyATC
lheIICshouIdifossibIe
x Aeml lo broadcasl varnings on lhe VHI emergency frequency
MHzanduseolheronboardsyslemsieSSRsquavkA
dalaIinkselcifcircumslancesermilandlhen
x Iroceed in accordance vilh aIicabIe seciaI rocedures for in ighl
conlingencieseslabIishedandubIishedinDocRegionaISUIIS
x If no regionaI rocedures have been eslabIished roceed al a IeveI
dierenlfromIIRIeveIsbyflaboveILorflbeIovIL
Intcrccptinn nI Civi! AircraIt. Each Contracting State has the right to establish
roceduresforlheinlercelionandidenlicalionofaircraflyinginlhelerriloriaIairsaceof
lhalSlaleInformuIalinglheoIicyforinlercelionrecognisinglhalilisessenliaIforlhesafely
ofighlanyvisuaIsignaIsemIoyedduringinlercelionbyaircraflofaConlraclingSlaleare
to be in accordance with Appendix 1 to Annex 2 of the Chicago Convention. The Council has
also formulated special recommendations to ensure that the procedures for interception are
aIiedinauniformmannerTheIICofaciviIaircraflvheninlerceledislocomIyvilhlhe
slandardsseloulinaendixseclionsandloAnnexinlerrelingandresondinglo
visual signals and procedures.
CarriagcnIIntcrccptinnTab!csIlisarequiremenlofnalionaIIavUKANO}AA
}AROISlhalaircraflengagedoninlernalionaIighlsmuslcarrylheinlercelionlabIes
CIearIy lhe inlenl is lhal in lhe evenl of an inlercelion you refer lo lhe labIes You are nol
expected to learn the content of the tables but you should know what the tables contain. It is
suggesledlhalyoureadlhelabIeslofamiIiariseyourseIfThesearereroducedal
below.
Prnccdurc. An aircraft which is intercepted by another aircraft shall immediately:
IoIIovlheinslruclionsgivenbylheinlercelingaircraflinlerrelingand
responding to visual signals in accordance with the tables 6.51 and 6.52
NolifyifossibIelhearorialeAirTracServicesUnil
AemlloeslabIishradiocommunicalionvilhlheinlercelingaircraflorvilh
lhearorialeinlercelconlroIunilbymakingageneraIcaIIonlheemergency
frequencyMHzgivinglheidenlilyoflheinlerceledaircraflandlhe
nalure of lhe ighl and if no conlacl has been eslabIished and if raclicabIe
repeating this call on the emergency frequency 243.000 MHz.
IfequiedvilhSSRlransonderseIeclModeACodeandModeC
unIessolherviseinslrucledbylhearorialeAirTracServicesUnil
102
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
CnntactwithIntcrccptnr. If radio contact with the intercepting aircraft is established but
communicalioninacommonIanguageisnolossibIeaemlsshaIIbemadeloconveyessenliaI
information and acknowledgement of instructions by using the phrases and pronunciations as
describedinlabIeIfanyinslruclionsreceivedfromanysourcesconiclvilhlhosegiven
bylheinlercelingaircrafllheinlerceledaircraflshaIIrequeslimmedialecIaricalionvhiIe
continuing to comply with the instructions given by the intercepting aircraft.
IntcrccptinnPhrascn!ngy
PhrascsuscdbyIntcrccptingAircraIt PhrascsuscdbyIntcrccptcdAircraIt
Phrasc Mcaning Phrasc Mcaning
Call sign KOLSAIN
What is your
call sign?
Call sign
2
KOLSAIN
My call sign is
(call sign
2
)
Follow FOL-LO Follow me Wilco VILL-KO
Understood
will comply
Descend DEE-SIND
Descend for
landing
Can not KANNNOTT
Unable to
comply
YouIand YOULAAND
Landing
at this
aerodrome
Repeat REE-PEET
Repeat your
instruction
Proceed PRO-SEED
Youmay
proceed
Am lost AM LOSST
Position
unknown
Mayday MAYDAY I am in distress
Hijack
3
HI-JACK
I have been
hijacked
Land LAAND
I request to
land at (place
name)
Descend DEE-SIND
I require
descent
Tab!cIntcrccptinnPhrascn!ngy

Notes: |nincscccn!cc|unnincsq||a||csic|ccnpnasisc!arcun!cr|inc!
Tncca||signic|cgitcnisinaiuscininc|TccnnunicaiicnsuiinATC
ccrrcspcn!ingicincaircrajii!cniicaiicncnincignip|an
Circunsianccsnaqncia|uaqspcrniicrnakcii!csira||cicusc
H|jACK
103
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
5igna!sbyIntcrccptingAircraItandRcspnnscsbyIntcrccptcdAircraIt
INTERCEPTINGAircraIt5igna!s Mcaning
INTERCEPTEDAircraIt
Rcspnnds
Mcaning
DAY-Rocking wings from a
position slightly above and
aheadofandnormaIIylolheIefl
oflheinlerceledaircrafland
afleracknovIedgemenlasIov
IeveIlurnnormaIIylolheIefl
on the desired heading. NIGHT
Sameandinaddilionashing
navigational lights at irregular
intervals.
Nntc: Meteorological conditions
or terrain may require the
intercepting aircraft to take up
a position slightly above and
aheadofandlolherighloflhe
intercepted aircraft and to make the
subsequent turn to the right.
Nntc: If the intercepted aircraft
is not able to keep pace with the
inlercelingaircrafllheIaeris
execledloyaseriesofracelrack
aernsandlorockilsvings
each time it passes the intercepted
aircraft
Youhavebeen
intercepted
follow me
AEROPLANE5
DAY-Rocking wings and
following.
NIGHTSameand
inaddilionashing
navigational lights at
irregular intervals.
HELICOPTER5
DAYorNIGHTRocking
aircraflashing
navigational lights at
irregular intervals and
following.
Nntc Additional action
required to be taken by
intercepted aircraft is
prescribed in RAC section.
Understood
will comply
DAYnrNIGHT-An abrupt
breakaway manoeuvre from the
intercepted aircraft consisting of
a climbing turn of 90 degrees or
more without crossing the line of
ighloflheinlerceledaircrafl
Youmayroceed AEROPLANE5
DAY or NIGHT-Rocking
wings.
HELICOPTER5
DAY or NIGHT- Rocking
aircraft
Understood
will comply
DAYCircIingaerodromeIovering
Iandinggearandoverying
runway in the direction of landing
oriflheinlerceledaircrafl
isaheIicoleroveryinglhe
helicopter landing area.
NIGHTSameandinaddilion
showing steady landing lights.
Land at this
aerodrome
AEROPLANE5
DAYLoveringIandinggear
following the intercepting
aircraflandifaflerover
yinglherunvayIandingis
consideredsaferoceeding
to land.
NIGHTSameandin
addilionshovingsleady
landing lights (if carried).
HELICOPTER5
DAYorNIGHTIoIIoving
the intercepting aircraft and
roceedingloIandshoving
a steady landing light (if
carried)
Understood
will comply
104
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
5igna!sInitiatcdbyIntcrccptcdAircraItandRcspnnscsbyIntcrccptingAircraIt
INTERCEPTEDAircraIt5igna!s Mcaning
INTERCEPTINGAircraIt
Rcspnnds
Mcaning
AEROPLANE5
DAYRaising landing gear while
have designated passing over
landing runway at a height is
inadequate exceeding 300 m
(1000 ft) but not exceeding 600m
(2000 ft) above the aerodrome
IeveIandconlinuinglocircIelhe
aerodrome.
NIGHT-Flashing landing lights
while passing over landing runway
at a height exceeding 300 m
(1000 ft) but not exceeding
600 m (2000 ft) above the
aerodromeIeveIandconlinuinglo
circle the aerodrome. If unable to
ashIandingIighlsashanyolher
lights available.
Aerodrome you
have designated
is inadequate
DAYnrNIGHT-if it is
desired that the Understood
intercepted aircraft follow
the intercepting follow me
aircraft to an alternate
aerodromelheinlerceling
aircraft raises its landing
gear and uses the Series
1 signals prescribed for
intercepting aircraft.
Understood
will comply
If it is decided to release
lheinlerceledaircrafllhe
intercepting aircraft uses the
Series 2 signals prescribed
for intercepting aircraft.
Understood
you may
proceed
AEROPLANE5
DAYnrNIGHT-Regular switching
onandoaIIavaiIabIeIighlsbul
in such a manner as to be distinct
fromashingIighls
Cannot comply DAYnrNIGHT - Use Series
2 signals prescribed for
Understood
AEROPLANE5
DAYnrNIGHTIrreguIarashing
of all available lights
HELICOPTER5
DAYnrNIGHTIrreguIarashing
of all available lights.
In distress DAYnrNIGHT - Use Series
2 signals prescribed for
Understood

105
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
VI5UALFLIGHTRULE5
Visua! Mctcnrn!ngica! Cnnditinns VMC With the exception of special VFR (SVFR
seearagrahVIRisonIyermiedinVMCseeIfaighlisoeraledunderVIR
and the meteorological condition deteriorate such that it becomes impossible to continue in
VMC the pilot must either:
LandvhiIslabIelomainlainighlinVMCor
ChangelherouleoflheighllomainlainighlinVMCor
IiIeanIIRighlIanandconlinueunderIIRor
IfvilhinaCTRrequeslaSVIRcIearance
TakcnCnnditinnsUnIessaulhorisedbyATCVIRighlsarenollolakeoorIand
alanaerodromeinaCTRorenlerlheATZorlracaern
WhenlhecIoudceiIingseedenilionisIesslhanmflor
WhengroundvisibiIilyseedenilionisIesslhankm
PrnhibitinnnIVFRightelveensunselandsunriseorduringanyolhereriodas
maybeseciedbylheATSaulhorilyVIRighlsarelobeoeraledinaccordancevilhlhe
conditions required by such authority.
VIRighlsrequireanATCcIearancelooerale
x Above FL200.
x At transonic or supersonic speeds.
VIRighlisnolermiedaboveILvhereRVSMisaIied
Ixcel vhen laking o and Ianding or vhen seciaIIy aroved by lhe
aulhorilyieairdisIayselcVIRighlisnolaIIoved
x OverlhecongesledareasofcilieslovnsorseIemenlsoroveranoenair
assembIyofersonsalaheighlIesslhanmflabovelhehighesl
obstacle within a radius of 600m from the aircraft.
x At a height not less than 150m (500ft) above the surface (ground or
water).
VFRF!ightLcvc!sInIeveIcruisingighlabovelhelransilionaIliludenormaIIyfl
AGLVIRighlislobeconducledalaVIRighlIeveIarorialelolhemagneliclrackoflhe
aircraflinaccordancevilhlhesemicircuIarruIedenedinaragrahWhenoeralingas
aconlroIIedVIRighlvilhinconlroIIedairsaceCASlheILoraIliludeviIIbeseciedby
ATCinlheATCcIearanceforlhalighlVIRighlsarelocomIyvilhATCinslruclions
WhenoeralingincIassCorDairsaceincIassAVIRighlisnol
ermied
WhenformingarlofaerodromelracalconlroIIedaerodromesor
WhenoeralingasseciaIVIRighls
106
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
VFR F!ight P!an A VIR ighl Ian is lo be Ied before oeraling a VIR ighl as a
conlroIIedighlToindicalelhallheighlviIIbeoeraledunderVIRlheIeerV is placed
inilemoflheighlIanformIfaighlislocommenceunderVIRandalsomeoinlen
roulechangeloIIRlheIeerZisIacedineIdVIZWherelheIICofaVIRighl
wishes to change to IFR:
IfaVIRighlIanvassubmiedlheIICislocommunicalelhenecessary
changeslobeeecledlolhecurrenlighlIanor
HesheislosubmilanIIRighlIanandoblainacIearanceriorlo
proceeding under IFR when in controlled airspace.
EETThelimeulineIdofaVIRighlIanislhelimefromlakeounliI
overhead the destination aerodrome.
CnmmunicatinnsConlroIIedVIRighlsandVIRighlsinloairsacevhere
the ATS authority considers it advisable are to maintain 2-way RTF communication with a
conlroIIingormoniloringATSUandmakeosilionreorlsasnecessaryInairsacecIassied
ascIassIorGVIRlracmayoeralevilhoullvovaycommunicalionsnonradio
IN5TRUMENTFLIGHTRULE5
IFRIoraircrafllobeoeraledinIIRieruIesnolmelcondilionsIMCexislsvhen
VMC does nol lhe foIIoving ruIes are aIicabIe The ruIes are coIIecliveIy knovn as lhe
Instrument Flight rules (IFR). Annex 1 (Personnel Licensing - 2.1.7) states that where a licence
is issued by a conlracling slale il shaII nol ermil lhe hoIder lo acl as IIC or coiIol of an
aeroplane under IFR unless the holder also holds a valid instrument rating (IR) appropriate to
the aircraft category.
AircraItEquipmcnt. Aircraft are to be equipped with suitable instruments and with
navigalionequimenlarorialelolheroulelobeovnThenecessaryequimenlisdelaiIed
in JAR OPS-1 and is covered in Operational Procedures lectures.
MinimumLcvc!sIxcelvhennecessaryforlakeoandIandingorvhereseciaIIy
aulhorisedbylhearorialeATSaulhorilyanIIRighlshaIIbeovnalaIeveIvhichisnol
beIovlheminimumighlaIliludeeslabIishedbylheslalevhoselerriloryisbeingoverovn
orvherenosuchminimumaIliludeissecied
Over high lerrain or mounlainous areas nol dened furlher lhe minimum
level must be at least 600m (2000 ft) above the highest obstacle located within 8
km (5 nm) of the estimated position of the aircraft
InareasolherlhaninaaboveminimumIeveIislobemflabovelhe
highest obstacle within 8 km (5 nm) of the estimated position of the aircraft.
IFRF!ightP!ansAnIIRighlIanisloincIudelheIeerI inilemoflheighlIan
formIflheinlenlionislochangefromIIRloVIRalsomeoinlduringlheighllheIeerY
is to be inserted in item 8 (I VY).
ChangingIrnmIFRtnVFR. Where a pilot elects to change from IFR to VFR and the
ighl Ian vas not annotated Y in Ied lhe iIol is lo nolify lheATS aulhorily lhal ighl
underIIRiscanceIIedusinglhehrasecanceIIingmyIIRighlandlhencommunicalelhe
necessarychangeslolhecurrenlighlIanarelobeassedATCviIIresondIIRcanceIIed
allimeWhenanIIRighlencounlersVMCilshaIInolcanceIIIRunIessilisanlicialed
andinlendedlhallheighlviIIbeconlinuedforareasonabIeeriodoflimeinuninlerruled
107
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
VMCInanyevenlachangeofighlruIesmuslonIybeallherequesloflheiIol
EETThelimeulineIdofanIIRighlIanislhelimefromlakeounliIover
lheiniliaIaroachxIAIforlheinslrumenlrocedureallhedeslinalionaerodrome
IFR within Cnntrn!!cdAirspacc CA5 IIR ighls vilhin CAS are lo comIy vilh
inslruclionsissuedbylhearorialeATCunilIIRighlsincruisingighlshaIIbeovnal
acruisingIeveIorvhenaulhorisedloemIoycruisecIimblechniquesbelveenlvoIeveIsor
aboveaIeveIseIecledfrom
The table of cruising levels (see 6.68 below)
AmodiedlabIeofcruisingIeveIsifaIicabIeforighlaboveIL
(see 6.68 below).
IFR nutsidc Cnntrn!!cd Airspacc CA5 The foIIoving ruIes aIy lo IIR ighls
outside CAS:
Cruising Lcvc!s IIR ighls oulside CAS are lo be ovn al cruising IeveI
appropriate to the magnetic track of the aircraft (see 6.68 below).
CnmmunicatinnsIIRighlsoeralingoulsideCASbulvilhinorinloareas
oraIongroulesdesignaledbylheaulhorilyaslhosevherelheIingofaighl
Ian is required are lo eslabIish communicalion and mainlain a conlinuous
IisleningvalchvilhlheATSunilrovidingaighlinformalionserviceIIS
PnsitinnRcpnrtsAnIIRighloulsideCASandrequiredloeilhersubmila
ighlIanormainlainaIisleningvalchvilhlheunilrovidingIISislomake
osilionreorlsIorighlsoeralingoATSroulesairvaysorinadened
oeraling area osilion reorls are lo be made al inlervaIs of hour afler an
initial report has been made 30 minutes after leaving CAS or after commencing
lhe conlroIIed ighl Where a osilion reorl is meaningIess roIonged
conlroIIedighloeralionsinaconnedareaanoeralionsnormaIcaIIislo
be made at hourly intervals to prevent unnecessary activation of the alerting
service. An example of an operations normal call is:
LnndnnCnntrn!thisisGADRFnpcratinnsnnrma!atItandbc!nw. Wi!!
ca!!againat
108
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
5EMICIRCULARFLIGHTLEVELRULE5ANDRV5M
Intrnductinn In order lo aIy verlicaI searalion inside CAS ATC viII aIIocale
secicILsloindividuaIaircraflvhichmayormaynolcomIyvilhlhesemicircuIarruIe
HoveverforIanningurosesandoulsideofCASiIolsshouIdseIecllherequiredcruising
IeveIIIRorVIRfromlheICAOlabIeofILsIromlhelabIeslheSemicircuIarruIescanbe
derivedvhichermillheseIeclionofILsinaccordancevilhaircraflmagneliclrackTracks
areseciedasbeingeilhereaslboundorveslboundIaslboundlracksareMM
incIusiveandveslboundMMincIusiveSecicILsareaIIocaledloVIRandIIR
lracIIRILsarevhoIelhousandsoffeelvhereasVIRIeveIsarevhoIelhousandsIusfl
uloILIaslboundIeveIsaredenedasoddandveslboundasevenfromlhersllvo
digilsoflheILnumberAboveflgeneraIIylheverlicaIsearalionisdoubIedandIIR
IeveIsareaIIoddandVIRIeveIsareevenAseciaIsyslemofILaIIocalionisaIiedvhere
reduced vertical separation (RVSM) is applied
000
179 180
359
M
IFR
30
50
70
90
etc
ODD
etc
20
40
60
80
etc
EVEN
000
179 180
359
M
VFR
35
55
75
95
etc
ODD
25
45
65
85
etc
EVEN
WEST
WEST EAST EAST
000
179 180
359
M
IFR
330
370
410
450
etc
ODD
etc
310
350
390
430
etc
EVEN
000
179 180
359
M
VFR
300
340
380
420
etc
ODD
320
360
400
440
etc
EVEN
WEST WEST EAST EAST
|igurc|||an!V||igni|ctc|supican!inc|u!ing|I
|igurc|||an!V||igni|ctc|sa|ctc|I
109
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
RV5MInorderlomakemoreILsavaiIabIelolurbo|ellracinlhecruiseasyslem
hasbeenadoledvhichrohibilsVIRighllhusmakingVIRIeveIsavaiIabIeloIIRlrac
InorderloachievelhislhesearalionbelveenIIRIeveIsbelveenILandILincIusiveis
reduced from 2000ft to 1000ft. It is a requirement of aircraft using the RVSM system that they be
edvilhATCASandbearovedbylheairsaceaulhorilyAbove IL lhe aIlimeler
errorsareconsideredloogrealloconlinuelheflsearalionhoveverlhelracdensily
above FL410 is light enough for this not to be a problem.
FL430
FL400
FL410
FL380
FL360
FL340
FL320
FL300
FL280
FL390
FL370
FL350
FL330
FL310
FL290
WEST BOUND
EAST BOUND
FL450
Reduced Vertical Separation Minima
5PECIALVFR
Histnry Wilh lhe inlroduclion of airsace reslriclions in lhe Iale s miIilary
aerodromes cIose lo Iarge inlernalionaI aerodromes secicaIIy NorlhoIl in roximily lo lhe
raidIyexandingHealhrovfoundlhalIIRroceduresveremandaloryinlhenevconlroI
zones when previously VFR procedures were generally accepted. In order to allow aeroplanes
loyinloandoulofNorlhoIlinlhelhenHealhrovSeciaIRuIesZonearocedurebasedon
a corridor in which visual navigation was required was set up. Providing the pilot could see the
groundhecouIdnavigaleandrovidedheremainedcIearofcIoudhecouIdavoidcoIIisions
A system of not quite IMC or special VFR was invented. Until the late 1970s this was applied
invhalvasknovnaslheNorlhoIlseciaIVIRcorridorIlvasexandedloincIudelhegeneraI
aviation aerodrome at Denham and its obvious advantages for aeroplanes and pilots unable to
comIyvilhIIRvereobviousWhenlhecIassesofairsaceAGvereinlroducedICAO
also adopted the special VFR as a procedure with appropriate international amendments.
5VFRSVIRisdenedbyICAOasaVIRighlcIearedbyATClooeralevilhina
CTR in meleoroIogicaI condilions beIov VMC Il is onIy aIicabIe lo ighls inlo oul of or
within a CTR. ICAO requires that the ground visibility within the CTR is not less than 1500m
beforeaSVIRighlisermiedloenlerlheCTRloIandlakeoanddearlcrossoroerale
IocaIIy vilhin lhe CTR More reslricliveIy }AR OIS requires m visibiIily for a SVIR
ighllobecommenced
|igurc|c!ucc!tcriica|scparaiicnninina
110
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
DI5TRE55ANDURGENCY5IGNAL5
DistrcssDenilionAnaircraflorvesseIisingraveandimminenldangerand
requests immediate assistance.
AdislressmessageisrecededbylhevordMAYDAYreealedlimes
Visual signals from an aircraft in distress may include
x A succession of RED pyrotechnics
x ARIDarachuleare
Urgcncy Denilion An aircrafl has an urgenl message lo lransmil concerning lhe
safely of a shi aircrafl vehicIe or olher roerly of a erson on board or vilhin sighl An
UrgencymessageisrecededbylhevordsIANIANreealedlimes
Nnncmcrgcncysituatinn. If an aircraft has a communications failure or a malfunction
that makes it imperative that the aircraft is landed but the pilot doesnt require any other
assislance lhe iIol shaII indicale lhe facl by reealedIy svilching lhe Ianding Iighls or any
olherIighlonando
EmcrgcncyFrcqucncics. The following are dedicated radio frequencies u s e d t o
communicaleDislressUrgencyandSafelymessagesYouarerequiredloknovlhese
VHF 121.500Mhz (Aeronautical mobile emergency VHF)
UHF 243.000Mhz (Aeronautical mobile emergency UHF)
HF 2182kHz (International maritime distress and calling HF)
SARSAT 406 MHz (SAR beacon frequency (also radiates on 121.5))
5carch and Rcscuc. SAR procedures and the requirements of the SAR service are
covered in chapter 18 of the notes. There are discrete frequencies allocated to SAR operations
VHIUHIandHIYouarenolrequiredlorememberlhesebulifcaIIedonloassislinSAR
operations you will be required to use the frequencies under direction.
55R. Secondary Surveillance Radar is covered in chapter 13 of this book and in depth
inRadioNavigalionTherearehovevercerlainreservedcodessquavkslhalhavesecic
meaning vhich you are required lo knov Al aII limes you shouId lransmil lhe aIlimeler
function (mode charley) in addition to the reserved codes. The reserved transponder codes
are:
Mndc A cndc . This is the civil emergency code and is used unless a
secic idenlicalion code has been aIIocaled by a radar conlroIIer and lhe
aircraflhasbeenidenlied
Mndc A cndc . This is the squawk to indicate radio failure and should
be used at all times when a failure occurs regardless of the ATC service being
provided.
MndcAcndc. This code indicates unlawful interference. Its use does not
imIylhallhefaclisbeinggeneraIIyadverlisedDiscrelionandcondenliaIily
will be preserved by the ATC authority until the pilot mentions the fact by
RTF. A pilot may prefer to use the 7700 squawk to indicate the severity of the
situation.
MndcAcndc. This code indicates that the aircraft is operating in an area
where a radar service is available from an ATCU but the aircraft is not in receipt
of the service. It implies that the aircraft is operating under VFR.
111
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
Mndc A cndc . This code is used to indicate that an aircraft is entering
an area where a radar service is available and will be requesting that service.
Usually used by aircraft entering a domestic FIR from an Oceanic control area.
MndcAcndc. This code is reserved to indicate that the aircraft transponder
is in some manner unserviceable or inaccurate.
RE5TRICTEDPROHIBITEDORDANGERAREA5
5pccicatinnIachslalehaslherighlloreslriclorrohibilighlinlerriloriaIairsace
forreasonsofsecurilyorsafelySuchareasareknovnasdangerareasindicaledbylheIeer
DreslricledareasindicaledbylheIeerRorrohibiledareasindicaledbylheIeerP) and
are detailed in the AIP. These are designated by a code identifying the area and showing the
altitude (usually in 1000s of ft) to which the area extends. Areas may be either permanently
acliveIIRMoraclivaledbyNOTAMTheareadesignalorforinslanceD) cannot be re-
used for a period of not less than 12 months after the closure of the previously designated area.
This aIIovs for a fuII rerinl of lhe miIIion loograhicaI charls so lhal no confusion can
exist.
YMKI A~+cY OW11
N
YmWnY' I' l l . . . . ~
'
-
F I S
< <
1 2 0 . 2 7
1 o.
a
ZO
D138A/35.0
OCNL/60.0
DAAIS available
D Danger Area
138A Identifier
/ 35.0 Ground Up to 35 000ft
OCNL Occasionally
/60.0 60 000ft
R063/2.0
R Restricted Area
63 Identifier
/2.0 Ground to 2000ft
D141/3.2
DAAIS available
DACS available
D141 Identifier
/3.2 Ground to 3200ft
Danger, Restricted and Prohibited
Areas
Rad Haz
Area
|igurc
112
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
Visua!WarningnIIncursinnydayandnighlaseriesofro|ecliIesdischargedfrom
lhegroundalinlervaIsofsecseachshovingonburslingredandgreenIighlsorslarsare
usedlovarnaircrafllhallheyareyinginoraboulloenlerreslricledrohibiledordanger
areas.

INCURSION INTO RESTRICTED
OR DANGER AREAS
If you see RED and GREEN star
shell pyrotechnics it means you
are about to enter a restricted area
or an active danger area
5IGNAL5FORAERODROMETRAFFIC
NnnRadinTracNonradiolraconorinlhevicinilyofanaerodromeislokee
a good look out for visual signals from ATC. Aeroplanes with radios are also to comply with
instructions given visually. The lamp used by ATC to communicate (Aldis lamp) is directional
vilhanarrovbeamIfyouseeasignaIIighlfromlheloveryoumuslassumelhalilismeanl
for you.
|igurc
113
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
Visua!5igna!s. The following table gives the light and pyrotechnic signals used
from ground to air:

Light
FrnmAcrndrnmcCnntrn!tn
AircraItinF!ight AircraItnnthcGrnund
Steady Green Clear to land CIearedforlakeo
Steady Red
Give way to other aircraft and
continue circling
Stop
Greenashes
Return for landing and await
landing clearance
Cleared to taxi
Redashes
Aerodromeunsafedonol
land
Taxi clear of the landing area
Whileashes
Land at this aerodrome after
receiving clearance to land
and then proceed to the apron
Return to the starting point on
the aerodrome
Red pyrotechnic
are
Nolvilhslandingany
reviousinslruclionsdonol
land for the time being

Acknnw!cdgcmcntbyAircraItToacknovIedgereceilofasignaIaserlabIean
aircraft may make the following:
Wheninighl
x DuringlhehoursofdayIighlbyrockinglheaircraflsvings
x During lhe hours of darkness by ashing on and o lvice lhe aircrafls
IandingIighlsorifnolsoequiedbysvilchingonandolhenavigalion
lights twice.
When on the ground:
x DuringlhehoursofdayIighlbymovinglheaircraflsrudderoraiIerons
x Duringlhehoursofdarknessbyashingonandolvicelheaircrafls
IandingIighlsorifnolsoequiedbysvilchingonandolhe
navigation lights twice.
Visua!Grnund5igna!sThefoIIovingsignaIsmaybeshovnonanaerodromeeilher
in the signals square or at other locations on the apron or movement area. A signal square is
usually located in front (aerodrome side) of a control tower (visual control room) and is to
be visible from the air anywhere in the vicinity of the aerodrome. The purpose is to convey
essenliaI informalion lo iIols unabIe lo communicale by radio Olher signaIs aIicabIe lo
nonradiolraconlhegroundaredisIayedfromasignaIsmaslaIsoinfronloflheconlroI
tower) or by means of indicator boards (information signs) located on or adjacent to the control
tower. The absence of a signal square indicates that the aerodrome is not to be used by non-
radiolracThisislhecasealOxfordvhereduehighlracdensilyandlraineeiIolsinlhe
circuilnonradiolracisconsideredhazardous
Note:Tncusccjanqsigna||qanqpcrscnsna||cn|qnatcincncaningassignc!iciiun!crincru|c
|igurc
114
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
5igna!sinthc5igna!sArcaThe following signals are displayed on aerodromes to pass
informalion lo non radio aircrafl In lhe examinalion you viII be execled lo inlerrel lhe
meaningofasignaIfromavriendescrilionoflhesign

A vhile T signies lhal lakeos and Iandings


shall be in the direction of the shaft of the "T" (as
indicated by the arrow).
AvhilediscaddedlolheTmeanslhallakeoandIandingdirecliondo
not necessarily coincide.
A white dumb-bell indicates that aircraft movement
on lhe ground is conned lo aved melaIIed or simiIar
hardened surfaces.
AvhiledumbbeIIvilhbIackslriessignieslhallakeos
andIandingsarelobeonarunvaybulmovemenlonlhe
groundisnolconnedloavemenls
115
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
AredandyeIIovslriedarrovsignieslhalarighlhand
circuit is in force.
A red aneI vilh a yeIIov diagonaI slrie signies lhal lhe
manoeuvring area is poor and pilots must exercise special care.
AredaneIvilhayeIIovcrosssignieslhallheaerodromeisunl
foraircraflmovemenlsandIandingsarerohibiled
A vhile H signies lhal heIicolers shaII lakeo and Iand onIy
within the area designated by the marking.
A red L over a dumb-bell means that light aircraft are
ermiedlolakeoandIandeilheronarunvayoronlhe
area designated.
116
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
A vhile doubIe cross means lhal gIider ying is in
progress.
Two or more white crosses indicate that the section of the runway or
laxivayyeIIovisunlforaircraflmovemenlOrangeandvhile
boundary markers will delineate the limit of the unusable ground
or runway
Two yellow broken lines and two continuous lines signify
the holding point closest to the runway. Outside of the
nolied hours for ATC lhis is lhe cIosel oinl an aircrafl
or vehicle can approach to the runway for the purpose
of giving vay lo aircrafl Ianding or laking o This is a
aernAmarking
A yellow ladder marking across the taxiway indicates a
holding point other than the closest to the runway. Outside
ATChoursilcanbeignoredThisisaaernmarking
117
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
AbIackIeerConayeIIovbackgroundindicalesvhereavisiling
pilot should report on arrival.
A yellow St George's cross indicates the position on the manoeuvring
area where tow ropes and banner can be dropped.
5igna!sMastThefoIIovingsignaIsareovnfromlhesignaIsmasl
QDMBnardsAyeIIovboardvilhlvobIacknumberson
issilualedonlheloverandindicaleslherunvaydireclioninuse
QDM
118
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
Bnundarymarkcrs. Orange and white striped
markers indicate the boundary of the manoeuvring area
vhereilisnolcIearIydened
Wind5!ccvc. A wind sleeve (windsock) indicates the wind direction and speed.
LargeklmediumklsmaIIklMaxvindseedieklHaIfvindseedie
20kt) Calm
Maximum wind
speed (ie 40kt)
HaIf wind
speed (ie 20kt)
CaIm
119
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
Marsha!!ing5igna!s. The student should be familiar with the following
marshalling signals:
Intention 5igna!
Proceed Under further guidance
RorLarmdovnolherarmmovedacrosslhebody
and extended to indicate position of other marshaller
This bay Arms placed above the head in a vertical position
Move ahead
Armsreealedmoveduvardandbackvard
beckoning onward
Turn LEFT
RarmdovnLarmreealedIymoveduvardand
backward. The speed of the arm movement indicates
the rate of turn.
Turn RIGHT
LarmdovnRarmreealedIymoveduvardand
backward. The speed of the arm movement indicates
the rate of turn.
Stop
Arms repeatedly crossed above the head. The speed
of the movement indicates the urgency to stop.
Engage brakes
Raisearmandhandvilhngersexlended
horizonlaIIyinfronlofbodylhencIenchslNol
used at night)
Release brakes
RaisearmandhandvilhslcIenchedhorizonlaIIyin
fronlofbodylhenexlendngersNolusedalnighl
Chocks Inserted
ArmsexlendedaImsinvardslhensvungfromlhe
extended position inwards
Chocks removed ArmsdovnaImsoulvardslhensvungoulvards
Start Engine(s)
AcircuIarmolionoflheRhandalheadIeveIvilhL
arm pointing to the appropriate engine
Cut Engine(s)
IilherarmandhandIacedIeveIvilhlhechesllhen
moved laterally with the palm downwards
Slow down
ArmsIaceddovnvilhaImslovardslheground
then moved up and down several times
Slow down engine on indicated side
ArmsIaceddovnvilhaImslovardslheground
then either arm moved up and down several times
Move back
ArmsIaceddovnaImsfacingforvardslhen
repeatedly swept up and down to shoulder level
Intention 5igna!
Turn tail to right when backing
IoinlLarmdovnmoveRarmdovnfromoverhead
verlicaIosilionlohorizonlaIforvardosilion
repeating R arm movement
Turn tail to left when backing
IoinlRarmdovnmoveLarmdovnfromoverhead
verlicaIosilionlohorizonlaIforvardosilion
repeating L arm movement
All clear
RarmraisedallheeIbovvilhlheaImfacing
forward
Brakes engaged
RaiseRarmandhandvilhngersexlended
horizonlaIIyinfronloffacelhencIenchsl
Brakes released
RaisearmvilhslcIenchedhorizonlaIIyinfronlof
facelhenexlendngers
120
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
Insert chocks
ArmsexlendedaImfacingoulvardsmovehands
inwards to cross infront of face
Remove chocks
handscrossedinfronllooffaceaImsoulvards
move arms outwards
Ready to start engines
Raiselhenumberofngersononehandloindicale
engine number of engine to be started.*
6.90 IIighlDeckSignaIsThesignaIsmadebyaiIolfromlheighldeckhavelhe
following meaning:
Intention Signal CAP 673 Ref:
Brakes engaged
RaiseRarmandhandvilhngers
extended horizontally in front of the face
lhencIenchsl
Sect 6 Table F (a)
Brakes released
RaiseRarmandhandvilhslcIenched
horizontally in front of the face then
exlendngers
Sect 6 Table F (b)
Insert chocks
ArmsexlendedaImfacingoulvards
move hands inwards to cross in front of
the face
Sect 6 Table F (c)
Remove chocks
HandscrossedinfronloflhefaceaIms
oulvardsmovearmsoulvards
Sect 6 Table F (d)
Ready to start engines
Raiselhenumberofngersofonehand
to indicate engine number of the engine to
be started *
Sect 6 Table F (e)
Note * |ngincsarcnun|crc! Pcri|cjicuicr
Pcri|cjiinncr
Siar|car!rigniinncr
Siar|car!rignicuicr
121
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
122
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
QUE5TION5
WheninairsacevhereVIRisermiedlheIICofanIIRighlvishesloconlinuelheighl
in accordance with VFR until destination:
lheiIolmuslinformlheconlroIunilofhisinlenlionusinglheexressioncanceIIing
myIIRighl
2. the pilot must request and obtain clearance to continue under VFR.
lheiIolmuslcommunicalelhenecessarychangeslolhecurrenlighlIan
lheighlIanaulomalicaIIybecomesaVIRighl
Which of the following combinations is correct?
a. 2 and 3.
b. 2 and 4.
c. 1 and 3.
d. 1 and 4.
An aircrafl ying in lhe visuaI circuil al an aerodrome sees a series of red ashes from lhe
control tower. What does this mean?
a. Do not land.
b. Do not land because the aerodrome is unusable.
c. Give way to other aircraft.
d. Return for landing and await clearance to land.

AnaircraflhasighlvisibiIilyofkmandisheadingTinanareavherelhevarialionis
veslThereisnoareciabIevindWhichoflhefoIIovingislhearorialeighlIeveI
a. FL60.
b. FL65.
c. FL70.
d. FL75.
AnaircraflisconvergingfromlheIeflWhichIighlviIIyouseersl
a. Red.
b. Green.
c. Blue.
d. White.
WhalIeergoesinilemofaighlIanforaighlslarlingunderIIRlhenchangingloVIR
a. Z
b Y
c. I
d. V
6. What are the VMC limits for class B airspace?
a kmighlvisibiIilycIearofcIoudandinsighloflhesurface
b kmighlvisibiIilyflverlicaIIyandmhorizonlaIIyfromcIoud
c kmighlvisibiIilyflverlicaIIyandmhorizonlaIIyfromcIoud
d. The same as class D.
123
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
WhenisaighlIanrequired
a IorIIRighlinadvisoryairsace
b IoraIIIIRighls
c IoraIIighlsinconlroIIedairsace
d IoraIIVIRandSVIRighlsinconlroIIedairsace
WhiIslairborneinlhevicinilyoflheaerodromeyouseeaashinggreenIighlfromlheTover
What does this mean?
a. Cleared to land.
b. Return for landing and await clearance to land.
c. Give way to other landing aircraft.
d. Land at this aerodrome after receiving clearance to land and proceed to the apron.
YouseeadoubIevhilecrossinasignaIsquarevhaldoeslhismean
a GIideryinginrogress
b. Tow ropes and banners may be dropped.
c Runvayunlforaircraflmovemenl
d Aerodromeunlforaircraflmovemenl
YouarelaxiingonlhemanoeuvringareaofanaerodromeandseeaashinggreenIighlfrom
the tower. What does it mean?
a. Return to start point.
b. Clear to taxi.
c CIearlolakeo
d. Stop.
YouhavebeeninlerceledinlheairsaceofaforeignconlraclingslaleWhalislhesignaIfor
clear to proceed from the intercepting aircraft?
a. Rocking wings.
b. Flashing lights.
c. Cut across track.
d. Breaking turn up and left.
12. Which has priority to land?
a AhosilaIighl
b. An emergency.
c AmiIilaryighl
d AVIIighl
13. What does a double horizontal white cross on an aerodrome indicate?
a GIideryinginrogress
b Runvayunlforuse
c. Light aircraft may taxi on the grass.
d Runvaylobeusedforlakeobulaircraflmaylaxionlhegrass
124
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
14. Which of these is not a distress frequency?
1. 121.5 MHz
2. 2182 KHz
3. 243.0 KHz
4. 2430 KHz
a. 4 only.
b. 2 only.
c and
d. 3 and 4.
IfyouareinlerceledbyanolheraircraflvhaldoyouselonlheSSRlransonder
a AC
b AC
c AC
d AC
YouarelaxiinganaircraflonlhegroundalanaerodromeandyouseeaashingredIighlfrom
the tower. What does it mean?
a. Stop.
b. Taxi clear of the landing area.
c. Give way to approaching aircraft.
d YouarenolcIearlolakeo
AircraflAisaVIRighloeralinginaCTRunderanATCcIearanceAircraflisenleringlhe
CTRvilhoulcIearanceAslheyconvergevhichonehaslherighlofvay
a. B has right of way regardless of aircraft type and position.
b. A has right of way regardless of aircraft type and position.
c. A has right of way if B is on the right.
d. B has right of way if A is on the left.
Whal minimum ground visibiIily is required lo enabIe a SVIR ighl lo lake o from an
aerodrome in a CTR?
a. 1000m
b. 1500m
c. 2000m
d. 3000m
If a iIol vishes lo canceI an IIR ighl Ian and roceed under VIR in VMC heshe musl
inform ATC and include the phrase:
a canceIIingmyighlIan
b canceIIingmyighl
c canceIIingmyIIRighl
d canceIIingmyIMCighlIan
125
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
WhalsignaIfromamarshaIIerloaiIolindicalesaIybrakes
a. Waving the arms across the face.
b. Drawing the palm across the throat.
c CIenchingaraisedsl
d. Holding both arms up with palms facing forward.
ATChasgivenyoulhelransondercodeofAIncaseofaradiofaiIureinighlyoumusl
squawk:
a AModeC
b AModeC
c AModeC
d AModeC
IoraconlroIIedighlaighlIanmuslbeIedbeforedearlurealIeasl
a minulesbeforeobIocklime
b. 60 minutes before departure.
c. 30 minutes before departure.
d minulesbeforeobIocklime
23. Which Mode A code must be used to make sure that your aircraft is recognised as an aircraft in
distress?
a. Code 7500
b. Code 7700
c. Code 7000
d. Code 7600
24. An aircraft which is intercepted by another aircraft must immediately try to contact the
intercepting aircraft on the following frequencies:
a MHzandorMHz
b MHzandorMHz
c MHzandorMHz
d MHzandorMHz
Your aircrafl is inlerceled by a miIilary aircrafl Inslruclions given by lhis aircrafl do nol
comIyvilhATCinslruclionsYoushouId
a. select code 7500 A on your transponder.
b askATCfordierenlinslruclions
c. comply with instructions given by the intercepting aircraft.
d. comply with ATC instructions.
A iIol crosses hisher hands in fronl of lhe face aIms oulvards and lhen moves lhe arms
outwards. What does this signal indicate?
a. Clear to move forward.
b rakeso
c. Remove chocks.
d. Clear to close all engines.
126
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
Aredareredalayingaircraflmeans
a donolIandlheaerodromeisunl
b nolvilhslandinganyreviousinslruclionsdonolIandforlhelimebeing
c. return to the aerodrome for landing.
d. give way to another aircraft and continue to circle.
Inorderloavoidconfusionlheidenlicalionnumbersgivenloeachrohibiledreslricledand
danger area shall not be re-used for a period of:
a. at least 12 months after the cancellation of the area referred to.
b. at least 6 months after the cancellation of the area referred to.
c. at least 3 months after the cancellation of the area referred to.
d. at least 2 months after the cancellation of the area referred to.
Whenanaircraflhasbeensub|ecledlounIavfuIinlerferencelheiIolmayvishloindicalelhe
fact by squawking which SSR code:
a. 7500
b. 7700
c. 7600
d. 7000
30. Which of the following procedures would a pilot follow in the event of communications failure
whilst under IFR in VMC?
a. Return to the aerodrome of departure.
b ConlinuelheighlvhiIslmainlainingVMCandIandassoonasossibIe
c ConlinuelheighlallheassignedIeveIandrouleandslarllhearoachallheslaled
ETA.
d. Maintain the assigned level and route and land at the nearest aerodrome that is reporting
VMC.
IfsoequiedvhenshouIdanaircrafldisIaylheanlicoIIisionIighl
a OnIyalnighlinighlbulnolonlhegroundifbeingloved
b. Whilst taxiing but not whilst being towed.
c. Only at night with engines running.
d. At all times on the ground when the engines are running.
TheeslimaledeIasedlimeineIdofaighlIanforaVIRighlislheeslimaledlime
a IromvhichlheaircraflrslmovesunderilsovnoverunliIilnaIIycomesloresl
after landing.
b IrombrakesreIeaseallakeounliIIanding
c. At cruising level taking into account temperature and pressure for that day.
d IromlakeounliIoverheadlhedeslinalionaerodrome
WhalislheminimumverlicaIsearalionbelveenIIRighlsyinginlhesamedireclionbeIov
FL 290?
a. 500 ft
b fl
c fl
d fl
127
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
ThecruisingseedenleredinilemofaighlIanis
a. TAS.
b TASorMachNo
c. IAS or TAS.
d. TAS at 65% engine power.
WhalaclionisrequiredbylheiIolofanaircraflyinginlhevicinilyofanaerodromeloindicale
lhal lhe aircrafl is exeriencing radio faiIure or anolher dicuIly lhal requires immediale
landing but no other assistance?
a ThereealedsvilchingonandooflheIandingIighls
b SvilchinglheIandingIighlsonandolhreelimes
c SvilchinglheIandingIighlsonandofourlimes
d SvilchinglhenavigalionIighlsonandolhreelimes
36. A position report shall contain the following information in the order listed?
a AircraflidenlicalionosilionlimelrueairseedighlIeveIoraIliludenexlosilion
and time over.
b Aircrafl idenlicalion osilion lime ighl IeveI or aIlilude nexl osilion and lime
over.
c Aircrafl idenlicalion osilion lime ighl IeveI or aIlilude nexl osilion and lime
overensuingosilion
d Aircrafl idenlicalion osilion ighl IeveI or aIlilude nexl osilion and lime over
ensuing position and time over.
IoranIIRighllheIITslaledislheeslimaledlimealvhichlheaircrafl
a viIIarriveoverheadlheiniliaIaroachx
b. will land.
c. will be overhead the destination aerodrome.
d viIIIeavelheiniliaIaroachxlocommencelheinslrumenlrocedure
ADISTRISSmessagediersfromanURGINCYmessagebecause
a. there is grave and imminent danger which requires immediate assistance.
b lheaeroIanehassuereddamagelhalendangerslheabiIilyloy
c. the aeroplane will not be able to reach a suitable aerodrome.
d. the situation concerns the safety of passengers on board or within sight.
IfradioconlaclvilhaninlercelingaircrafliseslabIishedbulnolinacommonIanguagevhal
vouIdlheiIolofaninlerceledaircraflsayifhesheisunabIelocomIyvilhlheinslruclion
from the interceptor?
a KANNOTTKOMILY
b UNNAOLTOOKOMILY
c NOTTIOSSAOL
d KANNNOTT
128
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
WhichoflhefoIIovingighlhaslhehigheslriorilyloIand
a VIIighl
b HosilaIighl
c. Emergency aircraft.
d. Military aircraft.
WhalIeerisulinilemofaighlIanloindicalelhalaighlislobeginunderIIRand
nishunderVIR
a Y
b. I
c. V
d. Z
42. A white dumb-bell with black perpendicular bars indicates that:
a gIideryingisbeingconducledoulsidelheIandingarea
b Ianding and lakeo is reslricled lo lhe runvays bul laxiing is nol conned lo lhe
pavement areas.
c. this aerodrome is using parallel runways.
d laxiingisconnedlolhelaxivays
IfanATCcIearanceisnolsuilabIelheIICmay
a oerATCanaccelabIeaIlernalive
b. request and if practicable accept an amended clearance.
c. demand an alternative clearance and ATC must comply.
d decIine lhe cIearance on lhe grounds lhal il is nol in accordance vilh lhe Ied ighl
plan.
WhalIeerisulinilemofaighlIanloindicalelhalaighlislobeginunderVIRand
nishunderIIR
a Y
b. I
c. V
d. Z
WhohasnaIaulhorilyaslolhedisosilionofanaircraflduringighllime
a. The owner.
b. The Operator.
c. The Commander.
d. The ATC controller.
TheverlicaIsearalionminimaforIIRighlsinCASaIiedbyATCaboveILis
a. 500 ft.
b fl
c fl
d flifRVSMisaIiedolhervisefl
129
Chapter 6 Rules of the Air
UnIessaulhorisedbyATCaVIRighlisnolermiedlolakeofromanaerodromevilhin
a CTR when:
a cIoudceiIingisIesslhanflandgroundvisibiIilyisIesslhankm
b cIoudceiIingisIesslhanflandgroundvisibiIilyisIesslhankm
c cIoudceiIingisIesslhanflandgroundvisibiIilyisIesslhankm
d cIoudceiIingisIesslhanflandgroundvisibiIilyisIesslhankm
AnaircraflisyingoverlheseabelveenflandflAMSLandoulsideCASToconlinue
under VFR the meteorological conditions must remain:
a flhorizonlaIIyandflverlicaIIyfromcIoudvilhvisibiIilyofkm
b mhorizonlaIIyandflverlicaIIyfromcIoudvilhvisibiIilyofkm
c. 1500m horizontally and 1000m vertically from cloud with visibility of 5km.
d cIearofcIoudandinsighloflhesurfacevilhvisibiIilyofkm
AchangeinighlruIesfromIIRloVIRviIIonIylakeIace
a. when initiated by the PIC.
b. when ordered by ATC.
c alaoinlseciedbylheoeralor
d. when the aircraft leaves CAS in VMC.
50. An aircraft is overtaking another aircraft if it is closing to the other aircraft from behind in a
sector:
a. 50 either side of the longitudinal axis.
b. 60 either side of the longitudinal axis.
c. 70 either side of the longitudinal axis.
d. 80 either side of the longitudinal axis.
130
Chapter 6
Rules of the Air
AN5WER5

Queslion Answer Reference Queslion Answer Reference
1. C 6.64 26. C 6.9
2. B 6.81 27. B 6.81
3. C 6.68 28. A 6.78
4. B 6.22 29. A 6.77
5. B 6.63 30. B 6.41
6. D 6.5 31. D 6.26
7. A 6.30 32. D 6.58
8. B 6.81 33. C 6.68
9. A 6.84 34. B 6.3
10. B 6.81 35. A 6.74
11. D 6.51 36. C 6.37
12. B 6.18 37. A 6.65
13. A 6.84 38. A 6.72
14. D 6.75 39. D 6.50
15. D 6.48 40. C 6.18
16. B 6.81 41. A 6.64
17. D 6.15 42. B 6.84
18. B 6.71 43. B 6.33
19. C 6.64 44. D 6.57
20. C 6.89 45. C 6.9
21. A 46. D 6.68
22. B 6.3 47. B 6.54
23. B 6.77 48. B 6.5
24. A 6.48 49. A 6.64
25. C 6.49 50. C 6.16
131
Chapter 7 Instrument Procedures - Departures
Contents
INSTRUMINTIROCIDURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
IANSOIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
INSTRUMINTDIIARTURIIROCIDURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
CHAPTER5EVEN
IN5TRUMENTPROCEDURE5DEPARTURE5
132
Chapter 7
Instrument Procedures - Departures
133
Chapter 7 Instrument Procedures - Departures
IN5TRUMENTPROCEDURE5
Gcncra! Intrnductinn. In order to permit all weather operation (low visibility
lakeo and Ianding rocedures musl be eslabIished lo rovide lrack guidance and lerrain
avoidance for aircrafl dearling and lrack guidance lerrain cIearance and vhere seciaI
equimenl is used verlicaI disIacemenl guidance for aircrafl arriving al aerodromes Lov
visibiIilyoeralionsICAOaredenedaslakeoandIandingoeralionsvilhRVRIesslhan
m Remember lhe minima for lake o from an aerodrome in a CTR is ground visibiIily
not less than 5 km and cloud ceiling not less than 1500ft. The criteria for the type of procedure
lo be emIoyed are dened in lerms of RVR and lhe Iimil lo vhich a iIol is ermied lo
descendDAHorMDAHCIearIyobslacIeavoidanceduringlherocedureisofaramounl
importance. The fundamental assumption is that an instrument procedure (departure or
arrivaI viII onIy be ovn in condilions Iess lhan VMC In lhis case arrivaIs and dearlures
fromconlroIIedaerodromesviIIbeovnunderIIRandhencesub|eclloATCThereforerior
locommencinganyinslrumenlrocedureanATCcIearancemuslbeoblainedIroceduresfor
departure and arrival are published and you are required to have the necessary plates (printed
reresenlalionsoflheroceduresavaiIabIeonlheighldeckIfyouarerequiredbyATClo
diverlloanaerodromevilhvhichyouarenolfamiIiaranddonolhavelheIalesATCviII
readlherocedureincIudinglheIossofcommunicalionsandmissedaroachrocedureslo
you. Initially we will look at instrument departure procedures. The following abbreviations are
required knowledge:
Abbrcviatinns
CL Centre line MSA Minimum Sector Altitude
DAH DecisionaIliludeheighl NOZ NormaIoeralingzone
DER Departure end of runway NTZ Nolransgressionzone
DME
Distance measuring
equipment
OIS
ObslacIeidenlicalion
surface
DR Dead reckoning PDG Procedure design gradient
FAF Final Approach Fix SID
Standard Instrument
Departure
FAP Final Approach Point STAR Standard Arrival Route
IAF
Initial Approach Fix TAA Terminal Approach
Altitude
IF Intermediate Fix TP Turning point
MAPt Missed Approach Point VM(C)
Visual Manoeuvring
Circling
MDAH MinimumdescenlaIlilude VM(C)A
Visual Manoeuvring
Circling Area
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Chapter 7
Instrument Procedures - Departures
Obstac!cC!carancc. It is implied that any procedure developed will not require the
aeroIaneloydangerousIycIoseloobslacIesalanyoinlduringlherocedureCIearancefrom
obslacIescanbeoblainedbyIaleraIcIearanceandverlicaIcIearanceyrequiringaiIolloy
lhelrackaccuraleIyvilhinloIerancesacceledlheaircraflcanbeguidedoverasurveyedighl
alhvilhinlheboundsofvhichaIIobslacIescanbedelerminedandassessedObviousIylhe
areasurveyedmuslhavenileIimilsIlishovevernolaccelabIeforsayanareanmvide
lobesurveyedandlhenermilaircraflloyvilhinguidanceloIerancenmeilhersideof
the desired track. The extremities of the surveyed area must gradually permit higher obstacles
until at the limit of reasonable expectations of accuracy (guidance tolerance - both equipment
andighllechnicaIlheguaranleedcIearanceisreducedlozeroThisassessmenlisknovnas
creation of MOC (minimum obstacle clearance areas). MOC is discussed later in this chapter.
ObslacIe cIearance couId be rovided by assessing lhe highesl obslacIe lo be ovn over and
by applying a safety margin to the obstacle height. An obstacle clearance height or altitude
OCAH can lhus be oblained This is lhe melhod of oblaining MSA and vilh renemenls
minimum descenl heighlaIlilude MDAH for non recision rocedures As recision
roceduresrovideheighlguidanceanobslacIeflhighalnmfromlhelhreshoIdisnol
assignicanlasanobslacIeflhighnmfromlhelhreshoIdassumingaflermiIegIide
sIoeIorrecisionsyslemsOCAHisrangefromlhreshoIddeendanlIlshouIdlherefore
be obvious lhal OCAH for recision rocedures are Iess lhan OCHA for non recision Il
muslbeslressedlhalfromanoeralionaIoinlofvievlheobslacIecIearanceaIiedinlhe
development of each instrument approach procedure is considered to be the minimum required
for an acceptable level of safety in operations. If you have your own aeroplane and it is not used
forcommerciaIairlransorlyoumayoeralelolheubIishedOCAHIimilsOeralorsaIy
higher criteria resulting in aerodrome operating minima for commercial air transport.
Obstacle Clearance
MOC 300m
(1000ft)
Generally, the minimum obstacle
clearance (MOC) is based on the highest
obstacle within 5 nm of track. In
mountainous areas, this is increased to
600m.
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Chapter 7 Instrument Procedures - Departures
Obstacle Clearance
For an instrument procedure, the
procedure must keep the
aeroplane clear of all obstacles by
a minimum vertical interval.
The pilot must fly the aeroplane
within the height tolerance
specified by the instrument
procedure designer
PAN5OP5
DncumcntTheICAOdocumenllhalsecieslherecommendalionsforinslrumenl
rocedures is IANS OIS The lerm IANSOIS is commonIy used lo refer lo lhe conlenl of
ICAODocThecorrecllilIeoflhedocumenlisIroceduresforAirNavigalionServices
AircraflOeralionsThedocumenlisrinledinlvovoIumesVoIIIighlIroceduresVoI
2 - Construction of Visual and Instrument Flight Procedures. Volume 1 describes operational
rocedures recommended for lhe guidance of ighl oeralions ersonneI and ve shaII Iimil
our considerations of instrument procedures to the content of Vol 1. Vol 1 outlines the various
parameters on which the criteria of Vol 2 are based. Volume 2 is intended for the guidance of
procedures specialists and describes the essential areas and obstacle clearance requirements for
lheachievemenlofsafereguIarinslrumenlighloeralionsolhvoIumesresenlcoverage
of operational practices that are beyond the scope of Standards and Recommenced Practices
SARIS bul vilh resecl lo vhich ameasureof inlernalionaI uniformilyisdesirabIe IANS
OISinexandinglheSARISofAnnexconsidersbolhdearlureandarrivaIroceduresand
lo a Iesser exlenl enroule rocedures vhere obslacIe cIearance crileria shouId be laken inlo
consideration.
IN5TRUMENTDEPARTUREPROCEDURE5
Gcncra!Critcria. These procedures assume that all engines are operating. The design
of an inslrumenl dearlure rocedure is in generaI diclaled by lhe lerrain surrounding lhe
aerodrome bul may aIso be required lo caler for ATC requiremenls ad|acenl ATS roules
reslricled rohibiled or danger areas and lhe roximily of olher aerodromes These faclors
inlurninuencelhelyeandosilionofnavigalionaidsrequiredlorovidelrackguidance
for lhe dearlure roule Airsace reslriclions may aIso aecl lhe osilion of navigalion aids
IromlheiIolandoeraloroinlofvievlheuseofaulomaliclakeolhruslconlroIsyslems
(ATTCS) and noise abatement procedures will need to be taken into account as well. Where
nosuilabIenavigalionaidisavaiIabIelorovideseciclrackguidancelhecrileriaforomni
directional (any direction) departures is applied. Wherever possible a straight departure will be
seciedvhichisaIignedvilhlherunvayWhereadearlureroulerequiresalurnofmore
lhanloavoidanobslacIealurningdearlureisconslrucled
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Chapter 7
Instrument Procedures - Departures
Rcquircmcnts Where inslrumenl dearlures are required a dearlure rocedure
viIIbeeslabIishedforeachrunvaylobeusedandviIIdenelherocedureforlhevarious
categories of aircraft based on an all engines running IDG of or an increased IDG if
required to achieve minimum obstacle clearance. The procedures assume that pilots will
comensale for vind eecls knovn or eslimaled vhen ying dearlure roules vhich are
exressedaslrackslobemadegoodIfradarvecloringisaIiediIolsarerequiredloylhe
vector headings and not make allowance for the wind.
Obstac!c C!carancc As aIready slaled obslacIe cIearance is a rimary safely
consideration in instrument departure procedures. Unless otherwise stated a PDG of 3.3% is
assumedTheIDGismadeuofgradienlofobslacIeidenlicalionsurfacesorlhegradienl
basedonlhemoslcrilicaIobslacIeenelralinglhesesurfacesvhicheverishigherand
increasing obslacIe cIearance Gradienls ubIished viII be secied lo an aIliludeheighl
aflervhichlheminimumgradienlofisconsideredloexislThenaIIDGconlinues
unliIobslacIecIearanceisensuredforlhenexlhaseofighlenroulehoIdingoraroach
AllhisoinllhedearlurerocedureendsandismarkedbyasignicanloinlTheminimum
obstacle clearance equals zero at the departure end of the runway (DER) and thereafter increases
byoflhehorizonlaIdislanceinlhedireclionofighlassumingmaximumdivergenceof
15. In the turn initiation area for a turning departure a minimum obstacle clearance of 90m
(295 ft) is provided. Increased obstacle clearance will be provided in mountainous terrain. If
DMIisavaiIabIeaddilionaIheighldislanceinformalionismadeavaiIabIe
5m (16)
OIS 2.5%
2.5%
0.8%
Obstacle A and B will be
published on the SID chart
This altitude/height and
distance will be published
Aerodrome elevation
3.3%
Procedure Design Gradient
Because of obstacle B the gradient cannot be reduced to 3.3% just
after passing obstacle A. The altitude/height or fix at which the
gradient in excess of 3.3% is no longer required will be published.
A
B
This gradient will be
published 2.5%
2.5%
MOC
DER
MOC is 0.8% of the distance d
d
MnuntainnusTcrrainWhaldenesmounlainouslerrainisnolseciedIndeciding
iflhecrileriaformounlainouslerrainareaIicabIelhedesignerlakesnoliceoflherevaiIing
vind condilions If lhe average vind seed of kh or more roduces signicanl dovn
draughlsincreasedobslacIecIearanceisaIied
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137
Chapter 7 Instrument Procedures - Departures
AircraIt catcgnry. It has already been mentioned that the major consideration in
planning a departure route is to ensure adequate obstacle clearance. In determining the track
over vhich lhe aircrafl viII y seed is lhe delermining faclor Aircrafl are calegorized by
lhe maximum seed lhal lhe dearlure rocedure can be ovn Seeds for such dearlure
roceduresaredenedinlhelabIebeIovWhereverIimilingseedsolherlhanlhosesecied
inlhelabIeareubIishedlheymuslbecomIiedvilhloremainvilhinlhearorialeareas
IfanaeroIaneoeralionrequiresahigherseedlhenanaIlernalivedearlureroceduremusl
be requested.
Aeroplane Categories for Departure
Procedures
Aeroplane Category Max Speed km/h (kt)
A 225 (120)
B 305 (165)
C 490 (265)
D 540 (290)
E 560 (300)
Maximum speed for turning departures
0
9
2
7
Rate 1 turns
3/sec
120 kt
180 kt
240 kt
R1 through 180 = 180/3 = 60sec (1 min)
1 min at 120 kts = 2nm; at 180 kts = 3nm; at 240 kts = 4 nm
DER
5tandard Instrumcnt Dcparturcs There are lvo basic lyes of dearlure roule
slraighl or lurning Dearlure roules are based on lrack guidance acquired vilhin km
nmfromlheendoflherunvayDIRforslraighldearluresandvilhinkmnm
aflercomIelionoflurnsforlurningdearluresWhenyinglheroulelheiIolisexecledlo
correct for known wind and to remain within the protected airspace.
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138
Chapter 7
Instrument Procedures - Departures
5traightDcparturc. A straight departure is one in which the initial departure track is
vilhinoflheaIignmenloflherunvayTrackguidancemayberovidedbyVORNDor
RNAV
Straight Departure
DER
Extended centre line
15max
VOR/NDB
Max 20km
(10.8nm)
Track guidance must be
acquired not more than
20km after DER
No turns permitted more
than 15 deviation from c/l
Turning DepartureIflhedearlurelrackrequiresalurnofmorelhanalurning
area is conslrucled and lhe lurn required is commenced uon reaching a secied aIlilude
heighloralaxoralafaciIilyVORNDelcSlraighlighlisassumedunliIreachingan
altitude not less than 120m (394 ft) above the elevation of the DER.
Turning Departure
VOR/NDB
D
e
p
a
rtu
re
tra
c
k
>15
M
a
x
1
0
k
m
(5
.4
n
m
)
Track guidance must be
acquired not more than
10km after the completion
of the turn
DER
Altitude not less than 120m
above DER and MOC at least 90m
Emcrgcncics. It is the responsibility of the operator to establish procedures to cover the
caseofenginefaiIureoranemergencyinighlvhichoccursaflerV
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139
Chapter 7 Instrument Procedures - Departures
Omnidircctinna! Dcparturcs. Where no track guidance is provided in the design
of a dearlure rocedure lhe omnidireclionaI melhod is used vhich basicaIIy rovides for
iniliaIdearlurelrackslobeundenedInolhervordsonceolheendoflherunvayand
al a safe heighl lhe aircrafl can be navigaled in any direclion required lo achieve lhe iniliaI
en-route point. It may be that some sectors of the departure area may contain obstacles which
recIudedearluresinlhaldireclioninvhichcaselheubIishedroceduresviIIbeannolaled
to show the restricted sectors. The basic procedure is that the aircraft will climb on the extended
runvaycenlreIinelomflaboveaerodromeeIevalionbeforelurnscanbesecied
and at least 90 m (295 ft) of obstacle clearance will be provided before turns greater than 15
canbeseciedTurnsviIInolcommencevilhinmoflhebeginningoflherunvayWhere
obslacIesdonolermillhedeveIomenlofomnidireclionaIroceduresilisnecessaryloya
dearlurerouleslraighlorlurningorensurelhalceiIingandvisibiIilyviIIermilobslacIes
to be avoided by visual means.
Omni-directional Departure
c/l
Area1
Area2
d
Area 1 if no obstacles
penetrate the OIS and 90m
(295) of obstacle
clearance prevails, a climb
to 120m (394) will satisfy
obstacle clearance
requirements for any turn.
Area 2 where obstacles
preclude turns at 120m
(394) a climb at 3.3% is
required to the necessary
OCH/A before turns can be
made
D = distance required to climb at
3.3% climb gradient to reach turn
altitude/height. If turn height is
120m above DER, d = 3.5km
(1.9nm)
DER
15
30
3.5km
or less
Pub!ishcdInInrmatinn. Departure routes and SID charts are published in accordance
with standards contained in Annex 11 and Annex 4 to the Chicago Convention. Departure
roulesareIabeIIedasRNAVareanavigalionbasedonVORDMIorGISonIyvhenlhalis
lherimarymeansofnavigalionuliIisedIoromnidireclionaIdearlureslhereslriclionsviII
beexressedasseclorslobeavoidedorseclorsinvhichminimumgradienlsandorminimum
aIliludes are secied lo enabIe an aeroIane lo safeIy over y obslacIes Minimum Sector
Altitude (MSA is aIso deicled on lhe Iale and gives lhe Iovesl safe aIlilude for a dened
sector (based on a navigational facility) to a range of 25nm from the aerodrome (or facility).
The diagram on page 150 shows a typical SID plate. This plate details the departures from
lherunvaysalHealhrovandsecieslhallheoinlof|oininglheATSrouleslruclureislhe
Compton VOR (CPT). All SIDs start at DER and end at the point of joining the ATS en-route
syslemNolelhaleachroulehasasecicdesignalorieCITGInlheATCcIearanceforIIR
ighlsdearlureinslruclionsviIIincIudeaSIDlolherslairvaysoinlTheATCOviIIrefer
lolheSIDbyilsdesignalorNolelhemeansbyvhichlrackguidanceisaIiedInanormaI
aeroIanefuIIyairvaysedforIIRlheSIDcanaIvaysbecomIiedvilhaslhereviIIbea
minimumoflvoVORNAVboxesandoneADITheComlonSIDsrequiresradionavigalion
usinglheLONandCITVORsandlheWODNDDMIisaIsosecied
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Chapter 7
Instrument Procedures - Departures
TheSIDseciesDMIdislancesloorfromlhefaciIilyvilhradiaIsfromVORsorQDMsfor
NDsTheSIDviIIaIsosecifyaIliludereslriclionsinlheformofAboveorAlas
well as a diagram of the procedure. A narrative is always given in English. At the end of the
SID the aircraft should be well placed to continue en-route climbing in the airway or under
radarconlroIAlanylimeduringlherocedurelheiIolmaybeorderedlocomIyvilhradar
vectoring requiring abandonment of the SID or abbreviation of the procedure. In such cases the
pilot will be told that the aircraft is under radar control.
Plate Title
General Information
MSA and airspace warnings
Route Graphic
Route Narrative
Arca Navigatinn RNAV and RNP Bascd Dcparturc Prnccdurcs The general
rinciIesreIalingloRNAVaroachroceduresaIsoaIyloRNAVdearluresbasedona
VORDMIDMIDMIbasicGNSSandRNIcrileriaMoslIMSequiedaircraflarecaabIe
of foIIoving RNAV rocedures bul rocedures may conlain conslrainls lo lhe on lhe syslem
used To use an RNI based rocedure lhe aircrafl RNAV syslem musl be aroved for lhe
ubIishedRNIandilmuslbeconrmedbeforeighllhallhereIaledVORDMIslalionsare
in facl vorking efore ighl lhe iIol musl aIso verify lhal lhe aircrafl viII be abIe lo meel
lheRNIrequiremenlsforlhesegmenlslobeovnasveIIasconlinuelomonilorlhesyslem
accuracy.
TurnsTherearefourkindsoflurnslhalmaybeseciedforanRNAVrocedure
Turnalaybyvayoinl
Turnalayovervayoinl
TurnalanaIliludeheighland
IixedradiuslurngeneraIIyforRNIbasedrocedures
UscnIFM5tnFn!!nwCnnvcntinna!DcparturcPrnccdurcsWhereIMSisavaiIabIe
il may be used vhen ying lhe convenlionaI dearlure rocedures dened rovided lhe
rocedureismoniloredusinglhebasicdisIaynormaIIyassocialedvilhlhalrocedureand
lheloIerancesforighlusingravdalaonlhebasicdisIayarecomIiedvilh
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141
Chapter 7 Instrument Procedures - Departures
ThcFuturc. With the increasing utilisation and reliance on GPS as the primary means
ofnavigalionrocedureshavebeenlriaIedusingrerogrammedIMSroceduresbasedon
GISgeneraledvayoinlslodenehighIyaccuraleinslrumenldearluresIigurebeIov
deicls lhe lriaI Irecision RNAV dearlure rocedure from Lulon via Comlon The currenl
reluctance to commit totally to GPS will be resolved eventually and the full potential of the
syslemviIIundoubledIyIeadlogrealerexibiIilyinlhedesignofdearlureroceduresand
enhanceduseofIimiledairsaceUnliIlhenlherequiremenlviIIremainforamelhodlobe
used to cross check the raw GPS data used as part of an instrument procedure.
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Chapter 7
Instrument Procedures - Departures
QUE5TION5
DuringaslraighldearlurelheiniliaIlrackislobe
a. within 5 of runway centre-line.
b. within 10 of runway centre-line .
c. within 15 of runway centre-line.
d. within 25 of runway centre-line.
2. In an instrument departure procedure the minimum obstacle clearance at DER is:
a. 0 ft.
b. 3.3% gradient.
c. 35 ft.
d. 0.8% gradient.
3. Turning departures provide track guidance within what distance of the completion of turns?
a. 15km.
b. 20km.
c. 10km.
d. 5km.
4. The MSA provides 300m obstacle clearance within how many miles radius of the navigation
facility at the aerodrome?
a. 20nm.
b. 30nm.
c. 25nm.
d. 15nm.
5. What does the abbreviation DER stand for?
a. Distance to end of route.
b. Departure end of route.
c. Distance to end of runway.
d. Departure end of runway.
6. What does the abbreviation OIS stand for?
a ObslacIeidenlicalionsurface
b. Obstacles in surface.
c ObslacIeidenlicalionsIoe
d Obslruclionidenlicalionsurface
7. The MSA which must be established around a navigation facility used in instrument procedures
is in general valid within a sector of:
a. 15nm.
b. 30nm.
c. 25nm.
d. 10nm.
143
Chapter 7 Instrument Procedures - Departures
InaslraighldearlurevhalislheaIignmenloflheiniliaIlrackreferencedlolherunvaycenlre
line?
a. Within 45.
b. Within 12.5.
c. Within 15.
d. Within 30.
IngeneraIvhalislhemainfaclorlhaldiclaleslhedesignofaninslrumenlrocedure
a. The availability of navigation aids.
b. Airspace restrictions.
c. The terrain surrounding the aerodrome.
d. ATC requirements.
WhenfoIIovingaSIDlheiIolmusl
a. calculate the track required and request ATC clearance to follow it.
b ylheheadingvilhoulvindcorreclion
c ad|usllhelrackseciedloaIIovforlhevind
d ylheheadinglomakegoodlherequiredlrackaIIovingforlhevind
Ior an Omni direclionaI dearlure lhe rocedure diclales lhal lhe aircrafl cIimbs on lhe
exlendedcenlreIineloaseciedheighlbeforelurningWhalislhisheighl
a. 300m.
b. 120m.
c. 150m.
d. 250m.
12. If the track on an instrument departure is published the pilot is expected to:
a. correct for the known wind so as to stay within controlled airspace.
b. ask ATC for another heading to steer correcting for wind.
c. ignore the wind and proceed with a heading equal to the track.
d. ask ATC for permission to correct heading for wind.
144
Chapter 7
Instrument Procedures - Departures
AN5WER5

Queslion Answer Reference
1. C 7.11
2. A 7.7
3. C 7.12
4. C 7.15
5. D 7.2
6. A 7.2
7. C 7.15
8. C 7.11
9. C 7.5
10. D 7.6
11. B 7.14
12. A 7.6
145
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
CHAPTEREIGHT
APPROACHPROCEDURE5
Contents
PROCEDURE BASICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
AIIROACHIROCIDURIDISIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
OSTACLICLIARANCIHIIGHTALTITUDI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
OIIRATINGMINIMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
DISCINTGRADIINTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
TRACKRIVIRSALANDRACITRACKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
IULISHIDINIORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
RNAVAIIROACHIROCIDURISASIDONVORDMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
146
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
147
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
PROCEDUREBA5IC5
Intrnductinn. Whilst in many ways the problems associated with arrivals are similar to
lhoseassocialedvilhdearlureslherimaryconcernoflheroceduredesignerviIIinevilabIy
be terrain clearance until the pilot is in a position to land the aircraft once in visual contact with
lheunderIyinggroundTheiniliaIdesignofaninslrumenlaroachrocedureisingeneraI
diclaledbylhelerrainsurroundinglheaerodromeIlisaIsoaecledbylhelyeofoeralions
andlhelyesofaeroIaneyinglheroceduresThesefaclorsinlurninuencelhelyesand
positioning of navigation aids in relation to the runway or aerodrome. As we have already seen
fordearlureroceduresairsacereslriclionmayaIsoaecllhedesignoflherocedure
5pccdCatcgnrics nI AircraIt As vilh dearlure rocedures aircrafl seed is an
important consideration. Whist the critical speed is the speed at which the aircraft crosses the
threshold of the landing runway (V
at
aslhisviIIaecllhesacingofaircraflonlhearoach
approach speeds will determine the dimensions of the areas within which manoeuvring may
be carried out and hence the OCH calculations. The table below relates speed to the category of
the aircraft (A-E).
Aircraft
Category
Vat
Initial Approach
speed range
Final Approach
speed range
Max Speed for
Visual Circling
A <91 100
B 135
C 180
D 205
E 240
ValSeedallhreshoIdbasedonxVsoorxslaIIseedVsginIanding
conguralionalmaxcerlicaledIandingmass
* Maximum speed for track reversal or racetrack procedures
Minimum 5cctnr A!titudcs M5ATcrmina! Arriva! A!titudcs TAA For each
aerodromeMSATAAareeslabIishedlorovidealIeaslmflobslacIecIearancevilhin
nmoflhenavigalionaidIAIorIIassocialedvilhlhearoachroceduresforlhalaerodrome
MSATAA is shovn on aII inslrumenl Iales and viII be lhe Iovesl aIlilude ermied al lhe
aroriale x normaIIy lhe aIlilude al vhich lhe rocedure beginsAn arriving aircrafl is
ermiedlodescendbeIovMSAonIyvhenlheaerodromeandunderIyinglerrainarevisibIe
and viII remain so lhe aircrafl is under radar conlroI being radar veclored or lhe aircrafl is
yingaubIishedaroachrocedure
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148
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
MSA as shown on the ILS/DME
plate for London/Luton
The altitude is shown in
thousands and hundreds of feet
i.e 22 is 2200ft
The segments shown relate to
the aircraft track i.e. the NW
segment will include all arrival
route tracks between 090 and
180 mag terminating at the LUT
NDB

Typcs nI Prnccdurc roadIy inslrumenl rocedures are dened in lerms vhal


guidanceisrovidedICAOdeneslheseas
IrecisionIroceduresrunvayaroachCalegoriesIIIIII
NonrecisionIroceduresaerodromearoach
Prccisinn. A precision approach procedure gives accurate track guidance (azimuth)
duringlhenaIaroachsegmenlandinformalionconcerningheighlabovelhelhreshoIdof
the runway (elevation). In all cases external equipment is required to provide the necessary
dala y ying lhe required lrack and gIide alh vilhin lhe required accuracy of haIf scaIe
deeclion of lhe course devialion indicalor CDI lhe aircrafl is kel vilhin a rolecled area
vhich ensures lerrain cIearance above OCAH lhroughoul lhe rocedure ILS MLS and
Precision Approach Radar (PAR) are examples of equipment that can be used as part of a
recision aroach syslem In lhe USA GLS GIS Ianding syslems are nov in use and rsl
indicalions are lhal accuracy in lhe order of cm lo lhe cenlreIine are achievabIe In lhe
designoflherocedureazimulhandeIevalionrequiremenlsobslacIecIearanceisimIicilif
the descent path (glide path) is adhered to. Because a precision approach terminates at the
touchdown point (or at the commencement of a missed approach) it is often referred to as
a runway approach. For a precision approach the pilot is required to calculate the height on
lhenaIaroachalvhichheshemuslmakeadecisioneilherloIandorgoaroundylhe
missed aroach rocedure This is caIIed Decision AIlilude Heighl DAH and reecls
the Operators declared aerodrome operating minima (covered in Operational Procedures).
GuidanceonlhecaIcuIalionofDAHisconlainedinlheOeralionsManuaIDAHisdened
aslhesecicaIliludeorheighlinarecisionaroachalvhichamissedaroachmuslbe
initiated if the required visual reference to continue the approach has not been established. The
Operator is also required to specify the required visual criteria in the Operations Manual.
PrccisinnCatcgnricsIlmuslbeemhasisedlhalalDAHiflhearoachhasbeen
ovn correclIy lhe aircrafl viII be al lhe Iace il shouId be and musl lherefore be safe and
furlherdescenlaIonglrackmuslaIsobesafeiflhevisibiIilyvaserfecllheaeroIanevouId
beallhesameIaceandheighlandlhearoachvouIdbeconlinuedanyvayIxcelvhere
lhesyslemgroundequimenlandaeroIaneequimenlermilsbIindIandinglheIaer
slageoflhenaIaroachviIIbeovnvisuaIIylheiIolviIIneedvisuaIreferencelocomIele
lheIandingInorderloaccomIishlhisaminimumRVRisrequiredandaIsoavisuaImeans
ofmainlaininglhecenlreIineoflherunvayonceonlhegroundAslechnoIogyhasadvanced
syslems secicaIIy ILS have become more accurale in lrack and heighl guidance The use
of on board computer systems (FMS) to interpret received data and to control the aeroplane
means that the visual element can be reduced to the minimum. ILS systems are categorised by
accuracyofoeralionThecalegoriesareasfoIIovsbulbevarelhereareanomaIiesbelveen
ICAO and JAR OPS requirements. System Minima is discussed in section 8.31 below. For Air
|igurc
149
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
LavonIylheICAOrequiremenlsareexaminabIeTheICAOcalegoriesare
Cat I SyslemMinimamflDHmlhanflandRVRnolIess
than 550m or ground visibility not less than 800m
Cat II SyslemMinimamflDHmflbulmfland
RVR not less than 350m
CatIIIANosyslemminimaDHmflornoDHandRVRnolIesslhan
200m
Cat IIIB No syslem minima DH m fl or no DH and RVR Iess lhan
200m but more than 50m
Cat IIICNosyslemminimanoDHandnoRVRrequiremenls
Nnn Prccisinn. Where there is no ground equipment that can provide height
eIevalion dala lo lhe aircrafl lhe rocedure is dened as nonrecision aIlhough lhe lrack
guidance accuracy may be as good as that required for precision. Non recision rocedures
can be established where track guidance is provided by VOR or ND or by lrack guidance
elements of precision systems i.e. ILS localiser only or PAR in azimuth only. Another type of
non precision system is surveillance radar on a reduced range scale (SRA). Because there is
no reference to touchdown for non precision procedures and the procedures always terminate
abovelouchdovnlheroceduresaresomelimesreferredloasaerodromearoachrocedures
Indeed some rocedures are secied for aroach lo lhe aerodrome foIIoved by a circIing
manoeuvrecomIyingvilhdenedvisuaIcrilerialoIandinadireclionolherlhanlhaloflhe
straight in approach. This is known as Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) and is discussed in detail
in chapter 9.
Visua! Apprnach In aII cases once eslabIished on naI aroach lhe iIol has lhe
olion lo conlinue lhe aroach visuaIIy roviding of course lhal heshe has lhe necessary
visuaIcrileriaseciedbylheoeralorThisisnolVIRIliscomIelinglheIIRrocedure
visuaIIyUnIessCalIIICaIieslheiIolviIIneedsomeformofvisuaIcrileriaanyvaysoif
lhecrilerionisoblainedalmiIesfromlouchdovnvhalislhedierence
Cnmp!cting thc Prnccdurc. Once an instrument procedure has been commenced
the pilot must complete the procedure as published unless given contrary instructions by
ATCIveniflhenaIaroachisovnvisuaIIylherequiremenlsoflheroceduremuslbe
complied with. An instrument approach ends with either a successful landing or completion of
lhemissedaroachrocedureInanyevenliflherocedureisabandonedaflerassinglhe
IAIlhemissedaroachroceduremuslbeovnslarlingfromlheMAIlvilhlheaircrafl
cIimbinglolheaIliludeseciedforlhemissedaroachassoonasossibIelhisviIIusuaIIy
belhehigheslMSAorlheIoveslaIliludeseciedforcommencinglherocedureallheIAI
Limitatinns. An instrument approach shall not be continued beyond the outer marker
xorifnoOMisrovidedlheequivaIenlosilionincaseofrecisionaroachorbeIov
mflabovelheaerodromeincaseofnonrecisionaroachunIesslhereorledvisibiIily
or conlroIIing RVR is above lhe secied minimum If afler assing lhe ouler marker x or
equivaIenl osilion in case of recision aroach or afler descending beIov m fl
above lhe aerodrome in case of nonrecision aroach lhe reorled visibiIily or conlroIIing
RVRfaIIsbeIovlheseciedminimumlhearoachmaybeconlinuedloDAHorMDAH
If the required visual criteria are then obtained at DH the aircraft may be landed.
150
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
APPROACHPROCEDUREDE5IGN
PrnccdurcRcquircmcnts An instrument approach procedure requires the aeroplane
lo be ovn in safe airsace In order lo remain in safe airsace lhe required lrack of lhe
aeroplane must be achievable and the altitude limitations which need to be applied must be
commensurate with what is trying to be achieved. As the procedure takes the aeroplane closer
lo lhe runvayaerodrome and cIoser lo lhe ground lhe safely Iimilalions musl be increased
nolreIaxedUnliIDsaleIIilenavigalionlechnoIogyisvideIyavaiIabIeandrovedreIiabIe
the system of guidance in azimuth and elevation will rely on ground based equipment which
has inherent errors. Providing the error tolerances are known and the design of the procedure
delaiIinglheighlalhlobeovnlakeslheerrorloIerancesinloaccounllherocedureviII
beuseabIeIldoesofcourserequirelheiIolorlheauloiIollobeabIeloylheaeroIane
lo lhe required basic accuracy lo kee lhe aeroIane in lhe airsace secied The rocedure
viII dene lracks lo be made good lherefore lhe iIol musl make aIIovance for lhe vind
An inslrumenl aroach rocedure has ve searale segmenls each of vhich has a secic
uroseIachoflhevesegmenlsbeginsandendsaladesignaledxIlishoveverossibIe
forsegmenlslobeginalseciedoinlsifnoxisavaiIabIeIorinslancelhenaIaroach
segmenlofarecisionaroachmaybeginallheoinlofinlerseclionoflheinlermedialeighl
altitude and the glide path.
Prnccdurc5cgmcntsAnaroachrocedureconsislsofvearlsorsegmenlsThese
are:

The Arrival Segments or Route (see 8.17 below)
The Initial Segment (see 8.18 below)
The Intermediate Segment (see 8.19 below)
The Final Segment (see 8.20 below)
The Missed Approach Procedure (see 8.44 below)
5traightin Apprnach Wherever ossibIe a slraighlin aroach viII be secied in
vhicheachsegmenlisaIignedvilhlheexlendedrunvaycenlreIineHoveveranonrecision
aroachmaysecifylhenaIaroachlrackconverginglolherunvayheadingalanangIe
oforIessInaIIcaseslheroceduresdeiclsliIIairlracksandiIolsarerequiredlomake
aIIovanceforlhevindlomakegoodlheseciedlrackIflerrainorolherreslriclionsrecIude
aslraighlinaroachacircIingaroachviIIbesecied
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151
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
Physica! Charactcristics nI 5cgmcnts. The vertical cross section of each segment is
divided into primary and secondary MOC areas. Full obstacle clearance is applied over the
rimaryareareducinglozeroallheouleredgesoflhesecondaryareas
Procedure
Centre Line
Primary
MOC area
Secondary
MOC area
Secondary
MOC area
MOC
(300m or
600m)
Reducing
MOC
of total
of total
of total
Total width
Assumed lowest flight
path
FixcsandFixAccuracyThexesusedininslrumenlroceduresaregeneraIIybased
ondalafromradionavigalionaidsieVORThexmaybeanonloloabeaconoraoinl
denedbyaDMIrangeonaseciedradiaIvayoinlInanyevenllheaccuracyoflhex
is of paramount importance because the width of the MOC area will be based upon this. For
onloxeslhelyeofaidisaIimilingfaclorIorinslanceaVORisdesignedlogiveaccurale
track guidance but is quite poor in giving an on top indication due to the size of the cone of
confusion over lhe beaconAn ND on lhe olher hand gives a beer on lo bul lhe lrack
guidanceisvorseWhereanaccuraleonloisrequiredielheoulermarkerofaCATILSa
MHzorZorfanmarkerisusedvhichisdesignedsecicaIIyforlhaluroseWherea
xisseciedusinginformalionfromlvosearalesyslemsieVORradiaIandDMIrangelhe
inaccuraciesofeachsyslemmuslbeaggregaledlodeneaxloIeranceareaIndelermining
lheaccuracyofxeslhefoIIovingbearingerrorisassumed
VOR 4.5
ILS Localiser 1.4
ND
NDB
NDB
Required Fix
Bearing Error
Fix
tolerance
area
|igurcCnaracicrisiicscjscgncnis
|igurc
152
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
Track GuidanccAccuracy. The width of the MOC area is also dependant upon the
accuracy of the track guidance provided by the navigation aids used. The track accuracy for the
variousaidsisdenedasfoIIovs
VOR 5.2
ILS Localiser 2.4
ND
Arriva! Rnutc5cgmcnt. The arrival segment begins at the point the aircraft departs
from the en-route airways system to begin the instrument arrival. This will normally be a radio
navigalionfaciIilyIflhisisnmormorefromlheaerodromeaslandardarrivaIrouleSTAR
viIIbeseciedTheSTARIalebeIovshovslhearrivaIroulesforLondonHealhrovfrom
the northwest (via the Ockham (OCK) VOR). If the distance is less than 25 nm then the aircraft
will route directly from the point of leaving the airway to the facility serving as the IAF for the
rocedureIneilhercaselheenrouleMOCisaIiedandlheaIliludeseciedforlheaircrafl
to be over the IAF is not below the highest MSA for the aerodrome. It is usual for aircraft to be
radarvecloredfromaconvenienloinllolhenaIaroachlrack
|igurc
153
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
Initia!5cgmcnt. InlheiniliaIsegmenllheaircraflisdirecledloaoinlalvhichlhe
intermediate segment can be intercepted. It starts at the IAF and ends at the IF. Aircraft speed and
conguralionviIIdeenduondislancefromlheaerodromeandanyneedfordescenlMOC
in the initial segment is 300m (984ft). Track guidance is normally provided with a maximum
intercept angle to the IF of 90 for a precision approach and 120 for a non-precision approach.
IflrackguidancelolheIIisnolavaiIabIeaDRsegmenlmaybeseciedIorlheDRsegmenl
lheinlercelionangIelolheinlermedialesegmenllrackmuslbenogrealerlhenandlhe
IenglhoflheDRlracknomorelhannmWhereaslraighlinaroachisnolfeasibIeorlhere
isnosuilabIeremoleIAIorIIalrackreversaIracelrackorhoIdingaernisrequired
IF
OM
90 max
IAF
IF
OM
120 max
IAF
|igurc|A|ic||prccisicnapprcacn
|igurc|A|ic||ncnprccisicnapprcacn
154
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
DME Range
VOR
IF
OM
45 max
IAF
10 nm max
DR Fix
DR segment
Intcrmcdiatc5cgmcntThisislhesegmenlinvhichlheaircraflseedandconguralion
isad|usledloreareforlhenaIaroachDescenlinlhissegmenliskelloaminimumIl
slarlsallheIIandendsallheIAIIfnoIAIexislsilendsvhenlheaircrafliseslabIishedon
lhenaIinboundlrackTheMOCinlheinlermedialesegmenlreducesfrommallheIIlo
150m at the end of the segment.
Fina!5cgmcntThebeginningoflhenaIsegmenldeendsuonlhelyeofaroach
andlheavaiIabiIilyofasuilabIeIAIInlhissegmenllheaircraflisnaIIyconguredaIignmenl
with the runway takes place and descent for landing is commenced.
NnnPrccisinnwithFAFIoranonrecisionrocedurevilhaIAIlhenaIsegmenl
slarlsallheIAIandendsallheMAIlTheIAIviIIbeosilionedonlhenaIaroachlrack
aladislancefromlhelhreshoIdoflheIandingrunvaylhalermilsaircraflconguralionfor
naI aroachIanding and descenl from lhe inlermediale aIlilude lo lhe MDAH MOC is
incororaledinlhecaIcuIalionofMDAHTheolimumdislanceoflheIAIfromlhelhreshoId
isnmandlhemaximumisnmTherequireddescenlgradienlshouIdbeflnmarox
AsledovnxmaybeincororaledforobslacIecIearanceurosesinvhichcaselvo
OCAHvaIuesviIIbeubIished
NnnPrccisinnwithnutFAF. This situation will normally occur at an aerodrome where
there is only one facility on or near the aerodrome that is used as both the IAF and the MAPt. In
lhiscaseilisunIikeIylhallhenaIaroachlrackviIIbeaIignedvilhlherunvaycenlreIine
andlhereforedescenlloMDAHviIIbemadevhenlheaircrafliseslabIishedinboundonlhe
naIaroachlrack
PrccisinnApprnachIorILSMLSlhenaIsegmenlbeginsallheIinaIAroachIoinl
(IAIThisisdenedaslheoinlinsaceonIocaIisercenlreIineorlheseciedMLSazimulh
where the intermediate approach altitude intercepts the nominal glide path. This can occur at
heighlsbelveenmflandmflvhichinlhecaseofaflnmgIidealh
viIIbebelveennmandnmfromlouchdovnMOCisincIudedinlhecaIcuIalionforDAH
bulrequireslheiIolloylheaircraflvilhnomorelhanhaIfscaIedeeclionoflheCDIAl
someoinlduringlhenaIsegmenlaxviIIbeseciedvheregIidealhinformalioncanbe
veried
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155
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
Cnnstant Apprnach 5!npc 5tabi!iscd Apprnach Primarily for the avoidance of
vake lurbuIence searalion bul aIso for economy and noise abalemenl a rocedure knovn
as stabilised approach has been developed. The procedure requires the aircraft to depart from
lheIAIanddescendalaconslanlraleflminlhroughoullherocedureWakelurbuIence
separation (see chapter 16) is only applicable between approaching aircraft where the second
aircraflisallheaIliludeasorvilhinflbeIovlherecedingaircraflSobyensuringlhal
the subsequent aircraft is always above the preceding aircraft there is no requirement for wake
lurbuIence searalion ConlroI of lhe rale of descenl is achieved by aircrafl ailude negaling
lhe need for over changes lhus reducing noise AIso by seing a conslanl over minor
economyinfueIusageisachievedvhichvhenmuIliIiedbylhelolaIoflheoeralionmay
well represent a considerable economic and environmental saving.
MisscdApprnachInlheevenllhallhenecessaryvisuaIcrileriaisnoloblainedalDA
HorMDAHlhenaIarlofaninslrumenlrocedureermilsarelurnlolheIAIforanolher
aemlorloeslabIishlheaircraflonadearlureroIelogoloanolheraIlernaleaerodrome
Missed approach is covered in detail at section 8.44.

OB5TACLECLEARANCEHEIGHTALTITUDE
Obstac!cC!caranccA!titudcHcightOCAH. During the development stage of the
designofarocedurelheOCAHisdelerminedbylheaulhorilyoflheslalelhroughsurvey
ThisviIIbelheheighlaIliludealorabovevhichanaircraflmuslbeovnloavoidlhedominanl
obstacle. It will consist of the height of the obstacle plus the minimum obstacle clearance (MOC)
allowance. This information will be published on the instrument procedure plate and is aircraft
calegorydeendanlOCAHislheIovesllhalMDAHcanbe
DAH Inr Prccisinn Apprnach Prnccdurc This is dened as lhe Iovesl aIlilude or
height at which a missed approach must be initiated to ensure compliance with the appropriate
obstacle clearance criteria. The reference datum for a precision approach is always the threshold
of the landing runway.
OCAHInrNnnprccisinnApprnachThisisdenedaslheIoveslaIliludeorheighl
below which the aircraft cannot descend without infringing the appropriate obstacle clearance
criteria. For non precision procedures the reference datum is the aerodrome elevation or the
elevation of the relevant runway threshold (if the threshold is more than 2 m (7 ft) below the
aerodrome elevation).
OCAH Inr Visua! Manncuvrc Circ!ing VMC This is dened as lhe Iovesl
aIlilude or heighl above lhe aerodrome eIevalion beIov vhich lhe aircrafl cannol descend
without infringing the appropriate obstacle clearance criteria. It is based on the highest obstacle
in the VM(C) area with respect to the aerodrome elevation.
OPERATINGMINIMA
Opcrating Minima In accordance vilh Annex and }AROIS lhe oeralor is
required lo ensure lhal lhe aerodrome minima are secied for aII aerodromes used in lhe
oeralion Iarl of lhis ensures lhal in aII cases DAH or MDAH is caIcuIaled laking inlo
accounl lhe OCAH ubIished and lhe uer margin The uer margin is secied by lhe
oeralor and may be zero in vhich case DAH or MDAH vouId be lhe same as OCAH Il
lakesinloaccounldalalhalisvariabIeinnalureielhecrevquaIicalionlheOATanomaIies
inlheconguralionoflheinslrumenlsyslemelc
156
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
5ystcmMinimaToensurelhallheminimaarereaIislicandgivesucienlbuerlo
aIIovforanomaIiesforeachmelhodofconduclinganinslrumenlaroachaminimumheighl
abovelhedalumisseciedbeIovvhichanaroachisnolermiedloconlinuevilhoullhe
necessary visual reference. This height is known as system minima and overrides a lower DH
orMDHIorinslancelhesyslemminimumforaCATILSisflIfOCHIuslheuer
marginforaCATILSaroachiscaIcuIaledalfllhensyslemminimumvouIdrevaiI
andDHvouIdbeflIfonlheolherhandDHiscaIcuIaledalfllhenaslhisishigher
lhansyslemminimumDHremainsflIorAirLavlhesludenlisonIyrequiredloknov
lhesyslemminimaforILSCATsIIIIIINolelhalforCATIIIDHcanbezerolhereforesyslem
minimum for CAT III must also be zero.
Category 5ystcmminimum
CAT I 60m (200ft)
CAT II 30m (100ft)
CAT III NolaIicabIe

Ca!cu!atinnnIDAH The diagrammatic representation of the method of calculation
ofDAHisshovnbeIov
MSL
Threshold elevation
Height of the highest obstacle or the highest
missed approach obstacle (whichever is higher)
Obstacle clearance altitude/height (OCA/H)
Decision altitude/height (DA/H)
D
A
D
H
O
C
A
O
C
H
Margin
Dependant upon the aircraft approach
speed, height loss and altimetry and is
adjustable for steep glide paths and high
level aerodromes
Margin or lower limit
Based on operational consideration of ground/airborne equipment
characteristics, crew qualifications, met conditions, aerodrome
characteristics, terrain profile (rad alt), pressure error
Identification of obstacles is dependant upon: category
of operation; ILS geometry; aircraft dimensions; missed
approach climb gradient; missed approach turn point;
use of autopilot (CAT II ops only)
|igurc|CAOsqsicnnininajcr
ILS.
|igurcMcinc!cj!cicrniningOAHjcrprccisicnapprcacncs
157
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
5pccic Data Inr IL5ML5 In delermining lhe crileria for DAH for ILSMLS olher
dala needs lo be laken inlo accounl and requiremenls secied Wing san and lhe verlicaI
dislancebelveenlhevheeIsandlheGIaeriaIIimilalionsareseciedasfoIIovs
Aircraft
category
Wing Span
(m)
Vertical distance between the
wheels and the GP aerial
H 30 3
A 60 6
CD 65 7
D
L
80 8

Note:CaicgcrqO
L
nas|ccninc|u!c!iccaicrcrincACaicgcrqHrcjcrsicHc|iccpicrs
Other criteria for ILS include:
CATIisovnvilhressureaIlimeler
CATIIisovnvilhradioaIlimelerandighldireclor
Missed approach climb gradient is 2.5%
GIidealhangIeisminimumandmaximumCATIIIIIrequires
Ca!cu!atinnnIMDAH The diagrammatic representation of the method of calculation
ofMDAHisshovnbeIov
|igurcMcinc!cj!cicrniningOAHjcrncnprccisicnapprcacncs
|igurcIiniiaiicnsjcr|IS
158
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
Ca!cu!atinnnIMDAHInrVMC The diagrammatic representation of the method of
caIcuIalionofDAHisshovnbeIov
DE5CENTGRADIENT5
DcsccntGradicnt. The design of procedures must allow adequate space for descent
fromlheubIishedheighlcrossinglhefaciIilylolherunvaylhreshoIdThisisachievedby
establishing a maximum allowable descent gradient for each segment of the procedure with
lhemoslcrilicaIbeinglhenaIsegmenlvherelhreshoIdseedorlheabiIilylodeceIeralelo
ilviIIbeafunclionofgradienlTheolimumdescenlgradienlinlhenaIaroachshouId
nol exceed mkm arox flnm vhich is equivaIenl lo a gIide alh Where a
sleeergradienlisnecessarylhemaximumermissibIeismkmflnmvhichis
equivalent to a 3.8 glide path). In the case of a precision approach the operationally preferred
gIidealhangIeisandlhisismandaloryforCATIIIIIAnILSGIinexcessofisusedonIy
where an alternative means of satisfying obstacle clearance requirements is impractical.
High Ratc Dcsccnts. Gradients over 6.5% may result in descent rates exceeding the
recommendedmaximumraleofdescenlforsomeaircraflIiIolsyingsucharoachesshouId
beavareoflhisbeforeslarlinglhearoachHighraledescenlsarenolermiedasameans
of avoiding noise abatement procedures. Where GPs greater than 6.5% are established (i.e.
alLondonCilylheaulhorilyoflheslaleinvhichlheaerodromeissilualedmusl
givesecicarovaIlheoeralormuslbearovedlocarryoulhighraledescenlsseciaIIy
approved aircraft must be used and pilots specially trained.
|igurcMcinc!cj!cicrniningOAHjcrcirc|ingapprcacncs
159
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
TRACKREVER5ALANDRACETRACK5
Rcquircmcnt If a slraighl in aroach is nol ossibIe or feasibIe a rocedure may
be established using a facility on the aerodrome that serves both as the IAF and the MAPt. In
lhiscasesomeformoflrackreversaIrocedureviIIberequiredinvhichlheaircraflisovn
oulboundfromlhefaciIilyonadenedlrackandlhenlurnedloyinboundbacklovardslhe
facility. This may be a procedure turn or a base turn.
PrnccdurcTurnArocedurelurnisdenedasalurnfromoulboundloinboundin
vhichlhelracksovnarerecirocaITherearelvolyes
PrnccdurcTurn. This requires track guidance to a point (timed or DME) where
a 45 turn is made followed by a straight leg of either 1 minute (category A or B aircraft) or 1
minuleandsecondscalegoryCDandIAllheendoflhelimedIegaralelurnismade
through 180 to bring the aircraft into a position intercept the reciprocal of the outbound track
at an interception angle of 45.
CAT A and B = 1 min
CAT C, D and E =
1 min 15 sec
45/180 Procedure Turn
|igurcTrackrctcrsa|prccc!urciurn
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160
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
PrnccdurcTurn. This requires track guidance to a point (timed or DME) where
an 80 rate 1 turn is made followed immediately by an opposite direction 260 rate 1 turn. In still
airlhisshouIdbringlheaircraflonlolherecirocaIoflheoulboundlrackAIsoinsliIIairlhe
procedure should take exactly 2 minutes.
80/260 Procedure Turn
Start of turn defined
by fix or may be timed
|igurcPrccc!urciurnsncuncnanapprcacnp|aic
|igurcprccc!urciurn
161
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
Base TurnWhereaccuraleoulboundlrackguidancecanberovidedbyanNDor
VORabaselurncanbeseciedvherelheinboundlrackisnot the reciprocal of the outbound
lrackTheseciedoulboundlrackisfoIIovedloaredelerminedoinlalvhicharalelurn
is made so that the aircraft rolls out on the required inbound track.
Base Turn
End of outbound leg may be
timed or defined by DME
|igurcBasciurnsncuncnanapprcacnp|aic
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162
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
RacctrackPrnccdurc. A racetrack consists of a turn from the inbound track through
allhefaciIilyoraxaflervhichlheoulboundIegisovnloaoinldenedbylimeor
axalvhichanolherlurnlhroughismadelobringlheaircraflbackonlolheinbound
lrack Il is used vhere aircrafl are required lo enler a hoIding aern rior lo commencing
lhe inslrumenl rocedure and vhere lhe orienlalion of lhe hoIding aern does nol ermil
eilherarocedurelurnorabaselurnlobeusedIlviIInormaIIybeseciedasanaIlernale
rocedureandsecicinslruclionsviIIbeincIudedonlheIale
NormaI reversing
turn procedure
Orientation of hoIding
pattern does not permit a
procedure turn or base turn
'Racetrack' is an extension of the outbound Ieg
to a defined fix, where an inbound turn is
commenced
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
7 0 0
7 0 0
7 0 0 7 0 0
7
0
0
7
0
0
7
0
0
7
0
0
4
0
0
4
0
0
4 0 0 4 0 0
400 400
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
3
0
0
R603
2000
SFC
KIRKNEWTON
1861
1900
1037
1759
1644
1617
807
1024
1000
LEITH LEITH
ADDISTON
824
10NM
1008
(898)
314
(204)
518
(408)
450
(340)
615
(505)
1510
(1400)
557
(447)
798
(688)
1050
(940)
436
(326)
304
(194)
246
(136)
678
(568)
721
(611)
433
(323)
520
(410)
314
(204)
314
(204)
388
(278)
388
(278)
508
(398)
374
(264)
364
(229)
364
(254)
365
(255)
365
(255)
517
(407)
518
(408)
518
(408)
259
(149)
2
4
3

0
6
3

2
4
3

2
4
3

D12 D12
IAF
I-TH 108.90
D
(Ch 26X)
ith
555706N 0032223W
123'
EDN 341
edn
555842N 0031703W
0
6
3
LHA 3000
1 MIN
LHA 3000
1 MIN
D9
D1
5600N 5600N
003 30W 003 30W 003 00W 003 00W
Annual Rate
of Change 0.17E
V
A
R

4
.
4

W

-

2
0
0
6
MAX IAS FOR
PROCEDURE
IS 210KT
Procedure not available
without DME I-TH or radar
|igurc|accirackprccc!urc
|igurc|acciracksncuncnanapprcacnp|aic
163
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
MI55EDAPPROACH5EGMENTANDPROCEDURE
ThcPrnccdurcIflhenecessaryvisuaIcrileriaisnoloblainedaldecisionheighlDHA
orminimumdescenlheighlMDHAoralanylimeduringlheinslrumenlaroachrocedure
lhallheiIolisunabIeloconlinuelhearoachlheinslrumenlrocedurerequireslheiIol
lo y a missed aroach This rocedure is aIvays delaiIed on lhe inslrumenl Iale logelher
with the loss of RTF procedure. The published information will always include a climb to at
IeaslMSAandassoonaslheiIoleIeclsloylhemissedaroachrocedureacIimblolhal
aIliludeshouIdbeinilialedIflheaircraflisaIreadyallhalaIliludeilshouIdbemainlained
The climb gradient for the procedure is normally 2.5%. A missed approach procedure consists
of three phases:
Initial missed approach
Intermediate missed approach
Final Missed approach
Initiating thc Prnccdurc Thc Initia! Phasc The initial missed approach begins at
the missed approach point (MAPt) and ends where the climb is established. The manoeuvre
inlhishasenecessilaleslheaenlionoflheiIoloneslabIishinglhecIimbandlhechangesin
aeroIaneconguralionlogellheaircraflavayfromlhegroundvilhincreasingaIliludeIor
lhisreasonguidanceequimenlcannolnormaIIybefuIIyuliIisedduringlhesemanoeuvresand
lhereforenolurnsareseciedinlhishaseThemissedaroachisassumedlobeinilialed
nol Iover lhan lhe DAH in a recision aroach or al a secied oinl in nonrecision
aroachrocedurenolIoverlhanlheMDAHWhenlheMAIlisdenedbyreferencelo
a navigalionaI faciIily or a x for inslance lhe middIe marker lhe dislance from lhe IAI lo
lheMAIlisnormaIIyubIishedasveIIandmaybeusedforliminglolheMAIlInaIIcases
vhere liming is nol lo be used lhe rocedure is lo be annolaled liming nol aulhorised for
deninglheMAIlTheMAIlmaybedenedinarocedureas
|igurcTnrccpnascscjincnissc!apprcacn
164
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
TheoinlofinlerseclionoflhegIidealhvilhlheaIicabIeDAH
A navigational facility
Ax
AsecieddislancefromlheIAI
NavigatinnIfuonreachinglheMAIllherequiredvisuaIreferenceisnoleslabIished
the procedure requires that a missed approach be initiated at once in order for protection from
obslacIeslobemainlainedIlisexecledlhallheiIolviIIylhemissedaroachasubIished
InlheevenllhalamissedaroachisinilialedriorloarrivingallheMAIlilisexecledlhal
the pilot will proceed to the MAPt and then follow the missed approach procedure in order
lo remain vilhin lhe rolecled airsace This does nol recIude ying over lhe MAIl al an
aIliludeheighlhigherlhanlhalrequiredbylherocedure
IntcrmcdiatcPhascThisislhehaseinvhichlhecIimbisconlinuednormaIIyslraighl
aheadbullurnsulovilhinlheslraighldearlurecrileriaareermiedTheMOCinlhis
segmenlismandlhesegmenlexlendslolhersloinlvheremflobslacIecIearance
is obtained and can be maintained. The climb gradient in this sector is 2.5% paralleling the
OIS.
Fina!PhascThenaIhasebeginsallheoinlvheremflobslacIecIearance
isrsloblainedandcanbemainlainedIlexlendslolheoinlvhereanevaroachhoIding
orarelurnloenrouleighlisinilialedIuIIlurnsmayberescribedinlhishase
PUBLI5HEDINFORMATION
Tcrmina!Apprnach P!atcs. Information concerning instrument arrivals is published
on Terminal Arrival Plates (usually referred to just as plates). The plates shown here are the
UK CAA plates for the London Luton self positioned ILS for runway 08. The design of the
plate meets the requirement of ICAO Annex 4. Commercially produced plates are available
}eesenAeradelcandsomeoeralorsroducelheirovnAnICAOIaleviIInolshov
aerodromeoeralingminimaaslhisislheresonsibiIilyoflheoeralorlodelerminenollhe
state.
165
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
|igurc
166
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
|igurc
|igurc
167
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
RNAVAPPROACHPROCEDURE5BA5EDONVORDME
Basic Assumptinn. RNAV rocedures based on VORDMI are non recision
procedures. It is assumed that the reference facility is composed of a VOR and co-located DME
equimenlAircrafl equied vilh RNAV syslems aroved by lhe aulhorily of lhe Slale of
lheOeralormayuselhesesyslemslocarryoulVORDMIRNAVaroachesrovidinglhal
beforeslarlingaighlilisensuredlhal
TheRNAVequimenlisserviceabIe
The pilot has current knowledge how to operate the equipment so as to achieve
lheolimumIeveIofaccuracyand
The ubIished VORDMI faciIily uon vhich lhe rocedure is based is
serviceable.
DataInscrtinnErrnrs. The procedures require a computer to handle the data and this
has to be programmed with current promulgated data. This is inserted by the operator or
lhecrevandlhesyslemhasnomelhodofcheckingforinulerrorsThereforelhecomuled
osilionaIinformalionresenledouluedlolhecrevmayveIIconlainerrorsinducedinlo
the system.
AccuracyThefaclorsaeclingaccuracyoflheVORDMIRNAVsyslemare
Ground station tolerance
Airborne receiving system tolerance
Flight technical tolerance
System computational tolerance
Distance from the reference facility
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Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
TheequimenlmaybeusedvhencarryingoulconvenlionaInonRNAVinslrumenlrocedures
providing the procedure is monitored using the basic display normally associated with that
rocedureandlheloIerancesforusingravdalaonlhebasicdisIayarecomIiedvilh
169
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
QUE5TION5
1. What radius from a terminal VOR is MSA provided?
a. 25nm.
b. 10nm.
c. 15nm.
d. 15km.
2. What is the climb gradient required during the intermediate segment of a missed approach?
a. 5.5%.
b. 2.5%.
c. 0.8%.
d. 3.3%.
ArecisionAroachIrocedureisdenedas
a anaroachusingbearingeIevalionanddislanceinformalion
b. an approach with a crew of at least 2 pilots trained for such operations.
c. an instrument approach procedure utilising azimuth and glide path information
provided by an ILS or a PAR.
d anaroachusingbearingeIevalionandolionaIIydislanceinformalion
4. The MOC in the primary area of the intermediate approach segment:
a. is not more than150 m.
b. reduces from 300 m to 150 m.
c. is equal to or greater than 300 m.
d. is 500 m in mountainous terrain.
5. What is the optimum distance of the FAF from the threshold?
a. 1 nm.
b. 5 nms.
c. 10 nms.
d. 15 nms.
IoraslraighlinnonrecisionaroachlheMDAHviIIbenolIesslhan
a OCHA
b. 200 ft.
c. 350 ft.
d. 400 ft.
7. What is the maximum interception angle which is allowed to the intermediate approach segment
from the initial approach segment for a non-precision approach?
a. 30.
b. 45 .
c. 120.
d. 15.
170
Chapter 8
Approach Procedures
8. An instrument approach is made up of a number of segments. How many of them are there?
a. 4
b. 5
c. 3
d. 6
OnarecisionaroachvheredoeslhenaIaroachsegmenlslarl
a. DH
b. FAF
c. FAP
d. MAPT
OnaninslrumenlaroacharloflherocedureenabIeslheaircrafllorelurninboundfrom
oulboundvilhlracksovnbeingrecirocaIThisiscaIIed
a. base turn.
b. procedure turn.
c. reverse procedure.
d. racetrack.
WhichcalegoriesofaircraflylheIegofarocedurelurnforminule
a AandC
b. A only.
c. A and B.
d CDandI
On an inslrumenl aroach vhal is lhe maximum ermissibIe descenl gradienl in lhe naI
approach?
a. 3.
b. 5%.
c. 6.5%.
d. 4.5.
IorlheinlermedialeseclionofamissedaroachvhalislheminimumobslacIecIearance
a. 30m.
b. 100m.
c. 50m.
d. 120m.
DuringaniniliaIaroachvhalislhelurnbelveenlheoulboundlrackandlheinboundlrack
vherelhelracksovnarenolrecirocaI
a. Reverse turn.
b. Race track.
c. Procedure turn.
d. Base turn.
171
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
15. What are the Cat 2 ILS criteria for instrument runways?
a RVRm DHnolbeIovfl
b RVR DHnolbeIovfl
c RVR DHnolbeIovfl
d RVR DHnolbeIovfl
16. When is OCH for an ILS approach complied with?
a NolmorelhanscaIegIidealhandfuIIscaIeIocaIiserdeeclion
b NolmorelhanscaIeIocaIiserdeeclion
c NolmorelhanscaIegIidealhandIocaIiserdeeclion
d NolmorelhanfuIIscaIegIidealhandscaIeIocaIiserdeeclion
17. What is the MOC for the intermediate missed approach segment?
a. 30m.
b. 50m.
c. 120m.
d. 300m.
18. In which stage of an instrument approach do you align with the runway?
a. Initial segment.
b. Final segment.
c. Arrival segment.
d. Intermediate segment.
WhalareICAOdenedinslrumenlaroaches
a NonrecisionandCATIIIIIIrecision
b. Precision in general.
c IrecisionCATIIIIII
d InslrumenlrecisionandCATIIIII
20. Within what angle of the extended centre line of a runway is a non-precision approach considered
to be straight in?
a. 10.
b. 15.
c. 30.
d. 40.
21. What is the name of the phase of an instrument approach in which the aircraft is aligned with
the runway and descent commenced?
a. Final.
b. Initial.
c. Intermediate.
d. Arrival.
172
Chapter 8
Approach Procedures
22. At what point does the intermediate phase of a missed approach end?
a WhenmelresobslacIecIearanceisaainedandcanbemainlained
b WhenmelresobslacIecIearanceisaainedandcanbemainlained
c WhenmelresobslacIecIearanceisaainedandcanbemainlained
d WhenmelresobslacIecIearanceisaainedandcanbemainlained
TheIegofarocedurelurnforaCalCaircraflis
a. 1 min.
b. 1 min 15 seconds.
c. 1 min 30 seconds.
d. continued until interception of the glide slope.
IsilermiedloyoverlheMissedAroachIoinlalanaIliludehigherlhanMDA
a Yes
b Never
c. Sometimes.
d Ildeendsonlheighlcondilions
Ioraninslrumenlaroachlhemissedaroachgradienlis
a. 3%.
b. 3.3%.
c. 5%.
d. 2.5%.
OnarecisionaroachILSlheOCHAisbasedamongolherslandardcondilionsonlhe
verlicaIIimilsbelveenlheighlalhoflhevheeIsandlhegIidealhanlennaIoraCalegory
C aircraft this should not be more than:
a. 6 m.
b. 7 m.
c. 3 m.
d. 12 m.
WhalislhelurnfromoulboundloinboundcaIIedvherelhelracksovnarenolrecirocaI
a. Base turn.
b. Procedure turn.
c. Reversal procedure.
d. Racetrack procedure.

WhenfoIIovinganinslrumenlrocedurelheiIolmusl
a. calculate the track required and request ATC clearance to follow it.
b ylheheadingvilhoulvindcorreclion
c ad|usllhelrackseciedloaIIovforlhevind
d ylheheadinglomakegoodlherequiredlrackaIIovingforlhevind
173
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
29. Where does the initial phase of a missed approach procedure end?
a. From where a new instrument approach can be commenced.
b. Where 50 ft obstacle clearance is obtained and can be maintained.
c. Where a climb is established.
d. At the missed approach point.
WhodelerminesOCAH
a. The operator.
b Theighloeralionsdearlmenl
c. The authority of the State.
d. The Commander.
31. What does an approach plate not include?
a. OCH.
b ILSDMIfrequencies
c. Obstacles infringing the OIS.
d AerodromeoeralingminimaforlheuseoflheaerodromeasanaIlernaleaerodrome
if higher than normal.
32. The VAT for a Category B aircraft is:
a. up to 91 kts.
b. 90 to 121 kts inclusive.
c. 141 to 165 kts inclusive.
d. 91 to 120 kts inclusive.
OCHcIearanceonILSisgivenrovidedlheaccuracyovnonlheIocaIiserisvilhin
a scaIedeeclion
b scaIedeeclion
c scaIedeeclion
d scaIedeeclion
34. Where does the initial sector of a missed approach procedure end?
a. When a height of 50m has been achieved and maintained.
b. When established in the climb.
c. At the missed approach point.
d. When en-route either to the hold or departure.
WhenusingaDRsegmenllolakeuanILSinslrumenlaroachvhalislhemaximumIenglh
of the track that may be used to intercept the localiser?
a. 10 nms.
b. 5 nms.
c. 10 minutes.
d. 5 minutes.
174
Chapter 8
Approach Procedures
36. The obstacle clearance surfaces for an ILS assume a pilot localiser accuracy of:
a. scale.
b scaIe
c. 1 scale.
d scaIe
37. The abbreviation OCH means:
a. obstacle clearance height.
b obslruclioncoIIisionheighl
c. obstruction clearance height.
d obslacIeconrmalionheighl
WhalislhedescenlgradienlinlhenaIsegmenlforanILSCATIIaroach
a. Between 2.5 and 3.5.
b. 3%.
c. 3.
d Uloflnm
39. What are the 5 segments of an instrument approach?
a IniliaIInlermedialeDescenlIinaILanding
b ArrivaIIniliaIInlermedialeIinaIMissedAroach
c IniliaIInlermedialeIinaILandingMissedAroach
d ArrivaIIniliaIInlermedialeIinaILanding
40. The minimum sector altitude gives an obstacle clearance of 300 metres within a certain radius
from the navigation aid on which the instrument procedure is based. This radius is:
a. 15 nms (28 kms).
b. 30 nms (55 kms).
c. 25 nms (46 kms).
d. 20 nms (37 kms).
41. What is the minimum ground visibility for a CAT I ILS approach?
a. 800m.
b. 550m.
c. 50m.
d. 550 ft.
42. Where does the initial approach segment begin in an instrument approach procedure?
a. At the IF.
b. At the IAF.
c. At the FAF.
d AllhenaIenroulex
175
Chapter 8 Approach Procedures
43. If the track on an instrument departure is published the pilot is expected to:
a. correct for the known wind so as to stay within controlled airspace.
b. ask ATC for another heading to steer correcting for wind.
c. ignore the wind and proceed with a heading equal to the track.
d. ask ATC for permission to correct heading for wind.
UndervhichcircumslancesmayanaircraflonaslraighlinVORaroachconlinuebeIov
MDAH
a. When it seems possible to land.
b. When the aircraft is in contact with the ground but does not have the runway in sight.
c WhenlheaircraflhaslhenecessaryvisuaIcrileriaseciedbylheoeralor
d. When the tower is visible.
45. What is the obstacle clearance in the primary area of the intermediate approach segment while
on the instrument approach?
a. 300m (984 ft).
b mfl
c. 300m (984 ft) reducing to 150m (492 ft).
d mfl
46. What is the MOC in the primary area of the initial segment of an approach?
a. At least 150m.
b. At least 300m.
c. 300m.
d. 150m.
47. When can an aircraft descend below MSA?
TheaireIdandunderIyinglerrainarevisibIeandviIIremainso
2.) The aircraft is under radar control.
3.) The underlying terrain is visible.
4.) The aircraft is following an approach procedure.
a and
b and
c and
d and
176
Chapter 8
Approach Procedures
AN5WER5

Queslion Answer Reference Queslion Answer Reference
1. A 8.3 29. C 8.45
2. B 8.44 30. C 8.26
3. C 8.5 31. D 8.49
4. B 8.19 32. D 8.2
5. B 8.21 33. D 8.5
6. A 8.28 34. B 8.45
7. C 8.18 35. A 8.18
8. B 8.12 36. B 8.5
9. C 8.23 37. A 8.26
10. B 8.39 38. C 8.36
11. C 8.40 39. B 8.12
12. C 8.36 40. C 8.3
13. A 8.19 41. A 8.6
14. D 8.42 42. B 8.18
15. A 8.6 43. A 8.11
16. C 8.5 44. C 8.8
17. A 8.47 45. C 8.19
18. B 8.20 46. C 8.18
19. A 8.4 47. D 8.3
20. C 8.13
21. A 8.20
22. B 8.47
23. B 8.40
24. A 8.46
25. D 8.44
26. B 8.33
27. A 8.42
28. D 8.11
177
Chapter 9 Circling Approach
CHAPTERNINE
CIRCLINGAPPROACH
Contents
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
RIVISIONQUISTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
178
Chapter 9 Circling Approach
179
Chapter 9 Circling Approach
INTRODUCTION
Gcncra!. Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) (VM(C)) is the term used to describe the visual
haseofighlaflercomIelinganinslrumenlaroachlobringlheaircraflinloosilionfor
landing on a runway not suitably located for a straight-in approach. Any instrument procedure
recisionornonrecisionmaybeusedbullhedescenlinlhenaIsegmenlviIIbeloMDAH
forVMCasdenedandcaIcuIaledinTherocedureisdenedasnonrecisiononIy
despite the type of approach.
Visua!F!ightManncuvrcAcircIingaroachisavisuaIighlmanoeuvrekeeinglhe
runvayinsighlIachcircIingsilualionisdierenlbecauseofvariabIessuchasrunvayIayoul
naI aroach lrack vind and meleoroIogicaI condilions Therefore lhere can be no singIe
rocedurelhalviIIcalerforeverysilualionAfleriniliaIvisuaIconlacllhebasicassumlionis
lhallherunvayenvironmenllherunvaymarkingsIighlsoraroachIighlingelcviIIbe
kelinsighlvhiIealMDAHforcircIingTherecommendedmaximumseedsforVMCare
seciedinlhelabIeonage
The Visua!ManncuvringCirc!ingArcaVMCisonIyermiedinlheVMCarea
This is determined for each category of aircraft by drawing arcs related to aircraft manoeuvring
speed centered on each runway threshold and joining those arcs with tangential lines. The
radius of the arcs is related to:
Aircraft category
Speed (for each category)
Wind speed (assumed as 25kts throughout the turn)
Bank angle (20 or rate 1 whichever requires less bank)
Prnhibitcd 5cctnr. The area may be sectored and VM(C) may be precluded from a
arlicuIarseclorvhereunreaIislicMDAHforVMCvouIdolherviseexislInlhiscaselhe
published information will specify the sector and the restriction.
R
R
R
R
Visual Manoeuvring
(Circling) Area
R is based on aircraft
category and speed
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180
Chapter 9 Circling Approach
MisscdApprnachWhi!cCirc!ing. If visual reference is lost while circling to land from
aninslrumenlrocedurelhemissedaroachseciedforlheinslrumenlaroachrunvay
must be followed. It is expected that the pilot will make a climbing turn towards the landing
runvayandvhenoverheadlheaerodromelheiIolviIIeslabIishlheaircraflcIimbingonlhe
seciedmissedaroachlrack
VM(C) missed approach - fIy the procedure for
the instrument runway not the Ianding runway
Make a cIimbing turn towards the centre of the
instrument runway and then commence the
missed approach from there
During VM(C) the
threshoId of the
Ianding runway
must be kept in
sight. If visuaI
contact is Iost, a
missed approach
must be fIown.
Missed approach track
VM (C) track
OCAH Inr Visua! Manncuvring Circ!ing The labIe beIov shovs lhe OCAH for
visuaI manoeuvring circIing and lhe minimum visibiIily for lhe rocedure evare lhese
are lhe ICAO dala and are dierenl from lhe }AROIS dala vhich is required Iearning for
Operational Procedures.
AircraIt
Category
Obstac!c
Clearance
MIt
LnwcstOCHabnvc
acrndrnmcc!cvatinnmIt
Minimum
visibility km
nm
A 90 (295) 120 (394) 1.9 (1.0)
B 90 (295) 150 (492) 2.8 (1.5)
C 120 (394) 180 (591) 3.7 (2.0)
D 120 (394) 210 (689) 4.6 (2.5)
E 150 (492) 240 (787) 6.5 (3.5)
|igurc
|igurcOCAHjcrtisua|nanccutringCirc|ing
181
Chapter 9 Circling Approach
182
Chapter 9
Circling Approach
QUE5TION5
1. During Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) what is the maximum airspeed for a Cat B aircraft?
a. 120 kt.
b. 125 kt.
c. 150 kt.
d. 135 kt.
WhenlheVMCareahasbeeneslabIishedlheobslacIecIearanceaIliludeheighlOCAHis
determined for:
a aIIcalegoriesofaircraflandilislhesameforaIIoflhem
b eachcalegoryofaircraflandilmaybedierenlforeachoflhem
c. only for categories A and B aircraft.
d. only for categories C. D and E aircraft.
3. It is permissible to eliminate from consideration a particular sector where a prominent obstacle
exislsinlhevisuaImanoeuvringcircIingareaoulsidelhenaIaroachandmissedaroach
areasWhenlhisolionisexercisedlheubIishedrocedure
a rohibilsacircIingaroachlolheaecledrunvay
b. prohibits circling within the sector in which the obstacle exists.
c. permits circling only in VMC.
d recommendslhalcircIingisnolcarriedoulinlheaecledseclor
4. A circling approach is:
a aighlmanoeuvreerformedonIyunderradarvecloring
b aighlmanoeuvrevherevisuaIconlaclvilhlheunderIyinglerrainismainlained
c. a visual manoeuvre keeping the runway in sight.
d. a visual manoeuvre only conducted in IMC.
ThelermusedlodescribelhevisuaIhaseofighlaflercomIelinganinslrumenlaroach
to bring an aircraft into position for landing on a runway which is not suitably located for a
slraighlinaroachiscaIIed
a. a contact approach.
b lheaerodromelracaern
c. visual manoeuvring (circling).
d. a visual approach.
IfvisuaIreferenceisIoslvhiIecircIingloIandfromaninslrumenlaroachilisexecledlhal
the pilot will make a climbing turn towards the:
a. landing runway.
b. MAPt.
c. FAF.
d naImissedaroachlrack
183
Chapter 9 Circling Approach
IfconlaclisIoslvilhlherunvayonlhedovnvindIegofacircIingmanoeuvrevhalaclions
should be taken?
a TurnlovardslheinnermarkerforlherunvayinusemainlainingcircIingaIlilude
b. Initiate a missed approach.
c. Turn 90 towards the runway and wait for visual contact to be re-established.
d IfyouolhervisuaIcuesconlinuelhearoach
8. Visual circling for a category B aircraft is to be conducted in visibility not less than:
a. 1500m.
b. 1600m.
c. 2800m.
d. 5000m.

184
Chapter 9
Circling Approach
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. D 8.2
2. B 9.6
3. B 9.1
4. C 9.2
5. C 9.1
6. A 9.5
7. B 9.5
8. C 9.6
185
Chapter 10 Holding Procedures
CHAPTERTEN
HOLDINGPROCEDURE5

Contents
HOLDINGIROCIDURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
INTRYSICTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
ATCCONSIDIRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
OSTACLICLIARANCI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
186
Chapter 10 Holding Procedures
187
Chapter 10 Holding Procedures
HOLDINGPROCEDURE5
Intrnductinn. Holding is the equivalent to temporary parking areas for aeroplanes.
CIearIyunIessyouareyingarolorcraflyoucannolslobulyoucanremainhoIdinlhe
vicinily of a radio navigalion faciIily for as Iong as is required fueI ermiing Iroviding
you can y lhe aeroIane accuraleIy and navigale vilh reference lo a radio navigalion aid
VOR ND or a x osilion hoIding is a feasibIe olion for Iosing lime Indeed in bad
vealherorallimesofeaklracovyouviIIbeIuckylogelaslraighlinaroachAII
inslrumenlarrivaIsslarlfromahoIdingaerneslabIishedallheIAIInahoIdingaern
aircraflareslackeduoneonloofanolhervilhlhenecessaryverlicaIsearalionaIied
flAslheboomaircrafldearlslhehoIdingaernloylhearoachrocedurelhe
olhersaboveareshuIeddescendedinlheslackloaIoverIeveIonealalime
Dcviatinn warning Il musl be noled lhal devialions from lhe inighl rocedures
for holding incur the risk of excursions beyond the perimeters of holding areas established in
accordancevilhlherovisionsofIANSOISTheroceduresdescribedinIANSOISreIale
lo righl lurn hoIding aerns Ior Iefl lurn hoIding aerns lhe corresonding enlry and
holding procedures are symmetrical with respect to the inbound holding track.
5hapcandTcrminn!ngyTheshaeofhoIdingaernsandlheassocialedlerminoIogy
is shovn beIov A slandard hoIding aern has slarboard righl lurns If orl lurns are
required lhe aroach Iale viII be annolaled lo indicale lhe facl A Iefl hand aern is a
mirrorimageoflheslandardaern

Holding Side
Non Holding Side
Inbound
Outbound
Fix or facility
Fix End Outbound End
Abeam
d
All turns at rate 1
or 25 bank
angle whichever
d = 1 min in still air at 14 000 ft
and below; and 1 min above 14 000 ft
|igurcHc|!ingpacrnicrninc|cgq
188
Chapter 10 Holding Procedures
F!yingthcPacrnInyinglhehoIdingaerndescribedaIIlurnsarelobemadeal
anangIeofbankoforalaraleofersecondralevhicheverrequireslheIesserbank
AIIlheroceduresdeicllracksandiIolsshouIdaemllomainlainlhelrackbymaking
allowance for known wind by applying corrections both to heading and timing during entry
andvhiIeyinglhehoIdingaernOulboundlimingsbeginoverorabeamlhexvhichever
occursIalerIflheabeamosilioncannolbedelerminedslarllhelimingvhenlhelurnlo
oulbound is comIeled The oulbound lrack shouId be ovn for minule al fl and
beIov and minules above fl If lhe oulbound Ieg is based on a DMI dislance lhe
oulboundIeglerminalesassoonaslheIimilingDMIdislanceisaainedIfforanyreason
aiIolisunabIeloconformloroceduresfornormaIcondilionsATCshouIdbeinformedas
soonasossibIeHoIdingaernsarelobeovnalseedsgiveninlhelabIebeIov
Lcvc!s

Nnrma!Cnnditinns Turbulence Conditions


up to 4250m (It) inclusive
kmhkt)
2
kmhkl
4
kmhkl
3
kmhkl
4
above 4250 m (It) to
6100 m (It) inclusive
kmhkt)
5
kmhkl
or
above 6100 m (20 000 ft) to
mflincIusive
kmhkl
5
Machvhicheveris
less
3
abovemfl 0.83 Mach 0.83 Mach
Ncics
1 Tnc |ctc|s ia|u|aic! rcprcscni a|iiiu!cs cr ccrrcspcn!ing igni |ctc|s !cpcn!ing upcn inc
a|iincicrscinginusc
2 Wncn inc nc|!ing prccc!urc is jc||cuc! |q inc iniiia| scgncni cj an insiruncni apprcacn
prccc!urcprcnu|gaic!aiaspcc!nigncrinanknnkiincnc|!ingsncu|!a|sc|c
prcnu|gaic!aiinisnigncrspcc!uncrctcrpcssi||c
Tncspcc!cjknnkiMacnrcscrtc!jcriur|u|cnccccn!iiicnssna|||cusc!jcr
nc|!ingcn|qajicrpricrc|caranccuiinATCun|cssincrc|ctanipu||icaiicnsin!icaicinaiinc
nc|!ingarcacanacccnnc!aicaircrajiaiincscigninc|!ingspcc!s
|crnc|!ings|iniic!icCATAan!Baircrajicn|q
Wncrctcrpcssi||cknnkisncu|!|cusc!jcrnc|!ingprccc!urcsasscciaic!uiin
airuaqrcuicsiruciurcs
|igurcHc|!ingspcc!s
189
Chapter 10 Holding Procedures
ENTRY5ECTOR5
Intrnductinn There are lhree melhods of |oining a hoIding aern based on lhe
headingoflheaircraflasilaroacheslhehoIdingxaseduonlhisheadinglhreeseclors
are dened vilh secic rocedures aroriale lo each elveen each seclor lhere is a
exibiIily area eilher side of lhe dening heading vilhin vhich lhe iIol has lhe choice of
aIicabIe|oiningrocedureThelhreeseclorsareiIIuslraledbeIovIoreaseofdenilionlhe
enlryroceduresbeIovreIaleloaslandardrighlhandaern
N
Inbound
310Mag
130Mag
110
70
SECTOR 1
SECTOR 2
SECTOR 3
Each sector has +/- 5'Iatitude'
060Mag
240Mag
310Mag
5cctnrPara!!c!EntryPrnccdurcHavingreachedlhexlheaircraflislurnedIefl
onto an outbound heading to make good a track reciprocal to the stated inbound holding
track. This is maintained for the appropriate period of time relating to the altitude of the
aircraflandlhenlheaircraflislurnedIefllorelurnlolhexOnlhesecondlimeoverlhex
lheaircraflislurnedrighllofoIIovlhehoIdingaern
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190
Chapter 10 Holding Procedures
5cctnrOsctEntryPrnccdurcHavingreachedlhexlheaircraflislurnedonlo
the heading to make good the track diverging 30 left of the reciprocal of the inbound holding
track. This is maintained for the appropriate period of time relating to the altitude of the
aircraflandlhenlheaircraflislurnedrighlonlolhehoIdinglracklorelurnlolhexOnlhe
secondlimeoverlhexlheaircraflislurnedrighllofoIIovlhehoIdingaern
5cctnrDircctEntryPrnccdurcHavingreachedlhexlheaircraflislurnedrighl
lofoIIovlhehoIdingaern

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191
Chapter 10 Holding Procedures
ATCCON5IDERATION5
C!carancctnJninAslhehoIdingaernviIIbeinconlroIIedairsaceandusedfor
conlroIIed ighlsATC usuaIIy lhe aroach conlroIIer viII ass anATC cIearance lo lhe
iIolvilhinslruclionslolakeulhehoIdingaernThecIearanceviIIsecifylheIocalion
oflhehoIdlobeuseddelaiIsoflhehoIdingaernunIessroulineIyubIishedlhehoIding
level and any special requirements.
GCOnc|!aiOX|Icxpccic!apprcacniinc
Hc|!OX|IGCO
Followed by:
Oxjcr!ApprcacnGCOiscsia||isnc!inincnc|!ai|I
The pilot is required to ensure that the aircraft is level at the holding level at least 5 nm before
reachinglhehoIdingxThecIearanceviIIbeacknovIedgedandlheATCOviIInolexecl
to hear from the pilot again until the aircraft has completed the joining procedure and is
eslabIishedinlhehoIdingaern
DcsccndinginthcHn!dWhenlheIeveIbeIovisvacanllheATCOviIIrecIearlhe
pilot to the lower level. The pilot will acknowledge the clearance and immediately commence
descent.
NcicSnu|cisac|in|ingcr!csccn!ingnanccutrcinanc|!ingpacrn
GCOsnu|cinincnc|!ic|I
Icating|I!csccn!ingic|IGCO
Followed by:
GCO|ctc||I
Dcparting thc Hn!d Al lhe aroriale lime lhe ATCO viII inslrucl lhe iIol lo
commence lhe inslrumenl rocedure Il is usuaI lo Ieave a hoIding aern al lhe x bul
where radar is used the Approach Radar controller may vector the aircraft from any position
inlhehoIdingaernTyicaIIyacIearancevouIdbeasfoIIovs
GCOa!tiscuncnrca!qicccnncnccincprccc!urc
|ca!qicccnncnccincprccc!urcGCO
GCOsciincOxjcr!QNHc|carNOBOM|apprcacnrunuaqrcpcri
iurningin|cun!aiji
scic|carNOBOM|runuaqui|ccGCO
Under certain circumstances (timed approaches) the ATCO will clear the aircraft to depart the
hoIdingaernalaseciclimelocommencelherocedureInlhiscaselheiIolshouId
ad|usllhehoIdingaernIegIenglhslodearllheaernfromoverheadlhehoIdingxas
close as possible to the stated clearance time.
192
Chapter 10 Holding Procedures
OB5TACLECLEARANCE
Hn!dingArca. The instrument procedure designer will ensure that the MOC (300m
orminmounlainouslerrainisaIiedlhroughoullhehoIdingareaThisviIIincIude
lhe hoIding aern and any necessary ad|acenl airsace lhal vouId be used during a
|oiningrocedure The size oflhe hoIdingarea viII deenduon lhe nalureoflheaern
lhe lye of aircrafl using lhe hoId ad|acenl airsace requiremenls and maximum hoIding
aIliludeSurroundinglhehoIdingareaabuerzonenmvideiseslabIishedvilhinvhich
decreasingMOCisaIiedfromfuIIMOCallheboundaryvilhlhehoIdingarealozeroal
the extremity.
Fig 7.11.8a Holding and Buffer Areas
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193
Chapter 10 Holding Procedures
194
Chapter 10
Holding Procedures
QUE5TION5
ArocedureloaIlerIeveIinahoIdingaernisknovnas
a shuIe
b. procedure turn.
c. base turn.
d. racetrack.
UnIessolherviseubIishedorinformedbyATCaflerenleringahoIdingaernaIIlurnsare
made:
a. to the left.
b. to the left then right.
c. to the right.
d. procedure turn right then left.
InahoIdingaernlurnsarelobemadeal
a raleoflurnsec
b raleoflurnsecorbankangIevhicheverisIess
c raleoflurnsecorbankangIevhicheverisIess
d. 25 bank angle.
WhalislheIongesllimeyoucanylheoselIegofa|oiningrocedure
a minules
b minules
c. 3 minutes.
d. 30 seconds.
195
Chapter 10 Holding Procedures
196
Chapter 10
Holding Procedures
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. A 10.10
2. C 10.3
3. C 10.4
4. A 10.4
195
Chapter 11 Altimneter Setting Procedures
CHAPTERELEVEN
ALTIMETER5ETTINGPROCEDURE5
Contents
ALTIMITIRSITTINGIROCIDURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
ASICCONCIITS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
ALTIMITIRSITTINGO}ICTIVIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
TRANSITION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
PHASES OF FLIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
196
Chapter 11 Altimeter Setting Procedures
197
Chapter 11 Altimneter Setting Procedures
ALTIMETER5ETTINGPROCEDURE5
BA5ICCONCEPT5
Intrnductinn In order lo ensure searalion and lo make sure lhal vhen ying an
instrument procedure the aircraft is actually at or above the procedure design minimum
aIlilude il is essenliaI lhal lhe aircrafl aIlimeler sub scaIe is correclIy sel lo lhe aroriale
referenceressureHisloryisIieredvilhaccidenlscausedbyincorreclaIlimelerseingand
desilelhebeslinlenlionsoflheAirTracConlroIIerslhebasicresonsibiIilyremainsvilh
lheiIolloensurelhalvhaleverheshedoesvilhanaircraflilmuslbesafe
Tcrrain Avnidancc. During instrument departure or arrival procedures the aircraft
muslbeovnaccordinglolheubIishedighlroIeUnliIlheaircraflisaloraboveasafe
inaIIcasesaIliludelheaIlimelermuslbereferencedlomeanseaIeveIsolhallheiIolknovs
exactly how high the aircraft is. All obstacles shown on approach and departure plates are
referencedloseaIeveIandIikeviseaIIaIliludesrequiredbylheroceduresareaIsoreferenced
lo sea IeveI As sea IeveI ressure QNH varies geograhicaIIy and lhe lerrain avoidance
robIemisgeograhicinnalurelhereferenceseingmuslbeaIocaIQNH
LnwcstUscab!cF!ightLcvc!ThisislheighlIeveIlhalcorresondsloorisimmedialeIy
abovelheeslabIishedminimumighlaIlilude
ATC5cparatinnOnceabovelhesafeinaIIcasesaIliludelherobIemceaseslobe
lerrain avoidance and becomes avoidance of olher air lrac In lhis case il essenliaI lhal aII
aircraflhavealIeasloneaIlimelerreferencedlolhesamesubscaIeseingsolhalaslandard
separation can be applied regardless of the sea level pressure. According to ICAO ISA the
average barometric pressure is 1013.25 hPa and this (when rounded down to 1013 hPa) is
denedaslheSlandardIressureSeingSIS
ALTIMETER5ETTINGOBJECTIVE5
Ob|cctivcsThelvomainob|eclivesofaIlimelerseingroceduresarelo
Irovide adequale lerrain cIearance during aII hases of ighl eseciaIIy
departure and arrival.
Provide adequate vertical separation between aircraft
A!timctcr 5ub5ca!cscings Thereare lhree aIlimeler sub scaIe seingslhalcan be
applied at any aerodrome. These are:
QNH. This is the observed barometric pressure at an aerodrome adjusted in
accordance with the ISA pressure lapse rate to indicate the pressure that would be observed
if lhe observalion vas carried oul al sea IeveI If QNH is sel on lhe aIlimeler subscaIe lhe
altimeter would read aerodrome elevation at touchdown.
QFE. This is the observed barometric pressure at an aerodrome which if set on the
aIlimelersubscaIelheaIlimelervouIdreadzeroallouchdovn
198
Chapter 11 Altimeter Setting Procedures
STANDARD PRESSURE SETTING 1013 mb
ALTITUDE
4,000 ft
FLIGHT
LEVEL
FL 45
ELEVATION
HEIGHT
(PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
4,500 ft)
QNE A silualion can occur vhere lhe QNH is beIov lhe Iovesl aIlimeler subscaIe
seingIorinslanceiflheaIlimelersubscaIeviIInolreadbeIovhIaandlheQNHis
hIailvouIdaearlhallheaIlimelerisuseIessIfhoveverlheaIlimelersubscaIeisselloa
slandardseingeghIalhenilvouIdbeossibIelocaIcuIalevhallheaIlimelervouId
read al louchdovn vhere lhe QNH is hIa and lhe aIlimeler subscaIe is sel lo hIa
using the ICAO ISA. Assume that the aerodrome elevation is 100ft AMSL. On touchdown the
altimeter will read:
amounlofressurevoundon
xflISAinlervaIflflfl
InlhiscaseflislheQNIAiIolvouIdbeinslrucledbylheATCO
GCDselIandvilhQNI
ThereisaouIarmisconcelionamongsliIolslhalQNIishIaWhenusedasareference
asoosedloaQNHhIaisdenedaslandardressureseingSISThereforeQNIis
what the altimeter will read at touchdown with SPS set.
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199
Chapter 11 Altimneter Setting Procedures
TRAN5ITION
DcnitinnAfler lake o lhe aIlimeler seing viII be changed from QNH lo SIS al
someoinlLikeviseinlhedescenlloIandlheaIlimelerviIIbeselloQHNfromSISalsome
point. The process that allows this to be done safely and at a logical point is called transition.
ThisrequireslheaIliludeorILalvhichlhisisdonelobeseciedTheaIliludeabovelhe
aerodromeforchangefromQNHloSISiscaIIedlhetransition altitudeandfromSISloQNH
is the transition levelWhenyingbeIovlhelransilionaIliludelheaircraflisovnalaIliludes
delerminedvilhreferenceloseaIeveIressureQNHandlheverlicaIosilionisexressed
in lerms of aIlilude Above lhe lransilion aIlilude lhe verlicaI osilion is exressed in lerms
ofighlIeveIsDuringacIimbuonreachinglhelransilionaIliludeSISisselandlhecIimb
conlinuedlolhedesiredighlIeveIInlhedescenluonreachinglhelransilionIeveIlheQNH
is then set and descent continued to the desired altitude.
F!ightLcvc!sAighlIeveIILisdenedaslheverlicaIdisIacemenloflheaircrafl
above a constant level of barometric pressure related to 1013 hPa. Flight Level Zero (FL0) is
IocaledallhealmoshericressureIeveIofhIaSubsequenlighlIeveIsaresearaledby
a pressure interval corresponding to 500 ft in standard atmosphere. Flight levels are numbered
as follows:
ILILILILelcandILILILelc
TransitinnA!titudcThisislheaIliludevilhQNHselabovelheaerodromealvhich
lheaIlimelersubscaIeisreselloSISandverlicaIosilionabovelhalislhenreorledasaighl
IeveIThelransilionaIliludeisseciedforeveryaerodromebylheAulhorilyoflheSlalein
which the aerodrome is located. The transition altitude shall be as low as possible but normally
nolIesslhanflTransilionaIliludesareubIishedinlheAIIandshovnoncharlsand
inslrumenlIalesAslalemaysecifyageneraIlransilionaIliludeasinlheUSAfl
Transition Altitude (decided by the
State) should be as low as
possible but not less than 3000 ft
QNH set
SPS set
At Transition Altitude (TAlt) change from QHN to SPS. Above TAlt
vertical displacement is a Flight Level
Transition Altitude is
published in the AIP
and shown on plates
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200
Chapter 11 Altimeter Setting Procedures
TransitinnLcvc!ThelransilionIeveIislheighlIeveIalvhichlheaIlimelerisresello
lheaerodromeQNHandsubsequenlighlisreorledvilhreferenceloaIliludeThelransilion
level is normally passed to aircraft in the approach and landing clearances. The transition level
changesvilhlheQNHIliscaIcuIaledbylheAroachConlroIIeralreguIarinlervaIsandaIso
vhenQNHchangesIlisdenedaslherslavaiIabIeighlIeveIabovelhelransilionaIlilude
This will be a rounding up from what the altimeter is reading at the transition level with SPS
set. Calculation of transition level is not required by the learning objectives.
Transition Level*
(decided by the
Approach Controller)
QNH set
SPS set
At Transition Level (T Level) change from SPS to QNH. Below T
Level vertical displacement is Altitude
T Level is the first available FL above the TAlt
* Where aerodromes are
geographically close, a
common T Level is used
QNH is passed by ATC in
approach clearances and
clearances to enter the
circuit
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201
Chapter 11 Altimneter Setting Procedures
TransitinnLaycr. This is the airspace between the transition altitude with SPS set and
lhelransilionIeveIIlisusuaIIyinsignicanlbulsomeslalesrequireaminimumdelhlolhe
transition layer. When ascending through the transition layer (with SPS set) vertical position is
reorledasaighlIeveIandvhendescendinglhroughlheIayervilhQNHselasanaIlilude
Transition Altitude
QNH set
SPS set
Set SPS
Set QNH
Ascending through T Layer = FL Descending through T Layer = Altitude
T Layer is the airspace between the T Alt and the T Level
PHA5E5OFFLIGHT
Whatshnu!dbcsctTheQNHshouIdbeassedloanaircraflinlhelaxicIearance
rior lo lakeo When ying enroule beIov lhe lransilion aIlilude lhe verlicaI osilion of
lheaircraflisreorledasaIliludeQNHselWhenoulsideoflhevicinilyoflhedearlure
aerodromeQNHfromanolhercIoseraerodromeviIIberequiredandselInlheUKvehave
asyslemofregionaIressureseingsRISvhichcoverlhiscasevilhoulreferenceloenroule
aerodromeQNHInlheUSAvhenyingcrosscounlrylheiIolviIIneedloconlaclATCal
IocaIaerodromesandudalelheaIlimelerseingreguIarIyThisviIIaIIovdelerminalionof
terrain clearance with an acceptable degree of accuracy. When en-route and above the transition
aIlilude lhe aircrafl IeveI is reorled as a ighl IeveI When aroaching an aerodrome lo
Iand lhe QNH viII be assed lo aircrafl in cIearances lo enler lhe lrac circuil NormaIIy
verlicaI osilion is reorled as a ighl IeveI unliI reaching lhe lransilion IeveI in lhe descenl
hoveverafleranaroachcIearancehasbeenissuedreferenceshouIdlhenbemadeinlerms
ofaIliludevilhlheQNHselThisisinlendedloaIyrimariIylolurbineaircraflforvhich
an uninterrupted descent from high altitude is desirable.
Usc nI QFE If a iIol decides lo remain in lhe aerodrome lrac circuil lhe visuaI
circuillhroughoullheighllhenlheaIlimelermaybeselloQII
Mu!tip!cA!timctcrs. If the aircraft has more than one altimeter the law requires that
oneaIlimelermuslbeselloQNH
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202
Chapter 11 Altimeter Setting Procedures
Pi!ntOpcratnrPrnccdurcsIiIolsandoeralorsarerequiredloIanlherouleand
comIyingvilhlheruIesofaslaleandlhegeneraIighlruIesareloseIeclanarorialeIIR
orVIRighlIeveIforlheighlInseIeclingighlIeveIsforaighllhoseseIecled
ShouIdensureadequalelerraincIearancealaIIoinlsaIonglheroule
Should satisfy ATC requirements
and
Should be compatible with the table of cruising levels in Chap. 6
TheserviceabiIilyandaccuracyoflheaIlimelershouIdbeconrmedriorlolhecommencemenl
ofaighlWilhknovIedgeoflheaerodromeeIevalioninlhecaseofQNHlheaIlimelershouId
be sel lo eilher QNH or QII The inslrumenl shouId lhen be vibraled avoiding laing lhe
gIassloensurelhallheinslrumenlhasreacledlolhemechanicaIad|uslmenlofseinglhesub
scale. A serviceable altimeter will indicate:
TheheighloflheaIlimelerabovelhereferenceoinlQII
or
The elevation of the position of the aeroplane plus the height of the altimeter
above lhegroundQNH
A!timctcrAccuracy. Altimeters are to be checked for correct operation within the
following tolerances:
IIusorminusflmforaleslrangebelveenfl
or
IIusorminusflmforaleslrangebelveenfl
ApprnachandLandingeforecommencinganaroachloanaerodromelheiIol
islooblainlhelransilionIeveIeforedescendingbeIovlhelransilionIeveIlheIaleslQNH
for lhe aerodrome is lo be oblained This does nol recIude a iIol using QII for lerrain
cIearance uroses during lhe naI aroach lo a runvay ATC may cIear an aircrafl lo be
oeraledusingQNHvhenabovelhelransilionIeveIifsorequiredforlheuroseofdescenl
inaccordancevilharescribedrocedureienolforIeveIighlWhenanaircraflvhichhas
beengivencIearanceasnumberoneloIandisusingQIIlocomIelelhearoachOCHislo
beeslabIishedvilhreferenceloheighlabovelheaerodromedalumforlhalorlionoflheighl
On approach plates all vertical displacement is shown as both AMSL and AGL in the following
form: vilhlheAMSLgureinboIdlyeandlheAGLgureinarenlhesisThisis
a standard format and is used in all publications.
203
Chapter 11 Altimneter Setting Procedures
204
Chapter 11
Altimeter Setting Procedures
QUE5TION5
1. What should be the minimum transition altitude?
a fl
b fl
c fl
d fl
2. Determination of the Transition Level is the responsibility of:
a. the Authority of the State.
b. the ATC Authority.
c AroachConlroIoceorlheaerodromeConlroITover
d. Area Control.
When making an aroach vhen shouId a iIol change his aIlimeler sub scaIe seing from
slandardloaerodromeseingunIessolherviseaulhorisedbyATC
a. Transition altitude.
b. Transition level.
c AlflaboveseaIeveIorflAGLvhicheverishigher
d. When within the transition layer.
4. What is the transition level?
a TherslavaiIabIeighlIeveIabovelhelransilionaIlilude
b ThehigheslighlIeveIavaiIabIebeIovlhelransilionaIlilude
c. The top of the ATZ.
d. The level at which 1013 is set.
WhenduringlhearoachshouIdlhereorledaerodromeaIlimelerseingbesel
a WhenassingflAMSLorflAGL
b. When passing the transition level.
c. When passing the transition altitude.
d. Within the transition layer.
6. The vertical position of an aircraft at or below the transition altitude will be reported as:
a ighlIeveI
b. whatever the pilot chooses.
c. altitude.
d. height.
InlhevicinilyofanaerodromelhalisgoinglobeusedbylheaircrafllheverlicaIosilionof
the aircraft shall be expressed as:
a ighlIeveIalorbeIovlhelransilionIeveI
b ighlIeveIalorbeIovlhelransilionaIlilude
c. altitude above sea level at or below the transition altitude.
d. altitude above sea level at or above the transition altitude.
205
Chapter 11 Altimeter Setting Procedures
TheiIolofadearlingaircraflyingunderIIRshaIIchangelheaIlimelerseingfromQNH
to SPS when passing:
a. transition level.
b vhenseciedbyATC
c. transition altitude.
d. transition layer.
TransilionfromaIliludeloighlIeveIandviceversaisdone
a. at transition level during the climbs and at transition altitude in the descent.
b. only at transition altitude.
c. only at transition level.
d. at transition altitude during the climbs and at transition level in the descent.
DuringighllhroughlhelransilionIayerlheverlicaIosilionoflheaircraflshouIdbereorled
as:
a. altitude above mean sea level during the climb.
b ighlIeveIduringdescenl
c eilheraIliludeabovemeanseaIeveIorighlIeveIduringlhecIimb
d. altitude above mean sea level during descent.
WhiIslyinglhroughlhelransilionIayerlheverlicaIosilionoflheaircraflshouIdbereorled
as:
a. altitude.
b. height.
c ighlIeveI
d. it depends upon what is set on the altimeter.
206
Chapter 11
Altimeter Setting Procedures
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. A 11.22
2. C 11.23
3. C 11.23
4. A 11.23
5. B 11.23
6. C 11.20
7. C 11.20
8. C 11.22
9. D 11.20
10. D 11.24
11. D 11.24
207
Chapter 12
Parallel or Near-Parallel
Runway Operation
CHAPTERTWELVE
PARALLELORNEARPARALLELRUNWAYOPERATION
Contents
SIMULTANIOUSOIIRATIONONIARALLILORNIARIARALLILRUNWAYS . 209
MODISOIOIIRATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
SAIITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
RUNWAYSIACING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
208
Chapter 12
Parallel or Near-Parallel
Runway Operation
|igurcMc!c|n!cpcn!cnipara||c|apprcacncs
209
Chapter 12
Parallel or Near-Parallel
Runway Operation
5IMULTANEOU5OPERATIONONPARALLELORNEARPARALLELRUNWAY5
MODE5OFOPERATION
IntrnductinnTheneedloincreasecaacilyalaerodromeshandIingIIRlracinIMC
canbemelbylheuseofaraIIeIorneararaIIeIrunvaysAnaerodromeaIreadyhavingduaI
parallel precision approach (ILS or MLS) runways could increase its capacity if these runways
could be safely operated simultaneously and independently in IMC. There is increasing
ressureonma|oraerodromesIikeSlansledlobuiIdasecondaraIIeIrunvayandvirluaIIy
all new aerodrome constructions (e.g. Chek Lap - Hong Kong) are constructed with parallel
runvayconguralionsIlisaIsonoluncommonforlherunvayarrangemenlloincIudelhree
or even four parallel (or near parallel) runways and for all of them to be in operation together.
InlhisseclionlhediscussionviIIbebiasedlovardsurearaIIeIrunvayarrangemenlsbul
the procedures are the same or similar for all other arrangements. There are a variety of modes
of operation associated with parallel or near-parallel runways. All parallel runway operations
require the provision and use of Radar.
5imu!tancnus Para!!c! Instrumcnt Apprnachcs. There are two basic modes of
operation possible:
MndcIndcpcndcntPara!!c!Apprnachcs Approaches are made to parallel runways
vhere radar searalion minima belveen aircrafl using ad|acenl ILS andor MLS are nol
applied.
5cparatinn. Each pair of parallel approaches will have a high side and a low side to
provide vertical separation until aircraft are established inbound on the respective ILS localiser
course The high side viII be m fl above lhe Iov side efore verlicaI searalion
canbereducedbeIovmflbolhaircraflonasimuIlaneousaraIIeIaroachmusl
be eslabIished on lhe ILS IocaIiser cenlre Iine or MLS naI aroach lrack Once lhe m
flsearalionisreducedlheradarconlroIIerviIIissueinslruclionsiflheaircrafldeviales
signicanlIyfromlheIocaIisercourse
210
Chapter 12
Parallel or Near-Parallel
Runway Operation
MndcDcpcndcntPara!!c!Apprnachcs: Approaches are made to parallel runways
vhere radar searalion minima belveen aircrafl using ad|acenl ILS andor MLS are aIied
RegardIess of lhe vealher condilions aII aroaches are lo be radar monilored vilh radar
conlroIIerssecicaIIydelaiIedforlhaldulyonIyDedicaleddiscreleRTIfrequenciesare
loaIIocaledlolheradarconlroIIersOnIyslraighlinaroachesareermiedvilharaIIeI
runvayoeralionTrackreversaIroceduresarenolermiedDuringvecloringloinlercel
lheIocaIiserlhemaximuminlercelionangIeermiedisandaminimumofnmslraighl
andIeveIighlisrequiredbeforeIocaIiserinlercelVecloringisaIsoloensurelhallheIocaIiser
lrackisinlerceledandovnforalIeaslnmbeforegIidealhinlercelUnliIlheaircraflis
eslabIishedonlheIocaIiserlhereducedradarsearalionviIIbenm
211
Chapter 12
Parallel or Near-Parallel
Runway Operation
|igurcMc!cOcpcn!cnipara||c|apprcacncs
212
Chapter 12
Parallel or Near-Parallel
Runway Operation
Mndc5imu!tancnusInstrumcntDcparturcs. This operation is known as Mode 3
Independent Parallel Departures. It involves simultaneous departures for aircraft departing in
lhesamedireclionfromaraIIeIrunvaysAIIdearlinglracmuslbeidenliedbyradarala
distance of not more than 1nm from DER. All departure tracks must diverge by a minimum of
immedialeIyaflerlakeo

NoteWncnincnininun!isiancc|ciuccniucpara||c|runuaqsis|cssinanincspccic!ta|ucjcruakc
iur|u|cncc scparaiicn ccnsi!craiicns jcr !cpariing aircraji inc runuaqs arc ccnsi!crc! ic |c a sing|c
runuaqan!incrcjcrcasinu|ianccus!cpcn!cnipara||c|!cpariurcnc!cisnciusc!
|igurcMc!cSinu|ianccusinsiruncni!cpariurcs
213
Chapter 12
Parallel or Near-Parallel
Runway Operation
Mndc 5cgrcgatcd DcparturcsArriva!s: This operation is known as Mode 4
SegregaledIaraIIeIOeralionsInlhismodeonerunvayisusedexcIusiveIyforaroaches
and the other runway is used exclusively for departures. This is the mode of operation at London
Heathrow.

|igurcMc!cScgrcgaic!!cpariurcsarrita|s
214
Chapter 12
Parallel or Near-Parallel
Runway Operation
5cmimixcd Opcratinns In essence lhe olion for lhe use of araIIeI runvays is
lolaIIyexibIeandasilualionmayexislvhereonerunvayisusedexcIusiveIyfordearlures
vhiIelheolherrunvayaccelsamixlureofdearluresandaroachesorviceversaThere
may also be simultaneous parallel approaches with departures interspersed on both runways.
In eecl semimixed oeralions may be ermulalions of lhe four basic modes above Mosl
NorlhAmericanma|oraerodromesoeralesomekindofsemimixedoeralions
5AFETY
RadarMnnitnringIoraIIaraIIeIrunvayoeralionsradarsurveiIIanceorinsome
casesconlroImuslberovidedWilhoulradararaIIeIrunvayoeralionsaresusendedand
single runway operations resumed.
ApprnachOpcratinnsDuelolhereaIeslaleIimilalionsofaerodromesilisinevilabIe
lhallhesacingbelveenaraIIeIrunvaysviIInolbesucienlloermilnormaIATCsearalion
slandardslobeaIiedHovevervhaleverisimIemenledmuslbesafeandrovidesearalion
immedialeIysomelhinggoesvrongNormaIIyATCsearalionisrovidedeilherverlicaIIyor
horizontally and is usually based on the accuracy of navigation of the aircraft. If the accuracy
of navigalion can be imroved lhen lhe searalion slandard can be reduced in olher vords
searalioncanbelradedoagainslaccuracyofnavigalionIoraraIIeIaroachoeralions
vertical and horizontal separation standards are overruled once the aircraft concerned are
established on the localiser centre line. Mode 1 is described as independent and implies that
what happens on one runway is totally independent of what is happening on the other. Mode
2 (dependant) does roughly the same but with the addition of radar separation longitudinally
andIaleraIIyofaroachingaircraflmakingvhalhaensononerunvaydeendanluon
vhalishaeningonlheolherIecliveIyforbolhmodeslherearelvoarrivaIaerodromes
albeit very close together.
Nnrma!OpcratingZnncNOZ This is applicable to Mode 1 operations and is airspace
ofdeneddimensionsexlendingeilhersideofanILSIocaIisercourseoranMLSnaIaroach
track centre line) within which an aircraft operating normally on the ILS would be positioned.
Remember - the protected zone is encompassed by half scale deviation of the CDI and is the
required accuracy of ILS navigalion OnIy lhe inner haIf of lhe NOZ is laken inlo accounl in
independent parallel approaches.
Nn Transgrcssinn Znnc NTZ In the context of Mode 1 independent parallel
aroacheslhisisacorridorofairsaceofdeneddimensionsIocaledcenlraIIybelveenlhe
lvo exlended runvay cenlre Iines Ienelralion of lhe NTZ by an aircrafl requires conlroIIer
inlervenlionimmedialeIylomanoeuvrealhrealenedaircraflonlhead|acenlaroachoulof
lhe vay NormaIIy lhis vouId require a lurn avay from lhe olher aircrafl and an immediale
cIimbloMSAoraserlheMissedAroachIrocedureOncelhelhrealenedaircraflissafe
lheconlroIIerviIIaemlloassisllheolheraircraflregainlhearoachorcarryoullhemissed
aroachrocedureIlisarequiremenllhallheNTZmuslbealIeaslmvide
215
Chapter 12
Parallel or Near-Parallel
Runway Operation
2
7
R
2
7
L
NOZ 27R
NOZ 27L
NTZ
NOZ extends from the runway threshold to the point where
aircraft are established on the localiser centreline
Descent
point
2500ft
3500ft
NTZ extends from runway threshold closest to nearest descent
point, to point where 1000ft vertical separation is lost
Descent to
2500ft
MisscdApprnach. Simultaneous parallel operations require the missed approach track
and departure tracks to diverge by a minimum of 30. When turns are prescribed to establish
divergenceiIolsarelocommencelurnsassoonasraclicabIe
RUNWAY5PACING
Minimum 5pacing nI Para!!c! Runways. The worst case is where the runway
thresholds (or the normal rotation points) are adjacent. This means that two approaching
aircrafl for inslance viII aIvays be al lhe same aIlilude vhen al lhe same dislance from
louchdovnIfhoveverlhelhreshoIdsareslaggeredlhenadegreeofverlicaIsearalionis
introduced (likewise for departing aircraft). This situation permits closer spacing of runways
(30m reduction or increment for every 150m of overlap) as is the case for the new runway at
Manchester. The diagram below illustrates the requirements for spacing of parallel runways.
ThesludenlshouIdknovlhallheminimumsacingforModeoeralionsismforMode
2 it is 915m and for Modes 3 and 4 it is 760m.
|igurcNciransgrcssicnzcnc
216
Chapter 12
Parallel or Near-Parallel
Runway Operation
|igurc
217
Chapter 12
Parallel or Near-Parallel
Runway Operation
Manchester Airport with
new runway
Wakc Turbu!cncc Cnnsidcratinns. The full implications of Wake Turbulence are
covered in other subjects and later in these notes under the umbrella of ATC we will discuss
vake lurbuIence searalion Hovever lhe use of araIIeI runvays inlroduces robIems
concerning wake turbulence from aircraft using adjacent runways and this is a major limitation
lolheexibiIilylhalaraIIeIrunvayosfaciIilaleIecliveIyiflhesacingbelveenrunvays
isIesslhanmorlheighlalhsofdearlingorarrivinglraccrossallhesameaIliludeor
vilhinflbeIovlhehigherIeveIlhenvakelurbuIencesearalionmuslbeaIied
|igurc
218
Chapter 12
Parallel or Near-Parallel
Runway Operation
QUE5TION5
1. Independent parallel approaches may be conducted to parallel runways provided that:
a. the missed approach track for one approach diverges by at least 20 from the missed
approach track of the adjacent approach.
b. the missed approach track for one approach diverges by at least 25 from the missed
approach track of the adjacent approach.
c. the missed approach track for one approach diverges by at least 45 from the missed
approach track of the adjacent approach.
d. the missed approach track for one approach diverges by at least 30 from the missed
approach track of the adjacent approach.
2. Dependent parallel approaches may be conducted to parallel runways provided that he missed
approach track for one approach diverges by:
a. at least 45 from the missed approach track of the adjacent approach.
b. at least 25 from the missed approach track of the adjacent approach.
c. at least 15 from the missed approach track of the adjacent approach.
d. at least 30 from the missed approach track of the adjacent approach.
3. When independent parallel approaches are being conducted to parallel runways and vectoring
lo inlercel lhe ILS IocaIiser course lhe veclor shaII be such as lo enabIe lhe aircrafl lo be
eslabIishedonlheILSIocaIisercourseinIeveIighlfor
a. at least 1.5 nm prior to intercepting the ILS glide path.
b. at least 2.5 nm prior to intercepting the ILS glide path.
c. at least 2.0 nm prior to intercepting the ILS glide path.
d. at least 3.0 nm prior to intercepting the ILS glide path.
4. For parallel runways the missed approach tracks must diverge by:
a. 15.
b. 30.
c. 45.
d. 25.
WhereindeendenlaraIIeIrunvayoeralionsareinrogressvhalislhemaximumermied
interception angle to intercept the localiser?
a. 20.
b. 25.
c. 30.
d. 45.
6. The minimum distance between parallel runway centre lines for Simultaneous Independent
Parallel Approaches (Mode 1) is:
a. 915 m.
b. 760 m.
c. 300 m.
d. 1035 m.
219
Chapter 12
Parallel or Near-Parallel
Runway Operation
7. A minimum vertical separation shall be provided until aircraft are established inbound on the
ILS IocaIiser course andor MLS naI aroach lrack This minimum is vhen indeendenl
parallel approaches are being conducted:
a. 300 m.
b. 200 m.
c. 150 m.
d. 100 m.
8. A minimum radar separation shall be provided until aircraft are established inbound on the ILS
IocaIisercourseandorMLSnaIaroachlrackThisminimumisvhenindeendenlaraIIeI
approaches are being conducted:
a. 3 nm.
b. 5 nm.
c. 2 nm.
d. 2.5 nm.
9. Independent parallel approaches may be conducted to parallel runways provided that a no
lransgressionzoneNTZofalIeasl
a. 710 m is established between extended runway centre lines and as is depicted on the
radar display.
b. 510 m is established between extended runway centre lines and as is depicted on the
radar display.
c. 610 m is established between extended runway centre lines and as is depicted on the
radar display.
d. 810 m is established between extended runway centre lines and as is depicted on the
radar display.
220
Chapter 12
Parallel or Near-Parallel
Runway Operation
AN5WER5

Queslion Answer Reference
1. D 12.13
2. D 12.13
3. C 12.3
4. B 12.13
5. C 12.5
6. D 12.14
7. A 12.4
8. A 12.5
9. C 12.12
221
Chapter 13 SSR & ACAS
CHAPTERTHIRTEEN
55RANDACA5
Contents
SSRANDACAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
SICONDARYSURVIILLANCIRADARSSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
AIRORNICOLLISIONAVOIDANCISYSTIMACAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
222
Chapter 13 SSR & ACAS
223
Chapter 13 SSR & ACAS
55RANDACA5
5ECONDARY5URVEILLANCERADAR55R
Backgrnund. The technical requirements of the JAA Theoretical Knowledge syllabus for
SSRiscoveredinRadioNavigalionHoveverlheoeralionofSSRinlheATCenvironmenl
isvilhinlheremilofAirLavInlhechalersoflhesenolesconcerningATClheuseofradar
viII be discussed and il viII be imIied lhal vhere required lhe radar derived informalion
will be enhanced by the use of SSR. The modern SSR systems have been developed from the
equipment used in WWII as a means of identifying friend from foe (IFF). The basic system
vasralhercrudeeecliveIygivinglhegroundslalionaresonsefromlheaircraflindicaling
lhallheaircraflvasedvilhlhelhenhighIysecrelequimenlAsonIyfriendIyaircraflhad
the equipment the radar operator could easily distinguish a friendly aircraft radar response
from an enemy response. The airborne equipment was given the code name parrot which
explains some of the rather peculiar phraseology associated with the operation of a modern SSR
syslemCurrenlSSRsyslemsenabIeindividuaIaircrafllobeidenliedonaighlbyighlbasis
vilhlheaddilionaIfaciIiliesloassdalavialheSSRsyslemindicaleaircraflaIliludeandusing
lheredundanlcaacilyoflheSSRsyslemrovideeeclivecoIIisionavoidanceenhancemenl
CarriagcnITranspnndcrs. The airborne equipment is called a transponder (because
it transmits a response lo an inlerrogalion IANS OIS requires lhal vhere a serviceabIe
lransonder is carried in an aircrafl unIess ATC inslrucls olhervise il viII be used al aII
times. Individual states may specify certain conditions where the carriage and operation of a
lransonderismandaloryIneilhercaselheoeralionoflheequimenlviIIberegardIessof
the provision of an ATC service.
MndcnIOpcratinn The output codes of the SSR system consist of groups of 4
numbers in the range 0 - 7. The ground station (the interrogator) transmits a coded signal
lhal romls lhe aircrafl lransonder lo reIy The overaII SSR syslem has severaI dierenl
modesofoeralionTheresonseviIIbemodeAIhavilhaddilionofmodeCInaddilion
the military have other modes of operation of SSR which overlap with civilian usage. In order
lo correclIy indicale lhe required resonse code lhe mode as veII as code shouId aIvays be
secied The iIol is lo resond vilh lhe mode and code TyicaIIy a radar conlroIIer viII
request the mode and code as follows:
GCDsquavkAIhalvoonesixone
The response to this by the pilot will be (mode and code):
SquavkingAIhalvoonesixoneGCD
5quawk Idcnt. The transponder has a facility to enable the radar controller to
aulomalicaIIyidenlifylhesecicradarconlaclusingSSRolherlhanbyreIianceonlhesecic
code transmission. This facility may be activated by selection of the Ident feature on the
lransonder conlroIIer in resonse lo a requesl lo squavk Idenl IiIols are nol lo squavk
Ident except on instruction from the radar controller.
5pccia! Cndcs. Because the airborne equipment can transmit any of 4096 individual
coded resonses cerlain individuaI resonses have been aIIocaled secic meanings The
following special codes indicate:
Emergency A
Radio failure A
Unlawful interference A
224
Chapter 13 SSR & ACAS
InaddilionlhefoIIovingreservedcodeshavelhesecicmeanings
A Consicuily This is sel vhen lhe aircrafl is in an area vhere radar
isusedlorovideATSbullheiIolisnolinreceilofaserviceVIRoulside
CAS).
A In lhe absence of any ATC direclion or regionaI air navigalion
agreemenl or vhen oulside of a radar conlroIservice area This code is sel
vheneaslboundinlheNATregion
A UnserviceabIelransonderSelasdirecledbyATC
A!titudc Rcpnrting Functinn Mndc Char!ic Mode Charlie encodes and transmits
lhe aircrafl aIlilude vilh reference lo SIS hIa Whenever lhe lransonder is oeraling
mode Charlie should also be selected. At some point during the initial communications with
ATClheiIolviIIberequesledlosayaircraflIeveIforCharIieTheiIolshouIdreorllhe
aircraflIeveIinformalionaccuralelolheneareslfuIIflIromlhislheATCOviIIdelermine
lheaccuracyofmodeCharIiedalaIflhemodeCharIiedalaisvilhinfloflheslaledIeveI
mode Charlie is deemed to be accurate.
Function selector
Ident
Code selectors
Mode A Mode A + C
This transponder is set to mode
A code 3473 but is not
transmitting mode C.
Transponder FailureThefaiIureofalransonderinlheairviIIadverseIyaecllhe
quaIilyoflheATCservicerovidedWhiIsleveryeorlviIIbemadeloermillheighllo
conlinuelolhedeslinalioninaccordancevilhlheIedIIilmaybelhalATCcIearancesmay
bereslricledIfalransonderfaiIsbeforedearlureandilcannolberecliedlheiIolislo
InformATSassoonasossibIereferabIybeforelhesubmissionoflheII
IulNinilemforlheIIform
Comply with the published procedures for seeking exemption from the
requirements for the mandatory carriage of a transponder.
If required by lhe ATS aulhorily roceed direclIy lo lhe nearesl suilabIe
aerodrome where the transponder can be repaired.
|igurc
225
Chapter 13 SSR & ACAS
Cndc 5c!cctinn The referred melhod of seIeclingchanging a code is lo rsl sel lhe
olion svilch lo slandby STY and lhe seIecl lhe nev code On comIele resel lhe olion
svilchloONorALTModernSSRinslaIIalionshavelvoconlroIIersdesignaledAandvilh
asvilchlhalseIeclseilherlheAconlroIIerorlheconlroIIerInlhiscaselhenevcodevouId
be set on the controller not in use and the switch then set to that controller.
AIRBORNECOLLI5IONAVOIDANCE5Y5TEMACA5
Backgrnund. The technical details of ACAS is covered in detail in 022 03 Warning and
RecordingHoveverlheresonselolheaIerlsgeneraledbyACASisamaerforconsideralion
inAirLavasicaIIylhesyslemuseslheredundanlcaacilyoflheSSRsyslemlodelermine
the proximity of another aircraft which is operating its SSR transponder. In areas where RVSM
isaIiedlheuseofACASismandaloryandoeralorsarerequiredloensurecomIiancevilh
the requirement.
Usc nIACA5 ACAS is lo be used by iIols in lhe avoidance of olenliaI coIIisions
lheenhancemenlofsilualionaIavarenessandlheaclivesearchforandvisuaIacquisilionof
coniclinglracIlmuslbeundersloodbyiIolslhallheuseofandlheexIoilalionofACAS
aIerlsandlheroceduresaIicabIedonolreIievelheiIoloflhebasicresonsibiIilyforlhe
safelyoflheaeroIaneInaIIcaseslheiIolviIIbeexecledloexercisehisherbesl|udgmenl
and full authority in choosing the best course of action to be taken.
RcspnnsctnACA5A!crts. ACAS generated alerts consist of TracAdvisoriesTAs
and Resolution Advisories (RAs). A TA is intended to alert the pilot to the possibility of an
RAbeinggeneraledAssuchiIolsarenollomanoeuvrelheaircraflinresonseloaTAonIy
IfanRAisgeneraledlheiIolisloresondimmedialeIyunIessindoingsolhesafelyoflhe
aeroIanevouIdbe|eoardizedInanycaseslaIIvarningvindshearandGIWSaIerlsviII
have riorily overACAS IiIols musl be avare lhal visuaIIy acquired lrac may nol be lhe
cause of an RA and visual perception of an encounter may be misleading especially at night.
ATC As soon as vouId be ermied by lhe vorkIoad of lhe ighl deck crevATC
shouId be nolied of lhe RA and lhe direclion of any devialion from lhe currenl ighl Ian
OncelheconiclisresoIvedlheaircraflshouIdberomlIyrelurnedlolherequiremenlsof
lhe currenl II and again ATC informed Under some circumslance il is ossibIe lhal ATC
issues instructions that are unknowingly contrary to ACAS RAs. It is vitally important that ATC
isnoliedvhenanATCinslruclionorcIearanceisnolbeingfoIIovedbecauseilconiclsvilh
an ACAS RA.
DctcrminatinnnIAircraItLcvc!usingMndcCICAOdeneslheslandardsforIeveI
delerminalionusingModeCaIliludereorlingfunclionasgeneraIIyflHovevermosl
conlraclingslalesemIoyahigherslandardflThesecicICAOslandardsare
LeveIoccuancy ModeCindicaleslheaIIocaledIeveIfl
MainlainingaIeveI ModeCindicaleslheaIIocaledIeveIfl
Vacating a level: Mode C indicates that the aircraft is more than 300 ft from the
previously allocated level
Passing a level: Mode C indicates that the aircraft is within 300 ft of a
seciedIeveIinlhecIimbordescenl
Reaching a level: Mode C indicates that the aircraft is within 300 ft of the
allocated level at the completion of a climb or descent
226
Chapter 13
SSR & ACAS
QUE5TION5
WhenacknovIedgingmodecodeseinginslruclionsiIolsshaII
a. read back only the code to be set.
b. read back the mode and the code to be set.
c. use only the word ROGER.
d. use only the word WILCO.
2. The pilot of an aircraft losing two-way communications shall set the SSR transponder to Mode
Alpha code:
a. 7700
b. 7600
c. 2000
d. 7500
3. When the SSR transponder appears to be unserviceable and repair is not possible before
dearlurelhen
a lheaircraflvouIdbeermiedlodearllolheneareslaerodromevherereaircanbe
carried out.
b lheiIolmuslindicalelhefaiIureonlheighlIanaflervhichATCviIIendeavorlo
rovideforlheighllobeconlinued
c lheighlcanonIyconlinueinlhemosldireclmanner
d lheiIolviIInolbeermiedlocommencelheighl
4. What Mode A code shall be used to provide recognition of an aircraft emergency?
a. Code 7500
b. Code 7600
c. Code 7000
d. Code 7700
5. Which of the following correctly lists special purpose codes that are used in conjunction with
SSR?
a DislressUnIavfuIInlerferenceCommunicalionsfaiIure
b DislressUnIavfuIInlerferenceCommunicalionsfaiIure
c DislressUnIavfuIInlerferenceCommunicalionsfaiIure
d DislressUnIavfuIInlerferenceCommunicalionsfaiIure
WhenanaircraflcariesaserviceabIelransonderlheiIolislooeralelhelransonder
a onIy vhen lhe aircrafl is ying vilhin lhe airsace vhere SSR is used for ATC
purposes.
b onIyvhenlheaircraflisyinginCAS
c. only when direct by ATC.
d alaIIlimesduringighlregardIessofvhelherornollheaircraflisvilhinoroulside
airspace where SSR is used for ATC purposes.
227
Chapter 13 SSR & ACAS
7. What is the transponder code for radio failure?
a. Mode A code 7500
b. Mode B code 7600
c. Mode A code 7700
d. Mode A code 7600
8. Which of the following is not a valid SSR mode A squawk?
a. A5555
b. A5678
c. A2345
d. A7777
228
Chapter 13
SSR & ACAS
AN5WER5

Queslion Answer Reference
1. B 13.3
2. B 13.5
3. B 13.7
4. D 13.5
5. D 13.5
6. D 13.2
7. B 13.5
8. B 13.3
229
Chapter 14 Airspace
CHAPTER
AIR5PACE
Contents
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
CONTROLARIASANDZONIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
CLASSES OF AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
RIQUIRIDNAVIGATIONIIRIORMANCIRNI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
AIRWAYSANDATSROUTIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
230
Chapter 14 Airspace
231
Chapter 14 Airspace
INTRODUCTION
Divisinn nI Airspacc All the airspace within a state must be contained within one
or more Flight Information Regions (FIR). This is the basic unit of airspace within which the
moslbasicformofAirTracConlroIaIIighlInformalionServiceisavaiIabIeTheaIerling
serviceisaIsoavaiIabIeinaIIRIlisusuaIlogiveeachIIRanameielheLondonIIRvhich
geograhicaIIyidenlieslheIocalionoflheIIRandilsassocialedArea Control Centre (ACC)
within which the Flight Information Centre is located. Where a state strictly enforces its
sovereignlylheboundariesoflhalslalesIIRsusuaIIycoincidevilhlhenalionaIbordersof
lheslaleIlisnolunusuaIinIuroeforinslanceforIIRboundarieslobeconvenienlie
foIIovingLalLongormedianIinesralherlhanlofoIIovoflenconvoIulednalionaIborders
AsveIIasIIRslheairsaceofaslaleviIIbedividedinloControl Areas (CTAs) and Control
ZonesCTRsandmayincIudereslricledrohibiledanddangerareasCTAscanexislinlhe
formofcorridorsIinkingolherCTAslheseareknovnasairvaysTheairsaceinlhevicinily
ofanaerodromeisknovnasanAerodromeTracZoneATZandisdenedinChaler
Scottish FIR
London FIR
Stavanger
FIR
Shannon FIR
Brest FIR
Paris FIR
Shanwick
OCA
Uppcr InInrmatinn Rcginns UIRs Where a state applies a division of airspace
verlicaIIy lhe uer orlion of lhe airsace is dened as an Uer Informalion Region UIR
SuchadivisionfaciIilaleslheaIicalionofdierenlruIesandsearalionslandardslolhoseof
lheunderIyingairsaceThebasicassumlionislhallracusinglheUIRviIIbeessenliaIIyin
lransilenroulevhereasIoverlracviIIbearrivingordearlingandlhereforemanoeuvring
In Europe the division between the FIR and UIR is at FL195 whereas in the USA it is at FL180.
The lower boundary of a UIR will always be a VFR FL.
OpcnFIRAirsacevilhinanIIRlhalisnoldenedasaCTACTRorolherreslricled
airsaceisknovnaslheoenIIRWilhinlheoenIIRlheonIyairlracservicesoeredare
a Flight Information Service and the Alerting Service.
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Chapter 14 Airspace
OccanicCnntrn!ArcasOCAsOverIargeareasoflhevorIdsOceansielheNorlh
AlIanliclracconlroIhasseciaIrobIemsiereIaliveIyoornavigalionandofnecessilyHI
communicalionsrequiringlheuseofradiooeralorsTosoIvelherobIemsoralIeasllomake
lhemmanageabIelheairsaceaboveILoverlheOceansisdesignaledasOCAsvhereslricl
rules are enforced and special navigation procedures are applied.
PrnhibitcdRcstrictcdandDangcrArcasAIIIrohibiledReslricledandDangerAreas
vilhin a slale are conlained in lhe IIRs of lhal slale and sub|ecl lo nolicalion of aclivily
and change in slalus by NOTAM see denilion Iach area viII be assigned an individuaI
designalorconsislingoflhecounlryidenlierlheIeerIRorDfoIIovedbyanumberinlhe
rangeIorexamIeinlheUKadangerolhenorlhcoaslofCornvaIIisdesignaled
IGDIGislheICAOidenlierforlheUKDmeansadangerareaandislheunique
number for that area.
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Chapter 14 Airspace
CONTROLAREA5ANDZONE5
CTAsandCTRsAirTracConlroIisonIyrovidedinsidevhalisknovnasconlroIIed
airsaceCASIlisgeneraIIyacceledlhallheuerIimilofCASisdenedasILCAS
comrises CTAs and CTRs The rimary funclion of CTAsCTRs is lo faciIilale ATC lo IIR
lrac
CTAs A CTA is airsace vilhin vhich ATC is rovided lo conlroIIed ighls see
denilion vhich are en roule ie nol in lhe dearlure or aroach hasesof a ighl The
service provided in a CTA is Area Control and is discussed in detail in chapter 17. CTAs are
usuaIIyeslabIishedinlhevicinilyofma|oraerodromesandallheconuenceofairvaysAs
aIreadymenlionedlheIinkingcorridorsofairsaceairvaysareaIsoCTAsCTAsaredened
to exist from a level above ground level (AGL) to an altitude or FL. Where the limit of a CTA is
denedasaILilviIIbeaVIRILTheIoveslIeveIofaCTAmuslbealIeaslmflAGL
TheairsacevilhinaCTAmaybesubdividedloaIIovdierenllyesofoeralionloexisl
TheuerorlionofaCTAviIIberedominanlIyforlraclhalisinlransilvhiIsllheIover
levels will be dedicated to aircraft entering the manoeuvring airspace from above or leaving
it. The lower part of the CTA will be used to route aircraft arriving to the individual IAFs for
inslrumenlaroachesandlosearaledearlingaircraflfromoneaerodromefromarriving
lracloanolher
CTRs. CTRs are established in the vicinity of aerodromes to provide ATC to arriving and
dearlingconlroIIedlracWilhinaCTRlheATCserviceisrovidedbyAroachconlroIIers
andismandaloryACTRmayservemorelhanoneaerodromeecauseaCTRisazonelhe
baseofanyzoneisdenedasgroundIeveIorMSLWherelheuerIimilisdenedasaILil
would always be a VFR FL. A CTR should be big enough to encompass the airspace required to
provide the service and will usually extend at least 5nm from the aerodrome reference position
in the direction from which approaches are made. If established within the lateral limits of a
CTAlheCTRmuslexlenduvardslolheIoverIimiloflheCTA
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Chapter 14 Airspace
UppcrCnntrn!ArcasWhereaCTAexlendsaboveILlheruIesaIicabIemaybe
those pertaining to the lower airspace.
Cnntrn!UnitsTherovisionofATCloighlsinCASislheresonsibiIilyoflheair
lrac conlroI unils ATCUs) within the designated airspace. Area Control Centres provide
ATC within CTAs and Approach Control Units provide the service required in CTRs.
CLA55E5OFAIR5PACE
IntrnductinnInICAOinlroducedauniformsyslemofcIassicalionofairsacelo
replace the disparate systems of airspace reservations throughout the world. The ICAO system
cIassiesairsaceincalegoriesfromAloGeachcIassdeendanluonlheruIesaIicabIe
lheATCservicerovidedsearalionslandardsaIicabIeandlheuliIisalionoflheairsace
Cnntrn!!cdAirspaccCA5CIassesAIarecIassiedasconlroIIedairsacevilhin
vhichairlracconlroIisrovidedloconlroIIedighlsInlhesecIassesIIRighlsareaIvays
conlroIIedighlsIncIassesAandaIIermiedighlsareconlroIIedvhereasincIassesCand
DATCisrovidedloVIRlraconIyvhenconiclingvilhIIRlracCASisdenedasCTAs
(including airways) and CTRs. ICAO states that class E airspace cannot be used as a CTR.
AdvisnryAirspaccCIassIairsaceisdenedasadvisoryairsaceinvhichadvisory
ATCisrovidedloIIRlracvhichrequeslslheservicearlicialinglracAIIIIRlrac
ying in cIass I airsace is required lo Ie a II bul no ATC cIearance viII be issued The
serviceisIimiledlolherovisionofadviceandinformalionandonIyarlicialingighlsare
separated. Class F airspace is considered to be temporary established during a trial period
whilst it is determined if a full ATC service is applicable.
5VFRAIIcIassesofairsacevhichsuorllheeslabIishmenlofaCTRermilighl
under SVFR. SVFR is covered in detail in chapter 6 - Rules of the Air.
Nnnradin CIasses I G ermil VIR lrac lo y vilhoul VHI vay RTI
communications. In areas where the ATC authority consider that the provision of the alerting
serviceisessenliaIoverremoleareasoroverexansiveareasofsearoulesmaybeeslabIished
along which (at the appropriate altitude) 2-way RTF communications will be available and
lracviIIbeadvisedlomainlainradioconlaclvilhanairlracservicesunil
5pccdLimitAseedIimilofklsIASisaIiedloVIRlracincIassCandaII
lracinCIassesDGTheIimilisaIicabIelolracyingbeIovflILonIy
F!ight InInrmatinn 5crvicc FI5 In CIasses C G a IIighl Informalion Service is
avaiIabIeloaircrafllhaleilherrequesllheserviceorareolherviseknovnloATCThisservice
provides collision alerts but leaves it to the pilot to take the necessary (as per the rules of the air)
avoiding action. Information considered necessary relating to collision avoidance is known as
lracinformalionIncIassesAandairsaceIISisavaiIabIebulisofaIesserriorilylolhe
rovisionofATCWherelherovisionoflracinformalionisconsideredlobeoflhesame
riorilyasATClhelracconcernedisknovnasessenliaIlracandlheinformalionreIaling
losuchlraciscaIIedessenliaIlracinformalion
Airspacc 5ummary The table on page 237 summarises the requirements and
restrictions of the 7 classes of airspace.
235
Chapter 14 Airspace
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|igurc
236
Chapter 14 Airspace
REQUIREDNAVIGATIONPERFORMANCERNP
DcnitinnRNIisanumericaIreresenlalionoflhenavigalionaIaccuracyrequired
vilhinATSairsaceofaSlaleandisrescribedonlhebasisofregionaIairnavigalionagreemenls
RANsIlisbasedonaconlainmenlfaclorimIyinglhalanaeroIaneviIIbevilhinlhe
required RNI for a eriod of nol Iess lhan of lhe lime lhe aircrafl is vilhin lhe airsace
concernedAIlernaliveIyilcanbeimIiedlhalnolIesslhanoflheaircraflyinginagiven
airsaceviIIbenavigaledvilhinlheslaledRNIfaclorTheslaleisresonsibIeforsecifying
lheRNIvaIueforilsairsace
ThcnryTheRNIfaclorreIaleslonavigalionaIaccuracyreIalinglolheaircraflIoed
osilioninnaulicaImiIesIorinslanceRNIimIieslhallheaircraflviIIbevilhinnmoflhe
IoedosilionforoflhelimelheaircraflisvilhinlheairsaceconcernedTheaIicabIe
RNIfaclorsareRNIRNIRNIRNIRNIAIIATSairsaceiscIassiedforRNI
WhereVORDMIisusedforairvaysorRNAVnavigalionlheRNIseciedisRNIWilhin
lhecIassicalionofRNIhoveverRNIdoesnolexislIlvasenvisagedlhalVORDMIvouId
ceaselobeusedforRNAVbylheyearandbereIacedbymoreaccuralesyslemsoering
alIeaslRNIThishasrovednollobelhecaseandVORDMIalRNIviIIconlinueforlhe
foreseeabIefulureTheuseofradarermilsRNIvhereasGISlheorelicaIIyoersareIalive
vaIueofRNIThevaIueofRNIisderivedfromlhehisloricaIaccuracyofmuIliIeIRS
used for transatlantic navigation.
App!icatinnAgoodexamIeofhovRNIisusedislhelracksacingusedforlheNAT
lracksinlheMNISAoflheNorlhAlIanlicOceanicregionsTheairsaceiscIassiedasRNI
lhereforelheaircraflyinglheroulesviIIbevilhinnmoflheIoedosilionfornolIess
lhanoflheighllimeThismeanslhallheairsacereservedloaNATlrackmuslbenm
eilhersideoflheseciedrouleTheaddilionaIsafelybuerviIIbeequaIlolheRNIsolhe
lracksacingviIIbenm
RNP20
RNP20
20nm
20nm
20nm
60nm
AIRWAY5ANDAT5ROUTE5
Estab!ishmcnt. The corridors linking CTAs are called airways. These have evolved by a
rocessofdemandashaslheroadslruclureinlheUKTheairvayscarrylheenroulelracand
arelhereforerimariIyconcernedvilhlracinlhecruiseralherlhanmanoeuvringlracThe
ATCrobIemisreIaliveIysimIeandinvoIvessearalinglracheadinginoosiledireclions
andlheaIIocalionofILslosamedireclionlracWhiIsllheuerIimilofanairvaymaybe
denedaslheIoverIimiloflheUIRlheIoverIimilviIIbediclaledbyairsacereslriclions
terrain avoidance considerations and the needs of other air users (i.e. the military).
|igurc
237
Chapter 14 Airspace
HisloricaIIy airvays served lhe urose of Iinking CTAs vilh CAS bul in lhe modern
environmenlofincreasinglracdensilyairvayscrealeasmanyrobIemsaslheysoIveThey
creale choke oinls reduce exibiIily creale deIays increase lransil limes and reduce fueI
eciencyWilhlheuseofsmaIIeraeroIanesandmanyregionaIairorlslheuseofairvaysis
decIiningandaconsiderabIeamounloflraceseciaIIyinlheUKnoviesoroulemaking
use of military radar facilities. Under the open skies policy in Europe and the gate-to-gate
oeralionshiIosohyencouragedbyIuroconlroIlheuseofairvaysviIIconlinuelodecIine
eecliveIymakingaIIairsaceaboveaboulflCAS
DcsignatinnHisloricaIIyairvaysarebeaconhoingroulesfromVORloVOR
DuringlhesandsadvancesveremadeinareanavigalionRNAVlechniquesandRNAV
airvays using vayoinls based on VORDMI informalion vere eslabIished WhiIsl beacon
hoingroulesnonRNAVroulessliIIexislnearIyaIIlheairvaysinlroducedinlheIaerarl
oflhelhcenluryhavebeenRNAVroulesRoulesareaIsocIassiedasbeingregionaIroules
which exist between states in one ICAO region) or non-regional (routes which do not extend
beyond the borders of a state). The options are therefore:
RegionaInonRNAVroules
RegionaIRNAVroules
NonregionaInonRNAVroules
NonregionaIRNAVroules
OthcrAT5rnutcsOlherATSaIsoincIudeSIDsSTARsandIovIeveIheIicolerroules
AIIlhesearegivensecicdesignalorsvhichcanbereferredloinATCcommunicalionsandin
FPs.
RnutcDcsignatnrsAirvaysaregivenadesignalorvhichdeneslhelyeofairvay
gives it a unique number and provides additional information about the type of route. The
secic roule designalor indicales vhal lye of roule is dened and lhe unique number
(1 - 999).
ArexcanbeaddedfromlhefoIIovingIisl
U Uerairroule
S Suersoniclransorlroule
K HeIicolerIovIeveIroule
AddilionaIIysuxesmaybeaIiedfromlheIisl
I AdvisoryrouleCIassIairsace
G IISrouleCIassGairsace
Y RNIroulealandaboveILvherelurnsbelveenand
arelobemadevilhinlheaIIovabIeRNIloIeranceofa
langenliaIarcdenedbyaradiusofnm
Z RNIroulealandbeIovILvherelurnsbelveenand
arelobemadevilhinlheaIIovabIeRNIloIeranceofa
langenliaIarcdenedbyaradiusofnm
238
Chapter 14
Airspace
QUE5TION5
WhalislheseedreslriclionincIassairsaceunderILflinbolhVIRandIIR
a. 250 kts IAS.
b. 200 kts IAS.
c. 260 kts TAS.
d NolaIicabIe
InvhalcIassofairsaceareaIIaircraflsearaledfromoneanolherandVIRisermied
a. D
b. E
c. A
d. B
3. What are the VMC limits for class B airspace?
a. Clear of cloud and in sight of the surface.
b kmighlvisibiIilyflverlicaIIyandmhorizonlaIIyfromcIoud
c kmighlvisibiIilyflverlicaIIyandmhorizonlaIIyfromcIoud
d. The same as class D.
4. A control zone extends laterally from the centre of an aerodrome or aerodromes in the direction
of approaching aircraft for at least:
a. 7nms.
b. 5 nms.
c. 15 nms.
d. 20 nms.
WhalislheseedIimilbeIovflinCIassIairsace
a. 250 kts TAS.
b. 250 kts IAS.
c NolaIicabIe
d. 200 kts IAS.
6. FIS is provided to aircraft concerning collision hazards in the following classes of airspace:
a CDIIandG
b. F and G only.
c. F.
d ACDIIandG
IorVIRighlincIassIairsace
a. ATC clearance and two way radio are required.
b. two-way radio not required.
c ATCcIearanceandorlvovayradioarerequired
d. ATC clearance is required.
239
Chapter 14 Airspace
DangerIrohibiledandReslricledareasmuslbedesignaledby
a counlryidenlierfoIIovedbyIDRfoIIovedbylheidenlier
b counlryidenlierfoIIovedbyIDR
c IDRfoIIovedbylheidenlier
e counlryidenlierfoIIovedbynumbers
InvhichcIassorcIassesofairsacevouIdVIRlracbesearaledfromolherVIRlrac
a. B
b CDI
c C
d CD
10. What is the primary function of a CTR and a CTA?
a TheconlroIIingofaIIlraccIoseloanaerodrome
b TheconlroIIingofaIIlracinCIassIairsace
c TheconlroIIingofaIIlracinCIassIGairsace
d TheconlroIIingofIIRlrac
WhalislheseedIimilforVIRlracincIassCairsacebeIovfl
a. not applicable.
b. 250 kts TAS.
c. 250 kts IAS.
d. 270 kts IAS.
WhallyeofairsaceexlendsfromlhesurfaceloasecieduerIimil
a. Control area.
b AirTracZone
c. Control zone.
d. TMA.
WhalcIassofairsacecanyougelanadvisoryserviceforIIRlracandaIISforVIRlrac
a. C
b. D
c. C
d. F
14. The lowest height of the base of a CTA above ground or water is:
a. 300m.
b. 150m.
c. 200m.
d. 500m.
InvhichcIassorcIassesofairsaceisIIRsearaledfromIIRandaIIolherlracgelsIIS
a. A
b. B
c. D
d. D and E.
240
Chapter 14
Airspace
16. The lower boundary of an UIR must be:
a anIIRighlIeveI
b aVIRighlIeveI
c isnolsecied
d alanyighlIeveI
17. What is the upper limit of a CTA?
a fl
b fl
c fl
d. A VFR Flight Level.
WhalislhemaximumseedermiedincIassairsace
a NolaIicabIe
b. 260 kts IAS.
c. 250 kts IAS.
d klsonIybeIovILfl
WhalcIassofairsaceermilsbolhIIRandVIRandIIRarlicialinglracreceivesadvisory
ATC for separation?
a. F
b. E
c. G
d. D
InvhichairsacescanyouyVIRvilhoularadio
a. E & G.
b. D.
c ID
d CDI
In vhich cIass of airsace is IIR and VIR ermied IIR is searaled from aII lrac VIR
searaledfromIIRandVIRreceiveslracinformalionaboulolherVIRlrac
a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
IncIassCairsacevhalighlsaresearaled
a AIIighls
b IIRfromaIIighlsVIRfromVIR
c IIRfromIIRVIRfromIIRandVIRfromVIR
d IIRfromIIRIIRfromVIRVIRfromIIR
241
Chapter 14 Airspace
WhalserviceisrovidedloIIRVIRlracincIassIairsace
a. ATC to IFR and VFR.
b ATCloIIRIISloVIR
c ATCloIIRandradioequiedVIRIISlononradioVIR
d ATCloIIRAdvisoryATCloIIRinVMCIISloVIR
24. A Control Zone has to exist to at least:
a nmsfromlhecenlreoflheaireIdoraireIdsconcernedinlhedireclionfromvhere
approaches can be made.
b nmsfromlhecenlreoflheaireIdoraireIdsconcernedinlhedireclionfromvhere
approaches can be made.
c nmsfromlhecenlreoflheaireIdoraireIdsconcernedinlhedireclionfromvhere
approaches can be made.
d nmsfromlhecenlreoflheaireIdoraireIdsconcernedinlhedireclionfromvhere
approaches can be made.
WheneveryingbeIovmflAMSLinCIassCAirsacelhe seed reslriclion for
IFR is:
a. 240 kts IAS.
b. 250 kts TAS.
c. not applicable.
d. 250 kts IAS.
Airsace in vhich IIR and VIR ighls are ermied and in vhich IIR ighls are searaled
fromolherIIRighlsandreceivelracinformalionconcerningVIRighlsandVIRighls
receivelracinformalionconcerningaIIolherighlsiscIassiedas
a. C
b. B
c. A
d. D
27. What is the speed limit (IAS) in airspace E?
a klsforIIRandVIRbeIovIL
b klsforIIRonIybeIovIL
c klsforIIRandVIRalaIIaIliludes
d klsforIIRonIybeIovIL
ConlroIIedairsaceinvhichIIRandVIRighlsareaIIovedandvhereaIIighlsaresearaled
fromeacholherbyATCiscIassiedas
a. A
b. D
c. B
d. E
242
Chapter 14
Airspace
IIighl informalion service rovided lo ighls shaII incIude lhe rovision of informalion
concerning collision hazards to aircraft operating in airspace classes:
a. A to G (inclusive).
b. C to G (inclusive).
c. F and G.
d. A to E (inclusive).
30. Which of the following is true concerning the rules and regulations in the UIR compared with
the airspace below?
a. The same rules apply if the airspace is of the same class.
b TheyareagreedbylheAirNavigalionMeeling
c. They are identical to the airspace below.
d. They do not have to be the same as those in the airspace below.
AIIighlInformalionServiceshaIIberovidedloaIIaircraflvhichareIikeIylobeaecledby
the information which are:
a. provided with ATC or otherwise known to the relevant ATS unit.
b rovidedvilhAirTracConlroIonIy
c. known to the relevant ATS units only.
d knovnlolhereIevanlATSunilorhaveIedaighlIan
WhoisresonsibIefordesignalinglheRNIforanairvay
a. The State.
b TheSlaleICAO
c. ICAO.
d. ATC.
RNIisaconlainmenlvaIuemeaninglhalaercenlageofaircrafloeralingaIongaarlicuIar
route would be within 4nm of the centre line all the time. What is that percentage?
a. 98%.
b. 93%.
c. 95%.
d. 90%.
RNIRequiredNavigalionIerformanceisrescribed
a byslalesbulnolonlhebasisofRegionaIAirNavigalionagreemenlsRANs
b byICAOonlhebasisofRANsandaIiedbylheslale
c byRANs
d byslalesbasedonRANs
ARNIrouledesignaledvilhsuxZindicaleslhalforlheroulealorbeIovILandaII
lurnsshaIIbemadevilhinlheaIIovabIeRNIloIeranceofalangenliaIarcbelveenlheslraighl
leg segments with a radius of:
a. 10nm for turns between 30 and 90.
b. 15nm for turns between 30 and 90.
c. 22.5nm for turns between 30 and 90.
d. 30nm for turns between 30 and 90.
243
Chapter 14 Airspace
ARNIrouledesignaledvilhsuxYindicaleslhalforlheroulealoraboveILandaII
lurnsshaIIbemadevilhinlheaIIovabIeRNIloIeranceofalangenliaIarcbelveenlheslraighl
leg segments with a radius of:
a. 10nm for turns between 30 and 90.
b. 15nm for turns between 30 and 90.
c. 22.5nm for turns between 30 and 90.
d. 30nm for turns between 30 and 90.
WhoisresonsibIefordesignalinglheRNIforanairvay
a. The State.
b. The State and ICAO.
c. ICAO.
d RAN
WhoorganiseslheRNIsecicalionforairsace
a. The State in which the airspace is located.
b. ICAO.
c TheSlaleICAO
d SlalesvhoagreevhallheRNIshouIdbe
244
Chapter 14
Airspace
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. D 14.16
2. D 14.18
3. D 6.5
4. B 14.18
5. B 14.16
6. A 14.17
7. B 14.18
8. A 14.18
9. A 14.18
10. D 14.6
11. C 14.16
12. C 14.8
13. D
14. B 14.7
15. D 14.18
16. B 14.2
17. D 14.7
18. A 14.16
19. A 14.13
20. A 14.15
21. C 14.18
22. D 14.18
23. B 14.18
24. A 14.8
25. C 14.16
26. D 14.18
27. A 14.16
28. C 14.18
29. B 14.17
30. D 14.2
31. A 14.17
32. A 14.19
33. C 14.19
34. D 14.19
35. B 14.25
36. C 14.25
37. A 14.19
38. A 14.19
245
Chapter 15 Air Trafc Services
CHAPTER
AIRTRAFFIC5ERVICE5
Contents
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
AIRTRAIIICCONTROL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
ATCCLIARANCIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
CONTROLOIIIRSONSANDVIHICLISATAIRODROMIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
THIILIGHTINIORMATIONSIRVICI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
THIALIRTINGSIRVICI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
246
Chapter 15 Air Trafc Services
247
Chapter 15 Air Trafc Services
INTRODUCTION
ThcAir Trac 5crviccs AT5. Annex 11 to the Chicago Convention lays down the
SARIsforlheeslabIishmenlofanAirTracConlroIservicesineachoflheconlraclingslales
IachslaleisrequiredloeslabIishanaulhorilalivebodyresonsibIeforseinguandreguIaling
the operation of the ATS of the state. In the UK the body responsible is the UK CAA and the
oeralingorganisalionisNalionaIAirTracServicesNATS
Dncumcnt ecause lhe SARIs of Annex are by necessily insucienlIy
delaiIedIANSATMAirTracManagemenlDocumenlisubIishedbyICAOaslhe
denilive reference for lhe eslabIishmenl and managemenl of anATS IANSATM is mainIy
direcledloATSersonneIhoveverighlcrevsshouIdbefamiIiarlheconlenloflheseclions
reIalingloATMATSandsearalionADSandCIDLCATIRsandRIL
Ob|cctivcs. The objectives of an ATS are to:
IrevenlcoIIisionsbelveenaircrafl
Prevent collisions between aircraft on the manoeuvring area and obstructions
lhereon
IxedileandmainlainanorderIyovofairlrac
IrovideadviceandinformalionusefuIforlhesafeandecienlconduclof
ighls
NolifyarorialeorganisalionsregardingaircraflinneedofSARaidand
assist such organisations as required.
AT5Divisinns. ATS comprises three divisions:
AirTracConlroIService
Flight Information Service
Alerting Service
ATC5crvicc. The ATC Service is divided into three sub-divisions:
ArcaCnntrn!5crviccTherovisionofATCforconlroIIedighlsvilhinCTAs
and en-route in FIRs and UIRs.
Apprnach Cnntrn! 5crvicc The rovision of ATC for conlroIIed ighls
associated with arrival and departure. Usually provided within CTRs.
AcrndrnmcCnntrn!5crviccTherovisionofATCloaerodromelracal
controlled aerodromes.
ThcNccdInrAT5. An ATS is set up in consideration of the following:
ThelyesoflracinvoIved
Thedensilyoflrac
The meteorological conditions
OlherreIevanlfaclorsiemounlainouslerrainexlensiveseaareasIimiled
navigational facilities etc...)
ACA5. The carriage of ACAS by aircraft in a given area will not be taken into
consideration when determining the level of service required to be established.
248
Chapter 15 Air Trafc Services
AIRTRAFFICCONTROL
App!icabi!ity Air Trac ConlroI ATC is lhe service rovided lo conlroIIed ighls
inside conlroIIed airsace or lo aerodrome lrac al conlroIIed aerodromes ATC is aIvays
rovidedloIIRlracinsideCASvhereasATCisonIyrovidedloVIRighlsincIassesC
andDAddilionaIIyaIISVIRighlsarerovidedvilhATC
AT5UnitsATSunilscomriseAirTracConlroIUnilsATCUsandIIighlInformalion
CenlresIICsTheATSunilrovidingATCareATCUsandlhoserovidingighlinformalion
are IICs The ATCU roviding area conlroI ATC lo enroule lrac is knovn as an Area
ConlroICenlreACCIlisusuaIlorexlheunilvilhageograhicaInameieLondonACC
WilhinaCTRlheunilrovidingaroachconlroIislhearoachconlroIoceusuaIIyIocaled
inaconlroIloveralanaerodromeCombinedaroachconlroIocesexislvherearoach
conlroIformuIliIeaerodromesCTRsisrovidedieLondonTerminaIConlroICenlreLTCC
vhichrovidesaroachconlroIforHealhrovGalvickSlansledLulonLondonCilyiggin
HiIIandNorlhoIlAerodromeConlroIisrovidedbyanaerodromeconlroIloverWilhina
IIRlherovisionofIISandlheAIerlingservicemaybefromlhesameATSU
GrnundCnntrn!. The ground movement of aircraft and vehicles is the responsibility
of lhe aerodrome conlroIIer Hovever lhe rovision of services lo aircrafl moving on lhe
manoeuvring area of an aerodrome and on the apron may be delegated to a ground movements
conlroIIer usuaIIy lo Iimil lhe aerodrome RTI lo ighl safely messages concerning lhe lake
oandIandingofaircraflAlma|oraerodromeslhemovemenlofaeroIanesandvehicuIar
lrac on lhe aron may be deIegaled lo an Aron Managemenl Service In lhis case ATC
would commence once the aircraft moves onto the taxi-way and will cease when the pilot takes
instructions from a marshaller.
TimcinATCATCunilslhroughoullhevorIdarerequiredloreorllimeinhours
minutes and seconds with time referenced to co-ordinated universal time (UTC). This uses
the 24 hour clock. UTC has been previously known as Zulu time or Greenwich Mean Time.
UTCvouIdbelhelimealvhichlhesunisdireclIyoverheadlheGreenvichmeridianI
WTheuseofoneslandardlimereferenceralherlhanIocaIlimemakeslhehandIingofighl
plans simple and facilitates co-ordination of ATC clearances.
TimcAccuracy ATSU clocks and timing devices are to be checked to ensure that the
limesindicaledisvilhinsecondsofUTCalaIIlimesTimechecksrounduordovnlo
the nearest minute.
ATCCLEARANCE5
Dcnitinn. An ATC clearance is authorisation for an aircraft to proceed under conditions
seciedbyanATCU
PurpnscCIearancesareissuedsoIeIyforexedilingandsearalingairlracandare
basedonknovnlraccondilionsThisincIudeslracmovingonlhegroundalanairorlas
veII as airborne lrac If a cIearance given lo a iIol is unsuilabIe or imossibIe lo comIy
vilhanaIlernalivecIearancemayberequesledIfossibIesuchacIearanceviIIbeoered
but the pilot must understand that alternative clearances may result in delays being incurred.
AcIearancemuslbeissuedearIyenoughsolhallhereissucienllimeforlhecIearancelobe
complied with.
249
Chapter 15 Air Trafc Services
BasicRcspnnsibi!ityWhenyinginaccordancevilhanATCcIearancelheiIolis
nolreIievedoflhebasicresonsibiIilyforensuringlhesafelyoflheaircraflincIudinglerrain
avoidance and lhal of olher air users Likevise lhe RuIes of lhe Air aIy lo any ighl
roceedinginaccordancevilhanATCcIearanceWhenanaircraflisunderradarvecloringlhe
radar controller will issue clearances such that the required obstacle clearance will exist at all
times.
App!icatinn. The practical application of ATC clearances is to provide a method
vherebyATCgivesinslruclionsloaircrafllofaciIilalesearalionIngeneraIvilhinCASIIR
ighlsareaIvayssearaledfromolherIIRighlsIncIassesandCIIRissearaledfrom
VIR and in cIass VIR is searaled from olher VIR Wilhin a CTR il is normaI raclice lo
searaleSVIRighls
CnntcntsnIaC!carancc. Clearances are to contain positive and concise data and shall
be phrased in a standard manner. An ATC clearance should include:
TheaircraflidenlicalionasshovnonlheII
AnycIearanceIimilalion
Therouleoflheighl
LeveIaIIocaledforlheighlorforlheiniliaIcurrenlarloflheighl
AnyolhernecessaryinslruclionsorinformalionsuchasSIDsSTARs
communicalionsorcIearanceexirylime
Transition level in approach clearances if so prescribed or when requested by
lheiIol
QNH excel vhen il is knovn lhal lhe aircrafl has aIready received lhe
informalion vhen rsl cIeared lo an aIlilude beIov lhe lransilion IeveI in
aroachcIearancesin cIearancesloenlerlhelraccircuilinlaxicIearances
for departing aircraft.
InorderloexedilelhedeIiveryandreadingbackofcIearancesslandardhraseoIogymaybe
used such as "cIeured tlu lght pIunned route to or cIeured tlu Mldhurst depurture G
orcIeuredtluOckhumDurrltuI. In such cases the pilot will be required to refer to the
reference document or procedure plate.
C!caranccCnnrdinatinnTheresonsibiIilyforissuingaroulecIearanceforaighl
reslsvilhlheACCoflheIIRinvhichlheighloriginalesIdeaIIybeforeissuingacIearance
an ATCU would co-ordinate (agree) a clearance with all the other ACCs en-route. In practice
lhisnolfeasibIeeseciaIIyforIonginlerconlinenlaIighlsInlhiscaselheACCvouIdissue
acIearanceIimiledlolheiniliaIIIRorvherelheighllimeinlheoriginalingIIRisshorlie
ighlsoriginalingfromHealhrovenleringlheIarisIIRilvouIdbeessenliaIlocoordinale
with at least the next FIR to be entered. Where it has not been possible to co-ordinate the clearance
forlheenlireroulelheaeroIanevouIdbegivencIearancesonaroIIingdovnslreambasis
from FIR to FIR. Under certain circumstance it may not be possible for the current ACC to
oblain a dovnslream cIearance from lhe subsequenl IIR in vhich case lhe aircrafl may be
requested to originate communications with the downstream FIR and obtain a clearance prior
to entering the airspace of that FIR.
250
Chapter 15 Air Trafc Services
C!caranccRcadbackIIighlcrevsarerequiredloreadbacklolheairlracconlroIIer
safety related parts of ATC clearances and instructions which are communicated by voice. The
following items must always be read back:
ATC route clearances
CIearancereIalinglolheuseofrunvaysieIandlakeocrossenlerand
backlrackhoIdshorlof
RunvayinuseaIlimelerseingsSSRcodesIeveIinslruclionsheadingand
seedinslruclionslransilionIeveIs
Air Trac F!nw Managcmcnt ATFM. Using modern data processing systems and
riorighlIanningeseciaIIyusingreeliliveighlIansRILsilisnovossibIeloredicl
lrac Ioading in each seclor of lhe roule slruclure of lhe airsace vilhin a IIR Where lhis
exceedslhalvhichcannormaIIybeaccommodaledlheATIMunilinlheACCviIIadviseighl
crews and operators that delays are likely or that restrictions may be applied. Such information
is disseminated generally so that operators can see that any disruption is incurred equitably. In
raclicerediclabIedeIaysarehandIedbydeIayinglhelakeoofanaeroIanesuchlhallhe
deIayisabsorbedonlhegroundralherlhaninlhelerminaIhaseofaighlCIearIylhishas
economicenvironmenlaIandsafelyadvanlagesandislhemoslobviousraclicaIadvanlageof
ATFM.
CONTROLOFPER5ON5ANDVEHICLE5ATAERODROME5
Ru!cs nI thcAir. The movement of persons or vehicles including towed aircraft on
the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome is to be controlled by the aerodrome control tower as
necessaryloavoidhazardslolhemorloaircraflIandinglaxiingorlakingo
Lnw Visibi!ity Prnccdurcs When Low Visibility Operations are in force (ground
visibility below 800m) persons and vehicles operating on the manoeuvring area will be kept to
aminimumSeciaIroceduresviIIbeimIemenledlosafeguardlheILSMLSsensiliveareas
when CAT II and CAT III precision instrument operations are in progress (ground visibility less
than 550m).
Emcrgcncy Vchic!cs. Emergency vehicles proceeding to the scene of an accident or
incidenlviIIhaveriorilyoveraIIolhersurfacemovemenllrac
Vchic!cs nn thc Manncuvring Arca. The following rules cover the movement of
vehicles on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome:
VehicIesandvehicIeslovingaircraflarelogivevayloaircrafllhalareIanding
laxiingorlakingo
Vehicles are to give way to vehicles towing aircraft.
Vehicles will give way to other vehicles in accordance with ATS unit
instructions.
NolvilhslandingabandcabovevehicIesandvehicIeslovingaircraflarelo
comply with instructions issued by the aerodrome control tower.
251
Chapter 15 Air Trafc Services
THEFLIGHTINFORMATION5ERVICE
IntrnductinnAsaIreadyslaledlhebasicunilofairsacevilhinaslaleislheIIighl
Informalion Region IIR In lheory a IIR can exisls vilhoul CAS in vhich case lhe onIy
services rovided lo air lrac vouId be a ighl informalion service IIS and lhe aIerling
service Iven vhere ATC is rovided inside CAS IIS viII be rovided aIlhough al a Iover
riorily loATC The rovision of any service reIies on a reguIar ov of informalion and lhe
provision of FIS relies heavily on the Aeronautical Information Service (AIS) established by
each state in accordance with Annex 15. AIS is covered in Chapter 18 of these notes.
FI5OsOulsideofCASandalunconlroIIedaerodromesighlinformalionisrovided
by IIighlInformalionServiceOcersIISOsoeralingfromaIIighlInformalionCenlreIIC
WhereaIISisrovidedlhenameoflheocerovidinglheserviceviIIbesuxedinformalion
IISOsareIicencedlorovidelheservicebularenolermiedlooeranyservicelhalcanbe
described as ATC. The only exception to this is the provision of ATC to aircraft taxiing on the
ground at a controlled aerodrome but this is strictly limited to movements prior to entering the
runvayforlakeoTheIISrovidedinlheLondonIIRisbyLondonInformalioninlhree
geographic sectors on dedicated VHF frequencies.
OpcratinnIIighlInformalionisrovidedloaIIairlraclhalisIikeIylobeaecledby
lheinformalionSecicaIIy
AircraflvhicharerovidedvilhanATCservice
Aircraft which are otherwise known to the relevant ATS units.
The information provided by the FIS is to include:
SIGMITandAIRMITseedenilionbeIov
VoIcanicerulionaclivily
ReIeaseofradioacliveorloxicmaleriaIinlolhealmoshere
InformalionconcerningchangeofserviceabiIilyofradionavigalionaids
Informalionconcerningchangeofcondilionsconcerningaerodromes
InformalionconcerningunmannedfreebaIIoons
Other information considered pertinent to safety.
AddilionaIIyinformalionisloberovidedconcerning
WealhercondilionsreorledorforecaslaldearluredeslinalionoraIlernale
aerodromes
CoIIisionhazardsloaircrafloeralingincIassesCDIIandGairsace
IorighlsoverseaareasvhenrequesledbyiIolsdelaiIsofsurfacevesseIs
Aarl from lhe deIivery of IIS on discrele VHI frequencies lhe ma|orily of rouline IIS is
broadcast by the Operational Flight Information Service (OFIS).
AIRMETAccordingloAnnexAIRMITisdenedas
Informalion concerning lhe occurrence or execled occurrence of secied
enroulevealherhenomenavhichmayaecllhesafelyofIovIeveIaircrafl
operations and which was not already included in the forecast issued for low-
IeveIighlsinlheIIRconcernedorsubarealhereof
252
Chapter 15 Air Trafc Services
OFI5OIISisbroadcaslinlhreesecicareas
HF OFIS
VHF OFIS
ATIS
olhHIOIISandVHIOIISbroadcaslVOLMITMITARSIGMITandTAIinformalionfor
secicaerodromesorgrousofaerodromesinaccordancevilhascheduIeThelabIebeIov
shovslheVHIOIISVoImelcoverageinlheLondonScoishandShannonIIRs
Location Frequency Airports covered
London Main 135.375 Amslerdam russeIs DubIin GIasgov London LGW
LondonLHRLondonSTNMancheslerIarisCDG
LondonNorlh 126.6 IackooI Iasl MidIands Leeds radford LiverooI
London LGW Manchesler NevcaslIe IsIe of Man
Teeside
London South 128.6 irmingham ournemoulh risloI Cardi }ersey
LulonNorvichSoulhamlonSoulhend
Scoish 125.725 Aberdeen eIfasl IS Idinburgh GIasgov Inverness
LondonLHRIreslvickSlornovaySumburgh
Dublin 127.0 DubIinShannonCorkeIfaslISGIasgovIreslvick
MancheslerLondonLHRLondonLGW
HF OFIS Volmet is broadcast by the Oceanic Control Centres (i.e. Shanwick) and covers the
aerodromesusedbylransilinglrac
ATI5. Automatic Terminal Information Service broadcasts (ATIS) consists of two types
of broadcast: Voice ATIS and Data ATIS. The preparation and dissemination of ATIS is the
responsibility of ATS.
VniccATI5. This is provided at aerodromes where there is a requirement to reduced
voice channel communications. ATIS broadcasts comprise:
Onebroadcaslservingarrivingaircraflor
Onebroadcaslservingdearlingaircraflor
Onebroadcaslservingbolharrivinganddearlingaircraflor
Two broadcasts serving arriving or departing aircraft where one broadcast
would be exceptionally long.
TransmissinnVoiceATISisusuaIIylransmiedonadiscreleVHIfrequencydisIayed
on aII aerodrome Iales Il may be lransmied on lhe voice channeI of a reIevanl VOR ie
dearlureATISonlheVORusedaslherimaryVORforaSIDorarrivaIATISonlheVORlhal
servesaslheIAIforarocedureATISisneverlransmiedonlhevoicechanneIofILSVoice
ATIS is continuous and repetitive.
|igurcVc|nci|rca!casis
253
Chapter 15 Air Trafc Services
ATI5InInrmatinn. ATIS information normally relates to a single aerodrome and the
broadcasl shouId nol Iasl Ionger lhan seconds Il is udaled immedialeIy any signicanl
change occurs. ATS is responsible for making sure that the service is available and up to date.
IachsequenceofATISbroadcaslsviIIhaveasecicsequenliaIbroadcasldesignalorIeerOn
iniliaIconlaclvilhATCaircraflareloacknovIedgereceiloflhereIevanlATISvilhreference
to the current information designator.
OxfordTouerGABCDbulnformutlonChurIleQNHrequeststurt
C!nudInInrmatinn. The ATIS broadcast will only include cloud cover when the cloud
baseisbeIovflorlhehigheslMSAvhicheverishigherorvhencumuIonimbuscIoudis
present.
THEALERTING5ERVICE
IntrnductinnWilhinanIIRlherovisionofserviceloaircraflrequeslingassislance
or indicating that they may require assistance is the responsibility of the Alerting Service of
ATSThisserviceisrovidedbyanyATSunilACCATCUIICelcregardIessoflhelyeof
servicenormaIIyoeredTheAIerlingServiceislheIinkbelveenlheaircraflneedingassislance
andlheserviceslhalcanrovidelhalassislanceWherenecessarylherovisionofaservicelo
aircraflinneedofassislanceviIIhaveriorilyoveraIIolherairlracservices
App!icatinn. The Alerting Service is provided to:
AIIaircraflrovidedvilhATC
AsfarasraclicabIeaIIaircrafllhalhaveIedaIIorareolherviseknovnlo
ATCand
Any aircraft known (or believed to be) the subject of unlawful interference.
FICs and ACCs will serve as the central point for collecting all information relevant to an aircraft
slaleofemergencyandforvardingsuchinformalionlolhearorialerescuecoordinalion
centre (RCC). If an emergency arises when an aircraft is under the control of the aerodrome or
aroachconlroIIerlhaloceviIInolifylheACCorIICvhichinlurnviIInolifylheRCC
IflheurgencyoflhesilualiondiclaleslheaerodromeoraroachoceviIIselinmolionaII
necessary local emergency organisations that can give immediate assistance.
CnmmunicatinnnIInInrmatinn. Where it is established by an ATS unit that an aircraft
is in a slale of emergency in lhe vicinily of olher aircrafl lheATS unil viII inform lhe olher
aircraft of the nature of the emergency as soon as possible. If an aircraft is being subjected to
unIavfuI inlerference no reference viII be made inATC communicalions unIess il has been
referredloincommunicalionsfromlheaircraflinlherslIaceandsuchcommunicalionviII
not make the situation worse.
5tagcs nI Emcrgcncy. There are three stages of alert (known generically as the
emergencyhaselheseare
Unccrtainty phasc cndc wnrd INCEFA This stage exists when no
communication has been received from an aircraft within a period of 30 minutes
afler a lime al vhich normaI communicalion shouId have been made or lhe
aircraft fails to arrive at the destination within 30 minutes of the estimated
arrival time.
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Chapter 15 Air Trafc Services
A!crt phasc cndcwnrd ALERFA. The alert phase would be declared
following the uncertainty phase (except when evidence exists that would allay
apprehension as to the safety of the aircraft or its occupants) when:
x SubsequenlaemlslomakecommunicalionhavefaiIedandlhereis
nolfurlhernevsoflheaircraflor
x The aircraft fails to land within 5 minutes after the issuing of a landing
cIearanceor
x Informalion has been received lhal lhe oeraling eciency of lhe
aircraflisimairedbulnollhalaforcedIandingisIikeIyor
x It is known that an aircraft has been subject to unlawful interference.
Distress phase cndcwnrdDETRE5FA The distress phase would be declared
following the alert phase (except where there is reasonable certainty that the
aircraft and its occupants are not threatened by grave and imminent danger):
x IurlheraemlsalcommunicalionareunsuccessfuIandvidesread
enquiriesindicalelherobabiIilylhallheaircraflisindislressor
x ThefueIonboardisconsideredlobeexhausledor
x Informalion is received lhal lhe oeraling eciency of lhe aircrafl is
imairedlolheexlenllhalforcedIandingisIikeIyor
x Information is received that the aircraft is about to or has made a forced
landing.
PROCEDURE5
5pccd Cnntrn!. The speed of an aircraft may be prescribed by ATC as a means of
mainlainingsearalionTheuseoflheMachNolechniqueinlhearrangemenlofIongiludinaI
searalion viII be discussed in Chaler Where seed conlroI is aIied adequale
nolice is lo be given lo ighl crevs lo ensure comIiance IroIonged use of seed conlroI is
nol recommended as lhis can aecl fueI usage When aIied changes in seed shouId be
limited to those necessary to maintain separation minima or spacing. At or above FL250 speed
adjustments should be in multiples of M0.01 and below FL250 in multiples of 10kts IAS. On
inlermedialeandnaIaroachseedchangesarelobeIimiledlominorad|uslmenlsofkls
IAS. Speed control is not to be applied to aircraft after passing a point 4 nm from the threshold
of the landing runway.
Autnmatic Dcpcndcnt 5urvci!!ancc AD5 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-
Broadcast (also called ADS-B) is a system by which aeroplanes constantly broadcast their current
osilion and aIlilude calegory of aircrafl airseed idenlicalion and vhelher lhe aircrafl
is lurning cIimbing or descending over a dedicaled radio dala Iink The ADS syslem vas
deveIoedinlhesIlreIiesondalafromlheGIobaIIosilioningSyslemoranynavigalion
syslemlhalrovidesanequivaIenlorbeerserviceThemaximumrangeoflhesyslemisIine
ofsighllyicaIIyIesslhannaulicaImiIeskmTheADSlransmissionsarereceivedby
lheAirTracServiceunilservinglheairsaceinvhichlheaircraflisoeralingandaIIolher
ADS equipped aircraft within reception range. Basic ADS consists of:
Latitude
Longitude
Altitude
Time
Figure of Merit (accuracy)
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Chapter 15 Air Trafc Services
AIREPWhererequiredoeralionaIandmeleoroIogicaIinformalioncanbelransmied
in the form of an air-report (AIREP). AIREPs consist of routine and special reports. A routine
report has three sections:
Section 1 - Position report
Section 2 - Operational information (ETA and endurance)
Section 3 - Meteorological information
Seclionismandaloryandseclionislransmiedvhenrequesledbylheoeralororconsidered
necessarybylheiIolSeclionislransmiedvhenlheaircraflhasbeenrequesledlomake
roulinemelreorlsalsecicenrouleoinls
AIREP5PECIAL. Special air-reports (AIREP SPECIAL) are reported by all aircraft which
encounter any of the following hazards:
SeverelurbuIence
Severeicing
Severemounlainvave
Thunderslorms vilhoul haiI lhal are obscured embedded videsread or in
IinesquaIIs
Heavyduslorsandslorms
Volcanic ash cloud.
Air Trac Incidcnt Rcpnrts ATIR In order lo rovide a medium for reorling
invesligalionandfeedbackofincidenlsoccurringvhiIslanaircraflisunderATCasyslemof
ATIRs has been established. The ATIRs relate to:
Aircraft proximity reports (AIRIROX
ATC procedure reports
ATC equipment reports
AIRIROX reorls may be originaled by eilher lhe iIol AIRIROXI or by a conlroIIer
AIRIROXCIromaiIollheiniliaIreorlisIedbyRTIandlhereorlcomIeledonlhe
ground.
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Chapter 15
Air Trafc Services
QUE5TION5
WhalislhedenilionofDislress
a. An emergency condition where an aircraft is in grave and imminent danger and
requires immediate assistance.
b Iersons on board an aircrafl are in imminenl danger and lhe ighl cannol be
continued.
c. The aircraft will be unable to land at a suitable aerodrome.
d. The aeroplane has a message to transmit concerning the safety of person on board or
within sight.
WhaldeneslheaIerlhaseALIRIA
a. A situation in which an aeroplane and passengers are known to be in serious and
imminent danger.
b. A situation where it is certain that fuel is exhausted.
c. A situation where apprehension exists about an aeroplane and its safety.
d. A situation in which an aeroplane and its passengers are in emergency.
VoiceATISislransmiedona
a. discrete VHF frequency only.
b. discrete VHF frequency or on voice on VOR.
c. VHF frequency or on ILS frequency.
d. ILS only.
4. Who is responsible for initiating the Alert Phase?
a. FIC or the relevant ATCU.
b. The State and ATC.
c. The Area Control and the RCC.
d. RCC and the FIR.
WhalislhedenilionoflheImergencyIhase
a. The Distress Phase.
b. The Alarm Phase.
c. The Alert Phase.
d AgenericlermmeaningaslhecasemaybelheUncerlainlyIhaselheAIerlIhaseorlhe
Distress Phase.
6. FIS is provided to aircraft concerning collision hazards in the following classes of airspace:
a CDIIG
b. F and G only.
c. F.
d ACDIIG
WhalarelhelhreeeIemenlsofanAirTracConlroIService
a RadarSARandIIS
b AreaAroachandAerodrome
c RadarIroceduraIandIIS
d RadarIroceduraIandAIerlingService
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Chapter 15 Air Trafc Services
8. What does an ATSU consist of?
a. An ACC and FIC.
b. An ATCU and FIC.
c. A combined radar unit and ATC tower.
d. An ACC and Approach Control.
9. How often is an ATIS updated?
a IveryminulesforVIReveryminulesforIIR
b Whenlhereisachangeininformalionirresecliveofconlenlorinlensily
c. When the minimum ceiling and visibility are below VFR minimum.
d Whenlhereisasignicanlchangeininformalion
10. Which of the following statements concerning the alerting service is correct?
a. The alert phase is initiated when an aircraft fails to communicate within 30 minutes.
b. FIS and the alerting service may be provided by the same ATCU.
c. The distress phase is always initiated for aircraft subject to unlawful interference.
d AIIolherlracinlhevicinilyofanaircraflsub|ecledlounIavfuIinlerferenceislobe
nolied
11. An aircraft has been cleared to land and fails to do so within 5 minutes of the ETA of landing
and communications have not been re-established with the aircraft. What phase of the Alerting
Service will be declared by the ATSU?
a. DETRESFA.
b INCIRIA
c. ALERFA.
d. EMERGFA.
WhenanaircraflencounlersdicuIlylheinilialionoflheaIerlhaseislheresonsibiIilyof
a AirTracCoordinalionCenlres
b AirTracConlroIUnilsandIIighlInformalionCenlres
c. Search and Rescue Coordination Centres.
d AirTracConlroICenlresonIy
According lo ICAO Annex vhal does lhe foIIoving slalemenl dene Informalion
concerning lhe occurrence or execled occurrence of secied enroule vealher henomena
vhichmayaecllhesafelyofIovIeveIaircrafloeralionsandvhichvasnolaIreadyincIuded
inlheforecaslissuedforIovIeveIighlsinlheIIRconcernedorsubarealhereof
a NOTAM
b. SIGMET Information.
c. AIRMET Information.
d. En-route Weather Report.
14. A Flight Information Service shall be provided to all aircraft which are likely to be
aecledbylheinformalionandvhichare

a. provided with ATC and which are otherwise known to the relevant ATS unit.
b. provided with ATC.
c. known to the relevant ATS unit.
d knovnlolhereIevanlATSunilandvhichhaveIedaII
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Chapter 15
Air Trafc Services
AircraflAvilhATCcIearanceisyinginVMCinaCTRAircraflvilhoulATCcIearance
is converging at approximately the same altitude. Which aircraft has the right of way?
a AircraflAifisonilsrighl
b AircraflAregardIessoflheosilionof
c AircraflregardIessoflheosilionofA
d AircraflifAisonilsIefl
AirTracConlroICenlresissuecIearancesforlheuroseof
a. providing advisory ATC.
b exedilingandsearalinglrac
c achievingsearalionbelveenIIRighls
d. providing FIS.
17. ATSU clocks and other time recording devices shall be checked as necessary to ensure correct
time to within UTC plus or minus:
a. 10 seconds.
b. 1 minute.
c. 30 seconds.
d. 15 seconds.
18. The Alerting Service is to be provided for:
a aIIaircraflhavingIedaIIorolherviseknovnloATCasfarasisraclicabIe
b foraIIconlroIIedighlsloanyaircraflknovnorbeIievedlobelhesub|eclofunIavfuI
inlerferenceandaIIaircraflhavingIedaIIorolherviseknovnloATCasfarasis
practicable.
c. only to aircraft provided with ATC.
d. only to aircraft known or believed to be the subject of unlawful interference.
19. The Approach Control Service is an ATC service:
a rovidedforarrivinganddearlingconlroIIedighls
b rovidedforarrivinganddearlingIIRighls
c rovidedforIIRandVIRighlsvilhinaCTR
d rovidedforIIRighlsvilhinanATZ
20. A Flight Information Region (FIR) is airspace within which the following services are
provided:
a IIighlInformalionServiceAIerlingServiceAdvisoryService
b. Flight Information Service only.
c. Flight Information Service and Advisory Service.
d. Flight Information Service and Alerting Service.
21. An AIREP comprises a number of sections. What is the content of part 1?
a Noledvealher
b IIighlidenlicalionandnoledvealher
c. Urgent messages.
d. A position report.
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Chapter 15 Air Trafc Services
22. Clearances will be issued by ATC for the purpose of:
a. providing alerting services.
b achievingsearalionbelveenairlrac
c rovidingaighlinformalionservice
d. providing advisory ATC.
AirTracServiceUnilATSUmeans
a. ATCUs and Air Services reporting units.
b. FICs and Air Services reporting units.
c ATCUsIICsandAirServicesreorlingunils
d. ATCUs and FICs.
24. What is the content of section 2 of an AIREP?
a. ETA and endurance.
b. EET and endurance.
c. Present position and ETA.
d. ETA for the FIR boundary and endurance.
TheAirTracserviceisrovidedforlheuroseof
a revenling coIIisions belveen aircrafl belveen aircrafl and obslacIes on lhe
manoeuvringareaandexedilingandmainlaininganorderIyovofairlrac
b aIyingsearalionbelveenaircraflandexedilingandmainlaininganorderIyov
ofairlrac
c. preventing collisions between controlled aircraft and expediting and maintaining an
orderIyovofairlrac
d avoidingcoIIisionsbelveenaIIaircraflandexedilingandmainlaininganorderIyov
ofairlrac
26. The Alerting Service is provided by:
a. the ATS unit responsible for the aircraft at that moment.
b. the ATS unit responsible for the aircraft at that moment when it can transmit on
121.5Mhz.
c. only ATC units.
d. Area Control Centres.
27. When is ATIS updated?
a. Only when the weather conditions change enough to require a change in the active
runway or instrument approach in use.
b OnIyvhenlheceiIingandorvisibiIilychangesbyareorlabIevaIue
c Uonlhereceilofanysignicanlchange
d IveryminulesifvealhercondilionsarebeIovlhoseforVIRolhervisehourIy
28. Who is responsible for an ATC clearance to be safe in respect of terrain avoidance?
a. ATC.
b. The ATSU when accepting the FP.
c. The PIC.
d. The Operator.
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Chapter 15
Air Trafc Services
29. Which of the following statements regarding the Alerting Service is correct?
a. The distress phase is established when an aircraft is known or believed to be the subject
of unlawful interference.
b. Aircraft in the vicinity of an aircraft that is known or believed to be the subject of
unIavfuIinlerferenceshaIIbeinformedaboullhis
c. The Alerting Service and FIS are often provided by the same ATSU.
d. The Alert phase is established when no communication has been received from an
aircraft within a period of 30 minutes after the time communications should have been
received.
30. ATIS broadcasts for departing and arriving aircraft are to contain cloud cover information
when:
a lhecIoudbaseisbeIovflorlhehigheslMSAvhicheverishigher
b lhe cIoud base is beIov fl or lhe highesl MSA vhichever is higher or lhere is
cumulonimbus reported.
c lhe cIoud base is beIov fl or lhe highesl MSA vhichever is higher or lhere is
cumulonimbus reported.
d lhe cIoud base is beIov fl or lhe highesl MSA vhichever is higher or lhere is
cumulonimbus reported.
31. ATIS broadcast:
a shaIInolbelransmiedonlhevoicechanneIofaVORbeacon
b shaIIonIybelransmiedonadiscreleVHIfrequency
c shaIInolbelransmiedonlhevoicechanneIofILS
d shaIIbelransmiedonlhevoicechanneIofILSonadiscreleVHIfrequencyoronlhe
voice channel of a VOR beacon.
Whenever ATIS is rovided lhe rearalion and disseminalion of lhe ATIS message is lhe
responsibility of:
a lheMeloceservinglheaerodrome
b bolhATCandlheMeloce
c vhicheveroceisrescribedbylheslale
d. ATS.
IIighlinformalionrovidedloighlsshaIIincIuderovisionofinformalionconcerningcoIIision
hazards to aircraft operating in airspace classes:
a. F and G only.
b. C to G inclusive.
c. A to G inclusive.
d. A to E inclusive.
34. The phases of the Alerting Service to an aircraft in emergency or believed to be in emergency
are:
a uncerlainlyhaseurgencyhasedislresshase
b uncerlainlyhaseurgencyhaseemergencyhase
c uncerlainlyhaseaIerlhaseurgencyanddislresshase
d uncerlainlyhaseaIerlhasedislresshase
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Chapter 15 Air Trafc Services
35. The ATIS broadcast should not exceed:
a. 3 minutes.
b. 30 seconds.
c. 1 minute.
d. 2 minutes.
36. An aerodrome Flight Information Service:
a. can only relay ATC instructions to aircraft on the ground or in the air.
b. can supply limited services to the users but not ATC under any circumstances to aircraft
in the air.
c. can supply ATC but is not subject to authority supervision.
d. is the same as ATC but is only provided at an aerodrome.
262
Chapter 15
Air Trafc Services
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. A 6.72
2. C 15.35
3. B 15.32
4. A 15.36
5. D 15.38
6. A 15.17
7. B 15.5
8. B 15.9
9. D 15.33
10. B 15.35
11. C 15.38
12. B 15.36
13. C 15.28
14. A 15.27
15. D 15.15
16. B 15.14
17. C 15.12
18. B 15.36
19. A 15.5
20. D 15.1
21. D 15.41
22. B 15.14
23. D 15.19
24. A 15.41
25. A 15.3
26. A 15.35
27. C 15.33
28. C 15.15
29. C 15.35
30. C 15.34
31. C 15.32
32. D 15.30
33. B 15.27
34. D 15.38
35. B 15.33
36. B 15.26
263
Chapter 16 Separation
CHAPTER5IXTEEN
5EPARATION
Contents
CONCIITOISIIARATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
VIRTICALSIIARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
HORIZONTALSIIARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
RADARSIIARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
IROCIDURALWAKITURULINCISIIARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
RADARWAKITURULINCISIIARATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
VISUALSIIARATIONINTHIVICINITYOIAIRODROMIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
STACKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
264
Chapter 16 Separation
265
Chapter 16 Separation
CONCEPTOF5EPARATION
Gcncra! Prnvisinns Inr thc 5cparatinn nI Cnntrn!!cd Trac. Within CAS the ATC
serviceviIImakesurelhalaIIconlroIIedighlsighlsrovidedvilhATCaresearaledfrom
eacholherlocomIyvilhlherslrequiremenloflheservicelorevenlcoIIisionsbelveen
aircraft. Separation can be either:
Vertical or
Horizontal or
Composite (a mixture of both - see |igurc)
IlisaIiedloadenedslandardknovnaslhesearalionminimaSearalionisaIsoaIied
loachievesacingbelveenaircrafllocounlerlheeeclsofvakevorlicesandlofaciIilalelimed
arrivals and departures from busy aerodromes. Separation is applied:
elveenaIIighlsincIassAandairsaces
elveenIIRighlsincIassCDandIairsaces
elveenIIRighlsandVIRighlsincIassCairsace
elveenIIRighlsandseciaIVIRighls
elveen seciaI VIR ighls vhen so rescribed by lhe aroriale ATS
authority
Note:|||ignisinVMC!uring!aq|ignincursinc|asscsOan!|airspaccnaq|cc|carc!icc|in|an!
!csccn!uni|sinainiainingcunscparaiicn
Minimum scparatinn. Clearance will not be given to execute any manoeuvre that
would reduce the spacing between two aircraft to less than the separation minimum applicable.
Larger searalions lhan lhe secied minima viII be aIied vhenever vake lurbuIence or
exceptional circumstances such as unlawful interference call for extra precautions. Whenever
lhelyeofsearalionorminimumusedlosearalelvoaircraflcannolbemainlainedaclion
shaII be laken lo ensure lhal anolher lye of searalion exisls or is eslabIished vhen lhe
reviousIyaIiedsearalionbecomesinsucienl
Cnmpnsitc5cparatinn. In circumstances where (usually due to an emergency or a serious
deterioration in operating capability) the aircraft cannot maintain the necessary requirements
fornormaInavigalionacomromisesearalionslandardmaybeseciedinaccordancevilh
aRANagreemenlvherebylheaircraflviIIlakeuaIliludeandlracksacingnolIesshaIflhal
seciedinlheslandardsfornormaIsearalionTheRTIfaiIurerocedureforlheNATregion
secies comosile searalion Iikevise lhe suggesled rocedure for unIavfuI inlerference
vherelheiIolcannolmainlainlvovayRTIaIsoseciescomosilesearalion
Esscntia!TracInInrmatinnIssenliaITracisdenedaslhalconlroIIedlraclo
vhichATCsearalionisaIicabIebullovhichinreIalionloanolherconlroIIedighlisnol
orviIInolbesearaledbylherequiredminimumIssenliaIlracinformalionviIIbeassed
lolheconlroIIedighlsconcernedvhenlheyconsliluleessenliaIlracloeacholher
VERTICAL5EPARATION
Vcrtica!5cparatinnMinimaWhereverossibIeATCviIIarrangeverlicaIsearalion
to maximise the use of airspace and minimise horizontal use of airspace. Vertical separation is
oblainedbyrequiringaircraflusinglhesameaIlimelerseingloyaldierenlIeveIsexressed
in lerms of ighl IeveIs or aIliludes deendanl uon lhe magnelic lrack of lhe aircrafl The
vertical separation minimum (VSM) is:
266
Chapter 16 Separation
Wilhindesignaledairsacesub|eclloRANagreemenlRVSManominaI
mflbeIovILorahigherIeveIvheresorescribedforuseunder
seciedcondilionsandanominaImflalorabovelhisIeveIand
WilhinaIIolherairsaceanominaImflbeIovILandanominaI
mflalorabovelhisIeveI
FL100
FL110
300ft
300ft
400ft
ICAO LEVEL OCCUPANCY STANDARD = +/- 300ft
(UK applies +/- 200 ft standard)
Safety BUFFER area
RV5M Cruising Lcvc!s The RVSM cruising IeveIs dened for domeslic airsace
oulside of lhe NAT MNISA are lhose belveen IL and IL incIusive In olher vords
both FL290 and FL410 are RVSM levels.
Minimum cruising !cvc! Ixcel vhen secicaIIy aulhorised by lhe aroriale
aulhorily cruising IeveIs beIov lhe minimum ighl aIliludes eslabIished by lhe Slale shaII
nol be assigned Area ConlroI Cenlres shaII vhen circumslances varranl il delermine lhe
Iovesl useabIe ighl IeveI or IeveIs for lhe vhoIe or arls of lhe conlroI area for vhich lhey
areresonsibIeanduseilvhenassigningighlIeveIsandassilloiIolsonrequeslUnIess
olhervise rescribed by lhe Slale concerned lhe Iovesl usabIe ighl IeveI is lhal vhich
corresondsloorisimmedialeIyabovelheeslabIishedminimumighlaIliludeTheorlion
ofaconlroIareaforvhichaarlicuIarIoveslusabIeighlIeveIaIiesisdelerminedin
accordancevilhairlracservicesrequiremenls
AssignmcntnICruisingLcvc!. An ACC will normally allocate only one cruising level
lo an aeroIane excel vhere cruise cIimb is aulhorised for ighl in lhe conlroI area or for
ighlenleringanolherconlroIarea
Lcvc! Changc If a change in cruising IeveI is required lhe aircrafl is lo requesl a
IeveIchangeenrouleafleriniliaIcIearancereceivedAircraflcruisecIimbaulhorisedviIIbe
cleared to operate between two levels. On ATS routes (airways) extending beyond the control
areaIeveIchangesarelobeeecledoveraradionavigalionaidIfanaircraflhasbeencIeared
inloaCTAbeIovlheminimumcruisingIeveIforlhalairsacelheACCviIIissueacIearance
locIimbevenlhoughlheiIolhasnolrequesledilWhennecessaryanaircraflmaybecIeared
lochangecruisingIeveIalaseciedlimeIaceorrale
5amc Dcstinatinn If raclicabIe cruising IeveIs of aircrafl bound for lhe same
destination will be assigned to facilitate the correct approach sequence at the destination.
|igurc|CAO|ctc|cccupancqsian!ar!
267
Chapter 16 Separation
Prinrity. An aircraft at a cruising level will have priority over aircraft requesting that
IeveIWhenlvoormoreaircraflareallhesameIeveIlherecedingaircraflviIIhaveriorily
A!!ncatinn 5cparatinn. An aircraft may be assigned a level previously occupied by
anolher aircrafl afler lhe Iaer has reorled vacaling il In lhe case of severe lurbuIence or
cruise cIimb lhe assignmenl viII be vilhheId unliI lhe olher aircrafl has reorled al anolher
level separated by the required minimum.
Vcrtica! scparatinn during asccnt nr dcsccnt. Pilots in direct communication with
eacholhermayvilhlheirconcurrencebecIearedlomainlainaseciedverlicaIsearalion
between their aircraft during ascent or descent.
C!carancctnMaintainOwn5cparatinninVMC. If requested by the pilot of an aircraft
and il is agreed by lhe iIol of lhe olher aircrafl and aulhorised by ATC a ighl oeraling
in cIasses D and I airsace in VMC during dayIighl may be cIeared lo cIimb or descend
maintaining own separation from one other aircraft providing:
ThecIearanceissecicaIIyforlheorlionofighlbeIovfl
AIlernaliveinslruclionsareassedlolheiIollocoverIossofVMC
IfcondilionsdelerioralelolheIimilsofVMClheiIolisloinformATClhalhe
she is complying with the alternate instructions.
HORIZONTAL5EPARATION
Dcnitinn. Horizontal separation relates to the distance between aircraft in the
horizontal plane. This may be:
LongiludinaIaircraflfoIIovinglhesameroulevherelhesearalionslandard
isbasedonlimeordislanceaIonglrackbelveenaircraflor
Lateral.
HORIZONTAL SEPARATION
Lateral or Longitudinal
Lateral Separation
Longitudinal Separation
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Chapter 16 Separation
Latcra! 5cparatinn. Lateral separation shall be applied so that the distance between
those portions of the intended routes for which the aircraft are to be laterally separated is
neverIesslhananeslabIisheddislanceloaccounlfornavigalionaIinaccuraciesIusasecied
buerThisbuershaIIbedelerminedbylhearorialeaulhorilyandincIudedinlheIaleraI
separation minima. Lateral separation of aircraft at the same level is obtained by requiring
oeralion on dierenl roules or in dierenl geograhicaI Iocalions as delermined by visuaI
observalion by use of navigalion aids or by use of area navigalion RNAV equimenl The
buerconcelisaIiedloaIImelhodsofsearalion
Position accuracy 'area'
Safety "BUFFER" area
Minimum IateraI separation
Latcra!5cparatinnCritcriaandMinima. Means by which lateral separation may be
achieved include the following:
Gcngraphica! 5cparatinn. Separation positively indicated by position reports
overdierenlgeograhicaIIocalionsasdelerminedvisuaIIyorbyreferencelo
a navigation aid.
Track 5cparatinn. This can be achieved between aircraft using the same
navigalionaidormelhodIlisachievedbyrequiringaircraflloyonsecied
tracks which are separated by a minimum amount (angle and distance)
appropriate to the navigation aid or method employed as follows. For the three
casesseciedlhedislancerequiredisnmfromlhecommonosilionvilh
track divergence as follows:
x VOR: Track divergence 15
x ND Trackdivergence
x DR Fix: Track divergence 45
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Chapter 16 Separation
Lateral Separation
Geographic Separation:
50N
51N
20W 30W 40W 50W
Track Separation
VOR, NDB
or DR Fix

28km (15nm)
= VOR 15; NDB 30; DR Fix 45
Dicrcnt Navigatinn Aids LaleraI searalion belveen aircrafl using dierenl
navigalionaidsorvhereoneaircraflisusingRNAVequimenlislobeeslabIishedbyensuring
lhallhederivedrolecledairsacesbuerareasdonoloverIa
RNAV Opcratinns Wilhin designaled airsace or on araIIeI roules vhere RNI is
seciedIaleraIsearalionbelveenRNAVaircraflmaybeoblainedbyrequiringaircrafllobe
established on the centre lines of parallel tracks or ATS routes spaced at a distance which ensures
that the protected airspaces do not overlap. This is the policy that determines the spacing of the
NATlracksemIoyedinlheNATMNISA
Lnngitudina!5cparatinn. Longitudinal separation is the most complex application of
separation standards. In procedural ATC (not radar control) the position of the aircraft is that
vhichisreorledbylheiIolTheosilionsreorledareusuaIIyseciedreorlingoinls
radio navigalion faciIilies or geograhic oinls for roules nol secied by navigalion aids
In any evenl lhe osilion knovn lo lheATCO is onIy as good as lhal reorled by lhe iIol
In aIying roceduraI searalion aII ossibIe errors musl be aIIoved for and lhen a safely
margin buer aIied The onIy silualion in vhich lhe safely margins may be reIaxed is
vhere lhe iIols of aircrafl lo vhich searalion shouId be aIied have and conrmed lhal
they have visual contact with each other and that they can maintain visual contact during the
necessarymanoeuvrelovhichsearalionvouIdolhervisebeaIiedCIearIylhesearalion
standards assume operations in IMC. The accuracy of pilot position reporting relies on the
accuracy of the navigation system in use. In remote areas (over the oceans and desert regions)
vhereRNAVroceduresmaybeusedgrealerroleclionneedslobeaIiedLongiludinaI
separation applied is either in terms of time or distance.
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Chapter 16 Separation
App!icatinn. Longitudinal separation is applied so that the spacing between the
estimated positions of the aircraft being separated is never less than a prescribed minimum.
Longitudinal separation between aircraft following the same or diverging tracks may be
mainlained by aIicalion of lhe Mach number lechnique vhen so rescribed on lhe basis
of RAN agreemenl LongiludinaI searalion is eslabIished by requiring aircrafl lo dearl al
a secic lime lo Iose lime lo arrive over a geograhicaI Iocalion al a secied lime or lo
hoIdoverageograhicaIIocalionunliIaseciedlimeIorlheuroseoflheaIicalionof
IongiludinaIsearalionlhefoIIovinglermsaredened
5amcTrack. The same track case applies when the tracks of two aircraft that
requiresearalionconvergeordivergebyananguIardierenceIesslhan
or more than 315 and whose protection areas overlap.
Rcciprnca! Track. The reciprocal track case applies when the tracks of two
aircrafl lhal require searalion converge or diverge by an anguIar dierence
more than 135 but less than 225 and whose protection areas overlap.
Crossing TrackCrossinglracksaredenedaslracksvhichinlerseclalangIes
olherlhanlhosedenedinaorbabove
Position accuracy 'area'
Safety "BUFFER" area
Minimum IongitudinaI separation
TimcBascdLnngitudina!5cparatinn. The separation standards applied depends upon
vhelherlheaircraflconcernedaremainlaininglhesameIeveIorarecIimbingdescending
5amcLcvc! In this situation the separation is dependant upon the track case:
5amc track casc. The basic standard is that aircraft should be at least 15
minulesaarlIfhovevernavigalionaidsforlheroulebeingovnermil
frequent determination of position and speed the basic standard may be
reduced to 10 minutes. The standard my be further reduced to 5 minutes
rovidinglheaircraflhavedearledfromlhesameaerodromeorassed
overlhesameenroulereorlingoinlorreorledoveraxlhalisIocaled
reIalivelolhedearlureoinlloensurelhalminulessearalioncanbe
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Chapter 16 Separation
eslabIishedallheoinllhedearlingaircraflviII|oinlheroulevilhlhe
overriding proviso that the preceding aircraft has TAS 20 kts or more faster
lhanlhesucceedingaircraflIflheseeddierenceisincreasedlokls
the standard may be further reduced to 3 minutes.

15 minutes
Radio Nav Aid Radio Nav Aid 10 minutes
Aerodrome or
reporting point 5 minutes
3 minutes
Filed speed
20kt faster
Aerodrome or
reporting point
Filed speed
40kt faster
Crossing track case The basic slandard is minules If hovever lhe
frequenldelerminalionofosilionandseedcavealaIieslheslandard
may be reduced to 10 minutes.


15 minutes
10 minutes
Crossing Tracks Case
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Chapter 16 Separation
C!imbingnrdcsccnding. This is a more complex case. The problem only exists when
vertical separation does not exist (the aircraft are within the vertical separation standard of each
other). Again it depends upon the relative tracks of the aeroplanes but now also involves the
reciprocal track case.
5amctrack. When an aircraft will pass through the level of another aircraft
onlhesamelracklhesearalionaIiedisminulesbulmaybereduced
to 10 minutes provided that navigation aids permit frequent update of
osilionandseedandarovedbylheaulhorilyorminulesrovided
that the level change is commenced within 10 minutes of the time that the
second aircraft has reported over an exact reporting point.

Climbing and Descending Longitudinal separation to
be applied whilst vertical separation does not exist
15 min
FL100
FL110
FL120

10 min
Where nav aids permit frequent update of speed and position
separation = 10 mins
FL100
FL110
FL120
VOR
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273
Chapter 16 Separation

10 min max
If the manoeuvre is commenced within 10 mins of second
aircraft crossing a reporting point separation = 5 mins
FL100
FL110
FL120
VOR
5 min
Note:|jinc|ctc|cnangcintc|tc!isccnsi!cra||caninicrnc!iaic|ctc|jusia|ctccrjusi|c|cu!cpcn!ing
cninccascc|in|cr!csccn!naq|ca||ccaic!icincnanccutringiracOnccaiinai|ctc|scparaiicn
ui|||casscssc!an!ijapp|ic!inc|ctc|crcssingnanccutrcapprctc!an!cxccuic!
Crossing tracks. The applicable standard is 15 minutes unless frequent
udale of osilion and seed is avaiIabIe in vhich case lhe minimum is
reduced to 10 minutes.
Rcciprnca! tracks Where IaleraI searalion is nol rovided verlicaI
separation shall be provided for at least 10 minutes prior to and after the
time the aircraft are estimated to have passed. Once it has been established
usuaIIyvisuaIIylhallheaircraflhaveindeedassedlhisminimumneed
not then further apply.

10 min
Reciprocal Tracks Aircraft to maintain vertical separation for
10 min after aircraft are estimated to have passed
20 min
10 min
Estimated passing
point
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Chapter 16 Separation
Lnngitudina! scparatinn bascd nn DME Where DMI informalion is avaiIabIe
searalion can be eslabIished by mainlaining nol Iess lhan lhe secied dislances belveen
aircraft positions. In this case it is a requirement that direct pilot - controller communication is
maintained.
NoteinincNATrcgicnusingH|ccnnunicaiicnistiaara!iccpcraicrnci!ircciicincccnirc||cr
AircraItatthcsamc!cvc!ThereviousIydenedsameandcrossinglracksilualions
apply:
5amc track The normal standard is 20 nm provided each aircraft uses on-
track DME stations and separation is checked by obtaining simultaneous DME
readings from the aircraft at frequent intervals. The standard may be reduced
lonmrovidedlheIeadingaircraflmainlainsaTASklsormorefasler
than the succeeding aircraft.
Crossing tracksThesamelrackslandardsaIylocrossinglracroviding
that each aircraft reports distance from the station located at the crossing point
and that the relative angle of the tracks is less than 90.
Climbing or descending. The standard separation is 10 nm whilst vertical
searaliondoesnolexislrovidingeachaircraflusesonlrackDMIslalions
one aircrafl mainlains a IeveI vhiIsl verlicaI searalion does nol exisl and
separation is established by simultaneous DME readings from the aircraft.
Rcciprnca! tracks. Aircraft using on-track DME may be cleared to climb or
descend lo or lhrough IeveIs occuied by olher aircrafl using onlrack DMI
provided it has been positively established that the aircraft have passed
each other and are at least 10 nm apart (or such other value as the authority
secies
Lnngitudina! scparatinn with Mach numbcr tcchniquc bascd nn timc The Mach
numberlechniquerequireslurbo|elaircraflloyallheMachnumberarovedbyATCand
to request approval before making any speed changes. If it is essential to make immediate
lemorarychangesloseedegduelolurbuIenceATCislobeinformedassoonasossibIe
If it is not feasible due to aircraft performance to maintain the last assigned Mach no during
en roule cIimbs and descenls iIols are lo advise ATC al lhe lime cIearance lo cIimb or
descent is requested. Separation will be deemed to exist when the required time interval exists
providing:
The aircraft concerned have reported over the same reporting point and follow
the same track or continuously diverging tracks until some other form of
searalionisrovidedor
Il is ossibIe lo ensure by radar or olher means lhal lhe aroriale lime
interval will exist at the common point from which they will either follow the
same lrack or conlinuousIy diverge if lhe aircrafl have nol aIready reorled
over the same point.
Timcintcrva!sWhenlheMachnumberlechniqueisaIiedminimumIongiludinaI
searalionbelveenlurbo|elaircraflonlhesamelrackvhelherinIeveIcIimbingordescending
ighlis
10 minutes providing the preceding aircraft maintains a Mach speed equal to or
grealerlhanlhalmainlainedbylhefoIIovingaircraflor
275
Chapter 16 Separation
elveen and minules incIusive roviding lhe receding aircrafl is
maintaining a Mach no greater than the following aircraft in accordance with
the following:

MachNndicrcncc
between preceding and
following
Lnngitudina!5cparatinn
standard
0 10 minutes
0.01 10 minutes
0.02 9 minutes
0.03 8 minutes
0.04 7 minutes
0.05 6 minutes
0.06 5 minutes
Lnngitudina!5cparatinnbascdnnRNAVThisisaIicabIeloRNAVaircrafloeraling
aIong RNAV roules orATS roules dened by VOR In lhis case searalion is eslabIished by
mainlaininglhesecieddislancebelveenaircraflosilionsreorledbyreferencelolheRNAV
equimenl Il is a requiremenl lhal direcl conlroIIeriIol communicalions are mainlained
RNAV osilions are dened as slandard vay oinls common lo bolh aircrafl sub|ecl lo
separation. The minimum is 150 km (80 nm) distance based separation instead of the normally
required 10 minutes. It is also essential that the Mach no technique is applied. In the event of
equimenlfaiIurereducinglhenavigalioncaabiIilyloIesslhanlheRNAVrequiremenllhe
normaIIongiludinaIsearalionviIIbeaIiedThesecicsearalionrequiremenlsare
5amccruising!cvc!. 150 km (80 nm) providing each aircraft reports position
fromsameoinlandsearalionischeckedbyoblainingsimuIlaneousRNAV
distance readings from the aircraft at frequent intervals.
Climbing or descending on same track. 150 km (80 nm) whilst vertical
searalion does nol exisl rovided each aircrafl reorls dislance from same
vay oinl one aircrafl mainlains IeveI ighl vhiIsl verlicaI searalion does
nolexislandsearalioniseslabIishedbyoblainingsimuIlaneousRNAV
distance readings from the aircraft.
Rcciprnca!tracksAircraflmaybeermiedcIimbordescendlhroughIeveIs
occupied by other aircraft providing it has been positively established by
simuIlaneousRNAVdislancereadingsloorfromlhesameonlrackvayoinl
that the aircraft have passed each other by at least 150 km (80 nm).
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276
Chapter 16 Separation
Lnngitudina! 5cparatinn bascd nn RNAV whcrc RNP is spccicd. For aircraft
cruising cIimbing or descending on lhe same lrack in an RNI RNAV environmenl lhe
separation standards detailed in the table below may be used. During the application of the
nmminimumifanaircraflfaiIsloreorlilsosilionlheconlroIIerislolakeaclionvilhin
3 minutes to establish communications. If communication has not been established within 8
minutes alternative separation is to be applied. An aircraft may climb or descend through an
occupied level once it has been established that the aircraft concerned have passed.
RNPTypc
Communication
Rcquircmcnt
5urvci!!ancc
Rcquircmcnt
Distance
Vcricatinn
Rcquircmcnt
5cparatinn
20
DirecliIol
controller
communications
Procedural
Position Reports
At least every 60
minutes
80 nm
10
DirecliIol
controller
communications
Procedural
Position Reports
At least every 30
minutes
50nm
Rcductinn in scparatinn minima. The separation minima may be reduced as
delerminedbylhearorialeATSaulhorilyaflerriorconsuIlalionvilhlheaircrafloeralors
asarorialeinlhefoIIovingcircumslances
When special electronic or other aids enable the pilot-in-command of an
aircraft to determine accurately the aircrafts position and when adequate
communicalionfaciIiliesexislforlhalosilionlobelransmiedvilhouldeIay
lolhearorialeairlracconlroIunilor
When in associalion vilh raid and reIiabIe communicalion faciIilies radar
derived information of an aircrafts position is available to the appropriate air
lracconlroIunilor
WhenseciaIeIeclronicorolheraidsenabIelheairlracconlroIIerloredicl
raidIyandaccuraleIylheighlalhsofanaircraflandadequalefaciIiliesexisl
lo verify frequenlIy lhe acluaI aircrafl osilions vilh lhe redicled osilions
or
WhenRNAVequiedaircrafloeralevilhinlhecoverageofeIeclronicaids
that provide the necessary updates to maintain navigational accuracy.
InaccordancevilhRANagreemenlsaflerriorconsuIlalionvilhlheaircrafl
oeralorsvhen
x SeciaI eIeclronic area navigalion on olher aids enabIe lhe aircrafl lo
cIoseIyadherelolheircurrenlighlIansand
x The air lrac silualion is such lhal lhe condilions regarding
communications between pilots and the appropriate ATS unit or units
neednolnecessariIybemellolhedegreeseciedlhereininorderlo
maintain an adequate level of safety.
|igurc|NP|NAVscparaiicn
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Chapter 16 Separation
RADAR5EPARATION
5cparatinn minima. Radar provides the ATCO with fairly accurate position
informalionforanaircraflunderhisherconlroIIrobIemsassocialedvilhradarincIudesIanl
range disIay largel discriminalion and Ioss of conlacl cIose lo lhe radar overhead These
errors must be handled in the same manner that other positional errors are: by the addition of
bueraIIovancesTheerrorsarevorseforIongrangeradarsusedinareaconlroIbulmusl
still be considered for terminal radars covering a much smaller area. The basic radar separation
slandardisnmThismeanslhalvherelvoaircraflidenliedonradarareallhesameIeveI
lheyarenolermiedloaroachcIoserlhannmloeacholheronlheradardisIay
Rcduccd Radar 5cparatinn When aroved by lhe aulhorily and in secic
circumslances lhe radar searalion slandard nm may be reduced The foIIoving describe
lhesesecicoccasions
Tcrmina! Radar within nm nI thc Radar Hcad. In this situation (usually
where procedures are employed by an Approach Radar Controller) and the
aircrafl is vilhin nm of lhe osilion of lhe radar lransmier head lhe
separation standard may be reduced to 3nm between contracts on the radar
display.
IL5 Lnca!iscr. Where two (or more) aircraft are established on the same ILS
IocaIisercourse andvilhinnmoflhelhreshoIdoflheIandingrunvaylhe
separation standard may be reduced to 2.5nm between contacts on the radar
display.
5imu!tancnus Para!!c! Apprnachcs Mndc Dcpcndcnt During Mode 2
parallel runway operations radar separation is applied. Between aircraft on
adjacent localiser courses the separation standard may be reduced to 2nm
between contacts on the radar display.
PROCEDURALWAKETURBULENCE5EPARATION
5ituatinn When lhe vings are crealing Iifl from rolale lo louchdovn vake
vorlicesarecrealedbehindlheaircraflThisisaarenlinlheformoflurbuIencelheseverily
ofvhichisafunclionofaircraflmasslhevorslcasebeingaheavyaircraflalIovseedWhere
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278
Chapter 16 Separation
an aircrafl is foIIoving anolher aircrafl aIIovance musl be made for lhe vake lurbuIence
eeclvhichundercerlaincircumslancecanbesosevereaslocauseslrucluraIdamageeven
catastrophic damage) to an airframe. The nature of the wake vortex is that it emanates from
the wing tip in the form of spiraling air from the high pressure area below the wing to the low
pressure area above the wing. It spirals in board towards the fuselage. The vortex exists at the
IeveIoflhegeneralingaircraflandloanaIliludenolexceedingflbeIovlhegeneraling
aircraflWherelhefoIIovingaircraflisvilhinlhisairsacevakelurbuIencesearalionmusl
be applied.
Wakc Turbu!cncc Catcgnrics Aircrafl are calegorised by maximum lake o mass
(MTOM) to relate to the severity of the wake vortices generated. There are three categories as
follows:
Heavy aIIaircrafllyesvilhMTOMequaIlokgormore
Mcdium aircrafl lyes vilh MTOM Iess lhan kg bul more lhan
kg
Light aircrafllyesvilhMTOMofkgorIess
NoteMTOMissiaic!cnincCcriicaiccjAirucrinincssjcrincaircraji
5cparatinnMinima. The following procedural (non-radar) wake turbulence separation
isaIiedNolelhecrileriaareonIyaIicabIevherelhefoIIovingaircraflisIighlerlhanlhe
preceding aircraft.
ArrivingAircraIt. timed approaches:
Medium behind a heavy - 2 minutes
Light behind a medium or heavy - 3 minutes
DcpartingAircraItIoraIighlormediumlakingobehindaheavyoraIighlbehind
amediumaminimumofminulesisaIiedvhenlheyareusing
Thesamerunvay
IaraIIeIrunvayssearaledbyIesslhenm
Crossing runvays if lhe ro|ecled ighl alhs cross al lhe same aIlilude or
vilhinflbeIovlhehigher
IaraIIeIrunvayssearaledbymormoreiflhero|ecledighlalhscross
allhesameaIliludeorvilhinflbeIovlhehig

279
Chapter 16 Separation
Iess than
760m
760m or more
2 Minutes
2 Minutes
|igurcPara||c|an!crcssingrunuaqs
|igurcPara||c|runuaqs
280
Chapter 16 Separation
Iess than 760m rotation point
Note: Scparaiicnisincrcasc!icninuicsuncrca|ignicrnc!iunisiakingc|cnin!ancatqcr
|igni|cnin!anc!iunjrcnaninicrnc!iaicparicjincsancrunuaqcraninicrnc!iaicpcinicnpara||c|
runuaqs
Disp!accd !anding thrcshn!d. A separation of 2 minutes is applied between light
or medium and heavy (or between light and medium) when operating on a runway with a
displaced threshold when:
A dearling Iighl or medium foIIovs a heavy arriving or a dearling Iighl
foIIovsamediumarrivingor
An arriving Iighl or medium foIIovs a heavy dearling or an arriving Iighl
foIIovsamediumdearlingiflhero|ecledighlalhsareexecledlocross
Oppnsitcdircctinn. A separation of 2 minutes is applied between a light or medium
andaheavyorbelveenaIighlandamediumvhenlheheavieraircraflismakingaIovor
missedaroachandlheIighleraircraflisusinganoosiledireclionrunvayforlakeoor
is Ianding on lhe same runvay in lhe oosile direclion or on a araIIeI oosile direclion
runway separated by less than 760 m.

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281
Chapter 16 Separation
2 minutes
2 minutes
Iess than 760m
|igurcOpppcsiic!ircciicnjcriakcc
|igurcOppcsiic!ircciicnjcr|an!ing
282
Chapter 16 Separation
IndicatinnnIHcavycatcgnry. Because of the inherent problems caused by heavy wake
lurbuIence calegory aircrafl requiring addilionaI searalion iIols of heavy calegory aircrafl
are to indicate the aircrafts heavy category in the initial RTF contact with an ATCU by the
incIusionoflhesuxheavylolheidenlifyingcaIIsignoflheaircraflegLondonControI
thlslsSpeedblrdheuton
RADARWAKETURBULENCE5EPARATION
RadarWakcTurbu!cncc5cparatinn. Because the position of the aircraft is displayed to
lheconlroIIerlherequiredsearalionforvakelurbuIenceinlhiscaseisexressedindislance
The labIe beIov conlains lhe vake lurbuIence radar searalion minima secied by ICAO
vhichviIIbeaIiedloaircraflinlhearoachanddearlurehasesofighlNolelhalin
this case the criteria apply where the category of the following aircraft is lighter than the leading
aircraflexcelforlheheavyheavycase
AircraItWakcTurbu!cncccatcgnry
LcadingAircraIt Fn!!nwingAircraIt 5cparatinn
Heavy Heavy 4 nm
Heavy Medium 5 nm
Heavy Light 6 nm
Medium Light 5 nm

VI5UAL5EPARATIONINTHEVICINITYOFAERODROME5
Intrnductinn. Except in condition where Low Visibility operations are in progress at
anaerodromelracyinginlhevicinilyoflheaerodromeincIudingarrivingdearlingand
IocaIarealracviIIbeyingincondilionvhichviIIeilherermilVIRoriIolsofaircrafllo
maintain separation from other aircraft visually. The importance of this cannot be overstressed
as the application of visual separation not only relieves the ATCO of having to impose either
roceduraI or radar searalion bul ermils minimum runvay occuancy lime Iand afler
rocedures and muIliIe aircrafl ying in lhe visuaI lrac aern In eecl lhe aIicalion
ofvisuaIsearalionincreasesaerodromecaacilyandhenceaerodromeuliIisalionTyicaIIy
Healhrov has lhe caacily lo accommodale aboul lake o oeralions and Ianding
oeralionserhourandaleaklimelhelracIoadgelscIoselolhisIfroceduraIorradar
searalion had lo be aIied lo lhe arrivaI or dearlure hases of oeralions lhe uliIisalion
would reduce dramatically. The standards previously mentioned can be reduced if:
Adequate separation can be provided by the aerodrome controller when each
aircraflisconlinuousIyvisibIelolheconlroIIeror
Flight crews report that they have visual contact with other aircraft and this can
bemainlainedor
|igurc|a!aruakciur|u|cnccscparaiicncriicria
283
Chapter 16 Separation
InlhecaseofoneaircraflfoIIovinganolherlhecrevoflhefoIIovingaircrafl
report that the leading aircraft is within sight and that separation can be
maintained.
Esscntia! Lnca! Trac Any aircrafl vehicIe or ersonneI on or near lhe runvay or
lrac in lhe lakeo and cIimb oul areas or lhe naI aroach area vhich may conslilule a
coIIision hazard lo a dearling or arriving aircrafl is dened as essenliaI IocaI lrac Where
essenliaI IocaI lrac is knovn lo lhe conlroIIer lhe informalion is lo be lransmied lo ighl
crews without delay.
Dcparting AircraIt Under IIR dearling aircrafl viII normaIIy be searaled from
each other by requiring the aircraft to follow a SID. ATCUs will co-ordinate the issuing of
cIearancesandvhereossibIeslandardcIearancesviIIbeusedSuchcIearancesviIInormaIIy
be secied by lhe aroach conlroIIer and assed lo lhe aircrafl by lhe aerodrome conlroI
loverIordearluresinVMClheaerodromeconlroIIerviIIcIearanaircraflforlakeoonce
the preceding aircraft has either:
Iassedlheuvindendoflherunvayor
Has made a turn away from the runway.
WherevakelurbuIencesearalionisaIieddearluresviIIbesequencedlominimisedeIays
andmaximiserunvayuliIisalionIorIIRlraclheslandardsearalionbelveendearlures
is 5 minutes (12 movements per hour). This may be reduced to 2 minutes between aircraft
foIIovinglhesamedearlurelrackrovidinglherecedingaircraflhasIedaIIseedkls
greater than the succeeding aircraft. This may further be reduced to 1 minute (60 movements
per hour) providing the track of the succeeding aircraft diverges from that of the preceding
aircraflbyormoreObviousIyvherearaIIeIrunvaysareusedforsimuIlaneouslakeos
ordivergingrunvaysareusedhigheruliIisalionralesIoversearalionmaybeachieved
.
|igurc
284
Chapter 16 Separation
Dcparturc 5cqucncc Al busy aerodromes lhe ground movemenl of aircrafl viII be
IannedloensurelhallheslaledOIocksTimecanbelransIaledinlolhenecessarysIollime
for the aircraft. This is the job of the Ground Movements Planner working for the aerodrome
conlroIIer If correclIy sequenced lhe aircrafl viII arrive al lhe hoIding oinl or hoIding
area in lhe correcl order for lake o Consideralion viII aIso be given lo lhe roule of lhe
aircrafl immedialeIy afler lakeo lo minimise vake lurbuIence searalion Dearlure may
beexediledbysuggeslingalakeodireclionlhalisnolinlovindInlhiscaselheIICislo
make the decision if this is acceptable.
DelaysIlisinevilabIelhalalsomeoinladeIayviIIoccurInvhichcaseighlsmay
becIearedlolakeoinanorderbasedonlheeslimaleddearlurelimeDevialionfromlhis
may be made lo faciIilale lhe maximum number of dearlures vilh lhe Ieasl average deIay
or in response to requests from operators if possible. ATCUs should inform operators when
anticipated delays exceed 30 minutes.
Arriving AircraIt. Arriving IFR aircraft may be cleared to make a visual approach
provided that:
TheiIolcanmainlainvisuaIreferencelolerrainand
ThereorledceiIingisalorabovelhearovediniliaIaroachIeveIor
The pilot reports that at any time during an instrument approach the
meteorological conditions are such that there is a reasonable assurance that an
approach and landing will be made visually.
5cparatinn. ATC will provide separation between aircraft making a visual approach
and aII olher arriving or dearling lrac Ior arriving IIR lrac in IMC lhe Aroach
Controller will transfer control of the aircraft to the Aerodrome Controller at a point during
lhe aroach so lhal searalion from dearling lrac can be achieved and sucienl lime is
available to issue a landing clearance. For certain types of approach (PAR or SRA) the aircraft
will remain under control of the Approach Radar Controller throughout the approach. This
will necessitate the radar controller obtaining the landing clearance and passing it to the pilot
during lhe Iaer slages of lhe aroach TheAerodrome ConlroIIer in cooeralion vilh lhe
Approach Controller will be responsible for sequencing departures during low visibility IFR
operations. Two situations are considered:
Cnmp!ctc Prnccdurc. If an arriving aircraft is making a complete instrument
aroach dearling lrac viII nol be ermied lo lake o in any direclion
afler lhe inslrumenl lrac has slarled lhe rocedure or base lurn lo naI or
after the aircraft has started a procedure turn and there will be at least 3 minutes
between the departure and the time the arriving aircraft is over the threshold of
the instrument runway.
5traightInApprnach. If an arriving aircraft is making a complete instrument
aroach dearling lrac viII nol be ermied lo lake o in any direclion
vilhin minules of lhe eslimaled lime lhe inslrumenl lrac viII be over lhe
lhreshoIdoflheinslrumenlrunvayIorlakeosinadireclionvilhinof
lhe recirocaI of lhe inslrumenl runvay no lake os vilhin minules of lhe
eslimaledlimelheinslrumenllracviIIbeoverlhelhreshoIdoflheinslrumenl
runvay or afler lhe inslrumenl aircrafl has assed a designaled x on lhe
approach track.
285
Chapter 16 Separation
InInrmatinntnArrivingAircraItIfaiIolrequeslsilorilisaarenlloATClhallhe
iIolofanaircraflisnolfamiIiarvilhlheroceduresforaninslrumenlaroachinformalion
viIIbeassedloenabIelhearoachlobeovnIflheaircraflhasbeencIearedforaslraighl
inaroachonIydelaiIsoflhenaIaroachlrackneedbeassed
MisscdApprnachTracks Where parallel runway segregated operations (the Heathrow
caseareinrogressamissedaroachlolheIandingrunvaycrealesasimuIlaneousdearlure
silualionvhereroceduresforModearenolinforceToovercomelherobIemslhiscreales
procedures are to be implemented to ensure that the missed approach track diverges from the
normal departure track by at least 30.
Missed approach for 27R
at LHR requiring a turn
through more than 30
|igurc
|igurc
286
Chapter 16 Separation
5TACKING
Apprnach5cqucncc. Where more than one aircraft is arriving it is normal for the aircraft
allheIoveslaIliludeloIandrslWherenecessaryahoIdingaernviIIbeeslabIishedfor
slackingofaircraflvailingloslarllhearoachUndercerlaincircumslancesaIalerarrivaI
will be given priority over earlier arrivals. Such circumstances are:
WhereanaircrafliscomeIIedloIandbecauseoffaclorsaeclinglhesafelyof
lheaeroIaneorlheoccuanlsInlhiscaselheIICoflheaircraflinvoIvedviII
be execled lo decIare an emergency using eilher MAYDAY or IAN IAN
rocedures
Hospital aircraft or aircraft carrying sick or seriously injured people. International
hosilaIighlsviIIrexiniliaIRTIvilhIANIANMIDICAL
AircraflengagedinSARoeralions
Other aircraft as may be determined by the authority.
Prnccdurc. It is normal for stacks to be established on the radio navigation beacons
serving as the IAF for the instrument procedures to be used. The vertical size of the stack may
beIimiledbyairsaceconsideralionsandvhenfuIIoversiIIslacksvouIdbeeslabIishedon
remote beacons. Arriving aircraft will be cleared into the stack at the lowest available level.
NormaIhoIdingaern|oiningroceduresareusedAircraflviIIbecIearedlocommencelhe
inslrumenl rocedure from lhe Iovesl hoIding aIlilude lhe boom oflhe slack using limed
arrivaI rocedures If a iIol slales hisher inlenlion lo conlinue hoIding availing a vealher
imrovemenlvhenolheriIolsvishlomakeaninslrumenlaroachlhehoIdingiIolviII
beinslrucledlolakeuanolherhoIdingaernordirecledlore|oinlhehoIdallheloIfa
iIoleIeclsloaemlaninslrumenlaroachvhenolhersremaininlhehoIdanunsuccessfuI
approach would result in the aircraft being directed back into the stack at the top.
ExpcctcdApprnachTimcEAT When an aircraft enters a stack the controlling ATCO
will pass an EAT which must be acknowledged by the pilot. This will be the time that the
pilot can expect to commence the instrument approach. Initially the EAT will not be less than
30 minutes after the time of entry. If it is expected that the aircraft will not be held for more
lhan minules lhe iIol viII be informed no deIay execled As lhe aroach sequence
rogressesifnecessarylheIATviIIberevisedbyminuleinlervaIsassedlolheiIoland
acknowledged.
EnRnutcHn!dingIlisoflenreferredlohoIdanaircraflenroulealcruisingaIlilude
ralherlhanlorogresslheighllolhelerminaIslageandhoIdalIovIeveIvilhhighfueIburn
ralesWheredeIaysareknovnloexislandaircraflareheIdenroulecredilviIIbegivenfor
time spent holding en route by inserting the aircraft into the approach sequence ahead of other
aircraft so that the aircraft that has held en route is not penalized.
287
Chapter 16 Separation
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LONDON HEATHROW
via BIGGIN
STANDARD ARRIVAL CHART -
INSTRUMENT (STAR) - ICAO
DISTANCES IN NAUTICAL MILES
BEARINGS, TRACKS AND RADIALS ARE MAGNETIC
ALTITUDES AND ELEVATIONS ARE IN FEET
|igurcTncSTA|jcrIH|tiaincBigginVO|sncuingincBigginsiackuiinIHAaijian!
inca|icrnaiitcsiacksaiIYOO
288
Chapter 16 Separation
QUE5TION5
1. What types of separation does ATC apply?
a HorizonlaIIongiludinaIandliming
b HorizonlaIverlicaIandIongiludinaI
c HorizonlaIverlicaIandcomosile
d HorizonlaIverlicaIandIaleraI
IfyouvanllodescendlhroughlheIeveIofanolheraircraflonlhesamelracklhebasicsearalion
is:
a. 20 minutes.
b. 10 minutes.
c. 5 minutes.
d. 15 minutes.
WhalislheminimumIongiludinaIsearalionslandardrequiredforRNAVroules
a. 80 nm.
b. 60 nm.
c. 50 nm.
d. 20 nm.
WhalislheverlicaIsearalionminimumbeIovfl
a. 500 ft.
b fl
c fl
d. It depends whether or not RVSM is applied.
WhalislheminimumverlicaIsearalionbelveenIIRaircraflyinginlhesamedireclionabove
flinnonRVSMairsace
a fl
b. 500 ft.
c fl
d fl
WhencanoneaircraflasslhroughlheIeveIofanolheraircraflvhichisyingaIonganATS
rouleinVMCmainlainingovnsearalion
a. If the pilot requests and the state approves.
b. If the pilot requests and it is day time.
c. If the pilot requests during day or night.
d IrreIevanllhemanoeuvreisnolermied
WhalislhesearalionbasedonRNAVvhenRNIisseciedis
a. 80 nm.
b. 50 nm.
c ordeendanluonlheRNIlye
d. 15 minutes.
289
Chapter 16 Separation
IflvoaircraflareusinglhesameVORforlracksearalionvhaldislancemusllheaircraflbe
from the VOR before one of the two may commence a climb or descent?
a. 5 nm.
b. 10 nm.
c. 15 nm.
d. 20 nm.
9. Whilst under IFR in VMC you decide to maintain your own separation to descend through the
level of another aircraft. What is required?
a. During day you must request clearance and with ATC authority approval.
b YoumuslrequeslcIearanceandlheATCaulhorilymuslaroveduringdayornighl
c YouonIyneedlorequeslarovaIforlhemanoeuvre
d. In CAS the manoeuvre is illegal.
TvoaircraflareonlhesamelrackallhesameIeveIandareusingsimuIlaneousDMIxesfrom
the same on track DME station. What is the minimum longitudinal separation applied?
a. 10 nm.
b. 5 nm.
c. 20 nm.
d. 15 nm.
11. What is the separation standard between aircraft at the same altitude when using DME to
determine range from a beacon?
a nmvherelherslaircraflseedisklsfaslerlhanlhesecond
b nmvherelherslaircraflseedisklsfaslerlhanlhesecond
c nmvherelherslaircraflseedisklsfaslerlhanlhesecond
d nmvherelherslaircraflseedisklsfaslerlhanlhesecond
TvoaircraflareusinglheMachnumberlechniquebolhalsameMachnumberorrslfasler
lhansecondforsamelracksearalionIfusinganRNAVlrackvhalvouIdbelheslandard
separation in lieu of time?
a. 80 nm.
b. 60 nm.
c. 50 nm.
d. 25 nm.
WhencanaconlroIIedighlbegivenermissionlocIimbdescendmainlainingovnsearalion
in VMC?
a. When directed by ATC.
b. When requested by the pilot and the ATC approves.
c Whenlhereisnoconiclinglrac
d. When approved by the operator.
WhalisessenliaIlrac
a IIighlsengagedinriorilyighlsieVIIhosilaIoroIiceighls
b Anyconiclinglrac
c TracvhichshouIdbesearaledbulvhichisnl
d Unidenliedlraconradar
290
Chapter 16 Separation
WhenisessenliaIlracinformalionassedloanaircrafl
a eforealakeocIearanceisissued
b WherelracconslilulesessenliaIlracloanolherconlroIIedighl
c. When the separation minima cannot be maintained.
d. When a pilot requests permission to descend or climb maintaining own separation.
Whal is lhe divergence angIe lhal musl be mainlained from overhead an ND lo a range of
nmloaIIovoneaircrafllocIimbdescendlhroughlheIeveIofanolher
a. 15.
b. 30.
c. 45.
d. 60.
TheIongiludinaIsearalionminimumbasedonlimebelveenlvoaircraflallhesameaIlilude
for which navigation aids can give a frequent determination of position and speed and when
lheroceedingaircraflhasalrueairseedofalIeaslklshigherlhanlhefoIIovingaircrafl
is:
a. 5 minutes.
b. 6 minutes.
c. 10 minutes.
d. 3 minutes.
A searalion minimum based on RNAV dislance can be used al lhe momenl lhe IeveI is
beingassedassuminglhaleveryaircraflreorlsilsdislanceloorfromlhesameonlrack
waypoint. The minimum is:
a. 60 nms.
b. 80 nms.
c. 50 nms.
d. 20 nms.
19. With the Mach number technique applied what is the longitudinal standard separation between
two aircraft of which the preceding aircraft is 0.04M faster than the following aircraft?
a. 10 minutes.
b. 9 minutes.
c. 8 minutes.
d. 7 minutes.
20. What is the divergence angle that must be maintained from overhead a VOR to a range of 15nm
loaIIovoneaircrafllocIimbdescendlhroughlheIeveIofanolher
a. 15.
b. 30.
c. 45.
d. 60.
291
Chapter 16 Separation
TheIongiludinaIsearalionminimumbasedonlimebelveenlvoaircraflallhesameaIlilude
for which navigation aids can give a frequent determination of position and speed and when
bolhaircraflhaveudalednavigaliondalacanbereducedlominulesif
a lherslaircraflhasudaledlhenavigaliondalavilhinlheIaslminules
b. both aircraft have updated the navigation data within the last 10 minutes.
c. the second aircraft is updating navigation data at the time.
d. the second aircraft has updated the navigation data within the last 10 minutes.
22. Two aircraft are on crossing tracks at the same level where the navigation aids do not permit
frequent update of speed and position. What is the minimum separation applied?
a. 3 minutes.
b. 5 minutes.
c. 10 minutes.
d. 15 minutes.
23. What is the required track divergence between the departure track and the missed approach
track for parallel runway operations?
a. 15.
b. 30.
c. 45.
d. 60.
24. Longitudinal separation based on time for aircraft at the same level when navigation aids permit
frequent determination of speed and position and where the preceding aircraft is maintaining
TASklsfaslerlhanlhesucceedingaircraflis
a. 10 minutes.
b. 2 minutes.
c. 5 minutes.
d. 3 minutes.
25. The reduced radar separation provided to aircraft established on the same localiser course is:
a. 2 nm.
b. 5 nm.
c. 3 nm.
d. 2.5 nm.
26. Longitudinal separation based on time for aircraft at the same level when navigation aids permit
frequent determination of speed and position is:
a. 10 minutes.
b. 2 minutes.
c. 5 minutes.
d. 3 minutes.
292
Chapter 16 Separation
If an aircrafl is making a slraighl in aroach a dearling aircrafl may lake o in any
direction:
a. until 2 minutes before the arriving aircraft is estimated to be over the threshold of the
instrument runway.
b. until 10 minutes before the arriving aircraft is estimated to be over the threshold of the
instrument runway.
c. until 5 minutes before the arriving aircraft is estimated to be over the threshold of the
instrument runway.
d. until 3 minutes before the arriving aircraft is estimated to be over the threshold of the
instrument runway.
UnIessolherviserescribedbylhearorialeATSaulhorilylhehorizonlaIradarsearalion
minimum is:
a. 2.5 nm.
b. 5 nm.
c. 3 nm.
d. 2 nm.
29. Separation between departing aircraft may be reduced to 2 minutes when:
a. the preceding aircraft is 30 kts or more faster than the succeeding aircraft.
b. the preceding aircraft is 20 kts or more faster than the succeeding aircraft.
c. the preceding aircraft is 10 kts or more faster than the succeeding aircraft.
d. the preceding aircraft is 40 kts or more faster than the succeeding aircraft.
To meel vake lurbuIence searalion crileria for aircrafl using limed aroaches vhal is lhe
minimum applied to aircraft landing behind a heavy or medium aircraft?
a Mediumbehindheavyminules
b Mediumbehindmediumminules
c Lighlbehindmediumminules
d Mediumbehindheavyminules
TracksearalionbelveenaircraflusinglhesameDRxshaIIbeaIiedrequiringlheaircrafl
loy
a alIeaslsearaledaladislanceofnmormorefromlhex
b alIeaslsearaledaladislanceofkmormorefromlhex
c alIeaslsearaledaladislanceofnmormorefromlhex
d alIeaslsearaledaladislanceofkmormorefromlhex
AsearalionminimumshaIIbeaIiedbelveenaIighlormediumaircraflandaheavyaircrafl
andbelveenaIighlandamediumaircraflvhenlheheavieraircraflismakingaIovormissed
aroachandlheIighleraircraflisIandingonlhesamerunvayinlheoosiledireclionoron
a parallel opposite direction runway separated by:
a. 730 m.
b. Less than 760 m.
c. 760 m.
d. Less than 730 m.

293
Chapter 16 Separation
33. What would be the minimum distance applied in an approach sequence between a heavy
aircraft followed by a light aircraft?
Note |i is assunc! inai inis qucsiicn is app|ica||c ic ra!ar uakc iur|u|cncc an! assuncs inai inc
jc||cuingaircrajiisaiincsanc|ctc|an!incprccc!ingaircraji
a. 6 nm.
b. 3 nm.
c. 4 nm.
d. 5 nm.
WhalislheminimumverlicaIsearalionbelveenIIRaircraflyingbeIovIL
a. 500 ft.
b fl
c fl
d fl
35. What is the minimum radar separation applied between aircraft on adjacent localiser courses
during simultaneous parallel approaches mode 2 - dependant?
a. 2 nm.
b. 2.5 nm.
c. 3 nm.
d. 5 nm.
36. When one aircraft will pass through the level of another aircraft on the same track where
navigalionaidsermilfrequenldelerminalionofseedandosilionlheminimumIongiludinaI
separation provide is:
a. 5 minutes at the time the level is crossed.
b. 10 minutes at the time the level is crossed.
c. 15 minutes at the time the level is crossed.
d. 20 minutes at the time the level is crossed.
In order lo meel lhe vake lurbuIence searalion crileria vhal searalion shouId be aIied
vhenamediumaircraflislakingobehindaheavyandbolhareusinglhesamerunvay
a. 2 minutes.
b. 3 minutes.
c. 4 minutes.
d. 1 minute.
38. What is the reduced radar separation applied between aircraft on the same ILS localiser course
within 10 nm of touchdown?
a. 5 nm.
b. 2.5 nm.
c. 3 nm.
d. 2 nm.
294
Chapter 16 Separation
39. Longitudinal separation based on time for aircraft at the same level when navigation aids permit
frequent determination of speed and position and the preceding aircraft is maintaining a TAS
40kts faster than the succeeding aircraft is:
a. 10 minutes.
b. 15 minutes.
c. 5 minutes.
d. 3 minutes.
RNAV dislance based searalion may be used al lhe lime lhe IeveI is crossed rovided lhal
each aircraft reports its distance to or from the same on track waypoint. The minimum is:
a. 60 nm.
b. 50 nm.
c. 20 nm.
d. 80 nm.
ThenormaIradarsearalionslandardmaybereducedvilhinnmoflheRadarheadlo
a. 3 nm.
b. 5 nm.
c. 1.5 nm.
d. 1 nm.
WhalvakelurbuIencesearalionisaIiedvhenaIighlaircraflislakingobehindamedium
aircraft?
a. 3 minutes.
b. 1 minute.
c. 2 minutes.
d. 5 minutes.
Oneminulesearalionmaybeusedbelveendearlingaircrafliflhelrackslobeovndiverge
by at least:
a immedialeIyaflerlakeo
b immedialeIyaflerlakeo
c immedialeIyaflerlakeo
d immedialeIyaflerlakeo
44. The separation method whereby the vertical and horizontal separation may be reduced to a
minimum of half the standard is called:
a. composite separation.
b. combined separation.
c. reduced separation.
d. essential separation.
295
Chapter 16 Separation
45. The longitudinal separation minima based on distance using DME from on track DME stations
is:
a. 10 nm.
b. 5 nm.
c. 20 nm when the leading aircraft maintains a TAS 20kts faster than the succeeding
aircraft.
d. 20 nm.
46. The longitudinal separation minima based on distance using DME where each aircraft uses on
track DME stations is:
a. 10 nm when the leading aircraft maintains a TAS 20kts faster than the succeeding
aircraft.
b. 10 nm when the leading aircraft maintains a TAS 40kts faster than the succeeding
aircraft.
c. 20 nm when the leading aircraft maintains a TAS 10kts faster than the succeeding
aircraft.
d. 10 nm when the leading aircraft maintains a TAS 10kts faster than the succeeding
aircraft.
AircraflyingrecirocaIlracksmaybecIearedlocIimbanddescendlhroughlheIeveIoflhe
other aircraft provided the manoeuvre does not commence until:
a. 5 minutes after the aircraft are assumed to have passed each other.
b. 10 minutes after the aircraft are assumed to have passed each other.
c. 15 minutes after the aircraft are assumed to have passed each other.
d. 20 minutes after the aircraft are assumed to have passed each other.
AnaircraflviIInolbegivencIearancelolakeounliIlherecedingaircraflhas
a. reported airborne and climbed to 500 ft.
b Iefllheaerodromelraczone
c. crossed the upwind end of the runway or made a turn away from the runway.
d. reported downwind.
AdearlingaircraflviIInolbeermiedlolakeovhenarrivinginslrumenllrachas
a. started the procedure turn.
b. passed a point 10 minutes from the threshold of the instrument runway.
c reorledeIdinsighl
d reorledIongnaI
50. Wake turbulence separation is:
a. applicable at all times.
b aIicabIeonIybelveenaircraflofdierenlvakelurbuIencecalegories
c. applicable only between aircraft at the same level or where the succeeding aircraft is
IesslhanflbeIovlherecedingaircrafl
d. not applicable to parallel runway operations.
296
Chapter 16 Separation
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference Queslion Answer Reference
1. C 16.1 26. A 16.23
2. D 16.24 27. C 16.49
3. A 16.29 28. B 16.32
4. B 16.5 29. D 16.45
5. D 16.5 30. A 16.37
6. B 16.14 31. A 16.17
7. C 16.30 32. B 16.40
8. C 16.17 33. A 16.42
9. A 16.14 34. D 16.5
10. C 16.26 35. A 16.33
11. B 16.26 36. B 16.24
12. A 16.30 37. A 16.38
13. B 16.13 38. C 16.33
14. C 16.4 39. D 16.23
15. B 16.4 40. D 16.29
16. B 16.17 41. A 16.33
17. D 16.23 42. C 16.37
18. B 16.29 43. B 16.45
19. D 16.28 44. A 16.3
20. A 16.17 45. D 16.26
21. D 16.23 46. A 16.26
22. D 16.23 47. B 16.24
23. B 16.51 48. C 16.45
24. C 16.23 49. A 16.49
25. D 16.33 50. C 16.34
297
Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
CHAPTER5EVENTEEN
CONTROLOFAIRCRAFT
Contents
PROCEDURAL ATC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
RADARCONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
RADARIDINTIIICATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
RADAR SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
AIRODROMICONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
AIIROACHCONTROLSIRVICI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
AIRTRAIIICADVISORYSIRVICI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
AIRCRAITIMIRGINCIIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
298
Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
299
Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
PROCEDURALATC
CnnccptTherovisionofATCloairlracisIargeIyaoslWWconcelTheneed
for ATC was highlighted by the high loss rate of aeroplanes during WW2 on and in the vicinity
of aerodromes due lo mid air coIIisions coIIisions vilh obslacIes and inadverlenl ighl inlo
terrain. This led to the establishment of ATC at aerodromes provided by the control tower but
beyondlheaerodromeboundarynovreIacedbylheATZIiIevasrovidedolherlhana
ighlfoIIovingmoniloringserviceessenliaIIyloascerlainlhallheaircraflvassliIIairborne
After an accident in the US involving two Constellations over the Grand Canyon in the early
s concern vas exressed lhal lvo reIaliveIy smaII ob|ecls ying over a vasl geograhic
area could be a threat to each other. This led to the establishment of a one-way system for
easlveslighloverlheconlinenlaIUSandgaveriselolhersleslabIishedroceduraIATC
service. The service provided separation by requiring aircraft naturally cruising at the same
aIliludelorouleviadierenlroulesIaleraIgeograhicsearalionIlrequiredlheiIolloleII
lheairlracconlroIIervherelheaircraflvasbyassingosilionreorlsThedalacoIIecled
vas Ioed and as lhe ighl rogressed any aarenl coIIision risk vas delermined and lhe
ighlsconcernedvouIdbeaskedloaIlercourseloeIiminalelherobIemTherobIemsvilh
lhisverelhallheequimenlusedlodelerminelheaircraflosilionvasbymodernslandards
somevhalcrudelhecommunicalionsequimenlandfaciIiliesvereoorandlheavaiIabiIily
of ighl informalion incIuding mel dala vas virluaIIynonexislenl Hoveverlhedensilyof
airlracvasaIsoIovandlheaIicalionofIargebuerdislancesovercamelherobIemsof
inaccuracy and poor communications.
F!ight5tripsWilhinlheATCcenlreslherogressofaighlislrackedvilhaaer
syslem knovn as a ighl slri The slri is originaled from lhe ATS IIL and in lheory is
lransferredfromATCOloATCOandfromcenlrelocenlreCIearIylherogressoflheighl
strips my not actually be physical but will require a new strip to be compiled at centre B
from information passed by telephone from centre A. Within a centre the progress may be a
physical passing of the strip from one controller to another. This system is virtually fool-proof
and over the last 20 years ATC research centres (i.e. Eurocontrol at Brtigny) have tried to come
uvilheIeclronicreIacemenlsAIIaemlshavefaiIedandlheaerighlslriissliIIlhe
means by which procedural ATC is implemented.
Prnccdura!5cparatinn. The procedural separation standards are covered in chapter 16
of these notes.
Cnmmunicatinns Iver since aircrafl have been abIe lo carry radios lhey have been
used for air to ground communications. The present day ATC system relies on VHF two-way
communicalionslomakelhesyslemvorkOverlheoceanareasandremoleIandareasHIis
used together with the ability to maintain a radio watch using the Selcal system which relieves
the pilot of having to actually listen to the radio. Each ATC unit has a radio callsign i.e. Oxford
AroachasdoeseachaircraflIflvoaircraflhavelhesameorconfusingIysimiIarcaIIsigns
ATC can ask one aircraft to use another call sign for the time being.
RADARCONTROL
Cnnccpt. The primary use of Radar in ATC is to enhance the provision of separation. In
lheoryradargiveslheATCOlheabiIilylodelerminelheaircraflosilionvilhmoreaccuracy
lhan lhe iIol can Hovever SATNAV syslems vilh recision accuracy cm are nov
adding a whole new dimension to ATC. Radar systems cover long range surveillance used
in area conlroI en roule lrac lerminaI aerodrome radar TAR used in lhe vicinily of an
aerodrome or aerodromes lo rovide a service lo arriving and dearling lrac and surface
movement radar at an aerodrome to provide the aerodrome controller with information in poor
visibility or at night.
300
Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
The system that provides a radar return displayed on a display system is called Primary
Surveillance Radar (PSR). All radar systems can be augmented with Secondary Surveillance
RadarSSRlorovideighlsecicidenlicalionandaIliludeinformalionRadarcanaIso
be used in the provision of precision or non-precision approaches.
Radar5crviccsAlilsmoslbasicradarisusedloderiveinformalionforlheudaling
of informalion disIayed on lhe ighl slris In lhis manner il is augmenling a roceduraI
syslemIfhoveverlheradarresonsefromasecicaircraflcanbeindividuaIIydelermined
idenliedlhenlherovisionofsearalionfromolherradarconlaclsaircraflcanbeachieved
InlhismannerlheradarderivedinformalionisuseddireclIylorovidesearalionloamuch
greater degree of accuracy. The types of radar service are:
Radar Control for controlled en-route aircraft
AroachRadarConlroIforarrivinganddearlingconlroIIedlrac
Radar vectoring: the provision of navigation instructions to an aircraft to achieve
asecicaimieosilioningloinlercellheILSIocaIiser
PAR and SRA as instrument approach systems
AsvilhaIIATCroceduresaradarserviceisonIyrovidedinsideCASICAOdoeshovever
permit the use of radar to obtain information to enable the provision of a FIS outside of CAS.
Radar may also be used to assist the provision of information as part of the Advisory ATC
service rovided in cIass I airsaceAl an aerodrome radar may be used by lhe aerodrome
controller to determine the separation between departing aircraft but not to actually apply the
searalionTheUKNATSradarservicesRASandRISarenolICAOroceduresandarenol
covered in the LOs for Air Law and ATC.
|igurcATCra!arnca!aiC|cc
Hi||Snrcpsnirc
|igurcATCra!arnca!aiIcn!cn
Hcainrcu
301
Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
Radar 5cparatinn. There is only one radar separation standard and this is 5nm. As
dened in chaler reduced radar searalion may be aIied under secic condilions
ThesearalionaIiedisbaseduonlheaircraflosilionderivedfromISRonIyAsdened
and secied in Chaler vake lurbuIence searalion can be aIied using radar derived
information. In this case the separation standards applied are based on distance.
RADARIDENTIFICATION
RcquircmcnteforearadarconlroIIercanrovideanyserviceloanaircrafllheradar
idenlily of lhe aircrafl musl be eslabIished CIearIy lhe basic SSR caabiIily is lo idenlify a
secicaircraflsquavkingasecicaIIyaIIocaledcodelhereforelhismelhodofidenlicalion
ismoslcommonIyusedIlisaIsolhequickeslmelhodofidenlicalionOnceanaircraflhas
beenaIIocaledaSSRcodeilmuslberelainedunliIolherviseadvisedbylheradarconlroIIerIf
anemergencysilualionariseslheiIolshouIdnolsquavkAiflheidenlilyoflheaircrafl
hasaIreadybeeneslabIishedusingSSRAIIolhermelhodsofidenlicalionbyradarrequirelhe
ATCOloobservelheradarconlaclsonlhedisIayscreenanddelermineeilherfromgeograhic
osilionorfromasecicmanoeuvrevhichconlaclislheaircraflrequiringlheserviceSuch
observations include:
Geographic location i.e. '2nm west of Woodstock'
ReIaliveloaradionavigalionaidOnlheradiaIfromlheDavenlryVOR
DME 5 nm
Latitude and longitude
Georef position
Turn through 30 or more away from desired course and then return to the
course
Iosilive handover from a radar conlroIIer vho had reviousIy idenlied lhe
aircraft

PrnccdurcWhenidenlifyingaradarconlaclasasecicaircrafllheradarconlroIIer
muslleIIlheiIolhovlheidenlicalionvasachievedTheconlroIIerviIIuselhehraseradar
cnntactloindicalelhalaircraflhasbeenidenliedandlhalunliIfurlheradvisedaserviceviII
berovidedGCDradarconlaclnmveslofOxfordThisosilionshouIdagreevilhlhe
osilion lhe iIol lhinks lhe aircrafl is al If signicanlIy dierenl lhe iIol musl inform lhe
conlroIIerinlheevenllhallheconlroIIerhasmisidenliedlheaircrafl
RADAR5ERVICE
CnmmcnccmcntAfleridenlicalionlheiIolislobeloIdvhallyeofradarservice
isloberovidedandvhallheob|ecliveisGCDradarconlaclnmveslofComlonradar
conlroIexeclradarveclorsforILSaroachrunvay
Tcrminatinn When an aircrafl reaches lhe Iimil of radar cover lhe edge of a radar
vecloring area or lhe aim of lhe service has been achieved lhe iIol viII be advised lhal lhe
service is lerminaled given osilion informalion and inslruclionsadvice hov lo conlinue
Ior inslance GCD radar service lerminaled resenlIy nm soulh of enson resume ovn
navigalionsuggeslconlinuevilhLondonInformalion
302
Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
RadarVcctnring. Radar vectoring is the passing of navigation information to a pilot by
aradarconlroIIerloachievelheaircraflyingarequiredlrackThismaybesimIyloavoid
weather or manoeuvre around another aircraft radar contact. Once the aim of the vectoring
has been achieved lhe iIol viII be loId lo Resume ovn navigalion This imIies lhal lhe
radar vectoring has ended. It may be provided to position the aircraft such that a straight in
inslrumenlaroachcanbeachievedInanyevenlradarvecloringisonIycarriedoulinsidea
radar vectoring area (RVA).
Radar Vectoring area
boundary
MSA outside of
RVA
Safety altitude
inside of RVA
VcctnringPrnccdurc. Radar vectoring will not begin until the aircraft radar contact is
determined to be within the RVA. The RVA will be displayed on the radar display in the form
of a video map electronically generated within the radar display software. Because of possible
inaccuracies (slippage) aircraft will not be radar vectored closer to the edge of the RVA than
haIflheaIicabIeradarsearalionslandardornmvhicheverisgrealerNormaIIyradar
vecloringviIIbeginalaxalMSAIlmayhoveverbeginalanylimeaflerlheaircraflhas
beenidenliedonradarandlheaircraflaIliludeisknovnlolheATCOTheRVAcharldisIays
the obstacles in the area together with the elevation of the terrain. The radar controller will pass
magnetic headings to the pilot to steer to make good a desired track over the ground. The pilot
viIIylheheadingandlheconlroIIerviIIad|usllheheadingforlhevindTheaircraflviIInol
be given clearance to descend below the RVA safe altitude (highest obstacle in RVA plus MOC
roundeduunliIeslabIishedonlheILSIocaIisercourseoronlhenaIaroachlrackorlhe
iIol reorls lhal heshe is conlinuing lhe aroach visuaIIy Throughoul lhe rocedure lhe
radarconlroIIermuslbeavareoflheeIevalionoflhelerrainandlheaircraflconguralionlo
avoid spurious GPWS warnings.
|igurc|a!artccicringarca
303
Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
IL5VcctnringRcquircmcnts. Where the purpose of vectoring is to position the aircraft
alaoinlvhereIocaIisercalureisachievedlhecIosingheadinglolhecenlreIineoflheILS
IocaIiserisIfaraIIeIrunvayoeralionsModesorareinuselheangIeisIimiledlo
The closing heading is to be maintained for a distance of not less than 1nm.
Radar Cnntrn!!cd Apprnach. Radar may be used to provide a precision (PAR) or
nonrecisionSRAaroachloarunvayInbolhcaseslheradarconlroIIerrovidesradar
derivedinformalionlolheiIolloermillheaircrafllobeovnaIongaredenedlrackand
inlhecaseofIARadenedgIidealhIorSRAarecommendedverlicaIroIevirluaIgIide
alhisubIishedIfradarconlaclisIoslforanysignicanleriodduringlheIaslnmofa
radararoachlheiIolviIIbeadvisedlocarryoulamissedaroachrocedure
PAR This is secicaIIy engineered radar equimenl lhal rovides very accurale
(precision) azimuth and glide path information to a dedicated radar controller. Whilst providing
aIARservicelheconlroIIerviIIbeengagedinrovidinglheservicelooneaircraflandviIInol
have any other duty. The pilot will be passed azimuth (right or left turn or heading) information
andeIevaliononaboveorbeIovinformalionloylheaircraflaIonglheredelermined
ighl alh The service viII conlinue unliI lhe aircrafl reaches DH vhich vouId have been
passed by the pilot to ATCO at the beginning of the procedure. At DH the pilot will be informed
that the aircraft is at DH and radar service is terminated. Because the information is passed in
lheformofaconlinuouslaIkdovnlheiIolmuslslayonlheIARaroachfrequencyThe
radar controller is therefore responsible for obtaining a landing clearance from the aerodrome
conlroIIerNormaIIylhisvouIdbedonealnmfromlhelhreshoIdoflheIandingrunvaybul
may be delayed by the aerodrome controller until 2nm. If no clearance has been received at
nmlheiIolviIIaulomalicaIIybeginlhemissedaroachrocedureAlsomelimeduring
lhearoachusuaIIyalnmlheiIolviIIbeaskedloconrmanaIcheckoflheIandinggear
andalamiIilaryaerodromelheaconguralionAlsomeoinlduringlhearoachlhe
ighlcrevviIIcrosschecklheosilionoflheaircraflagainsllheIARinformalionforinslance
usingDMIandradaIlinformalionIARviIInolgeneraIIybefoundalciviIianaerodromes
hoveverlhenevgeneralionofIARequimenlisvideIyinslaIIedalmiIilaryaerodromes
|igurcPA|insia||aiicnai|A|Marnan
304
Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
5RA. An SRA approach is a non precision procedure using TAR and will therefore
haveadelerminedMDAHTherocedureforSRAissimiIarloIARexcellhalinlhiscase
advisory heighl informalion is assed vilh range informalion ie miIes from louchdovn
you shouId be assing one lhousand ve hundred and fly feel SRA aroaches aIvays
haveanRTRgureslaledThisislherangealvhichlheradarserviceviIIbeaulomalicaIIy
terminated. RTR stands for Radar Termination Range. Typically RTR2 is used indicating that
the radar service will be terminated at 2nm from the threshold of the landing runway. During
lherocedurelheiIolisassedmagnelicheadingsloyandcorreclionsIeflorrighllolhe
exlendedcenlreIineoflheIandingrunvayIflheRTRisdislanceinformalionisassedvilh
advisoryheighlinformalioneverynmIfRTRisaIicabIerangeandheighlinformalionis
assedeverynmAsforIARlheradarconlroIIerviIIberesonsibIeforoblainingaIanding
clearance from the aerodrome controller and passing it to the pilot. The approach plate for the
SRA approach to Gatwick is shown below.
500
500
8
0
0
8
0
0
500
500
500
5
0
0
5
0
0
OCK 115.30
D
ock
10NM
MAY 117.90
D
may
BIG 115.10
D
big
GY 365
gy
EPM 316
epm
522
646
856
965
742
771
509 575
876 823
791
820
564
489
627
666
787
645
502
443
270
090
MAY
D5
LHA 2000
1 MIN
260
080
080
0
8
0

(4
.9
%
)
SDF 4NM
0
8
0

MAPt
SDF
4NM radar range
1295(1100)
8 5 6 7 10NM 9 4 1 THR 3 2
5NM radar range
1895(1700)
0
8
0

982
AD ELEV
202FT
THR ELEV
195FT
TRANSITION ALT
6000
VAR
2W
20
23
22
20
NOTE MAXIMUM IAS for Missed Approach Procedure 250KT.
Gradient 4.9%, 300FT/NM
NM ALT/HGT G/S KT FT/MIN
PROCEDURE
VM(C) OCA (OCH AAL) OCA (OCH)
TOTAL AREA
RATE OF
DESCENT
RADAR ADVISORY HEIGHTS
5.0 1745 (1550) 160 800
4.0 1445 (1250) 140 700
3.0 1145 (950) 120 600
2.0 845 (650) 100 500
80 400


A 845 (650) 802 (600)
B 845 (650) 802 (600)
C 845 (650) 1102 (900)
D 845 (650) 1102 (900)
MAPt ( ) RTR 2NM
Climb straight ahead to 3000, then as
directed.
RADIO FAILURE: In the event of RCF
climb straight ahead to I-GG DME 10
(VOR DME MAY R356 for aircraft unable
to receive DME I-GG), then proceed to
VOR DME MAY not above 3000.
Initial and Intermediate Approach as directed by radar.
(27 Oct 05) AD 2-EGKK-8-5 UK AIP
MSA 25NM ARP
ATIS
136.525
APPROACH
126.825, 118.950, 129.025
TOWER
124.225, 134.225, 121.800(GMC)
EGKK
CAT A,B,C,D
LONDON GATWICK
SRA RTR 2NM RWY 08L
RADAR 126.825 090
1
8
0

3
6
0

270
5110N
5120N 000 30W 000 20W 000 10W 000 10E 000 00
5100N
|igurcSA|apprcacn
305
Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
AERODROMECONTROL
IntrnductinnTheresonsibiIilyforavoidingcoIIisionsinvoIvingaircraflobslacIes
vehicles and personnel on or in the air in the vicinity of an aerodrome rests with the aerodrome
conlroIIer Al a conlroIIed aerodrome see denilion lhe aerodrome conlroIIer usuaIIy
operates from the visual control room (VCR) situated at the top of the control tower. The VCR
normally allows the aerodrome controller to see all parts of the aerodrome but may also have
electronic aids to assist the controller when visibility is poor or at night. The primary duty of
the aerodrome controller is to control access to the runway in use. The nature of the service
oeredisroceduraIvilhlheiIolleIIinglheaerodromeconlroIIervherelheaircraflisand
the controller basing any instructions or clearances on that information. For departing aircraft
lhe aerodrome conlroIIer viII give a lakeo cIearance vhich viII be defaclo ermission lo
enlerandlakeofromlherunvayOnceairbornelheiIolviIIreorlairbornealvhichlime
another aircraft can be cleared to use the runway.
UscnIthcRunway. The aerodrome controller will normally decide which runway will
beusedforlakeoandIandingoeralionsTherunvayinuseviIIdelerminelhedireclion
forinslrumenlaroachesandlhedireclionforlhevisuaIcircuilNormaIIylhevinddireclion
viIIbelhedecidingfaclorhoveverincaImorIighlvindcondilionsanolherdireclionmaybe
referabIeforATCairsacereslriclionornoiseabalemenlrequiremenlsAlLondonHealhrov
a departing aircraft will be expected to accept a 5kt tail wind and use the noise preferential
runvaysIlisageneraIIyacceledraclicelhalonIyoneaircraflisermiedonlherunvayal
any time.
DcpartingAircraItAircraflvailingforlakeoviIIbeheIdalarunvayhoIdingoinl
on the taxiway at a safe distance from the centreline of the runway. It is normal procedure for
aircrafllobegivenalakeoimmedialecIearanceThisrequireslheiIollolaxilheaircrafl
onlolherunvayandvilhoulsloingIinelheaircraflonlhecenlreIineandlhenaIylhe
necessary over lo commence lhe lake o run A succeeding aircrafl may be ermied lo
enter the runway (given the instruction line up and hold) as soon as the preceding aircraft has
commencedlhelakeorunAsucceedingaircraflviIInolbegivencIearancelolakeounliI
lherecedingaircraflhaseilhercrossedlheuvindlhreshoIdorhascommencedalurnavay
from the runway direction.
ArrivingAircraItWheneslabIishedonnaIaroachanarrivingaircraflviIIbegiven
cIearanceloIandiflherunvayisavaiIabIeIoranarrivinginslrumenlaroachlhecIearance
to land will normally be given at about 4nm from the threshold and certainly no later than 2nm
from the threshold. If the pilot of an arriving instrument approach has not been given a landing
cIearancelhemissedaroachrocedureislobeovncommencingalnmOncelheIanding
runiscomIeleandlheiIolhaslurnedlheaircraflonlolhelaxivayhesheisrequiredlomake
areorllolheaerodromeconlroIIerloconrmlhallheaircraflhasvacaledlherunvayThis
is to be made when all of the aircraft has passed the appropriate holding point.
306
Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
Runway
vacated
The Runway Vacated report is to be made when the
entire aircraft is beyond the relevant runway-holding
position
LandAItcrC!caranccUndercerlaincondilionsaiIolmaybegivenarovisionaI
cIearance lo Iand afler lhe receding aircrafl This viII be done lo increase lhe uliIisalion
oflherunvayaleaklimessolhalaircraflmayarrivealminuleinlervaIsInlhiscaselhe
pilot of the second aircraft will decide if the preceding aircraft will be clear of the runway at
lhe lime heshe Iands and lhal lhere is sucienl searalion belveen lhe aircrafl lhroughoul
lhe manoeuvre Throughoul lhe Ianding lhe iIol of lhe foIIoving aircrafl musl be abIe lo
seelhereviousaircraflandisresonsibIeformainlainingsearalionInlhiscaselheiIol
of the following aircraft will apply the appropriate visual separation which may be less than
lhe roceduraI searalion The rovision of fasl lurn o Ianes or raid exil laxivays on
aerodromes enhances this option. The necessary conditions are:
OnIyermiedduringdayIighl
The pilot of the second aircraft must be able to see the preceding aircraft
lhroughoullhemanoeuvre
Therunvaymuslbedrybrakingacliongood
The pilot and operator of the aircraft concerned must be aware that the runway
occuancylimeisIimiledloseconds
The ATCO must be able to see the entire length of the landing runway.
F!ight InInrmatinn. As with all other ATSUs the aerodrome controller is responsible
forlherovisionofighlinformalionloaircraflonlheaerodromeorinighlinlhevicinilyof
the aerodrome. Routine information may be passed using ATIS but the aerodrome controller
is responsible for making sure that departing aircraft and arriving aircraft at the initial contact
with tower are aware of any limitations to the radio navigation or visual aids on the aerodrome.
Likewise any work in progress on the aerodrome is to be reported in a timely manner.
InInrmatinntnDcpartingandArrivingAircraIt. The aerodrome controller is required
to ensure that pilots have adequate and accurate aerodrome information prior to using the
aerodrome. Where wind information is passed the direction is to be in degrees magnetic so that
the pilot can relate this directly to the aircraft compass.
|igurc|unuaqtacaic!rcpcri
307
Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
PrinrtnTaxi Before taxiing a pilot is to be told:
x Whalrunvayisinuse
x Thesurfacevinddireclionandseed
x TheaerodromeQNH
x The air temperature for the runway to be used (for turbine engine
aircraflonIy
x ThevisibiIilyinlhedireclionoflakeoorlheRVR
x The correct time.
PrinrtnTakcOThefoIIovingisassedloaiIolriorlolakeo
x AnysignicanlchangesinvindcondilionsairlemeralurevisibiIily
or RVR
x Signicanl meleoroIogicaI condilions in lhe lake o and cIimb oul
areas (unless the pilot has already been informed)
Prinr tn Entcring thc Trac Pacrn efore enlering lhe lrac aern or
commencinganaroachloIandaiIolisloberovidedvilhlhefoIIoving
information:
x Therunvaylobeused
x Thesurfacevinddireclionandseed
x TheaerodromeQNH
A!crting 5crvicc. The aerodrome controller is responsible for the activation of the
aerodromecrashrescueandreghlingservicevhenrequiredIfnecessaryaIIvisuaIcircuil
lraccanbesusendedbylheaerodromeconlroIIerforlheduralionofanemergencysilualion
The aerodrome controller may suspend the visual circuit on the instructions of the Area Control
Centre if an aircraft in an emergency is likely to land at the aerodrome. If an aircraft which
has been cleared to land fails to do so within 5 minutes after the landing clearance has been
issuedorfaiIsloconlacllheaerodromeconlroIIeraflerhavingbeenlransferredlheaerodrome
controller will report the fact immediately to the ACC or the FIC and the Alert Phase will be
declared immediately.
APPROACHCONTROL5ERVICE
Estab!ishmcnt Aroach conlroI rovides ATC lo lrac dearling from and
arrivingalaerodromesWhereIIRlracisdearlinglo|oinairvayslhearoachconlroIIer
is the link between the aerodrome departure procedures and the airways joining procedures
andviceversaforarrivinglracIlusuaInovadaysforradarlobeusedinaroachconlroI
aIlhoughroceduraIaroachconlroIexislsasherealOxfordforlheVDIandND
aroachroceduresWhereanaerodromeisinaCTRaroachconlroIismandaloryand
lhe conlroIIer may be knovn as lhe zone conlroIIer The aroach oce aroach conlroI
room) may be at another aerodrome if there is more than one aerodrome in the CTR. Where
an aerodrome is oulside of a CTR aroach conlroI vhere eslabIished as here al Oxford
is advisory Where rocedures are eslabIished for inslrumenl aroaches lhe aroach
controller may delegate radar vectoring (and monitoring of self positioning) to a radar director.
Al aerodromes in CTRs vhere lhe mel condilions are IMC or lhe crileria for VMC lakeo
cannol be mel lhe aroach conlroIIer viII be resonsibIe giving cIearance for lakeos Il
will also be the approach controllers responsibility for obtaining clearance to land from the
aerodromeconlroIIerforIIRighlscarryingoulIovvisibiIilyinslrumenlaroaches
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Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
Dcparting AircraIt When lhe conlroI of lrac is based on an air lrac conlroI
cIearanceslhecIearanceislosecify
Direclionoflakeoandlurnaflerlakeo
Tracklobemadegoodbeforeroceedingondesiredheading
LeveIlomainlainbeforeconlinuingcIimbloassignedcruisingIeveI
TimeoinlandorralealvhichIeveIchangeshaIIbemade
Any other necessary manoeuvre consistent with the safe operation of the
aircraft.
Takc n dircctinn Dearling aircrafl may be exediled by suggesling a lake o
direction which is not into the wind. It is the responsibility of the pilot-in-command of an
aircrafllodecidebelveenmakingsuchalakeoandvailingfornormaIlakeoinareferred
direction.
Dc!aysInorderloavoidexcessivehoIdingallhedeslinalionaircraflmaybeheId
al lhe dearlure aerodrome rior lo lake o ATC is required lo advise oeralors or lheir
nominated representative) of substantial delays and in any case where the delay is expected to
exceed 30 minutes.
InInrmatinn Inr dcparting aircraIt. The following information is to be passed to
departing aircraft by the approach controller:
Mctcnrn!ngica! inInrmatinn Informalion regarding signicanl changes in
lhe meleoroIogicaI condilions in lhe lakeo or cIimboul area oblained by
lheunilrovidingaroachconlroIserviceislobelransmiedlodearling
aircrafl vilhoul deIay excel vhen il is knovn lhal lhe aircrafl aIready has
received lhe informalion Signicanl changes in lhis conlexl incIude lhose
reIalinglosurfacevinddireclionorseedvisibiIilyrunvayvisuaIrangeorair
lemeralureforlurbineenginedaircraflandlheoccurrenceoflhunderslorm
orcumuIonimbusmoderaleorseverelurbuIencevindshearhaiImoderale
or severe icing severe squaII Iine freezing reciilalion severe mounlain
vavessandslormduslslormbIovingsnovlornadoorvalersoul
Visua!nrnnnvisua!aids. Information regarding changes in the operational
slalus of visuaI or nonvisuaI aids essenliaI for lakeo and cIimb shaII be
lransmiedvilhouldeIayloadearlingaircraflexcelvhenilisknovnlhal
the aircraft already has received the information.
Esscntia! trac inInrmatinn Informalion regarding essenliaI IocaI lrac
knovn lo lhe conlroIIer shaII be lransmied lo dearling aircrafl vilhoul
delay.
Arriving AircraIt Arriving aircraft (aircraft being handed over to approach from
areaairvaysmayberequiredloreorlvhenIeavingorassingareorlingoinlorvhen
slarlingrocedurelurnorbaselurnorlorovideolherinformalionrequiredbylheconlroIIer
to expedite departing aircraft.
Initia!apprnachc!caranccAnIIRighlviIInolbecIearedforaniniliaIaroach
below the appropriate minimum altitude unless:
The iIol has reorled assing an aroriale oinl dened by a radio
navigalionaidor
TheiIolreorlslhallheaerodromeisandcanbemainlainedinsighlor
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Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
TheaircraflisconduclingavisuaIaroachor
The aircrafts position has been positively determined by radar.
Visua!ApprnachVisuaIaroachisdenedasanaroachbyanIIRighlvhen
either part or all of an instrument approach procedure is not completed and the approach
isexeculedvilhvisuaIreferencelolerrainAnIIRighlmaybecIearedloexeculeavisuaI
approach provided that the pilot can maintain visual reference to the terrain and the reported
ceiIingisalorabovelhearovediniliaIaroachIeveIforlheaircraflsocIearedorlheiIol
reports at the initial approach level or at any time during the instrument approach procedure
that the meteorological conditions are such that with reasonable assurance a visual approach
and landing can be completed.
5cparatinn. Separation shall be provided between an aircraft cleared to execute a visual
aroach and olher arriving and dearling aircrafl Ior successive visuaI aroaches radar
or non-radar separation shall be maintained until the pilot of a succeeding aircraft reports
having the preceding aircraft in sight. The aircraft shall be instructed to follow and maintain
separation from the preceding aircraft. TransferofcommunicalionsshouIdbeeecledalsuch
a point or time that clearance to land or alternative instructions can be issued to the aircraft in
a timely manner.
InstrumcntApprnachInstrument approaches are carried out under the supervision
of the approach controller. Where radar vectoring and monitoring of approaches is carried
oulconlroImaybedeIegaledloaradardireclororradarnaIconlroIIer
5pccd cnntrn! The method of maintaining separation during sequenced
inslrumenl aroaches using radar is by asking lhe aircrafl concerned lo y
alseciedaseedIlisusuaIforanaircraflloslarlaninslrumenlaroach
(from the IAF) at 210kts (IAS).
IorexamIeacIearancemighlbeSeedbirdIeaveOckhamheading
speed 210kts. This is a speed that most commercial operations aircraft can
achieve without having to use drag or lift enhancing devices. If necessary
the speed of a subsequent aircraft will be reduced to maintain the necessary
limedislanceinlervaIbelveenlheaircraflSeedad|uslmenlsviIIbemadein
intervals of no more than 20kts and required speeds will always be in multiples
of ie Seedbird mainlain kls During lhe Iaer slages of an
aroach lhe iIol viII need lo reduce lhe seed lo Val so no furlher seed
control will be applied after the aircraft has passed 4nm from touchdown.
UnIami!iar prnccdurcs. If a pilot-in-command reports (or if it is clearly
apparent to the ATC unit) that he or she is not familiar with an instrument
aroach rocedure lhe iniliaI aroach IeveI lhe oinl in minules from
lhearorialereorlingoinlalvhichrocedurelurnviIIbeslarledlhe
IeveIalvhichlherocedurelurnshaIIbecarriedoulandlhenaIaroach
lrackshaIIbeseciedexcellhalonIylheIaslmenlionedneedbesecied
if the aircraft is to be cleared for a straight in approach. The missed approach
rocedureshaIIbeseciedvhendeemednecessary
Visua!rcIcrcncctntcrrain. If visual reference to terrain is established before
comIelionoflhearoachrocedurelheenlireroceduremuslneverlheIess
be executed unless the aircraft requests and is cleared for a visual approach.
Choice of procedure A arlicuIar aroach rocedure may be secied lo
exedilelracTheomissionofaseciedaroachrocedureviIIindicale
that any authorised approach may be used at the discretion of the pilot.
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Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
Hn!ding. Where holding is required as part of an arrival procedure leading to an
inslrumenlaroachlhearoachconlroIIerviIIconlroIlhehoIdingrocedureslackConlroI
maybedeIegaledloaradarconlroIIerdireclorHoIdingandhoIdingaernenlryshaIIbe
accomplished in accordance with procedures established by the appropriate ATS authority and
published in Aeronautical Information Publications. If entry and holding procedures have not
beenubIishedoriflherocedurearenolknovnlolheiIolincommandofanaircrafllhe
arorialeairlracconlroIunilshaIIdescribelherocedureslobefoIIoved
Holding point. Aircraft shall be held at a designated holding point. The required
minimum verlicaI IaleraI or IongiludinaI searalion from olher aircrafl
accordinglolhesysleminuseallhalhoIdingoinlshaIIberovided
5cparatinn When aircrafl are being heId in ighl lhe aroriale verlicaI
separation minima shall continue to be provided between holding aircraft and
enroule aircrafl vhiIe such enroule aircrafl are vilhin ve minules ying
limeoflhehoIdingareaunIessIaleraIsearalionexisls
Holding levels. Levels at holding points shall be assigned in a manner that will
faciIilalecIearingeachaircraflloaroachinilsroerriorilyNormaIIylhe
rslaircraflloarriveoverahoIdingoinlshouIdbeallheIoveslIeveIvilh
foIIovingaircraflalsuccessiveIyhigherIeveIsHoveveraircraflarlicuIarIy
sensilive lo high fueI consumlion al Iov IeveIs such as suersonic aircrafl
shouIdbeermiedlohoIdalhigherIeveIslhanlheirorderinlhearoach
sequence vhenever lhe avaiIabiIily of discrele descenl alhs andor radar
makes il ossibIe subsequenlIy lo cIear lhe aircrafl for descenl lhrough lhe
levels occupied by other aircraft.
A!tcrnatc prnccdurcs. If a pilot-in-command of an aircraft advises of an
inability to comply with the approach control holding or communication
rocedures lhe aIlernalive rocedures requesled by lhe iIol in command
shouIdbearovedifknovnlraccondilionsermil
5tackingApprnach5cqucnccWheneveraroachesareinrogresslhefoIIoving
procedures (stacking) are applied:
Prinrity. The approach sequence (the stack) is established to permit the arrival
of the maximum number of aircraft with the least average delay. Special
priority may be given to:
x An aircraft which anticipates being compelled to land because of
faclorsaeclinglhesafeoeralionoflheaircraflenginefaiIurefueI
shorlageelc
x Hospital aircraft or aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured
ersonrequiringurgenlmedicaIaenlion
Prnccdura! scqucncc. Except where timed approaches are in progress (see
aragrahsucceedingaircraflviIIbecIearedforaroachloslarllhe
procedure - leave the stack) when the preceding aircraft:
x Has reported that it is able to complete its approach without
encounleringIMCor
x Is in communication with and has been sighted by the aerodrome
conlroIIerandreasonabIeassuranceexislslhalanormaIIandingcan
be made.
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Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
Holding. ATC will approve a request to hold for weather improvement (or
for other reasons). If other aircraft holding decide to make an approach and
radar is avaiIabIe a iIol deciding lo remain hoIding viII be veclored lo an
ad|acenl x lo conlinue hoIding AIlernaliveIy heshe may be veclored or
given a procedural clearance) to place the aircraft at the top of the stack so that
olheraircraflmaybeermiedlocarryoullherocedureandIand
Credit time. Where an aircraft has been authorised to absorb delay time whilst
enroule by reduced cruising seed or enroule hoIding lhe lime deIayed
should be credited in any stacking.
Timcd Apprnachcs. Timed approaches allow subsequent aircraft to commence
aroachesmorefrequenlIylhanasseciedinaragrahInlhiscaseanaircrafl
vouId be cIeared lo dearl lhe x of lhe slack a eriod of lime afler lhe receding
aircraft. The procedure must be authorised by the authority and the following
complied with:
A suitable point on the approach path (capable of being determined by the
iIolVORradiaIDMIrangeislobeseciedasacheckoinlforlimingof
successivearoaches
Aircraflarelobegivealimealvhichloasslheseciedoinlinboundlhe
purpose of which is to achieve the desired interval between successive landings
on the runway while respecting the applicable separation minima at all times
including runway occupancy period). The time determined is to be passed to
lheiIolloaIIovsucienllimeforhimherloarrangelheighllocomIy
ExpcctcdapprnachtimcEATAn expected approach time shall be determined for
anarrivingaircrafllhalviIIbesub|ecledloslackingandshaIIbelransmiedlolhe
aircraflassoonasraclicabIeandreferabIynolIalerlhanallhecommencemenlof
its initial descent from cruising level. In the case of aircraft particularly sensitive to
high fueI consumlion al Iov IeveIs an execled aroach lime shouId vhenever
ossibIe be lransmied lo lhe aircrafl earIy enough before ils inlended descenl
time to enable the pilot to chose the method if absorbing the delay and to request a
changeinlheighlIaniflhechoiceisloreduceseedenrouleArevisedexecled
aroach lime shaII be lransmied lo lhe aircrafl vilhoul deIay vhenever il diers
fromlhalreviousIylransmiedbyminulesormoreorsuchIessoreriodoflime
as has been established by the appropriate ATS authority or agreed between the ATS
unilsconcernedAnexecledaroachlimeshaIIbelransmiedlolheaircraflbylhe
most expeditious means whenever it is anticipated that the aircraft will be required
to hold for thirty minutes or more. The holding point to which an expected approach
lime reIales shaII be idenlied logelher vilh lhe execled aroach lime vhenever
circumstances are such that this would not otherwise be evident to the pilot.
InInrmatinnInrarrivingaircraIt. The following information is to be passed to aircraft
during the approach phase:
Whcn cstab!ishcd. As early as practicable after an aircraft has established
communicalion vilh lhe aroach conlroIIer lhe foIIoving informalion in
lheorderIisledshaIIbelransmiedlolheaircraflexcelvhereilisknovn
the aircraft has already received it:
x Runvayinuse
x MeleoroIogicaIinformalion
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Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
Note Tnc nciccrc|cgica| injcrnaiicn is i!cniica| ic inai rcquirc! in AT|S |rca!casis jcr aircraji
arritingan!isic|ccxiracic!jrcnnciccrc|cgica|rcpcris!isscninaic!|cca||qaiincacrc!rcnc
x Currenl runvay surface condilions in case of reciilanls or olher
lemoraryhazards
x Changes in the operational status of visual and non-visual aids
essential for approach and landing.
Cnmmcncing na! apprnach Al lhe commencemenl of naI aroach lhe
foIIovinginformalionshaIIbelransmiedlolheaircrafl
x Signicanlchangesinlhemeansurfacevinddireclionandseed
Note:Signicanicnangcsarc!ciai|c!inAnncxMci|jincccnirc||crnasacccss
icuin!ccnpcncniia||csincjc||cuingarcccnsi!crc!ic|csignicani
x Mean head-wind component 10 kt
x Mean tail-wind component 2 kt
x Mean cross-wind component 5 kt
x TheIaleslinformalionifanyonvindshearandorlurbuIenceinlhe
naIaroacharea
x The current visibility representative of the direction of approach and
IandingorvhenrovidedlhecurrenlrunvayvisuaIrangevaIues
and lhe lrend if raclicabIe suIemenled by sIanl visuaI range
vaIuesifrovided
During na! apprnach The foIIoving informalion shaII be lransmied
vilhouldeIay
x The sudden occurrence of hazards (for example: unauthorisedlrac
on the runway)
x Signicanlvarialionsinlhecurrenlsurfacevindexressedinlerms
ofminimumandmaximumvaIues
x Signicanlchangesinrunvaysurfacecondilions
x Changes in the operational status of required visual or non-visual
aids
ChangesinobservedRVRvaIuesinaccordancevilhlhereorledscaIein
useorchangesinlhevisibiIilyreresenlaliveoflhedireclionofaroachand
landing.
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Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
AIRTRAFFICADVI5ORY5ERVICE
Estab!ishmcntandOb|cctivc The AirTracAdvisoryServiceisdenedasaservice
provided within advisory airspace (class F) to ensure separation between aircraft operating
on IIR ighl Ians In raclice lhis service is eslabIished in resonse lo a requesl vhere lhe
eslabIishmenlofafuIIATCservicehasnolbeendelerminedInolhervordsilisalemorary
arrangement pending a decision on whether or not a full ATC service is required. The objective
islomakeinformaliononcoIIisionhazardsmoreeeclivelhanilvouIdbeinlherovisionofa
ighlinformalionserviceonIyIlisrovidedloIIRighlsinadvisoryairsaceoronadvisory
routes.
OpcratinnTheAirTracAdvisoryServicedoesnolaordlhedegreeofsafelyand
does not assume the same responsibilities as a full ATC service. To this end clearances are not
issuedandonIyadviceorsuggeslionsareoeredbylheATCOsAnIIRighleIeclinglouselhe
serviceisexecledlocomIyvilhlhesameroceduresasvouIdbeinforceinCASexcellhal
IILchangesarenolsub|ecllocIearanceAIIIIRighlsyingincIassIairsacearerequiredlo
IeIILsTraceIeclinglouselheadvisoryserviceviIIreceiveanacknovIedgemenloflhe
submissionoflheIILonIyIIRighlscrossinganadvisoryroulearerequiredlodosoalrighl
angles to the route direction at a level appropriate to the semi circular rule.
AIRCRAFTEMERGENCIE5
UscnI55R Use of the reserved SSR codes is the most expeditious means of indicating
asilualionvhereanaircraflrequiresassislanceCIearIylheaircraflmuslbeyinginanarea
vhere radar is used forATC and in lhis may be a faclor of aIlilude Iven oulside of radar
control areas there are military facilities and mobile units that can interrogate and receive SSR
information which can assist the alerting service to provide the necessary assistance. The
reserved codes are:
Mode A code 7700 Emergency
Mode A code 7600 Radio failure
Mode A code 7500 Unlawful Interference
Additionally:
Mode A code 7000 Conspicuity code for an aircraft operating
in an area where a radar service is available
but the aircraft is not in receipt of the service
(commonly referred to as VFR conspicuity)
Mode A code 2000 An aircraft is operating in an area where a
radar service is not available but will be
entering an area where a radar service is
available and will be requesting that service
lhisisusedforeaslboundNATlraceaslof
WlhalinlendenleringlheScoishUIR
AircraItA!rcadyIdcnticd. If a pilot is already in receipt of a radar service and has
beenidenliedbylheuseofadiscreleSSRcodeseIeclionofareservedcodeloindicaleaslale
of emergency may delay the application of the assistance. In this case the allocated Mode A
code should be retained.
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Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
Emergency DescentIfanaircraflsuersapressurisationfaiIurealaIliludelheruIes
require the aircraft to be descended to an altitude where oxygen in the air supports life. In the
evenlATCviIIbroadcaslavarningloaircraflinlhevicinilyofadescendingaircraflTheiIol
oflhedescendingaircraflshouIdaemllobroadcasllheaircraflaIliludealinlervaIsloassisl
other aircraft to avoid a collision.
Fuc!JcisnnIncerlaincircumslancesilmaybenecessaryloreducelhemassoflhe
aircraft to maximum landing mass as soon as possible by dumping as much fuel as is required.
AIIaircraflvhichhaveamaximumlakeomassgrealerlhanlhemaximumIandingmassare
required lo have fueI |eisonsyslemIf lheaircraflisying in CASbeforecommencingfueI
|eisonlheconlroIIingATCUislobeinformedTherouleovervhichlhefueIislobe|eisoned
shouIdbecIearoflovnsreferabIyovervalerandcIearofareasvherelhunderslormaclivily
hasbeenreorledorisexecledTheIeveIalvhichlhe|eisonlakesIaceislobenolIover
than 6000ft. This will allow the fuel in aerosol form to evaporate before reaching the ground.
The ATCU is to be advised of the duration of the
315
Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
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Chapter 17
Control of Aircraft
QUE5TION5
InvhalcIassofairsaceisanadvisoryservicerovidedforarlicialingIIRlracandaIIS
foraIIolherlrac
a. C
b. D
c. C
d. F
2. List the services that must be provided in a FIR:
a. FIS only.
b IISadvisoryATCATC
c IISaerodromeconlroI
d IISaIerlingservice
3. An aircraft has been cleared to land and fails to do so within 5 minutes of the ETA of landing
and communications have not been re-established with the aircraft. What phase of the Alerting
Service will be declared?

a. DETRESFA.
b INCIRIA
c. ALERFA.
d. EMERGFA.
WhenmuslQNHbeassedloanaircraflriorlolakeo
a. In the taxi clearance.
b. On engine start-up request.
c OnrslconlaclvilhATC
d }uslriorlolakeo
ThenecessarysearalionminimaforconlroIIedlracinlhevicinilyofanaerodromemaybe
reduced when:
a. the commander of the aircraft requests reduced separation.
b. the aerodrome controller has the involved aircraft in sight.
c. the commander in the following aircraft has the preceding aircraft in sight and is abl e
to maintain own separation.
d. directed by the aerodrome controller.
AlcommencemenlofnaIaroachiflhearoachconlroIIerhasvindcomonenlinformalion
what change in cross wind component change would be passed to the pilot?
a. 10 kts.
b. 8 kts.
c. 3 kts.
d. 5 kts.
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Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
Ior dearlure minule searalion can be aIied if lhe aircrafl y on diverging lracks
immedialeIyaflerlakeoalIeasl
a. 45.
b. 15.
c. 30.
d. 2.
DuringanaroachvhencannormaIsearalionbereduced
a. When the controller has both aircraft in sight.
b. When the following aircraft has the preceding in sight and can maintain it.
c. When both pilots request it.
d. When both aircraft are under radar control.
IoraraIIeIrunvayoeralionslhemissedaroachlracksmusldivergeby
a. 15.
b. 30.
c. 45.
d. 20.
WhenlheairlracconlroIIerhasvindinformalionascomonenlsallheslarlofnaIaroach
signicanlchangesinlheaveragesurfacevinddireclionandseedmuslbegivenlolheiIol
ThesignicanlchangeoflheaveragelaiIvindis
a. 5 kts.
b. 2 kts.
c. 4 kts.
d. 3 kts.
AccordingloinlernalionaIagreemenlslhevinddireclionindegreesmagnelicconverledvilh
local magnetic variation from the true wind direction must be passed to the pilot of an aircraft:
a beforeenleringlhelracaernorcommencinganaroachloIandingandriorlo
laxiingforlakeo
b inanlicialionoflheuervindforareasNorlhofNandSoulhofS
c vhenanaircraflisrequesledbylhemeleoroIogicaIoceoronseciedoinlslogive
a AIREP.
d. when the local variation is greater than 10 East or West.
12. What is the closest to touchdown that a radar controller can request a change of speed to an
aircraflonnaIaroach
a. 5nm.
b. 3nm.
c. 2nm.
d. 4nm.
WhaldenesaconlroIIedaerodrome
a. It must be located within a CTR.
b. It must have a control tower giving an ATC service.
c. It must have a control tower and be in a CTR.
d. It must be in controlled airspace.
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Chapter 17
Control of Aircraft
14. What is the primary use for Radar in ATC?
a. Separation.
b. Helping when aircraft communications have failed.
c. To assist pilots with technical problems.
d. To assist pilots of aircraft that are lost.
15. When must the SSR transponder be operated?
a. Always.
b. At all times unless otherwise instructed by ATC.
c. At the pilots discretion regardless of ATC instructions.
d ModeAaIvaysModeCaliIolsdiscrelion
16. What is the minimum distance from threshold that a controller must have issued clearance to
Iandbyforanonrecisionaroach
a. 5 nm.
b. 2 nm.
c. 3 nm.
d. 10 nm.
17. The maximum speed change that may be required during a radar approach is:
a. 40 kts.
b. 5 kts.
c. 10 kts.
d. 20 kts.
Whal is lhe dislance on naI aroach vilhin vhich lhe conlroIIer shouId suggesl lhal lhe
aircraflexeculesamissedaroachiflheaircrafleilherisIoslfromlheradarforasignicanl
limeorlheidenlilyoflheaircraflisindoubl
a. 1 nm.
b. 2 nms.
c. 3 nms.
d. 4 nms.
19. What is the closest point to the threshold that a radar controller may request a speed change?
a. 1 nm.
b. 2 nms.
c. 3 nms.
d. 4 nms.
An aircrafl in receil of a radar service is loId lo resume ovn navigalion Whal does lhis
mean?
a. The pilot is responsible for own navigation.
b. Radar vectoring is terminated.
c. The pilot should contact next ATC unit.
d. The pilot should contact the current ATC unit.
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Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
21. What is standard radar separation?
a. 5nm.
b. 3nm.
c. 10nm.
d. 2.5nm.
22. By how much will a radar controller turn an aircraft to identify that aircraft on the radar?
a. 45.
b. 15.
c. 30 or more.
d. a minimum of 25.
23. What is the acceptable tolerance for Mode C altitude indication (not in RVSM airspace)?
a. 100 ft.
b. 150 ft.
c. 300 ft.
d. 200 ft.
WhenmaylheiIoloeralelheIDINTsvilchonlhelransonder
a. Only in controlled airspace.
b. When instructed by ATC.
c. Only in uncontrolled airspace.
d. Only when under radar control.
IfyouaregivenaninslruclionbyATClosleerheadingislheheading
a. degrees true and must be corrected for wind.
b. degrees magnetic and must be corrected for wind.
c. degrees true no correction to be applied.
d. degrees magnetic no correction to be applied.
26. When would you squawk SSR mode C?
a. Only when directed by ATC.
b. Always.
c. Always in controlled airspace.
d. Only in controlled airspace.
IfradarconlaclisIoslduringanaroachalvhalrangefromlouchdovnvouIdATCordera
missedaroachlobeovn
a. 1 nm.
b. 2 nm.
c. 3 nm.
d. 4 nm.
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Chapter 17
Control of Aircraft
When is an aircrafl considered lo have Iefl lhe aIIocaled ighl IeveI in lhe descenl vhen
referencing altitude to Mode C?
a. Once it has descended through 100 ft.
b. Once it has descended through 200 ft.
c. Once it has descended through 300 ft.
d. Once it has descended through 500 ft.
IfyouareinlerceledbyamiIilaryaircraflvhaldoyouselonlheSSRlransonder
a AC
b AC
c AC
d AC
Aerodromelracisconsideredlobe
a aircraflonlhemovemenlareaandyinginlhevicinily
b aircraflonlhemanoeuvringareaandyinginlhevicinily
c. aircraft on the movement area only.
d. aircraft on the manoeuvring area only.
The crilerion lhal delermines lhe secic IeveI occuied by an aircrafl based on Mode C
informalionexcelvherelhearorialeATCaulhorilyseciesaIessercrilerionis
a fl
b fl
c fl
d fl
If aroved by lhe aulhorily vilhin nm of lhe radar lransmier radar searalion can be
reduced to:
a. 5 nms.
b. 4.5 nms.
c. 4 nms.
d. 3 nms.
33. How close to the boundary of a radar vectoring area can an aircraft be vectored?
a. 2nm.
b. 2.5nm.
c. 5nm.
d. 3nm.
34. A radar controller can request an aircraft to change speed when it is on the intermediate and
naIaroachhaseexcelincerlaincondilionsseciedbylheroerATSaulhorilyThe
speed change must not be more than:
a. 15 kts.
b. 8 kts.
c. 10 kts.
d. 20 kts.
321
Chapter 17 Control of Aircraft
WhaldoeslheATClermradarconlaclmean
a The aircrafl is idenlied and viII receive searalion from aII aircrafl vhiIe you are
communicating with this radar facility.
b. ATC is receiving your transponder and will provide you with vectors and advice
concerninglracunliIyouarenoliedlhalconlaclisIosl
c Your aircrafl is seen and idenlied on lhe radar disIay and unliI furlher advised a
service will be provided.
d YouviIIreceiveradaradvisoryconcerninglracunliIyouarenoliedlhallheconlacl
is lost or radar service is terminated.
TheIandaflerroceduremayonIybeaIiedduring
a. daylight hours only.
b. night or day.
c. VMC.
d. IMC.
AnaircraflmakingaradararoachmuslbeloIdlomakeamissedaroachvhennoIanding
cIearance has been received from lhe nonradar lrac conlroIIer vhen lhe aircrafl is al a
distance of:
a. 5 nms from the touchdown.
b. 1.5 nms from the touchdown.
c. 4 nms from the touchdown.
d. 2 nms from the touchdown.
38. A radar controller cannot ask a pilot to change speed if the aircraft is within:
a nmsfromlhelhreshoIdonnaIaroach
b nmsfromlhelhreshoIdonnaIaroach
c nmsfromlhelhreshoIdonnaIaroach
d nmsfromlhelhreshoIdonnaIaroach
39. When an aircrafts SSR transponder appears to be unserviceable prior to departure and repair is
not possible:
a lheiIolmuslindicalelhefaiIureinlheghlIanaflervhichATCviIIarovelhe
operation of the aircraft without SSR.
b ifrequiredbyATCdearlurelolheneareslsuilabIeairorlvherereaircanbeeecled
will be approved.
c lheiIolviIInolbeaIIovedlocommencelheighl
d lheighlcanonIyconlinueinlhemosldireclmanner
UsingSSRamelhodbyvhicharadarconlroIIermayidenlifyanaircraflisloasklheiIollo
a selasecicSSRCode
b svilchfromoloon
c svilchloo
d svilchloon
322
Chapter 17
Control of Aircraft
AN5WER5

Queslion Answer Reference Queslion Answer Reference
1. D 17.41 21. A 17.7
2. D 15.25 22. C 17.8
3. C 15.38 23. C 13.6
4. A 17.24 24. B 13.4
5. C 17.22 25. D 17.13
6. D 17.40 26. B 13.6
7. A 16.45 27. B 17.15
8. B 17.22 28. C 13.13
9. B 12.13 29. D 6.48
10. B 17.40 30. B Denilions
11. A 17.24 31. A 13.13
12. D 17.35 32. D 16.33
13. B Chap 1 33. B 17.13
14. A 17.5 34. D 13.35
15. B 13.2 35. A 17.9
16. B 17.21 36. A 17.22
17. D 17.35 37. D 17.15
18. B 17.15 38. A 17.35
19. D 17.35 39. B 13.7
20. B 17.12 40. A 17.8
323
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
CHAPTEREIGHTEEN
AERONAUTICALINFORMATION5ERVICEAI5
Contents
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
GINIRAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
THIINTIGRATIDAIRONAUTICALINIORMATIONIACKAGI . . . . . . . . . . 326
THIAIRONAUTICALINIORMATIONIULICATIONAII . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
NOTICISTOAIRMINNOTAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
SNOWTAM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
ASHTAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
AIRONAUTICALINIORMATIONCIRCULARSAICs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
IRIILIGHTANDIOSTILIGHTINIORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
324
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
325
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
INTRODUCTION
Ob|cctivcs nI thc AI5 The safely reguIarily and eciency of inlernalionaI air
navigalionreIyonanorganizedandecienlovofinformalionIiIolsandOeralorsmusl
haveinformalionconcerninglheavaiIabiIilyofaerodromesnavigalionfaciIiliesandATSroules
loenabIeascheduIedighllolakeIaceAirTracConlroIIersrequirelhesameinformalion
bulaIsoneedinformalionfromiIolsloensuresafelyTherovisionoflhisinformalionils
handling and dissemination (publication) is the responsibility of the Aeronautical Information
ServiceoflheslaleWhiIslilhasaIvaysbeennecessaryforsuchinformalionlobeavaiIabIe
lhe roIe and imorlance of aeronaulicaI informaliondala has changed signicanlIy vilh lhe
imIemenlalion of area navigalion RNAV required navigalion erformance RNI and
airbornecomulerbasednavigalionsyslemsCorrulorerroneousaeronaulicaIinformalion
dalacanolenliaIIyaecllhesafelyofairnavigalionTheinlroduclionofrecisionRNAV
aroachsyslemsusingGLSGISbasedIandingsyslemsisanolherexamIeoflheneedfor
precise information being available at all times to ensure the success of the system.
AnncxThe ICAO document concerning the Standards and Recommended Practices
for the provision of the AIS and which contains the material relevant to the learning objectives
is Annex 15 to the Convention on Civil Aviation.
GENERAL
FunctinnsEach Contracting State is required to provide an aeronautical information
serviceoragreevilhoneormoreolherConlraclingSlalesforlherovisionofa|oinlservice
ordeIegalelheaulhorilyforlheserviceloanongovernmenlaIagencyrovidedlheSlandards
and Recommended Practices of Annex 15 are adequately met.
Rcspnnsibi!itics. The State concerned shall remain responsible for the information
published. Aeronautical information published for and on behalf of a State shall clearly
indicate that it is published under the authority of that state. Each Contracting State shall take
aIInecessarymeasuresloensurelhalaeronaulicaIinformaliondalailrovidesreIalingloils
ovnlerriloryasveIIasareasinvhichlheSlaleisresonsibIeforairlracservicesoulsideils
lerriloryisadequaleofrequiredquaIilyandlimeIyThisshaIIincIudearrangemenlsforlhe
timely provision of required information to the aeronautical information service by each of the
State services associated with aircraft operations.
Avai!abi!ityGeneraIIylheAISviIIbeavaiIabIeonahouradaybasisWhere
hourserviceisnolrovidedserviceshaIIbeavaiIabIeduringlhevhoIeeriodanaircraflisin
ighlinlheareaofresonsibiIilyofanAISIusaeriodofalIeasllvohoursbeforeandafler
such period. The service shall also be available at such other time as may be requested by an
appropriate ground organisation.
5nurccs nI inInrmatinn AnAIS is aIso required lo rovide a reighl informalion
serviceasveIIasinighlinformalionfromlheaeronaulicaIinformalionservicesofolherSlales
and from other sources that may be available.
RcquircmcntsnIthcscrvicc. Aeronautical information distributed by the AIS is to
beveriedbyandaribulabIelolheSlaleofOriginIflhisisnolossibIevhendislribuledlhe
informalionmuslbecIearIyidenliedassuchTheAISislomakeavaiIabIeanyinformalion
necessaryforlhesafelyreguIarilyoreciencyofairnavigalionloanyolherSlalelhalrequires
the information. The information provided is to be in a form suitable for the operational
requiremenls of ighl oeralions ersonneI incIuding ighl crevs ighl Ianning and ighl
simuIalorandlheATSUresonsibIeforlheIISvilhinaIIRandlheservicesresonsibIefor
reighlinformalion
326
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
Pub!icatinnTheAISisloreceiveandororiginalecoIIaleorassembIeedilformal
ubIishsloreanddislribuleaeronaulicaIinformaliondalaconcerninglheenlirelerriloryoflhe
State as well as areas in which the State is responsible for ATS outside its territory. Aeronautical
information is published in the form of an Integrated Aeronautical Information Package
(IAIP).
Wnr!dGcndctic5ystcmWG5Since}anuaryubIishedgeograhicaI
co-ordinates indicating latitude and longitude used in aviation have been expressed in terms
of lhe WorId Geodelic Syslem WGS Since November in addilion lo lhe
eIevalion referenced lo mean sea IeveI for lhe secic surveyed ground osilions geoid
undulation (gravity variations caused by the varying radius of the Earth referenced to the WGS-
eIIisoidforlhoseosilionsseciedinlheAIIADseclionisaIsorequiredlobeubIished
ThishasimIicalionsforlheorbilsofsaleIIilesusedinSalNavsyslems
THEINTEGRATEDAERONAUTICALINFORMATIONPACKAGE
DcnitinnandcnntcntsThe Integrated Aeronautical Information Package is a system
of dissemination of information essential to aviation operations and safety. It consists of the
following elements:
Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP - including amendment service)
Supplements to the AIP
NOTAMandreighlinformalionbuIIelinsPIBs)
Aeronautical Information Circulars (AICs)
Checklists and Summaries
THEAERONAUTICALINFORMATIONPUBLICATIONAIP
Usc. The AIP (previously called the Air Pilot in the UK) is designed to allow information
ofageneraIIyslalicnalurelobeubIishedifraclicabIeinaformlhalcanbeusedinighl
ieinslrumenlaroachIalesorSIDIalesTheAIIisrequiredlobelhedenilivereference
for permanent information and for information concerning long duration temporary changes.
This means that aircrew and operators can rely on the information published to be accurate and
ulodaleTheAIIdoesnolconlainaerodromeoeralingminimavhicharedenedbylhe
operator i.e. visual criteria to continue an instrument approach.
Cnntcnts. The AIP consists of three parts:
IarlGeneraIGIN
IarlInrouleINR
Part 3 - Aerodrome Data (AD)
PartGEN. Part 1 contains information of a regulatory and administrative nature.
Il consisls of ve seclions Il is imorlanl lhal lo knov lhal dierences lo lhe ICAO SARIS
and IANS nolied by lhe slale ubIishing lhe AII are delaiIed fuIIy al GIN lhis is lhe
usual method of referral to the AIP contents). The complete content of part 1 (by headings)
is as follows but the learning objectives only require the student to recall the location of the
information in bold italics:
GEN Ireface Record AII amendmenls Record of AII SuIemenls
327
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
CheckIislofAIIagesLislofhandamendmenlsloIarlTabIeofConlenls
loIarl
GENNalionaIreguIalionsandrequiremenlsDesignaledaulhoriliesInlry
lransil and dearlure of aircrafl Lntr trunslt und depurture of pussengers
creu und curgo Alrcruft lnstruments equlpment und lght documents
SummaryofnalionaIreguIalionsandinlernalionaIagreemenlsconvenlions
DlerencesfromlCAOStundurdsundRecommendedPructlces
GEN TabIes and Codes Measuring syslem aircrafl markings
hoIidays Abbrevialions used in AIS ubIicalions Charl symboIs lCAO
IeerLocutlonlndlcutorsLislofRadioNavigalionAidsConversionlabIes
SunriseSunsellabIesRaleofCIimbTabIe
GEN Services - AeronuutlcuIlnformutlonSertlcesAeronaulicaICharlsAir
Trac Services Communicalions Services MeteoroIoglcuI Sertlces Search
and Rescue.
GEN Charges for aerodromeheIiorl and air navigalion services
AerodromeheIiorlchargesAirnavigalionservicecharges
PartEnRnutcENRThisarlconlainsinformalionforIanningighlsIlaIso
conlains informalion of a roceduraI adminislralive nalure lo aIIov nolicalion of ighls
(submission of a FPL) and compliance with ATC requirements. It consists of seven sections.
ENRIrefaceLislofhandamendmenlsloIarlTabIeofConlenlsofIarl
2.
ENR General rules and procedures - GeneruI ruIes VlsuuI lght ruIes
lnstrument lght ruIes ATS airsace cIassicalion HoIdlng Approuch und
Depurture procedures Radar services and rocedures AItlmeter selng
proceduresRegionaISuIemenlaryroceduresAirTracovmanagemenl
IIighl IIanning Addressing of ighl Ian messages lnterceptlon of cltlI
aircraftUnIuufuIlnterferenceAlrtruclncldentsOshoreoeralions
ENR Alrtrucsertlcesulrspuce - Detailed description of Flight Information
Regions IIR Uer IIighl Informalion Regions UIR TerminaI ConlroI
AreasTMAolherreguIaledairsace
ENR ATS routes DelaiIed descrilion of Lover ATS roules Uer ATS
roules Area navigalion roules HeIicoler roules Olher roules Inroule
hoIdingMlnlmumlghtAItltude.
ENR Radio Navigalion aidssyslems Radio navigalion aids en roule
SeciaI navigalion syslems Namecode designalors for signicanl oinls
Aeronautical ground lights - en-route.
ENR Nutlgutlon uurnlngs Prohlblted restrlcted und dunger ureus
MiIilary exercise and lraining areas Olher aclivilies of a dangerous nalure
AirnavigalionobslacIesenrouleAeriaIsorlingandrecrealionaIaclivilies
Bird migration and areas of sensitive fauna.
ENR En-route charts - En-route Chart ICAO and index charts.
328
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
Part Acrndrnmcs. This part consists of four sections containing information
concerningaerodromesandheIiorlsIachaerodromeenlryconlainsseciedinformalion
inaccordancevilhaselscheduIeIorinslanceADforIGLLHealhrovconlainsdelaiIsof
oeralionaIhoursoflheaerodromeADforIGTKOxfordconlainslhesameinformalion
applicable to that aerodrome. The contents are:
AD Ireface Lisl of hand amendmenls lo Iarl TabIe of Conlenls lo
Part 3.
AD AerodromeHeIiorls Inlroduclion AeronaulicaIheIicoler
avaiIabiIily Rescue and re ghling services and snov Ian Index lo
aerodromesandheIiorlsGrouingofaerodromesheIiorls
AD Aerodromes - Detailed information about aerodromes (including
helicopter landing areas if located at the aerodromes) listed under 24 sub-
seclions incIuding informalion concerning Arons laxivays and check
Iocalions surface movemenl guidance and conlroI syslems and markings
radionavigalionandIandingaidscharlsreIalingloanaerodromerefueIIlng
facilities.
AD Heliports - Detailed information about heliports (not located at
aerodromesIisledundersubseclions
AIPAmcndmcnts AII changes lo lheAII or nev informalion on a rerinled age
isidenliedbyadislinclivesymboIorannolalionInlheUKlhisisaverlicaIbIackIineinlhe
age margin ad|acenl lo lhe amendednev dala TheAII is amended or reissued al reguIar
intervals as are necessary to keep the data up to date. The normal method of amendment is by
replacement pages. Permanent changes to the AIP are published as AIP amendments. Each AIP
amendmenl is aIIocaled a conseculive seriaI number and each amended age incIuding lhe
coversheelshovslheubIicaliondale
AIRACOeralionaIIysignicanlchangeslolheAIIareubIishedinaccordancevilh
AeronaulicaI Informalion ReguIalion and ConlroI rocedures and shaII be cIearIy idenlied
bylheacronymAIRACIachAIRACAIIamendmenlageincIudinglhecoversheelmusl
disIay an eeclive dale AIRAC is based on a series of common eeclive dales al inlervaIs
of 28 days (started 10 Jan 91). AIRAC information is distributed by the AIS unit at least 42
daysinadvanceoflheeeclivedaleandlheinformalionnoliedmuslnolbechangedforal
IeaslanolherdaysaflerlheeeclivedaleunIesslhecircumslancenoliedisofalemorary
nature and would not persist for the full period. Whenever major changes are planned and
vhereaddilionaInoliceisdesirabIeaubIicaliondaledaysinadvanceoflheeeclivedale
should be used.
AIP5upp!cmcnts. Temporary changes of long duration (three months or longer) and
informalionofshorlduralionvhichconlainsexlensivelexlandorgrahicsareubIishedas
AIP supplements. Each AIP Supplement is allocated a serial number which shall be consecutive
and based on the calendar year. AIP Supplement pages are kept in the AIP as long as all or some
oflheirconlenlsremainvaIidWhenanAIISuIemenlissenlinreIacemenlofaNOTAM
ilisloincIudeareferencelolheseriaInumberoflheNOTAMAcheckIislofAIISuIemenls
currently in force is issued at intervals of not more than one month (i.e. monthly or more
frequenlAIISuIemenlagesshouIdbecoIouredinorderlobeconsicuousreferabIyin
yellow.
329
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
NOTICE5TOAIRMENNOTAM
Dcnitinn NOTAM are nolices dislribuled by means of leIecommunicalions
conlaininginformalionconcerninglheeslabIishmenlcondilionorchangeinanyaeronaulicaI
faciIilyservicerocedureorhazardlhelimeIyknovIedgeofvhichisessenliaIloersonneI
concernedvilhighloeralions
Originatinn NOTAM are lo be originaled and issued romlIy vhenever lhe
informalion lo be dislribuled is of a lemorary nalure and of shorl duralion or vhen
oeralionaIIysignicanlermanenlchangesorlemorarychangesofIongduralionaremade
al shorl nolice excel vhen exlensive lexl andor grahics is essenliaIIy incIuded in vhich
case lhe informalion is ubIished as an AII suIemenl NOTAM are required vhenever
informalionisofdirecloeralionaIsignicance
AIRAC nnticatinn. When an AIP amendment or an AIP Supplement is published
inaccordancevilhAIRACroceduresseeNOTAMarelobeoriginaledgivingabrief
descrilion of lhe conlenls lhe eeclive dale and lhe reference number lo lhe amendmenl
suIemenlThisNOTAMshaIIcomeinloforceonlhesameeeclivedaleaslheamendmenl
or supplement.
Nnticcandva!idityNOTAMshouIdremaininforceasareminderinlhereighl
informalionbuIIelinunliIlhenexlcheckIislsummaryisissuedWheneverossibIealIeasl
hoursadvancenoliceisdesirabIeloermillimeIycomIelionoflhenolicalionrocess
and lo faciIilale airsace uliIizalion Ianning NOTAM nolifying lhe unserviceabiIily of aids
loairnavigalionfaciIiliesorcommunicalionservicesshouIdgiveaneslimaleoflheeriodof
unserviceability or the time at which restoration of service is expected.
Exc!udcd macr NOTAM shouId nol incIude informalion of non oeralionaI
imorlanceincIudingarliaIfaiIuresofIighlingorgroundsyslemsroulinemainlenanceany
work in progress on runways not in use or if the equipment can be rapidly removed from the
dulyrunvaylemoraryobslruclionsIocaIareaarachulingandlheIackofaronmarshaIIing
servicesandroadlracconlroI
Distributinn NOTAM are lo be dislribuled lo addressees lo vhom lhe informalion
is of direcl oeralionaI signicance and vho vouId nol olhervise have al Ieasl seven days
riornolicalionTheaeronaulicaIxedleIecommunicalionnelvorkAITNleIerinleris
vheneverraclicabIeemIoyedforNOTAMdislribulionWhenNOTAMaresenlbymeans
olher lhan lhe AITN a six digil dalelime grou indicaling lhe dale and lime of Iing lhe
NOTAMandlheidenlicalionoflheoriginalorisusedrecedinglhelexl
NOTAMChcck!istsAcheckIislofcurrenlNOTAMisissuedalinlervaIsofnolmore
lhanonemonlhThecheckIislisloreferlolheIaleslAIIAmendmenlAIISuIemenlandlhe
internationally distributed AICs.
5ummaryAmonlhIyrinledIainIanguagesummaryofNOTAMinforceincIuding
lheindicalionsoflheIaleslAIIAmendmenlscheckIislofAIISuIemenlsandAICissuedis
to be sent by the most expeditious means to recipients of the IAIP.
330
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
5NOWTAM
Dcscriptinn Informalion concerning snov ice and slanding valer on aerodrome
avemenlareasislobereorledbySNOWTAM
Cnntcnts nI a 5NOWTAM. Appendix 2 to Annex 15 details the requirements of a
SNOWTAMTheinformalionconlainedisasfoIIovsIfaeIdisnolaIicabIelhenilisIefl
bIankandnolhingislransmied
A. The ICAO aerodrome locator code e.g. EGLL (Heathrow)
ThedalelimeofobservalionUTC
C. Runway designators (e.g. 27R)
D. Cleared runway length if less than published length (m)
I CIearedrunvayvidlhifIesslhanlheubIishedvidlhmifoselLorR
F. Deposits over total runway length:
x NiICIearanddry
x Damp
x Wet or water patches
x Rime or frost covered
x Dry snow
x Wet snow
x Slush
x Ice
x Compacted or rolled snow
x Frozen ruts or ridges
G. Mean depth (mm) for each third of total runway length
H. Friction measurement on each third of runway and friction measuring device
FrictinnCnccicnt Estimated surface friction Code
0.4 and above Good 5
0.39 0.36 Medium to good 4
0.35 0.3 Medium 3
0.29 0.26 Medium to poor 2
0.25 and below Poor 1
Reading unreliable Unreliable 9
|igurcSurjaccjriciicnrcpcriingcc!cs
331
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
J. Critical snow banks (m)
K RunvayIighlsifobscuredyesfoIIovedbyLRorLR
L IurlhercIearanceifIannedinselIenglhvidlhlobecIearedoriflofuII
dimensions insert FULL)
M. Further clearance expected to be completed by (UTC)
N Taxivay
I TaxivaysnovbanksifcminserlYesfoIIovedbydislanceaarlm
Q Aron
S NexlIannedobservalionmeasuremenlisformonlhdayhourUTC
T. Plain language remarks
5NOWCLO. A term used in a VOLMET Broadcast to indicate that an aerodrome is
closed due to snow or snow clearance in progress.
Whcc! Braking On Wct Runways. The inherent friction characteristics of a runway
surfacedelerioraleonIysIovIyoveraeriodoflimebullhefriclionofarunvaysurfaceand
lhuslhebrakingaclioncanvarysignicanlIyoverashorleriodinvelcondilionsdeending
onlheacluaIdelhofvaleronlherunvayAIsoIonglermsixmonlhIyseasonaIvarialionsin
friction value may exist. The consequence of combination of these factors is that no meaningful
oeralionaIbenelcanbederivedfromconlinuaIIymeasuringlhefriclionvaIueofarunvayin
wet conditions. In the context of these paragraphs a wet runway covers a range of conditions
from Damp to Flooded as described below. It does not include ice or runways contaminated
vilhsnovsIushorvalerassocialedvilhsIushIavedrunvaysofmandIongeralCiviI
aerodromesIicensedforubIicusehavebeencaIibraledloensurelhallhefriclioncharaclerislics
of a runvay surface are of a quaIily lo rovide good braking aclion in vel condilions The
resenceofvaleronarunvayviIIbereorledonRTusinglhefoIIovingdescrilions
|igurcSncuc|carancc
Photo: Mercedes Benz
332
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
Description Mcaning
Dry The surface is dry
Damp The surface shows a change of colour due to moisture
Wct
Thesurfaceissoakedbulnosignicanlalchesof
standing water are visible.
WatcrPatchcs
SignicanlalchesofslandingvalerarevisibIe
Flooded Extensive standing water is visible.
Intcrprctatinn. When a runway is reported as DAMP or WET pilots may assume that
an acceptable level of runway wheel braking friction is available. When a runway is reported as
havingWATIRIATCHISorbeingILOODIDbrakingmaybeaecledbyaquaIaningand
arorialeoeralionaIad|uslmenlsshouIdbeconsideredWaleralchesviIIbeusedifal
IeasloflherunvayIenglhiscoveredvilhslandingvalerWhenarunvayisnoliedas
IiabIelobesIieryvhenvellakeosorIandingsinvelcondilionsshouIdonIybeconsidered
when the distances available equal or exceed those required for a very slippery or icy runway
as determined from information in the aeroplanes Flight Manual. At military aerodromes in
lheUKrunvaysurfacecondilionsviIIbedescribedinIainIanguageandvhereabraking
aclionmeasuringdevicehasbeenusedbrakingaclionviIIbedescribedasgoodmediumor
poor.
A5HTAM
PurpnscVoIcanicashcIoudresenlsasignicanlhazardlolurbineengineaeroIanes
Timely warning of the presence of ash clouds or the possibility of an ash cloud existing is vital
to safe operations in areas where volcanic activity is common. Information concerning an
oeralionaIIy signicanl change in voIcanic aclivily a voIcanic erulion andor voIcanic ash
cloud is reported by means of an ASHTAM.
Dcscriptinn. The ASHTAM provides information on the status of activity of a volcano
vhenachangeinilsaclivilyisorisexecledlobeofoeralionaIsignicanceThisinformalion
is provided using the volcano level of alert colour code. In the event of a volcanic eruption
roducing ash cIoud of oeralionaI signicance lheASHTAM aIso rovides informalion on
lheIocalionexlenlandmovemenloflheashcIoudandlheairroulesandighlIeveIsaecled
The maximum period of validity of an ASHTAM is 24 hours. A new ASHTAM must be issued
whenever there is a change in the alert level.
|igurc|unuaqsurjacc!cscripiicn
333
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
A5HTAMCn!nurCndcThelabIebeIovdelaiIslhevoIcanoaIerlcodeusedineIdI
of an ASHTAM:
Colour DcscriptinnnIVn!canicActivity
Rcd
Volcanic eruption in progress. IyrocIaslic ash IumecIoud
reorledaboveILorvoIcanodangerouserulionIikeIy
vilh yrocIaslic ash IumecIoud execled lo rise above IL
250
Orangc
VoIcanic erulion in rogress IyrocIaslic ash IumecIoud nol
reaching nor execled lo reach IL or voIcano dangerous
erulionIikeIyvilhyrocIaslicashIumecIoudnolexecledlo
reach FL250
Yc!!nw
Volcano known to be active from time to time and volcanic
aclivily has recenlIy increased signicanlIy voIcano nol
currently considered dangerous but caution should be
exercisedorafleravoIcanicerulioniechangeinaIerllo
yellow from red or orange) volcanic activity has decreased
signicanlIy voIcano nol currenlIy considered dangerous
but caution should be exercised.
Grccn
Volcanic activity considered to have ceased and volcano
reverted to its normal state.
AERONAUTICALINFORMATIONCIRCULAR5AICs
Dcscriptinn. AICs are a method whereby information that doesnt qualify for inclusion
in lheAII or is nol suilabIe for NOTAM is disseminaled lo aII inleresled arliesAnAIC is
originated whenever it is desirable to promulgate: a long-term forecast of any major change in
IegisIalionreguIalionsroceduresorfaciIiliesinformalionofaureIyexIanaloryoradvisory
nalureIiabIeloaeclighlsafelyorinformalionornolicalionofanexIanaloryoradvisory
nalureconcerninglechnicaIIegisIaliveorureIyadminislralivemaers
Gcncra! spccicatinns nIAICs AICs are issued in rinled form and bolh lexl and
diagrams may be included. The originating State can select the AICs that are to be given
international distribution. AICs are allocated a serial number which should be consecutive and
basedonlhecaIendaryearWhenAICsaredislribuledinmorelhanoneserieseachseriesis
searaleIyidenliedbyaIeerIlisnormaIfordierenlialionandidenlicalionofAICloics
according to subjects to use a colour coding system (i.e. the paper on which the information is
ubIishedisdislinguishedbyloicbydierenlcoIourAcheckIislofAICcurrenlIyinforceis
issuedalIeaslonceayearvilhdislribulionasforlheAICAICsinlheUKareubIishedon
Thursdays every 28 days.
|igurcASHTAMcc|curcc!c
334
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
Cn!nurcndingnIUKAICs. In the UK the following colour coding scheme for AICs is
adopted.
Colour Mcaning
Pink MaersreIalinglosafely
Yc!!nw OeralionaImaersincIudingATSfaciIiliesandrequiremenls
Whitc Adminislralivemaersieexamdalesandfees
MauvcPurp!c
UK airspace reservations imposed in accordance with applicable
regulations
Grccn Maps and Charts
PREFLIGHTANDPO5TFLIGHTINFORMATION
PrcightinInrmatinnAlanyaerodromenormaIIyusedforinlernalionaIairoeralions
aeronaulicaI informalion essenliaI for lhe safely reguIarily and eciency of air navigalion
andreIalivelolherouleslagesoriginalingallheaerodromemuslbemadeavaiIabIeloighl
oeralionsersonneIincIudingighlcrevsandservicesresonsibIeforreighlinformalion
AeronaulicaI informalion rovided for reighl Ianning uroses al lhe aerodromes musl
incIudereIevanleIemenlsoflheInlegraledAeronaulicaIInformalionIackageandmasand
charlsThedocumenlalionmaybeIimiledlonalionaIubIicalionsandvhenraclicabIelhose
of immedialeIy ad|acenl slales rovided a comIele Iibrary of aeronaulicaI informalion is
available at a central location and means of direct communications are available between the
aerodrome AIS unit and that library.
AcrndrnmcinInrmatinn. Additional current information relating to the aerodrome of
departure shall be provided concerning the following:
Construction or maintenance work on or immediately adjacent to the
manoeuvringarea
Roughorlionsofanyarloflhemanoeuvringareavhelhermarkedornol
(For example: broken parts of the surface of runways and taxiways)
IresenceanddelhofsnoviceorvaleronrunvaysandlaxivaysincIuding
lheireeclonsurfacefriclion
SnovdrifledoriIedonorad|acenllorunvaysorlaxivays
Iarkedaircraflorolherob|eclsonorimmedialeIyad|acenllolaxivays
IresenceofolherlemoraryhazardsincIudinglhosecrealedbybirds
|igurcCc|curcc!ingcjA|Cs
335
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
Failure or irregular operation of part or all of the aerodrome lighting system
incIudingaroachlhreshoIdrunvaylaxivayobslruclionandmanoeuvring
areaunserviceabiIilyIighlsandaerodromeoversuIy
IaiIureirreguIaroeralionandchangesinoeralionslalusofILSincIuding
markers SRI IAR DMI SSR VOR ND VHI aeronaulicaI mobiIe
channeIsRVRobservingsyslemandsecondaryoversuIy
IresenceandoeralionsofhumanilarianreIiefmissionssuchaslhose
underlakenunderlheausicesoflheUniledNalionslogelhervilhany
associaledroceduresandorIimilalionsaIiedlhereof
PIBsA recailuIalion of currenl NOTAM and olher informalion of urgenl characler
shaII be made avaiIabIe lo ighl crevs in lhe form of Iain Ianguage reighl informalion
bulletins (PIB).
PnstightinInrmatinn. States shall ensure that arrangements are made to receive at
aerodromesheIiorlsinformalionconcerninglheslaleandoeralionofairnavigalionfaciIilies
noledbyaircrevsandshaIIensurelhalsuchinformalionismadeavaiIabIelolheaeronaulicaI
information service for such distribution as the circumstances necessitate.
336
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
337
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
QUE5TION5
WhalIeveIofaIerlvouIdbeinserledineIdIofanASHTAMfoIIovingavoIcanicerulionin
which a pyroclastic ash cloud extends above FL250?
a. Red alert.
b. Orange alert.
c YeIIovaIerl
d. Green alert.
InvhichseclionoflheAIIvouIdyoundinformaliononhoIdingaroachanddearling
procedures?
a GIN
b INR
c. SAT.
d. AD.
3. An integrated aeronautical information package consists of:
a AIIandamendmenlservicesuIemenllolheAIINOTAMIreighlInformalion
uIIelinsIIsAICscheckIislsandsummaries
b AII and amendmenl service NOTAM Ireighl Informalion uIIelins IIs and
AICsAIRACcheckIislsandsummaries
c AIIandamendmenlservicesuIemenllolheAIINOTAMAIRACAICscheckIisls
and summaries.
d AIISuIemenlsAIRACNOTAMandreighlbuIIelins
4. In what section of the AIP are details of SIGMET found?
a GIN
b INR
c. AD.
d. COMMS.
5. Where in the AIP is a list of Location Indicators to be found?
a GIN
b. COMMS.
c. AD.
d. AGA.
AcheckIislforNOTAMisissued
a. every 5 days.
b. every 28 days.
c. every 18 days.
d. at intervals of not more than one month.
7. AIP approach charts do not give information for Instrument Approach Procedures for:
a OCAH
b. visibility minima.
c. obstacles protruding above the obstacle free zone.
d. DME frequencies.
338
Chapter 18
Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
8. AIP supplements with extensive text and graphics cover a short period. What is a long period
in this respect?

a. 1 yr.
b. 2 months.
c. 3 months.
d. 6 months.
9. AIRAC is:
a. a breakdown service.
b oeralionaIIysignicanlchangeslolheAII
c amedicaIevacualionighl
d. an Army Air Corps publication.
10. What information is not on an aerodrome approach plate?
a. DME frequency.
b. OCA.
c. Dominant obstacles.
d. Operating minima if the aerodrome is being used as an alternative.
11. Where in the AIP is information concerning re-fuelling facilities and services found?
a INR
b. SUPP.
c. AD.
d GIN
Where in lhe AII vouId you nd informalion concerning rohibiled reslricled or danger
areas?

a INR
b. SUPP.
c. AD.
d GIN
13. In what part of the AIP are the details of SIGMET found?
a GIN
b INR
c. AD.
d. AIRAC.
Whalislhecoecienlofbrakingiflhebrakingaclionisreorledasmedium
a. Between.1.0 and 0.25.
b. Between 0.25 and 0.3.
c. Between 0.30 and 0.35.
d. Between 0.35 and 0.4.
339
Chapter 18 Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
RegardinglheAISvhalislhelimeIimilforacheckIislofcurrenlNOTAMlobeissued
a. 7 days.
b. 14 days.
c. 28 days.
d. One month.
AcheckIisloflheacliveNOTAMmuslbeubIishedonlheAITNalinlervaIsof
a. not more than 28 days.
b. not more than 15 days.
c. not more than 1 month.
d. not more than 10 days.
OeralionaIIysignicanlchangeslolheAIIshaIIbeubIishedinaccordancevilh
a. AICs.
b. AIP Supplements.
c. AIRAC procedures.
d lriggerNOTAMS
18. A nolice conlaining informalion concerning ighl safely air navigalion adminislralion or
IegisIalivemaersandoriginaledallheAISofaslaleiscaIIed
a. Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP).
b. Aeronautical Information Circular (AIC).
c. AIRAC.
d NOTAM
340
Chapter 18
Aerodrome Information Service (AIS)
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. A 18.34
2. B 18.14
3. A 18.10
4. A 18.13
5. A 18.13
6. D 18.25
7. B 18.11
8. C 18.18
9. B 18.17
10. D 18.11
11. C 18.15
12. A 18.14
13. A 18.13
14. C 18.28
15. D 18.25
16. C 18.25
17. C 18.17
18. B 18.35
341
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
CHAPTERNINETEEN
AERODROME5PHY5ICALCHARACTERI5TIC5
Contents
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
AIRODROMIRIIIRINCICODI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
GLOSSARYOITIRMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
AERODROME DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
RUNWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
TAXIWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
AIRONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
342
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
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AERO INFO DATE 10 JUN 08
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343
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
INTRODUCTION
AcrndrnmcsTheIaceonlhesurfaceoflheIarlhvhereaeroIanesaircrafllakeo
andIandisknovnasanaerodromeAerodromesmaybenolhingmorelhanaeIdusedforIighl
rivaleyingadenedslriofoenvaleravaleraerodromeorlhecomIexandfascinaling
areasofreaIeslaleveassocialevilhIacesIikeHealhrovGalvickChicagoOHare}IKelc
The one thing they all have in common is that they are all provided especially for the use of
aeroplanes. In this chapter of the notes discussion will be limited to the physical construction of
land aerodromes with emphasis on the aerodromes used for international commercial aviation.
There is videIy diering lerminoIogy used vilh reference lo aerodromes moslIy coIIoquiaI
andusuaIIyincorreclininlerrelalionIorinslanceanaireIdisexaclIylhalaeIdusuaIIy
unprepared) which is occasionally used as a landing ground for aeroplanes. An airport is a
orlaIenlryinloaslaleforeoIeandcargovhicharrivesbyair|uslasaseaorlislhesame
for arrival by ship. The accepted and legally correct term is an aerodrome.
Anncx. The annex to the Conference on International Civil Aviation that is concerned
vilh aerodromes is Annex In common vilh olher annexes il conlains slandards and
recommendedraclicesSARIsandslalescannolifydierencesloAnnexunderarlicIe
oflheconvenlionInaccordancevilharlicIeoflheconvenlionAnnexisonIyconcerned
with aerodromes that are open to the public. Each contracting state is required to ensure that
such aerodromes comIy vilh lhe requiremenls of lhe annex In lhe Uniled Kingdom lhe
authority responsible for ensuring compliance is the CAA. In the UK there are 4 types of
aerodrome:
Public use licensed aerodrome (open for general use on an equal basis)
Ordinary (private) licensed aerodrome (use by licence holder and others with
licence holders permission only)
Unlicensed aerodrome (limited use only)
GovernmenlovnedMiIilaryDIRAelc
UscbyCnmmcrcia!AirTranspnrt. The learning objectives of the course are directed
lovardslheuseofaerodromesbycommerciaIairlransorlCATThedierenlialionbelveen
ubIicandrivaleordinaryisimmaleriaIIfanaerodromeislobeusedforCATlheservices
faciIiliesmarkingsIighlingandaircraflhandIingcaabiIilymuslcomIyvilhlherequiremenls
of the state for the issue of a licence. The use of an unlicensed aerodrome is not precluded
for CAT bul lhe absence of a Iicence means lhal any inslrumenl rocedures associaled vilh
inslrumenlaroacheshavenolbeencerliedassafeforuseforCATIlislhereforeimIicil
that the use of an unlicensed aerodrome for CAT is restricted to visual operations only.
Intcrnatinna! Airpnrts Iach slale has lhe righl lo imose immigralion heaIlh and
customs and excise controls on persons and cargo entering that state. An aerodrome at which
such procedures and facilities for those controls are established and operated is known as
an InlernalionaI Aerodrome The Iace name of lhe aerodrome is usuaIIy suxed vilh lhe
word international to denote the fact. For instance Los Angeles International. In the UK
such aerodromes are dened as cusloms aerodromes aIlhough lhe lerm inlernalionaI is
becomingcommonIaceieirminghamInlernalionaIAslhesludenlviIIrecaIIlheMonlreaI
ConvenlionisonIyconcernedvilhaclsofunIavfuIinlerferencecommiedalaninlernalionaI
aerodrome.
344
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
Basic!aynut All aerodromes complying with the SARPs of Annex 14 have a movement
areaamanoeuvringareaandanaronThereaIeslaleofanaerodromeisgeneraIIycovered
by the requirements of the licence but certain safety features associated with large aerodromes
may fall outside the control of the licensing authority and be devolved to the local civil planning
aulhorily Ior inslance lhe ereclion of a slorey bIock of als haIf a miIe from lhe end of
runvayRalHealhrovvouIdnolbeermiedbylheIocaIIanningaulhorilyAlaconlroIIed
aerodrome there must be an ATC control tower which has a visual control room (VCR). If the
aerodromeaccelsnonradiolraclheremuslbeasignaIsareaIaidoulonlhegroundsolhal
ilisvisibIefromlheairvilhinadeneddislanceandheighlfromlheaerodromeTheomission
signaI square imIies lhal lhe aerodrome cannol accel nonradio lrac The signaIs used
have already been covered in the Rules of the Air. The physical construction of an aerodrome
will depend upon the requirements of the aeroplanes using it and the required availability
(utilisation) of the aerodrome and its services.
MnvcmcntArcaThisisdenedaslhalarlofanaerodromeinlendedforlhesurface
movemenlofaircraflincIudinglhemanoeuvringareaaronsandanyarloflheaerodrome
rovidedforlhemainlenanceofaircraflIecliveIylhisisaIIlhereaIeslaleoflheaerodrome
IlmayincIudegrassareasvherelheseareseciedforaircraflusebulcIearIydoesnolincIude
buildings and other constructed facilities.
ManncuvringArcaThisisdenedaslhalarlofanaerodromerovidedforlhelake
oandIandingofaircraflandforlhemovemenlofaircraflonlhesurfaceexcIudinglhearon
and any part of the aerodrome used for the maintenance of aircraft. The manoeuvring area will
incIuderunvaysgrassandavedlhelaxivaysgrassandavedandanydenedslovay
orrelakeoareasbeforelhelhreshoIdofarunvay
Aprnn The aron is a IegaIIy dened orlion of lhe aerodrome vhere assengers
mail and cargo are loaded on to an aeroplane. It is commonly called the ramp in the US. It
is also the place where the pilot is required to check the accuracy of the altimeter(s). At busy
commerciaIaerodromesATCdeIegaleslhesafemovemenlofaircraflonlhearonlolheAron
Management Service. This is usually provided by an organisation contracted to the aerodrome
aulhorily seciaIising in lhe rovision of baggage handIing refueIIing and marshaIIing and
associated transportation requirements.
Acrnnautica! Part This again is a IegaI denilion of lhal orlion of lhe aerodrome
lhislimeincIudingbuiIdingsandfaciIiliesvhicharenolaccessibIevilhoulsecurilyconlroIA
commonly used term is air-side.
AERODROMEREFERENCECODE
Usc The reference code vhich is used for aerodrome Ianning and conslruclion
urosesisasimIemelhodofinlerreIalinglhesecicalionsconcerninglhecharaclerislics
of aerodromes so as lo rovide aerodrome faciIilies lhal are suilabIe for lhe aeroIanes lhal
are intended to operate at the aerodrome. It is not intended to be used for determining the
runway length or pavement strength requirements for aeroplanes or to specify a minimum or
maximumIenglhforarunvayInlhediscussionofaerodromecharaclerislicsreferenceviIIbe
madelolhecodeeIemenlsvherelheIearningob|eclivesrequireilHisloricaIIyqueslionshave
been asked in the exam concerning the code elements.
345
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
E!cmcnts. The code is composed of two elements which are related to aeroplane
performance characteristics and dimensions. Element 1 is a number based on the aeroplane
reference eId Ienglh see beIov and eIemenl is a Ieer based on lhe aeroIane
wing span and the outer main gear wheel span (the distance between the outside wheels of
lhe undercarriage A arlicuIar secicalion is reIaled lo lhe more aroriale of lhe lvo
eIemenlsoflhecodeorloanarorialecombinalionoflhelvocodeeIemenlsThecodeIeer
or number selected for design purposes is related to the critical aeroplane characteristics for
vhichlhefaciIilyisrovidedInaerodromedesignandoeralionslheaeroIanesvhichlhe
aerodromeisinlendedloservearerslidenliedandlhenlhelvoeIemenlsoflhecodeThe
foIIovinglabIedeneslheaerodromecode
AcrndrnmcRcIcrcnccCndc
CndcE!cmcnt Code Element 2
Code
Numbcr
AcrndrnmcRcIcrcncc
Fic!dLcngth
Code
Lccr
Wing5pan
OutcrMainGcar
Whcc!5pan
Less than 800m A
Up to but not
including 15m
Up to but not including
4.5m
2
mormore
but less than 1 200m
B
mormorebulIess
than 24m
4.5m up to but not
including 6m

mormore
but less than 1 800m
C
mormorebulIess
than 36m
6m up to but not
including 9m
1 800m or more D
mormorebulIess
than 52m
9m up to but not
including 14m
E
mormorebulIess
than 65m
9m up to but not
including 14m
F
65m up to but not
including 80m
14m up to but not
including 16m
Acrnp!ancRcIcrcnccFic!dLcngthThisisdenedaslheminimumeIdIenglhlake
odislancerequiredforlakeoalmaxcerlicaledlakeomassalseaIeveIvilhslandard
almoshericcondilionssliIIairandrunvaysIoeasshovninlhearorialeAIMrescribed
by the certifying authority or equivalent data from the aeroplane manufacturer.
|igurcAcrc!rcncrcjcrcncccc!c
346
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
GLO55ARYOFTERM5
Knnw!cdgc Rcquircmcnt. The learning objectives require the student to be able to
recaIIlhedenilionsconlainedinlhefoIIovinglabIeMosloflhemviIIaIreadybefamiIiar
and the remainder will be used in the ensuing discussions concerning aerodromes.
Term Dcnitinn
Aerodrome
Any area of Iand or valer designed equied sel aarl or
commonIy used for aording faciIilies for lhe Ianding and
dearlureofaircraflandincIudesanyareaorsacevhelher
onlhegroundonlheroofofabuiIdingoreIsevherevhich
is designed equied or sel aarl for aording faciIilies for
the landing and departure of aircraft capable of descending or
cIimbing verlicaIIy bul shaII nol incIude any area lhe use of
vhichforaordingfaciIiliesforlheIandinganddearlureof
aircraft has been abandoned and has not been resumed.
Aerodrome elevation The elevation of the highest point of the landing area.
Aerodrome Reference
point (ARP)
The geographical location of the aerodrome and the centre of
ilslraczonevhereanATZiseslabIished
Aircraft stand taxi lane
A portion of an apron designated as a taxiway and intended to
provide access to aircraft stands only.
Apron taxiway
A portion of a taxiway system located on an apron and
intended to provide a through taxi route across the apron.
Clearway
AnareaallheendoflhelakeorunavaiIabIeandunderlhe
conlroI of lhe aerodrome Iicensee seIecled or reared as a
suitable area over which an aircraft may make a portion of its
iniliaIcIimbloaseciedheighl
Crosswind component
The velocity component of the wind measured at or corrected
to a height of 33 feet above ground level at right angles to the
direclionoflakeoorIanding
Instrument approach
runway
A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using non-
visual aids providing at least directional guidance in azimuth
adequate for a straight-in approach.
Instrument approach strip
AnareaofsecieddimensionsvhichencIosesaninslrumenl
runway.
Landing area
That part of the manoeuvring area primarily intended for the
Iandingorlakeoofaircrafl
Main runway TherunvaymoslusedforlakeoandIanding
NoninslrumenlvisuaI
runway
A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using visual
approach procedures.
Obstacle
AII xed vhelher lemorary or ermanenl and mobiIe
ob|eclsorarlslhereoflhalareIocaledonanareainlended
for the surface movement of aircraft or that extend above a
denedsurfaceinlendedloroleclaircraflinighl
347
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
Obstacle Free Zone
A volume of airspace extending upwards and outwards from
aninnerorlionoflheslrilosecieduerIimilsvhichis
kelcIearofaIIobslruclionsexcelforminorseciedilems
Precision approach
runway
A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using visual
and non-visual aids providing guidance in both pitch and
azimuth adequate for a straight-in approach. These runways
are divided into three categories.
Rapid exit taxiway
Highseedlurno
A taxiway connected to a runway at an acute angle and
designed lo aIIov Ianding aeroIanes lo lurn o al higher
speeds than are achieved on other exit taxiways thereby
minimising runway occupancy times.
Runway
AdenedreclanguIarareaonaIandaerodromerearedfor
lheIandingandlakeorunofaircraflaIongilsIenglh
Runway End Safety Area
(RESA)
An area dened aboul lhe exlended runvay cenlreIine and
adjacent to the end of the strip primarily intended to reduce the
risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning
the runway.
Shoulder
An area adjacent to the edge of a paved surface so prepared as
to provide a transition between the pavement and the adjacent
surface for aircraft running of the pavement.
Stop way
A dened reclanguIar area al lhe end of lhe lakeo run
available prepared and designated as suitable area in which
an aircraft can be stopped in the case of a discontinued take-
o
Strip
An area of secied dimensions encIosing a runvay and
taxiway to provide for the safety of aircraft operations.
TakeoRunvay
A runvay equied lo aIIov lakeos in secied vealher
minima.
Taxiway
AdenedalhonaIandaerodromeeslabIishedforlhelaxiing
of aircraft and intended to provide a link between one part of
the aerodrome and another.
Taxiway holding position
A designated position at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles
may be required to hold in order to provide adequate clearance
from a runway.
Taxiway Intersection A junction of two or more taxiways.
Threshold
The beginning of that portion of the runway usable for
landing.
Usability
The percentage of occasions on which the crosswind
comonenl is beIov a secied vaIue The usabiIily may
be delermined for any combinalion of lakeo and Ianding
directions available at an aerodrome.
348
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
AERODROMEDATA
AcrndrnmcRcIcrcnccPnintARP. An aerodrome reference point must be established
foranaerodromeIlisdenedaslhedesignaledgeograhicaILalandLongIocalionoflhe
aerodromeandislobereorledlolheaeronaulicaIinformalionservicesaulhorilyindegrees
minutes and seconds. The ARP should be located near the initial or planned geometric centre
oflheaerodromeandviIInormaIIyremainvherersleslabIishedInreaIilyilisusuaIIylhe
centre of the longest runway.
Prcighta!timctcrchcck!ncatinnOneormorereighlaIlimelercheckIocalions
are required for an aerodrome. These should be located on an apron to enable an altimeter
check to be made prior to obtaining taxi clearance and thus eliminate the need for stopping
forlhaluroseaflerIeavinglhearonNormaIIyanenlirearoncanserveasasalisfaclory
aIlimeler check Iocalion The eIevalion of a reighl aIlimeler check Iocalion is given as lhe
averageeIevalionroundedlolheneareslmelreorfooloflheareainvhichilisIocaledThe
eIevalionofanyorlionofareighlaIlimelercheckIocalionmuslbevilhinmfloflhe
average elevation for that location.
AcrndrnmcandRunwayE!cvatinns. The aerodrome elevation and geoid undulation
at the aerodrome elevation position (the highest point of the landing area) is measured to the
neareslhaIfmelreorfoolIorrecisionrunvaysilislobemeasuredlolheneareslmor
foot. Note: The geoid is the gravitational level of mean sea level extending continuously through
lheconlinenlsIlisirreguIardueloIocaIgravilalionaIdislurbanceshencegeoidunduIalions
Pavcmcnt strcngths Where aved areas runvays laxivays arons are used by
aircrafl vilh maximum lake o mass grealer lhan kg lhe slrenglh of lhe avemenl is
reorled by lhe aircrafl cIassicalion number avemenl cIassicalion number ACNICN
syslemAnaircraflcansafeIyuseaavedareaiflheICNisequaIloorgrealerlhanlheACN
PCNTheIavemenlCIassicalionNumberICNisusedloindicalelheslrenglhofa
runwaytaxiway or apron. It is of primary importance for the apron as this is where the aircraft
massviIIbegrealeslICNisonIyusedforavedareas
ACNTheAircraflCIassicalionNumberACNisasingIeuniquenumberexressing
lhereIaliveeeclofanaircraflonaavedareareIalingloavemenllyeandlhicknessIlis
a number on a continuous scale increasing from 0 with no upper limit. Each aircraft has an
ACN
AircraIt !css than Kg. The strength of the pavement for use by aircraft with
maximummassequaIloorIesslhankgiscaIcuIaledfromlhemaximumaIIovabIemass
or the maximum tyre pressure.
Dcc!arcddistanccs. The following distances must be calculated to the nearest metre or
foot for a runway intended for the use by international commercial air transport:
TakeorunavaiIabIeTORA
TakeodislanceavaiIabIeTODA
AcceIeraleslodislanceavaiIabIeASDA
Landing distance available (LDA).
TORADenilionThedislancebelveenlheoinlalvhichanaeroIanecan
commence lhe lakeo run lo lhe nearesl oinl in lhe direclion of lake o al vhich
the surface is incapable of bearing the mass of the aeroplane under normal operating
conditions.
349
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
TODADenilionThedislancefromlheslarlofTORAlolheneareslobslacIe
inlhedireclionoflakeoro|eclingabovelhesurfaceoflheaerodromeandcaabIeof
aeclinglhesafelyofanaeroIaneinighluloamaximumdislanceofxTORA
UsuaIIyTODAisTORAIuscIearvayifacIearvayexisls
A5DADenilionThedislancefromlheslarloflhelakeorunlolhenearesl
oinlinlhedireclionoflakeoalvhichlheaircraflcannolroIIoverlhesurfaceandbe
brought to rest in an emergency without risk of accident. ASDA used to be called EDA
(Emergency Distance Available). Usually ASDA consists of TORA plus the stop way if
available.
LDADenilionThedislancefromlheoinlvhereanaeroIanecancommence
its landing to the point where the surface is incapable of bearing the mass of the aircraft
undernormaIoeralingcondilionsUsuaIIylhisislhefuIIIenglhoflherunvaybul
may include a paved stop way (if available) where the threshold is displaced.
2
6
0
8
TORA/TODA/ASDA/LDA
2
6
0
8
CLEARWAY
TORA/ASDA/LDA
TODA
2
6
0
8
STOPWAY
TORA/TODA/LDA
ASDA
2
6
0
8
LDA
TORA/TODA/ASDA
|igurcOcc|arc!!isianccs
350
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
CnnditinnnIthcMnvcmcntArcaandRc!atcdFaci!itics. Information on the condition
of the movement area and the operational status of related facilities must be provided to the
aroriale aeronaulicaI informalion service unils and simiIar informalion of oeralionaI
signicance lo lhe air lrac service unils lo enabIe lhose unils lo rovide lhe necessary
information to arriving and departing aircraft. The information must be kept up to date and
changes in conditions reported without delay. The condition of the movement area and the
oeralionaIslalusofreIaledfaciIiliesarelobemoniloredandreorlsonmaersofoeralionaI
signicanceoraeclingaircraflerformancegivenarlicuIarIyinresecloflhefoIIoving
Conslruclionormainlenancevork
Roughorbrokensurfacesonarunvayalaxivayoranaron
SnovsIushoriceonarunvayalaxivayoranaron
Waleronarunvayalaxivayoranaron
Snovbanksordriflsad|acenlloarunvayalaxivayoranaron
AnliicingordeicingIiquidchemicaIsonarunvayoralaxivay
OlherlemoraryhazardsincIudingarkedaircrafl
IaiIureorirreguIaroeralionofarloraIIoflheaerodromevisuaIaidsand
Failure of the normal or secondary power supply.
RUNWAY5
Gcncra! Runvays are lhe arls of lhe manoeuvering area used for lakeo and
IandingofaircraflIxcelinremoleareasrunvaysviIIaIvaysberearedandusuaIIyaved
(concrete and tarmac). A runway should be straight and not have excessive slopes. It is usual
to be able to use the concrete strip in either direction hence one concrete strip will provide two
runvaysIlaIIcasesrunvayrequiremarkingsainledonlhesurfacevhichviIIgivelheiIol
indications about the use of the runway and also assist the pilot to land the aircraft. It is true
losaylhalnolvorunvaysareidenlicaIandarloflheIearningcurveforaiIolnevloan
airline is to become familiar with the aerodromes and the runways used during the operation.
AlaconlroIIedaerodromelherunvaybeIongslolheaerodromeconlroIIerTheiIolviIIbe
givenermissionloenlerbacklrackcrosslakeofromandIandonaseciedrunvayThe
ATCO will always specify the runway and the pilot always reads back the runway designator in
RTIcommunicalionsIorinslanceATCOGAGcIearlakeorunvayiIolCIearlake
orunvayGAInissuinglhisinslruclionlheATCOisIendinglheiIollherunvayand
after use it is returned to the ATCO.
Usabi!ityManyfaclorsaecllheorienlalionosilionandnumberofrunvaysalan
aerodromeOneimorlanlconsideralionislheusabiIilyfaclorvilhregardlolhevindvhich
couId be aecled by lhe aIignmenl of lhe runvay The number and orienlalion of runvays
should be such that the usability factor of the aerodrome is not less than 95% for the aeroplanes
lhallheaerodromeisinlendedloserveIlisnormaIraclicelolakeoandIandinlovind
TypcsnIRunwayRunvaysaredenedbylheuselovhichlherunvayisulralher
lhanbyhysicaIcharaclerislicsAnaireIdadenedareaofgrassonvhichrunvaysmaybe
markedoulorlhedireclionofIandingisindicaledmayhaveseveraIornodenedrunvays
vhereasanairorlaoinlofenlryorexilfromacounlrybyairmayhaveseveraIdened
paved runways. The types of operations carried out on or to a runway determine the runway
lyeTheservicerovidedmarkingssignsandhysicaIcharaclerislicsofarunvayarelye
dependant.
Visua!RunwayAnoninslrumenlvisuaIrunvayisusedvherelakeoandIanding
crileriaaredelerminedvisuaIIyThecrileriaareusuaIIydenedbyreferencelogroundvisibiIily
orRVRcIoudceiIinganddaynighlconsideralionsThemarkingsoflherunvayviIIcIearIy
indicate this fact.
351
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
InstrumcntRunway. An instrument runway is one to which instrument departure and
aroach rocedures are aIied Ior dearling lrac lhe inslrumenl dearlure rocedure
viIIbedenedinlheformofaSIDIorarrivinglracinslrumenlrunvaysaresubdivided
into:
IrecisionrunvaysusingILSGLSMLSorIARaroaches
NonrecisionusingVORNDSRAorILSinazimulhonIyaroaches
TakcORunwayAlakeorunvayisarunvaylhalcanbeusedonIyforlakeosThis
is usually due to terrain preventing an instrument approach or precluding a missed approach.
AlakeorunvayisusuaIIyonIyinonedireclionlherecirocaInolbeingused
LncatinnnIRunwayThrcshn!d. The threshold of a runway should normally be located
at the extremity of a runway unless operational considerations justify the choice of another
IocalionIflhelhreshoIdisdisIacedfromlhebeginningoflheavedslrilheIocalionoflhe
threshold is shown by a transverse white stripe across the runway surface and arrows leading
to the position of the threshold. Reasons for displacing a threshold may include unserviceable
runvaycondilionsRISAradioaIlimeleroeralingareagIidealhangIeobslacIecIearance
etc...
Lcngth nI Runways. The actual length of a runway should be adequate to meet the
operational requirements of the aeroplanes for which the runway is intended and should be not
Iess lhan lhe Iongesl Ienglh caIcuIaled lo correcl for IocaI condilions eIevalion lemeralure
runvaysIoehumidilyandsurfacecharaclerislicsThereisnorequiremenllocalerforlhe
vorsl case aeroIane al crilicaI mass Where a secondary runvay is conslrucled lhe Ienglh
criteria are applied in order to obtain a usability factor of 95%. Runway length is reported in
melreshoveverxeddislancemarkersdislancelogosignsaIonglheedgeofrunvaysare
insofflbularedenedinlermsofmslarlingmfromlhelhreshoIdIoraconcrele
slriloaccommodaleinslrumenlaroachesfromeilherendilmuslbealIeaslmbelveen
thresholds.
WidthnIRunwaysCIearIylhevidlhofarunvayshouIdnolbeIesslhanlhalrequired
for the aeroplanes using the aerodrome. During the construction of an aerodrome this can be
easily achieved but with the introduction of big aeroplanes (i.e. the A380) previously acceptable
runways may be rendered inadequate. The primary factors in deciding the width of a runway
arevingsanandoulermaingearvheeIsanThelabIebeIovsecieslhevidlhofrunvays
in terms of the aerodrome reference code:
Width of Runways
Code
number
CodeIeer
A B C D E F
1(a) 18m 18m 23m - - -
2(a) 23m 23m 30m - - -
3 30m 30m 30m 45m - -
4 - - 45m 45m 45m 60m
NoleaIorarecisionrunvayvmvherecodeisand
|igurcWi!incjrunuaqs
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Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
Runway 5trips A runvay slri is dened as an area incIuding lhe runvay and
slovay if rovidedin vhichobslacIesarekelloaminimumAnylhalare lhere muslbe
conslrucled so as lo resenl lhe minimum danger lo aircrafl in olher vords lhey musl be
frangible (collapse upon impact). The purpose of the runway strip is to reduce the risk of
damageloaircraflrunningoarunvayandloroleclaircraflyingoverilduringlakeoor
landing operations.
Lcngth nI Runway 5trips A runway strip should extend before the threshold and
beyond the end of the runway or stop way for a distance of at least:
mvherelhecodenumberisor
mforacodeinslrumenlrunvayand
30m for a code 1 non-instrument runway.
WidthnIRunway5tripsArunvayslrivhereverraclicabIeisloexlendIaleraIIy
oneachsideoflhecenlreIineoflherunvayandilsexlendedcenlreIinelhroughoullheIenglh
oflherunvayslriloadislancedenedinlhelabIebeIov
WidthnIRunway5trip
TypcnIRunway
Runwaycndcnumbcr
2
Prccisinn 75m 75m 150m 150m
Nnnprccisinn 75m 75m 150m 150m
Nnninstrumcnt 30m 40m 75m 75m

GradingnIRunway5trips. That portion of a strip of an instrument runway within a
dislanceofalIeaslmvherelhecodenumberisalorandmvherelhecodenumberis
orfromlhecenlreIineoflherunvayandilsexlendedcenlreIineshouIdrovideagraded
area for aeroplanes which the runway is intended to serve in the event of an aeroplane running
olherunvayThesurfaceoflhalorlionofaslrilhalabulsarunvayshouIderorslovay
muslbeushvilhlhesurfaceoflherunvayshouIderorslovay
Ob|ccts nn a Runway 5trip No xed ob|ecls olher lhan visuaI aids IAIIs are
ermied on a runvay slri vilhin m of lhe cenlre Iine for code I recision CAT III
IIIrunvaysmcodeorrecisionCATIIIIIIrunvaysormcodeorCATINo
mobiIeob|eclsareermiedonlhisarlofarunvayslriduringIandingorlakeoAnob|ecl
vhichissilualedvilhinlheslaleddimensionsisloberegardedasanobslacIeandasfarasis
raclicabIeremoved
|igurcWi!incjrunuaqsirips
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Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
Runway End 5aIcty Arca RE5A This is an area of land usually at each end of a
runway strip either side of the extended centreline which doesnt form part of the runway
for oeralionaI erformance or Ianning uroses vhich is free from obslruclions and sel
asideincaseanaeroIaneovershoolsoverrunslheendoflherunvayIlisrimariIyinlended
to reduce the risk of damage to the aeroplane. RESAs should be provided for all code 3 and 4
runways and for code 1 and 2 instrument runways. The RESA should be at least twice the width
of the runway and extend from the end of the runway strip for a distance not less than 90m.
Hoveverforacodeorrunvayilisrecommendedloexlendformandformfor
code 1 and 2.

2
6
0
8
45/60m
150m
Clear
way
Clear way: 75m either
side of rwy cl
than 0.5 TORA
Stop
way
Runway Strip Code 4
Width = 150m; Length = 60m beyond rwy or stopway
RESA: Symmetrical about rwy
Width => 2 x rwy width
Length => 90m (code 4 = 240m)
RESA
Rad Alt Op Area: 300m
from threshold. Width
60m
Stop
way
60m
60m
cl.
No longer
ClearwaysThisisadenedreclanguIarareaonlhegroundunderlheconlroIoflhe
aroriale aulhorily seIecled or reared as a suilabIe area over vhich an aeroIane may
makeaorlionofilsiniliaIcIimbloaseciedheighlTheoriginofacIearvayshouIdbeallhe
endoflhelakeorunavaiIabIeTORATheIenglhshouIdnolexceedhaIflheIenglhofTORA
and the width should extend laterally to a distance of at least 75m on each side of the extended
centre line of the runway.
5tnpwaysAslovayisadenedreclanguIarareaonlhegroundallheendoflakeo
runavaiIabIeTORArearedasasuilabIeareainvhichanaircraflcanbesloedinlhecase
ofanabandonedre|ecledlakeoIlislohavelhesamevidlhaslherunvayvilhvhichilis
associated.
|igurc|unuaqsiripCc!c
354
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
Radin A!timctcr Opcrating Arca. The radio altimeter operating area should be
eslabIishedinlherelhreshoIdareaofarecisionaroachrunvayIorCATIIIIIoeralions
the use of rad alt is mandatory to determine DH. For CATII the minimum DH is 100ft (system
minimaandforaflnmgIidealhlhisoinlvouIdbealmnmfromlheaiming
oinlUsuaIIylheaimingoinlismdovnlherunvaybeyondlhelhreshoIdlhereforelhe
DHoinlvouIdbembeforelhelhreshoIdIorCATIIIlheDHisIesslhanflsoaradaIl
operating area for CATII would be suitable for CATIII also. The area should extend before the
lhreshoIdforadislanceofalIeaslmTheareashouIdexlendIaleraIIyoneachsideoflhe
exlendedcenlreIineoflherunvayloadislanceofmexcellhalvhenseciaIcircumslances
sovarranllhedislancemaybereducedlonoIesslhanmifanaeronaulicaIsludyindicales
lhalsuchreduclionvouIdnolaecllhesafelyofoeralionsofaircraflThesurfaceoflherad
alt operating area should be level with no undulations of more than 7%.
TAXIWAY5
Intrnductinn. A major limitation to the use of an aerodrome is the capability of the
laxivays lo accommodale dierenl sizes of aeroIanes CIearIy a narrov laxivay cannol
coevilhaIargeaeroIaneHovevervidlhisnollheonIyconsideralionTheslrenglhofa
taxiway needs to be equal to that of the runway and the surface of taxiways is more vulnerable
lodamagelhanarunvayconslanlIoadingandunIoadinglurningandsloingTaxivays
mayincIudelurnseseciaIIycIoselorunvaysTaxivaysmaycross|oininlerseclandrequire
signs and markings lo enabIe iIols lo reach lheir deslinalion on lhe aerodrome Taxivays
eseciaIIy araIIeI lo runvays musl nol be confused vilh runvays Al some aerodromes
GalvickforexamIelhearaIIeIlaxivayisaIsolhesecondaryrunvayConsideralionshave
to be given to the points on taxiways where aeroplanes are held prior to entering the runway
for lakeo and aIso orlions of laxivays cIose lo lhe runvay vhere lhe resence of a Iarge
aeroplane (a large lump of electromagnetically friendly metal) may interfere with ILS or MLS
lransmissionsormorefundamenlaIIyisanobslacIelooeralionsInbasiclermsaccordinglo
AnnexlaxivaysshouIdberovidedloermillhesafeandexedilioussurfacemovemenl
of aircraft.
Gcncra!!aynutSucienlenlranceandexillaxivaysforarunvayareloberovided
to expedite to movement of aeroplanes to and from the runway including the provision of rapid
exillaxivaysfasllurnoIanesvherelracvoIumesarehighWherelheendofarunvay
isnolservedbyalaxivayilmaybenecessarylorovideaddilionaIavemenlallheendof
the runway for turning aeroplanes. Such areas may be usefully situated along the runway to
reduce taxi times.
TaxiingnIAcrnp!ancs. Taxiways are required to have a painted centreline which may
be lit if the aerodrome is to be used at night. When taxiing an aeroplane it is vitally important
that the nose wheel of the aeroplane is kept on the centreline especially during turns. Pilots
usually gain this skill by experience but special procedures may be used in extreme cases i.e.
Concorde where the nose wheel was so far aft of the nose of the aeroplane that pilots used
marksonlhevindscreensloxlhelaxivayedgelhuskeeinglhenosevheeIinosilionon
the centre line.
355
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
Rapid Exit Taxiways Raid exil laxivays commonIy caIIed fasl lurn o Ianes are
rovidedvherelracdensilyishighTheyareusedloaIIovaeroIaneslolurnooflheduly
runvayalaseedhigherlhanvouIdbeermiedalarighlangIelurnonloanormaIlaxivay
TheyareIocaledaIongrunvaysandaredesignedandconslrucledlocalerforlurnoseedsof
kmhklsforcodeorrunvaysandkmhklsoncodeandrunvaysinvel
condilions Oeralors viII secify lhe maximum seed for dry runvaylaxivay oeralions
ThelaxivayisloincIudeaslraighlseclionaflerlhelurnocurveloaIIovanexilingaircrafl
to come to a full stop clear of the intersecting taxiway. The intersecting angle with the runway
shouIdnolbegrealerlhannolIesslhanandreferabIy
MinimumRcquircmcntsAsreviousIymenlionedvidlhislhemoslimorlanlfaclor
inlaxivaydesignandconslruclionThelabIebeIovsecieslheminimumrequiremenlsfor
clearance of the outermost main wheels when the nose wheel is on the centre line of the taxiway.
The shoulders of taxiways which are used by turbine aeroplanes are to be prepared to prevent
erosionby|elbIaslandlheingeslionofsurfacemaleriaIinlolhe|elenginesTaxivayslris
simiIarlorunvayslrisarerovidedrimariIylodeIinealelhearealobecIearedofob|ecls
vhichmaybeobslacIesInlhelabIevheeIbasereferslolhedislancefromlhefronloflhenose
wheel to the trailing edge of the main gear. Wheel to edge clearance refers to the distance from
lheouleredgeoflhemaingearlyreslolhedenededgeoflhelaxivay
Whcc!tnTaxiwayEdgcC!carancc
CndcLccr Clearance
A 1.5m
B 2.25m
C
3m if the taxiway is intended to be used by
aeroIanes vilh vheeI base Iess lhan m
otherwise 4.5m
D 4.5m
E 4.5m
F 4.5m

|igurcWncc|icc!gcc|carancc
356
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
WidthnItaxiways The straight portion of a taxiway should have a width of not less
lhanlhalseciedinlhelabIebeIov
TaxiwayWidth
CndcLccr
A 7.5m
B 10.5m
C
15 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by
aeroIanes vilh a vheeI base Iess lhan m
otherwise 18 m
D
18 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by
aeroplanes with an outer main gear span of
Iesslhanmolhervisem
E 23m
F 25m
Taxiways
WheeI to taxiway edge
cIearance = Code
D/E/F 4.5m
Code D = 18m if a/c has
outer main gear span
Iess than 9m otherwise
D/E/F = 23m
Rapid exit taxiways/fast turn off Ianes: may be used at max speed determined
by operator (not more than 50kts in wet conditions - code 3 or 4)
Code C = 15m if a/c has a
wheeI base Iess than
18m otherwise width =
18m
|igurcWi!incjiaxiuaqs
|igurcTaxiuaqs
357
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
Taxiway curvcs. Changes in direction of taxiways should be as few and small as
possible. The radii of the curves should be compatible with the manoeuvring capability and
normal taxiing speeds of the aeroplanes for which the taxiway is intended. An example of
videninglaxivaysloachievelhevheeIcIearanceseciedisiIIuslraledbeIov
Nose wheeI
foIIowing centre
Iine
Path foIIowed by
starboard main
gear
Required wheeI to
edge cIearance
Taxiway curve
widening area

Hn!ding bays and RunwayHn!ding Pnsitinns InevilabIy al a busy aerodrome


aeroIanesviIIberequiredlovaillheirlurnforlakeoIliscommonloseeaslreamoflrac
vailingaIonglhelaxivayforlakeobulalaninlernalionaIairorllhequeuesforlakeocan
exceed the capability of the taxiway to accommodate all the aircraft waiting. In this situation
orvhereenvironmenlaIconsideralionsexislhoIdingbaysarerovidedad|acenllorunvays
entrances which leave the taxiways clear. At some major aerodromes with particularly high
lracIeveIsorinlenseeaksinlracdensilysinbinsareeslabIishedlolakeaeroIanesoul
of lhe slream if somelhing has gone vrong RegardIess of lhe osilion of hoIding bays lhe
enlrancelolherunvayviIIberolecledbyadenedmandaloryhoIdingoinlselbackfrom
lhe edge of lhe runvay lo accommodale aII lhe lrac using lhe runvay A runvayhoIding
position must be established on a taxiway if the location or alignment of the taxiway is such
that a taxiing aircraft or vehicle can infringe an obstacle limitation surface or interfere with the
operation of radio navigation aids (ILS or MLS). The method of indicating a runway-holding
osilioniscoveredIalerinlhenolesunderSignsandMarkingsArunvayhoIdingosilion
orosilionsmusleslabIishedallhedislancesinlhelabIeonagealaninlerseclionofa
laxivayvilharunvayandaninlerseclionofarunvayvilhanolherrunvayvhenlheformer
runway is part of a standard taxi-route.
|igurcTaxiuaqcurtcs
358
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
Heathrow Runway 27R hoIding detaiIs
RunwayHn!dingPnintPnsitinns
DistanccIrnmCcntrcLincnIRunway
TypcnIRunway
Runwaycndcnumbcr
2
Takcn 30m 40m 75m 75m
NnninstrumcntVisua! 30m 40m 75m 75m
NnnprccisinnInstrumcnt 40m 40m 75m 75m
PrccisinnCATI 60m(b) 60m(b) mab mabc
PrccisinnCATIIIII mab mabc
Notes:
a. May be increased if holding elevation lower than runway
b. May be increased to avoid interference with radio navigation aids
c. For code F this should be 107.5 m
|igurcHc|!ingpcinis
|igurcMininun!isianccsjrcnrunuaqccnirc|incscjnc|!ingpcsiiicns
359
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics

Rnad hn!ding pnsitinn. This is a designated position at which vehicles may be
required to stop and wait where the taxiway is also used as a road for aerodrome vehicular
lracNormaIIyaroadhoIdingoinlviIIhavelracIighlsAroadhoIdingosilionmuslbe
established at an intersection of a road with a runway. The distances in the table on page 383
apply to road holding points.
APRON5
Rcquircmcnt. Aprons are provided where necessary to permit the embarking and
disembarkingofassengersandlheIoadingandoIoadingofcargoandmaiIasveIIaslhe
servicingofaircraflvilhoulinlerferencevilhaerodromelracThelolaIaronareashouId
be adequale lo ermil lhe exedilious handIing of lhe aerodrome lrac al ils maximum
anlicialeddensilyAronsarelobebuiIlloaccommodalesIovmovinglracandinanycase
to withstand higher stresses than runways. Aircraft parking areas on aprons (stands) are to be
marked and are required to provide a minimum distance between parked aircraft. For code A
lhedislanceismandforcodeDandabovem
Isn!atcd AircraIt Parking Pnsitinn. An isolated aircraft parking position is to be
designaled or lhe conlroI lover advised of an areas or areas suilabIe for lhe arking of an
aircraflvhichisknovnorbeIievedlobelhesub|eclofunIavfuIinlerferenceorvhichforolher
reasonsneedsisoIalionfromnormaIaerodromelracThisseciaIareaisnollobeIesslhan
mfromanyolherarkingareabuiIdingorubIicareaoroverundergrounduliIiliesgas
avialionfueIeIeclricaIorcommunicalionscabIes
|igurcA|incupaiMancncsicrjcrruqI
Stewart Andrew
360
Chapter 19
Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
QUE5TION5
AerodromereferencecoderefersloeIdIenglhof
a. 900 m.
b. 1000 m.
c. 1600 m.
d. 1800 m or more.
2. The signal area should be located so that it is visible from the air. A lack of a signal area denotes
that:
a nonradiolracviIInolbeacceledallheaerodromeolherlhanemergencylrac
b nonradiolracviIIbeacceled
c nonradiolracviIIbeacceledindayIighlhoursonIy
d nonradiolracviIInolbeacceledindayIighlhoursonIy
TheAerodromeReferenceCodeconsislsofCodeIIemenlaeroIanereferenceeIdIenglh
andCodeIIemenlWhalisdoesCodeIIemenldene
a. Wing span and inner main gear wheel span.
b. Fuselage width and inner main gear wheel span.
c. Fuselage width and outer main gear wheel span.
d. Wing span and outer main gear wheel span.
4. A radio altimeter operating area must extend before the threshold of a precision approach
runway for a distance of at least:
a. 100 metres.
b. 200 metres.
c. 300 metres.
d. 500 metres.
5. Which of the following is a valid aerodrome reference code?
a. 6B.
b. 4G.
c. 7G.
d. 2B.
6. What is a stopway for?
a. Stopping after landing distance.
b. Extending the Landing Distance Available.
c Sloingaflerare|ecledlakeo
d. A runway extension for big aircraft.
7. A transverse white stripe on a runway is associated with a:
a. closed runway.
b. a runway which is 2400 meters or longer.
c. displaced threshold.
d. a runway available for circling to land approaches.
361
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
WhichcodeIeeridenliesalaxivaylhalhaslobeusedbyanaircraflvilhavheeIbaseof
15 metres?
a CodeIeerI
b CodeIeerC
c CodeIeer
d CodeIeerD
AccordinglolheAerodromeReferenceCodelhecodeIeerIreIalesloanaircraflvingsan
of:
a. 15m or more but less than 24m.
b. 36m or more but less than 52m.
c. 52m or more but less than 65m.
d. 24m or more but less than 36m.
TheslovayisadenedreclanguIarareaonlhegroundallheendoflhelakeorunavaiIabIe
which is prepared as a suitable area:
a losloanaircraflaflerare|ecledlakeo
b. to stop a landing aircraft in case of an emergency.
c. to stop a starting or landing aircraft.
d. to stop a landing aircraft if it overshoots the runway.
An area dened aboul lhe exlended runvay centreline and ad|acenl lo lhe end of lhe slri
primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage to an aircraft undershooting or overrunning
lherunvayisdenedasa
a. clearway.
b. runway strip extension.
c. runway end safety area.
d. altimeter operating area extension.
Whal is lhe vidlh of a code Ieer D laxivay used by aircrafl vilh an ouler main gear vheeI
span of less than 9m?
a. 10.5m.
b. 15m.
c. 18m.
d. 23m.
13. What is the minimum width of a code 4 runway?
a. 18m.
b. 23m.
c. 30m.
d. 45m.
WhenaxeddislancemarkinghasloberovidedlhismarkingshaIIcommenceal
a. 150m from the threshold.
b. 300m from the threshold.
c. 150m from the aiming point.
d. 300m from the aiming point.
362
Chapter 19
Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
15. TODA consists of:
a. TORA but excluding the clearway.
b. TORA and includes the clearway.
c. TORA but excluding the stopway.
d. TORA only.
363
Chapter 19 Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
364
Chapter 19
Aerodromes - Physical Characteristics
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. D 19.10
2. A
3. D 19.11
4. C 19.44
5. D 19.10
6. C 19.43
7. C 19.33
8. B 19.50
9. C 19.10
10. A 19.43
11. C 19.41
12. C 19.50
13. D 19.35
14. B 19.34
15. B 19.23
363
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
CHAPTERTWENTY
AERODROME5VI5UALAID5MARKING5AND5IGN5
Contents
RIQUIRIMINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
VISUALAIDSIORNAVIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
RUNWAYMARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
TAXIWAYMARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
MARKERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
VISUALDOCKINGGUIDANCISYSTIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
364
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
365
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
REQUIREMENT5
Backgrnund. The complex nature of aerodromes coupled with the fact than no two
aerodromeshavelhesameIayouloeralionsandgeograhicosilionmakesslandardisalion
in the provision of visual information to pilots taxiing aircraft and preparing for landing or take-
oessenliaIAnnexsecieslheaIicabIeSARISandlheIearningob|eclivesaresecic
in requiring the student to have more than just a theoretical understanding of the subject. The
discussionisbrokendovninlolhreeseclionsdeaIingvilhvisuaIaidsfornavigalionaerodrome
markingsandaerodromesignageIlmuslbeborninmindlhalvhiIsllheSARISareadoled
byaIIconlraclingslaleslheremaybedierencesandlheremaysomesignsforinslanceseen
at foreign aerodromes that are not seen on a UK aerodrome and vice versa.
VI5UALAID5FORNAVIGATION
Indicatnrs and 5igna!!ing Dcviccs. Aerodromes are required to be equipped with a
meansofindicalinglhevinddireclionloiIolsofnonradioaircraflRememberlheRuIesof
lheAirrequireaiIolloIandandlakeoinlovindsolheremuslbeamelhodofindicalion
In order for a nonradio iIol lo knov vhal lhe Ianding direclion is a Ianding indicalor is
required. Also a means of communicating visual signal to non-radio aircraft is required to be
positioned in the visual control room.
WindDircctinnIndicatnrs. An aerodrome must be equipped with at least one wind
direction indicator (commonly called a wind sock). The wind direction indicator should be
in the form of a truncated cone made of fabric and should have a length of not less than 3.6m
andadiamelerallheIargerendofnolIesslhanmIlshouIdbeconslrucledsolhalilgives
a clear indication of the direction of the surface wind and a general indication of the wind
speed. The colour or colours should be so selected as to make the wind direction indicator
cIearIyvisibIeandunderslandabIefromaheighlofalIeaslmhavingregardlobackground
WhereraclicabIeasingIecoIourreferabIyvhileororangeshouIdbeusedTheIocalionof
at least one wind direction indicator (the master wind sock) should be marked by a circular
white band 15m in diameter and 1.2m wide. Provisions should be made for illuminating at
least one wind indicator at an aerodrome intended for use at night.
Landing Dircctinn Indicatnr When rovided a Ianding direclion indicalor shaII be
IocaledinaconsicuousIaceonlheaerodromeIfasignaIsquareisrovidedaIandingT
will always be included in the signs in the square. The landing direction indicator should be
inlheformofaTThecoIouroflheTshouIdbeeilhervhileororangelhechoicebeing
dependent on the colour that contrasts best with the background against which the indicator
viIIbevievedWhererequiredforusealnighllheIandingTislobeeilheriIIuminaledor
outlined by white lights.
5igna!!ingLamp. A signalling lamp must be provided at a controlled aerodrome in the
aerodrome control tower for the purpose of showing the light signals to aircraft either in the air
oronlhegroundasdenedinchalerTheIamusuaIIyanAIdisIamseciaIIydesigned
for signaIIing musl be caabIe of roducing red green and vhile Iighl and of being aimed
manuaIIy al any largel as required giving a signaI in any one coIour foIIoved by a signaI in
eilheroflheolherlvocoIoursandbeingoeraledlolransmilamessageinanyoneoflhelhree
colours by Morse code up to a speed of at least four words per minute. The VCR should also be
equiedvilhlhemeansofringyrolechnicsignaIsagainasrequiredinchaler
366
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
5igna! Panc!s and 5igna!Arca. The provision of a signals area (signals square) at
an aerodrome imIies lhal nonradio lrac is acceled A signaIs area is nol required if an
aerodrome aulhorily has roscribed rouline nonradio lrac lhe aerodrome vouId sliII be
requiredlorovideaserviceloanaircraflsueringacommunicalionsfaiIurelhalhasindicaled
the intention to land). The signals area should be located so as to be visible for all angles of
azimuth above an angle of 10 above the horizontal when viewed from a height of 300m. The
signal area shall be an even horizontal surface of at least 9m square. The colour of the signal
areashouIdbechosenloconlraslvilhlhecoIoursoflhesignaIaneIsusedandilshouIdbe
surrounded by a white border not less than 0.3m wide. It is normal for the signals area to be
osilionedinfronlonlheaerodromesideoflheconlroIloverVCRThesignaIslhalmaybe
displayed in the signals area are covered in chapter 6.
RUNWAYMARKING5
Gcncra!Markingsarecharaclersnumbersandshaesainledonlheconcrelesurfaces
oflheaerodromeMarkingsarefoundonrunvayslaxivaysandaronsMarkingsmayeilher
give location or directional information or indicate a mandatory requirement i.e. to stop. The
coIourofamarkingisdeendenluonvhereilisusedandlhesizemuslbesucienlforil
lobereadorundersloodeasiIyfromlheighldeckofanaeroIaneTheICAOslandardisfor
runway markings to be white and taxiway markings to be yellow.
RunwayMarkingsRunvaymarkingsarevhileIlhasbeenfoundlhalonrunvay
surfacesofIighlcoIourlheconsicuilyofvhilemarkingscanbeimrovedbyoulIininglhem
inbIackLargeareasofainlcancrealeafriclionrobIemlhereforelhisshouIdbereducedas
farasraclicabIebylheuseofasuilabIekindofainlMarkingsmayconsislofnumbersand
IeerssoIidareasoraseriesofIongiludinaIslriesrovidinganeeclequivaIenllolhesoIid
areasGeneraIIyrunvaymarkingsassisllheiIolvilhIocalinglhelhreshoIdidenlifyinglhe
runvaydeninglhecenlreIineandIocalinglheaimingoinlAddilionaIIyforaninslrumenl
runvayasveIIaslheaimingoinlilviIIhavelouchdovnzonemarkings
367
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
This runway is 12 000 ft
(3637m) long and 300ft
(90m) wide
UK CAA aiming
point marking
RAF Brize Norton
January 2006

Runway Dcsignatinn Marking. A runway designation marking is to be provided at
lhelhreshoIdofavedrunvaysandasfarasisraclicabIeallhelhreshoIdofunavedgrass
runvaysIflherunvaylhreshoIdisdisIacedfromlheexlremilyoflherunvayasignshoving
lhedesignalionoflherunvaymayberovidedforaeroIaneslakingo
27L 27C 27R
V V V V
Pre-threshold area
usable for tae off or
as stopway.
Threshold
temporarily displaced
for 6 months or less
X
X
Pre-threshold area
un-usable for aircraft
movements
Pre-threshold area fit
for use as stopway
but not for normal
movement of aircraft
Note: If there are 4 parallel runways, the
numbers are changed i.e. 26L; 26R; 27L; 27R
|igurc|unuaqnarkingsai|A|BrizcNcricn
K Boxall
|igurc|unuaq!csignaiicnnarkings
368
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
Charactcristics A runway designation marking should consist of a two digit number
andonaraIIeIrunvaysshaIIbesuIemenledvilhaIeerOnasingIerunvayduaIaraIIeI
runways and triple parallel runways the two digit number shall be the whole number nearest
the magnetic bearing (QDMdividedbyroundeddovnlooflherunvay
vhen vieved from lhe direclion of aroach On four or more araIIeI runvays one sel of
ad|acenlrunvaysshaIIbenumberedlolheneareslonelenlhQDMandlheolherselofad|acenl
runvaysnumberedlolhenexlneareslonelenlhoflheQDMWhenlheaboveruIevouIdgive
asingIedigilnumberilshaIIberecededbyazeroInsomeslaleslheisomiediealNev
York }IK lhe soulh lo norlh runvays are R and L In lhe case of araIIeI runvays each
runvaydesignalionnumbershaIIbesuIemenledbyaIeerasfoIIovsinlheordershovn
from left to right when viewed from the direction of approach:
IorlvoaraIIeIrunvaysLR
IorlhreearaIIeIrunvaysLCR
IorfouraraIIeIrunvaysLRLRinlhiscaselheQDMfor
oneairviIIbeincreasedlodierenlialelhalairformlheolher
RunwayCcntrcLincMarking A runway centre line marking is required on a paved
runway. The centre line marking is painted along the centre line of the runway between the
runway designation markings.
Charactcristics A runway centre line marking consists of a line of uniformly spaced
stripes and gaps. The length of a stripe plus a gap shall be not less than 50m or more than 75m.
TheIenglhofeachslrieshaIIbealIeaslequaIlolheIenglhoflhegaormvhicheveris
greater.
Thrcshn!dMarking. The threshold of a runway is either the beginning of the marked
oulgrassareaorlheslarloflheconcreleslriAlhreshoIdmarkingisrequiredloberovided
al lhe lhreshoIds of aved inslrumenl runvays and of aved noninslrumenl code and
runways and the runway is intended for use by international commercial air transport. A
lhreshoIdmarkingshouIdberovidedasfarasisraclicabIeallhelhreshoIdofanunaved
runway.
LncatinnThe slries commonIy knovn as iano keys of lhe lhreshoId marking
should start 6m from the threshold.
Charactcristics A runvay lhreshoId marking is a aern of IongiludinaI slries of
uniform dimensions disposed symmetrically about the centre line of the runway. For a runway
width of 45m (for non-precision approach and non-instrument runways 45m or greater in
vidlhlheymaybeIacedeilhersideoflherunvaydesignalionnumberTheslriesshouId
extend laterally to within 3m of the edge of the runway or to a distance of 27m on either side
of a runvay cenlre Iine vhichever resuIls in lhe smaIIer IaleraI dislance Where a runvay
designation marking is placed within a threshold marking there will be a minimum of three
stripes on each side of the centre line of the runway. Where a runway designation marking is
placed above a threshold marking the stripes shall be continued across the runway. The stripes
shall be at least 30m long and approximately 1.80m between them except where the stripes
are conlinued across a runvay in vhich case a doubIe sacing shaII be used lo searale lhe
two stripes nearest the centre line of the runway. In the case where the designation marking is
included within the threshold marking this spacing shall be 22.5m. The number of stripes shall
be in accordance with the runway width as follows:
369
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
RunwayThrcshn!dMarkings
RunwayWidth NumbcrnI5tripcs
18m 4
23m 6
30m 8
45m 12
60m or more 16

16 bar threshold markings
Rwy 60m wide
Shanghai

Transverse stripe. Where a threshold is displaced from the extremity of a runway
lhe end of lhe concrele or vhere lhe end is nol al righl angIes lo lhe runvay cenlre Iine
a transverse stripe should be added to the threshold marking. When a runway threshold is
ermanenlIy disIaced arrovs shaII be rovided on lhe orlion of lhe runvay before lhe
displaced threshold. The reasons why a threshold may be displaced have been discussed in
chapter 19.
AimingPnintMarking. The aiming point marking indicates the position of the origin
oflhevisuaIgIidesIoeIAIIandlheILSGIlransmierAnaimingoinlmarkingislobe
rovidedaleacharoachendofcodeoravedinslrumenlrunvaysIlisrecommended
that an aiming point marking is provided on code 1 paved instrument runways and code 3 or 4
paved non- instrument runways when additional conspicuity of the aiming point is desirable.
AnICAOsecicalionaimingoinlmarkingconsislsoflvoconsicuousslriesvhereasaUK
CAA aiming point marking is more complex as can be seen on the photograph of RAF Brize
Norlonseearagrah
Lncatinn The aiming point marking shall commence no closer to the threshold than
lhe dislance indicaled in lhe aroriale coIumn of labIe excel lhal on a runvay
equiedvilhavisuaIaroachsIoeindicalorsyslemIAIIorVASIlhebeginningoflhe
marking shall be coincident with the visual approach slope origin. For a code 4 runway less
lhanmIonglheaimingoinlisosilionedmfromlhelhreshoIdIoranormaIgIide
alh flnm lhe aircrafl on gIide alh viII cross lhe lhreshoId al a heighl of fl igger
aircraft require longer LDA so for runways 2400m or more in length have the aiming point
400m from the threshold so the aircraft crosses the threshold at 67ft thus giving additional gear
to concrete clearance.
|igurc|unuaqinrcsnc|!narkings
QinWei
370
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
AimingPnintMarkingLncatinn
LandingDistanccAvai!ab!c
LDA
Threshold to Beginning of
Marking
Less than 800m 150m
800m up to but not including
1200m
250m
1200m up to but not including
2400m
300m
2400m or more 400m
TnuchdnwnZnncMarkings. Touchdown zone (TDZ) markings indicate the area of the
runway where the aeroplane should be landed. Landing Distance Available is an operational
consideralionforlheuseofarunvaybulilisnolcommonracliceloIandlheaeroIaneon
the threshold marking. The TDZ markings give the pilot an indication of extent of the useable
louchdovnareaandifdislancecodedlheIenglhoflhelouchdovnzoneremainingMarkings
are required for code and aved recision aroach runvays and recommended for
codeoravednonrecisionornoninslrumenlrunvaysvhereaddilionaIconsicuilyis
required.
Lncatinn. TDZ markings consist of pairs of rectangular markings symmetrically placed
about the runway centre line with the number of pairs related to the landing distance available.
For code 4 runways (1 800m or more in length) the TDZ markings have 6 pairs.
Charactcristics Touchdovn zone markings conform lo eilher of lhe lvo aerns
shovninbeIovIaernAislhebasicmarkingsyslemvhereasaernisdislancecoded
ThechoiceofaernsisnolrunvayIenglhdeendanlTheairsofmarkingshaveIongiludinaI
spacing of 150 m beginning from the threshold. If a pair of TDZ markings is coincident with
orIocaledvilhinmofanaimingoinlmarkinglheTDZmarkingallhalosilionisdeIeled
fromlheaern


|igurcIccaiicncjainingpcininarking
|igurcaPacrnA|asicp|ainnarkings |igurc|PacrnB!isiancccc!c!
Daniel Werner
371
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
Runway 5idc 5tripc Marking. Runway side stripe markings are to be provided
belveen lhe lhreshoIds of recision runvays and aved runvays vhere lhere is a Iack of
contrast between the runway edges and the shoulders or the surrounding terrain. It is
recommended that side stripes are marked on all precision runways regardless of the contrast
vilhlhesurroundinggroundTheiclureoflherunvayalGranCanariaonlhereviousage
shows the use of side stripes.
TAXIWAYMARKING5
Rcquircmcnts. Taxiway markings and aircraft stand markings are yellow. If there is a
needloenhanceconsicuilylheIinesmaybeoulIinedinbIack
LAX
TAXIWAY MARKINGS
Taxiway
markings
are
YELLOW

Aprnn 5aIcty Lincs AIlhough nol slriclIy laxivay markings in lhe aron areas lhe
safe movement of aircraft into and out of parking stands can be enhanced by the use of apron
safety lines. If all ground equipment and vehicles are parked or positioned behind the apron
safety lines a pilot or a marshaller can ignore the presence of those obstacles when parking
aircraft. Apron safety lines are to be of a conspicuous colour which shall contrast with that used
for aircraft stand markings.
|igurcTaxiuaqnarkings
Paul Spijkars
372
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
TaxiwayCcntrcLincMarking. Taxiway centre line marking are to be provided on a
avedlaxivaydeanliicingfaciIilyandlhearonareasvherelhecodenumberisorand
recommended for code 1 and 2). Centreline markings are to give guidance from the runway
cenlreIinelolheoinlonlhearonvhereaircraflslandmarkingscommenceTaxivaycenlre
line marking are also provided on a paved runway when the runway is part of a standard taxi-
rouleandlhereisnorunvaycenlreIinemarkingorvherelhelaxivaycenlreIineisnolco
incident with the runway centre line.
RunwayHn!dingPnsitinnMarking. Holding points are established at the entrance
to all runways. It is not uncommon for there to be more than one holding point at the entrance
to a runway. A runway-holding position marking is to be displayed at a runway-holding point.
The actual holding position is indicated by the mandatory sign (see signs later in this chapter)
vhichviIIbedisIayedonalIeasllheIeflhandsideoflhelaxivayaslheaeroIanearoaches
the runway. Ideally the sign should be on both sides of the taxiway. The marking is to extend
all the way across the taxiway. The position may be augmented by stop bars or runway guard
IighlsseearagrahThedislancebelveenarunvayhoIdingosilionandlhecenlreIine
oflheassocialedrunvayisseciedinlheiclureaflerareagrahandinlhecaseofa
recisionaroachrunvayviIIbesuchlhalahoIdingaircraflorvehicIeviIInolinlerfere
vilhlheoeralionofradionavigalionaidssecicaIIyILSArunvayhoIdingoinlmayaIso
be established where the approach to a runway passes over a taxiway to another runway. In this
caselheassocialedsignviIIsecifyvhallhehoIdingoinlisfor
|igurcTaxiuaqccnirc|incnarking
373
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
PacrnsThere are lvo dislincl aerns for runvayhoIding markings These are
denedasIaernAandIaern
PacrnAThecIoseslhoIdingoinlloarunvayviIIaIvaysbemarkedvilhaIaern
AmarkingandilviIIosilionedalaninlerseclionofalaxivayandanoninslrumenlvisuaI
runvayanonrecisionaroachrunvayoralakeorunvayWhereasingIelaxihoIding
position is provided at an intersection of a taxiway and a precision approach category I II or III
runvaylhelaxihoIdingosilionmarkingshaIIbeIaernAIoracoderunvaylheIaern
A holding point will be no closer than 75m to the centreline of the runway.
Pattern A
holding
point
27 27
Visual holding
point for runway
27
Pattern A is always the
holding point closest to the
runway
Pacrn B. Where two or three taxi-holding positions are provided at such an
inlerseclionlhelaxihoIdingosilionmarkingcIosercIosesllolherunvayshaIIbeasshovn
inaernAandlhemarkingsfurlherfromlherunvayshaIIbeaernAnyolherhoIding
oinlassocialedvilharunvayrequiredonalaxivayviIIaIsobeIaern
Pattern A
holding
point
27
Visual holding
point for runway
27 at position A1
27 A1 A1
Pattern B
holding
point
27 CAT I/II/III A2
Instrument holding
point for runway 27 at
position A2
|igurc|unuaqnc|!ingnarkingspacrnA
|igurc|unuaqnc|!ingnarkingspacrnB
374
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
IntcrmcdiatcHn!dingPnsitinnMarkingWherelvoormorelaxivayscrosshoIding
points are established at suitable distances from the crossing taxiway. It may be that one taxiway
has priority and the holding point marking may be augmented by a mandatory marking. It
shouIdbecoincidenlvilhaslobarorcIearancebarvhererovidedAlaxivayinlerseclion
marking consists of a single broken yellow line.
Intermediate taxi
holding point. Crossing
Taxiway has priority
Information
markings (Yellow
on black)
AircraIt5tandMarkings. Aircraft stand markings should be provided for designated
arkingosilionsonaavedaronandondeanliicingfaciIiliesTheyshouIdincIudesuch
eIemenls as sland idenlicalion Iead in Iine lurn bar lurning Iine aIignmenl bar slo Iine
andIeadoulIineasarerequiredbylhearkingconguralionandlocomIemenlolher
arkingaidsTheslandidenlicalionIeerandornumbershouIdbeincIudedashorldislance
aflerlhebeginningoflheIeadinIineTheheighloflheidenlicalionshouIdbeadequalelobe
readabIefromlhecockilofaircraflusinglheslandLeadinlurningandIeadoulIinesshouId
normally be continuous in length. Where one or more sets of stand markings are superimposed
on a sland lhe Iines shouId be conlinuous for lhe mosl demanding aircrafl and broken for
olher aircrafl The curved orlions of Ieadin lurning and Ieadoul Iines shouId have radii
appropriate to the most demanding aircraft type for which the markings are intended. Where
il is inlended lhal aircrafl roceed in one direclion onIy arrovs oinling in lhe direclion lo
be followed should be added as part of the lead-in and lead-out lines. A turn bar should be
IocaledalrighlangIeslolheIeadinIineabeamlheIefliIolosilionallheoinlofinilialion
of any intended turn. The distances to be maintained between the turn bar and the lead-in line
may vary according lo dierenl aircrafl lyes laking inlo accounl lhe iIols eId of viev
An alignment bar should be placed so as to be coincident with the extended centre line of the
aircrafl in lhe secied marking osilion and visibIe lo lhe iIol during lhe naI arl of lhe
arkingmanoeuvreAsloIineshouIdbeIocaledalrighlangIeslolheaIignmenlbarabeam
the left pilot position at the intended point of stop.
|igurc|nicrnc!iaicnc|!ingpcsiiicnnarking
375
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
Stand markings - Zurich

Rnadhn!dingpnsitinnmarking. Road holding position markings are to be provided
at all road entrances to a runway. The markings are to be located across the road at the holding
osilionandviIIbemarkedinaccordancevilhlheIocaIroadlracreguIalions
Mandatnry InInrmatinn Marking. Where it is impracticable to install a mandatory
signseeChaleramandaloryinslruclionmarkingislobemarkedonlhesurfaceoflhe
taxiway pavement. Mandatory markings are holding point signs (runway designator in white
on a red background) and no entry signs. Pilots are not to pass any mandatory marking unless
secicaIIycIearedbyATC
InInrmatinnMarking. Where an information sign would normally be installed but it
ishysicaIIyimraclicabIelheinformalionislobedisIayedonlhesurfaceoflheavemenl
Where operationally required information sign should be supplemented by information
marking. The information markings should be displayed across the surface of the taxiway or
apron where necessary and positioned so as to be legible from the cockpit of an approaching
aircrafl Informalion marking shaII consisl of an inscrilion in yeIIov vhen il reIaces or
suIemenls a Iocalion sign and an inscrilion in bIack vhen il reIaces or suIemenls a
direclion or deslinalion sign Where lhere is insucienl conlrasl belveen lhe marking and
lhe avemenl surface lhe marking shaII incIude a bIack background vhere lhe inscrilions
areinyeIIovandayeIIovbackgroundvherelheinscrilionsareinbIackMarkingsviIIbe
combinations of characters and symbols. Markings containing numbers only are only used for
runways and runway designators.
|igurcAircrajisian!narkings
K Boxall
376
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
5IGN5
Gcncra! 5pccicatinn. Signs are provided on aerodromes to convey a mandatory
inslruclioninformaliononasecicIocalionordeslinaliononamovemenlareaorlorovide
other information as required.
Charactcristics. Signs shall be frangible. Those located near a runway or taxiway
shaIIbesucienlIyIovloreservecIearanceforroeIIersandlheengineodsof|elaircrafl
Signs shaII be reclanguIar vilh lhe Ionger side horizonlaI The onIy signs on lhe movemenl
area utilizing red shall be mandatory instruction signs. Signs showing number only refer to
runvaysSignsshaIIbereecliveandoriIIuminaledvheninlendedforusealnighlSignsshaII
be illuminated when intended for use:
InrunvayvisuaIrangecondilionsIesslhanavaIueofmor
Alnighlinassocialionvilhinslrumenlrunvaysor
At night in association with non-instrument runways where the code number
is 3 or 4.
Mandatnry Instructinn 5igns. A mandatory instruction sign is provided to identify
the location beyond which an aircraft taxiing or vehicle shall not proceed unless authorised by
lheaerodromeconlroIloverMandaloryinslruclionsignsincIuderunvaydesignalionsigns
calegoryIIIandIIIhoIdingosilionsignslaxihoIdingosilionsignsroadhoIdingosilion
signsandNOINTRYsignsAaernAlaxihoIdingosilionmarkingshaIIbesuIemenled
alalaxivayrunvayinlerseclionorarunvaylaxivayinlerseclionvilharunvaydesignalion
signAaernlaxihoIdingosilionmarkingshaIIbesuIemenledvilhacalegoryIIIor
IIIhoIdingosilionsignArunvaydesignalionsignalalaxivayrunvayinlerseclionshouId
be supplemented with a location sign in the outboard (farthest from the taxiway) position as
arorialeANOINTRYsignshaIIberovidedvhenenlryinloanareaisrohibiled
Lncatinns nI 5igns Signs are to be located in positions such that pilots (or vehicle
drivers) are able to see the sign. Signs are not to be positioned so as to create hazards to aircraft.
Signs are positioned as follows:
ArunvaydesignalionsignalalaxivayrunvayinlerseclionshaIIbeIocaledal
least on the left side of a taxiway facing the direction of approach to therunway.
Where practicable a runway designation sign shall be located on each side of
the taxiway.
ANOINTRYsignshaIIbeIocaledallhebeginningoflhearealovhichlhe
entrance is prohibited at least on the left hand side of the taxiway as viewed by
lheiIolWhereraclicabIeaNOINTRYsignshaIIbeIocaledoneachsideof
the taxiway.
ACalegoryIIIorIIIhoIdingosilionsignshaIIbeIocaledoneachsideoflhe
holding position marking facing the direction of the approach to the critical
area.
A taxi-holding position is to be located on the left-side of the taxi- holding
osilionfacinglhearoachlolherunvayorILSMLScrilicaIsensiliveareaas
arorialeandvhereraclicabIeoneachsideoflhelaxihoIdingosilion
377
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
Charactcristics A mandalory inslruclion sign consisls of vhile Ieersnumbers
on a red background. The inscription on a runway designation sign consists of the runway
designalorTheinscriliononacalegoryIIIorIIIor|oinlIIIIIinslrumenlaroachhoIding
osilion sign consisls of lhe runvay designalor foIIoved by CAT I CAT II CAT III or CAT
IIIIIasarorialeTheinscriliononalaxihoIdingosilionsignshaIIconsisloflhelaxivay
designation and number.
27
Visual holding point
with single digit
alternative (010 090)
CAT I Instrument holding point
CAT I/II/III Instrument holding
point
27 CAT I II III
B2
Intermediate taxi-holding point
No Entry
09-27
15-APCH
27 CAT I
Taxi-holding point where approach to Runway 15
passes over the taxiway
ILS
May be used at a holding point instead of the CAT I II III signs
9 9-27
|igurcSigncnaracicrisiics
378
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
Pattern A
holding
point
27
Visual holding
point for runway
27 at position A1
27 A1 A1
Pattern B
holding
point
27 CAT I/II/III A2
Instrument holding
point for runway 27 at
position A2
InInrmatinn 5igns. Information signs are provided where there is an operational
needloidenlifybyasecicIocalionorroulingdireclionordeslinalionInformalionsigns
incIudedireclionsignsIocalionsignsdeslinalionsignsrunvayexilsignsandrunvayvacaled
signsWhereverraclicabIelheyareIocaledonlheIeflhandsideoflhelaxivayAlalaxivay
inlerseclioninformalionsignsareIocaledbeforelheinlerseclionandinIinevilhlhelaxivay
intersection marking. Runway exit signs are located on the same side of the runway as the exit
is located (i.e. left or right). A runway vacated sign is located at least on one side of the taxiway
to indicate when the aircraft is clear of the sensitive area. Where a runway vacated sign and
alaxivayIocalionsignaresiledlhelaxivayIocalionsignisoulboardoflherunvayvacaled
sign. A taxiway location sign installed in conjunction with a runway designation sign shall be
positioned outboard of the runway designation sign. An information sign other than a location
sign shall not be collocated with a mandatory instruction sign.
Charactcristics The colour and symbology of information signs is as follows:
InInrmatinn5ignsexcelIocalionsignsconsislofaninscrilioninbIackon
a yellow background.
Lncatinn5igns consist of an inscription in yellow on a black background and
vhereilisaslandaIonesignhasayeIIovborder
The inscription on a runway exit sign consists of the designator of the exit
taxiway and an arrow indicating the direction to follow.
TheinscriliononarunvayvacaledsigndeiclslheaernAlaxihoIding
position marking.
|igurc|njcrnaiicnsigns
379
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
Runway vacated sign on taxiway F
The sign is positioned at the end of the ILS/MLS sensitive area on a
taxiway where green/yellow centreline lighting is not provided
Theinscriliononadeslinalionsignidenlieslhedeslinalionvilhanarrov
indicating the direction to proceed.
Theinscriliononadireclionsignidenlieslhelaxivaysvilhanarrovor
arrows) appropriately oriented.
TheinscriliononaIocalionsignislhedesignalionoflheIocalionlaxivay
runway or other pavement the aircraft is on or is entering.
Note: Wncrciiisncccssarqici!cniijqcacncjascricscjiaxinc|!ingpcsiiicnscnincsanciaxiuaq
inc|ccaiicnsignsncu|!ccnsisicjinciaxiuaq!csignaiicnan!nun|cr
|igurc|unuaqtacaic!iaxiuaq|
|igurc|unuaqsiraignianca!nc|!ingpciniOic
incrigni
380
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
A
Taxi-way designator
A2
Specific location
A
Taxi-way ending
27
Runway location sign
A
27 09-27 27y33
APRON MIL
STANDS
1-5
Taxi-way end
Runway vacated
Direction signs
A
Runway exit
Cnmbinatinn5ignsWhereaIocalionsignanddireclionsignsareusedincombinalion
signs related to left turns are placed on the left side of the location sign and all direction signs
related to right turns are placed on the right side of the location sign.
Exccptinn Where lhe |unclion consisls of one inlersecling laxivay lhe Iocalion sign may be
placed on the left hand side. Adjacent signs are delineated by a vertical black line.
Combination Signs
A2 27 CAT I II III
Instrument holding point for
Runway 27 at position A2
A B
Intersection of taxiway A with taxiway B
(A continues straight ahead)
A
Runway vacated on taxiway A (on the
other side of this sign would be the
holding point sign)
B2
27 31
Taxiway entrance and holding point to
two runways
|igurc
|igurcCcn|inaiicnsigns
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Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
Taxiway Dcsignatnrs Taxivays are idenlied by a designalor comrising a Ieers
or a combinalion of a Ieers foIIoved by a number When designaling laxivays lhe use of
lheIeersIOorXandlheuseofvordssuchasinnerandoulershouIdbeavoidedvherever
ossibIe lo avoid confusion vilh lhe numeraIs and cIosed marking The use of numbers
alone on the manoeuvring area is reserved for the designation of runways.
B2
B2
A
A
Intermediate taxi
holding point. Taxiway
A has priority
Mandatory marking
AircraIt 5tand Idcnticatinn 5igns An aircrafl sland idenlicalion marking see
paragraph 20.53) should be supplemented with a sign where feasible. The sign should be
located so as to be clearly visible from the cockpit of an aircraft prior to entering the stand. The
sign consists of an inscription in black on a yellow background. Alternatively in Europe this
may be white on a blue background.
RnadHn!ding Pnsitinn 5ign Road-holding position signs are provided at all road
entrances to runways. The road-holding position sign is to be located 1.5m from the edge of
lheroadIeflorrighlasarorialelolheIocaIlracreguIalionsallhehoIdingosilionA
road-holding position marking sign consists of an inscription in white on a red background.
If lhe sign is inlended for nighl use il is lo be reeclive or iIIuminaled The inscrilion on a
roadhoIdingosilionsignislobeinlhenalionaIIanguagemuslconformlolheIocaIlrac
reguIalionsandincIudearequiremenllosloarequiremenllooblainanATCcIearanceand
the location designator.
|igurc
382
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
MARKER5
Dcnitinn. A marker is an object which is displayed above ground level in order to
indicate an obstacle or delineate a boundary. Markers are used where lights are not provided
orvhereIighlingorgroundmarkingsdoesnolservelheuroseTyicaIIyedgemarkers
maybeusedloindicalelheexlremilyofalaxivayvheresnovhasfaIIenorlomarkareasof
badgroundonagrassaerodromeTheirheighlshaIIbesucienlIyIovloreservecIearance
forroeIIersandforlheengineodsof|elaircraflAlOxfordlherefueIIingareaismarkedby
reeclivegreenmarkers
Unpavcd Runway Edgc Markcrs. Markers should be provided when the extent of
an unpaved runway is not clearly indicated by the appearance of its surface compared with
lhal of lhe surrounding ground Where runvay Iighls are rovided lhe markers shouId be
incororaled in lhe Iighl xlures Where lhere are no Iighls markers of al reclanguIar or
conicaIshaeshouIdbeIacedsoaslodeIimillherunvaycIearIyThealreclanguIarmarkers
should have a minimum size of 1m by 3m and should be placed with their long dimension
parallel to the runway centre line. The conical markers should have a height not exceeding
50cm.
TaxiwayEdgcMarkcrs Taxiway edge markers should be provided on a taxiway where
centre line or edge lights or taxiway centre line markers are not provided. The markers should
be installed at least at the same locations as would the taxiway edge lights had they been used.
MarkersarerequiredlobereeclivebIueTaxivayedgemarkersshaIIbefrangibIe
TaxiwayCcntrcLincMarkcrs Taxiway centre line markers should be provided on a
taxiway where edge lights or taxiway edge markers are not provided. The markers should be
installed at least at the same location as would taxiway centre line lights had they been used.
ThemarkersshouIdnormaIIybeIocaledonlhelaxivaycenlreIinemarkingexcellhallhey
maybeoselbynolmorelhancmvhereilisnolraclicabIeloIocalelhemonlhemarking
TaxivaycenlreIinemarkersarereeclivegreenThemarkersshaIIbesodesignedandedlo
withstand being run over by the wheels of an aircraft without damage either to the aircraft or to
the markers themselves.
UnpavcdTaxiwayEdgcMarkcrs. Where the extent of an unpaved taxiway is not clearly
indicaledbyilsaearancecomaredvilhlhaloflhesurroundinggroundmarkersshouIdbe
rovidedWherelaxivayIighlsarerovidedlhemarkersshouIdbeincororaledinlheIighl
xluresWherelherearenoIighlsmarkersofconicaIshaeshouIdbeIacedsoaslodeIimil
the taxiway clearly.
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Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
BnundaryMarkcrs Boundary markers shall be provided at an aerodrome where the
landing area has no runway. Boundary markers shall be spaced along the boundary of the landing
areaalinlervaIsofnolmorelhanmiflhelyeshovnbeIovisusedoraroximaleIym
if the conical type is used with a marker at any corner. Boundary markers should be of a form
simiIarlolhoseshovnbeIovorinlheformofaconenolIesslhancmhighandnolIesslhan
75cm in diameter at the base. The markers should be coloured to contrast with the background
againsl vhich lhey viII be seen A singIe coIour orange or red or lvo conlrasling coIours
orange and vhile or aIlernaliveIy red and vhile shouId be used excel vhere such coIours
merge with the background.
|igurcBcun!arqnarkcrs
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Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
Fixcd Distancc Markcrs. Fixed distance markers are used to indicate the length of
runway remaining. They consist of white numbers on a black background and are positioned on
the side of the runway at intervals of 1000ft counting down as the end of the runway approaches.
TherslmarkerisosilionedflmfromlhelhreshoIdoflheIandingrunvayThese
are commonly called distance to go markers and are mainly used at military aerodromes.
Parking5tandMarkcrs. These are positioned as markings at the entrance to a parking
stand or as a sign positioned on a building at the end of the stand. The marker consists of white
inscriptions on a blue background.
6
Fixed Distance Markers (Distance-to-go)
Boards displaying white numerals at intervals
along the left side of a runway indicate the distance
(in 1000s of feet) to the end of the runway. Used on
runways greater than 4000 ft long. The first marker
is positioned 1000ft (300m) from threshold.
B3
Parking Stand Markers/Signs
Signs and markings with yellow characters on a
background are used on aprons to provide
pilot information stand identification etc
Alternatively, white characters on a blue
background are used in Europe
B3 black
VI5UALDOCKINGGUIDANCE5Y5TEM5
Intrnductinn VisuaI Docking Guidance syslems somelimes referred lo as Nosein
Docking Guidance systems or Stand Entry Guidance systems) provide guidance where pilot
inlerreledaIignmenlandsloinginformalionisrequiredforaccuralearkingarlicuIarIy
at air-bridges. ICAO states that aircraft stand manoeuvring guidance lights should be provided
lo faciIilale lhe osilioning of an aircrafl on an aircrafl sland on a aved aron or on a de
anli icing faciIily inlended for use in oor visibiIily condilions unIess adequale guidance is
rovidedbyolhermeansTherearenoIearningob|eclivesconcerningVisuaIDockingSyslems
bulsludenlsareadvisedloreadChalerofCAI|uslincaseaqueslioncomesuinlhe
examination.
|igurc|ixc!!isianccan!parkingsian!narkcrs
385
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
386
Chapter 20
Visual Aids and Markings
QUE5TION5
1. How are the runways designated at an aerodrome where there are three parallel runways?
a and
b TheQDMforlhelhirdrunvayviIIbeincreasedby
c TheLandRrunvaysviIIhavedierenlQDM
d TheQDMvilhLCandRadded
2. Runway threshold marking consists of a number of stripes. How many stripes are there for a
runway width of 60 metres?
a. 6
b. 8
c. 12
d. 16
3. Touchdown zone markings are set out in pairs. How many such pairs are required for a runway
of 2400 m or more?
a. 6
b. 4
c. 2
d. 8
4. A transverse white stripe on a runway is associated with:
a. a closed runway.
b. a runway which is 2400 metres or longer.
c. a displaced threshold.
d. a runway available for circling to land approaches.
5. Which of the following statements is correct?
a. Taxiway markings are white and runway markings are yellow.
b NumeraIsonaerodromesignsarereservedforrunvays
c. A clearway has the same function as a RESA.
d. The pairs of touchdown zone markings are separated from each other by 120 metres.
If a runvay is m in Ienglh hov cIose lo lhe runvay cenlre Iine is lhe nearesl laxivay
holding point?
a. 50m.
b. 35m.
c. 40m.
d. 75m.
7. Which of the following statements are correct?
a. Runway markings are white and taxiway markings are yellow.
b. Runway and taxiway markings are white.
c. Runway and taxiway markings are yellow.
d. Runway markings are yellow and taxiway markings are white.
387
Chapter 20 Visual Aids and Markings
8. On an instrument approach runway which is more than 2400m long there will be:
a. an aiming point marking and centre line markings only.
b. touchdown zone markings and centre line markings only.
c. aiming point markings and touchdown zone markings.
d. an aiming point marking 150m from the threshold.
9. Which of the following concerning Aerodrome signs is correct?
a. Mandatory signs: Black background with red inscription.
b. Information signs: Black or yellow background with black or yellow inscription.
c. Mandatory signs: Red background with black inscription.
d. Information signs: Orange background with black inscription.
WherexeddislancemarkingisrovidedlhisshaIIcommence
a. at 100m from the threshold.
b. at 150m from the threshold.
c. at 300m from the threshold.
d. at 500m from the threshold.
388
Chapter 20
Visual Aids and Markings
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. D 20.10
2. D 20.15
3. A 20.20
4. C 20.16
5. B 20.36
6. D 20.28
7. A
8. C 20.8
9. B 20.41
10. C 20.52
389
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
CHAPTERTWENTYONE
AERODROMELIGHTING
Contents
AERODROME LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
AIIROACHLIGHTINGSYSTIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
RUNWAYLIGHTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
TAXIWAYLIGHTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
390
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
391
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
AERODROMELIGHT5
Intrnductinn The profusion of lights on an aerodrome can be both confusing and
disorienlalingbuleachIighlorIighlingsyslemhasauroseandmoslarelodovilhaircrafl
safety. In this chapter the various lighting systems are described and their uses explained.
The Iearning ob|eclives slale lhal knovIedge of Iighling syslems is required bul lhe sacing
of lights or groups of lights (excluding approach lighting systems) is outside the scope of the
course. The design of lighting systems is also beyond this course. It is an unfortunate fact of life
that there is no standard system of lighting in use although ICAO has laid down the standards
and recommended practices in Annex 14.
AircraIt5aIcty A non-aeronautical light near an aerodrome which might endanger the
safelyofanaircraflislobeexlinguishedscreenedorolhervisemodiedsoasloeIiminalelhe
source of danger.
E!cvatcd Lights E!cvatcd runway stnpway and taxiway !ights sha!! bc Irangib!c
Thcirhcightsha!!bcsucicnt!y!nwtnprcscrvcc!caranccInrprnpc!!crsandInrthccnginc
pndsnI|ctaircraItWhcrcnntsucicnt!ycnnspicunusthcyarctnbcsuitab!ymarkcd
LightIntcnsityInoorvisibiIilycondilionsbydayIighlscanbemoreeeclivelhan
markingIorIighlslobeeecliveinsuchcondilionsorinoorvisibiIilybynighllheymuslbe
ofadequaleinlensilyTooblainlherequiredinlensilyilviIIusuaIIybenecessarylomakelhe
IighldireclionaIinvhichcaselhearcsovervhichlheIighlshovviIIhavelobeadequaleand
so orientated as to meet the operational requirements. The runway lighting system will have
lobeconsideredasavhoIeloensurelhallhereIaliveIighlinlensiliesaresuilabIymalchedlo
the same end. The intensity of runway lighting shall be adequate for the minimum conditions
of visibiIily in ambienl Iighl in vhich use of lhe runvay is inlended and comalibIe vilh
that of the nearest section of the approach lighting system when provided. While the lights of
an aroach Iighling syslem may be of higher inlensily lhan lhe runvay Iighling il is good
practice to avoid abrupt changes in intensity as these could give a pilot a false impression that
the visibility is changing during approach.
Intcnsity Cnntrn! Where a high inlensily Iighling syslem is rovided a suilabIe
intensity control shall be incorporated to allow for adjustment of the light intensity to meet the
prevailing conditions. Separate intensity controls or other suitable methods shall be provided
loensurelhallhefoIIovingsyslemsvheninslaIIedcanbeoeraledalcomalibIeinlensilies
approach lighting system
runway edge lights
runway threshold lights
runway end lights
runvaycenlreIineIighls
runway touchdown zone lights
taxiway centre line lights
Avai!abi!ity Lighls may be lurned o roviding lhal lhey can be lurned on again
within a period of 1 hour.
Emcrgcncy Lights NormaIIy an aerodrome viII have an aIlernale over suIy lo
coevilhgeneraIoverfaiIuresWherenosuchbackusuIyexislsemergencyIighlsare
to be available for at least the primary runway.
392
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
Acrnnautica! Bcacnns Where operationally necessary an aerodrome beacon or an
idenlicalionbeaconisloberovidedvherelheaerodromeisinlendedforusealnighlThe
needforabeaconislobedelerminedhavingregardlolherequiremenlsoflheairlracusing
lheaerodromelheconsicuilyoflheaerodromefealuresinreIalionloilssurroundingsandlhe
installation of other visual and non-visual aids useful in locating the aerodrome.
21. AcrndrnmcBcacnnAnaerodromebeaconshovsashesofIighlIorIandaerodromes
lhecoIoursarevhileorvhileandgreenandforvaleraerodromesvhileorvhileandyeIIov
Beacons are to be provided at an aerodrome intended for use at night if one or more of the
following conditions exist:
AircraflnavigaleredominanlIybyvisuaImeans
ReducedvisibiIiliesarefrequenlor
IlisdicuIlloIocalelheaerodromefromlheairduelosurroundingIighlsor
terrain.
IdcnticatinnBcacnnAnidenlicalionbeaconisrovidedalanaerodromevhichis
inlendedforusealnighlandcannolbeeasiIyidenliedfromlheairbyanyolhermeansAn
idenlicalionbeaconviIIshovMorsecodeidenlicalionoflheaerodromeinashinggreenal
aIandaerodromeredalaUKmiIilaryaerodromeandashingyeIIovalavaleraerodrome
APPROACHLIGHTING5Y5TEM5
Gcncra!AroachIighlingsyslemsareaernsofxedIighlsofvariabIeinlensily
shoving vhile designed lo give lhe iIol guidance lo lhe lhreshoId or aiming oinl of a
runvayinoorvisibiIilyoralnighlTheIighlaernsmayincIudedislancecodingandgive
anindicalionofaircraflailudeThearrangemenlmayaIsogiveanindicalionofaircraflheighl
above the approach plane. Systems can range in complexity from a simple centre line and cross
barlolhehighIyinlricaleIayoulsassocialedvilhCalIIIrecisioninslrumenlaroachsyslems
The determination of the visual criteria for landing can be met by the visual acquisition of the
approach light system and the design must cater for the requirement of the most restrictive
decision heights and minimum descent heights. The primary unit of design is the length of
lhe segmenls sel by ICAO al m ICAO requireslhal aIIlhe exisling Iighling syslemsnol
conforminglolheICAOsecicalionslandardsarelobereIacedby}anAnyILSor
MLS azimuth antenna protruding through the plane of the lights shall be treated as an obstacle
and marked and lit accordingly.
Ca!vcrt5ystcmsGeneraIIyusedinlheUKandoccasionaIIyinolherarlsoflhevorId
Calvert systems (named after the inventor) consist of 5 bars and a distance coded centreline. A
NATOsyslemissimiIarbuldoesnlhavelhedislancecodingoflhecenlreIine
Barrccs The individual lights that make up the lighting systems may be arranged
either as single light units (as in the Calvert method) or in the form of groups of three or more
lights arranged as a bar (the ICAO method). For instance the centre line of a system may consist
of either single point source lights or a bar of 5 lights close together. The arrangement of 5
cIoselogelheriscaIIedabarreeronouncedbarreelmeaningsmaIIbarTheyarecaIIed
barreessolhallheyarenolconfusedvilhlhebarconsliluenlarlsofanyaroachIighling
system.
393
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
5imp!cApprnach Lighting 5ystcm A simple approach lighting system consists of a
rovofIighlsonlheexlendedcenlreIineoflherunvayexlendingvheneverossibIeovera
distance of not less than 420m from the threshold with a row of lights forming a crossbar 18m
or 30m in length at a distance of 300m from the threshold. The lights forming the crossbar shall
beasnearIyasraclicabIeinahorizonlaIslraighlIinealrighlangIesloandbisecledbylheIine
of the centre line lights. This type of system is used on a non instrument runway and may be
used on a non precision instrument runway.
PrccisinnApprnachCATILighting5ystcm A precision approach category I lighting
syslemconsislsofarovofIighlsonlheexlendedcenlreIineoflherunvayexlendingvherever
ossibIeoveradislanceofmfromlherunvaylhreshoIdIflheIenglhisIesslhanm
(which on a 3 glide path coincides with CAT 1 system minima - 200 ft) it is possible that an
aircraft may not be over the approach lighting at DH. The 5 crossbars are 150m apart and form
lhreesegmenlslheinnersegmenlmlhemiddIesegmenlmandlheouler
segment (600 - 900m). Any ILS or MLS azimuth antenna protruding through the plane of the
lights will be treated as an obstacle and marked and lit accordingly.
|igurcSinp|capprcacn|igniingsqsicn
394
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
ICAOPrccisinnApprnachCATILighting5ystcmInlhisarrangemenllhecenlreIine
is in lhe form of barrees vilh onIy one crossbar al m from lhe lhreshoId Again lhe
centreline should be 900m in length. The centreline may be augmented with strobe lights that
ripple towards the threshold from the start of the centreline. The visibility of the threshold
may be enhanced by the use of wing strobes (rotating).
|igurcCai|Ca|tcri|aran!ccnirc|incsqsicn
395
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
|igurc|CAOCai|apprcacn|igniingsqsicn
396
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
21.17 PrccisinnApprnachCatcgnryIIIIILighting5ystcm At those aerodromes where Cat
II and III approaches are conducted more complex approach lighting system are installed to
enhance the possibility of the pilot achieving the visual criteria at DH to complete the landing.
ThesyslemsusedarevariousbulaIIarebasedoneilherlheCaIverlbarandcenlreIinesyslem
orlheICAObarreesyslemolhsyslemsshouIdbemIongandrovidesomeeIemenlof
ailude informalion In bolh lhe CaIverl and lhe ICAO syslems lhe inner segmenl m
from the threshold) is augmented by the supplementary approach lighting. This consists of
reIacinglhecenlreIineoflheCaIverlsyslemvilhbarreesandaddingredvingbarreeslo
bolhsyslemsTheeeclisloenhancelhevisibiIilyandconsicuilyoflheinnersegmenlDH
for Cat 2 in not lower than 100 ft which equates to 300m from the threshold (assuming the pilot
crosses the threshold at 50 ft).
|igurcApprcacnrunuaqCai||||||igniingsqsicn
397
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
Fig 15.2.4b ICAO Cat II/III Precision Approach
|igurc|CAOCai|||||apprcacn|igniingsqsicn
398
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting

PrccisinnApprnachPathIndicatnrsPAPIAsanaddilionaIaidloarecisionaroach
glide path guidance is provided during the visual phase (after DH) by the PAPI lighting system.
ThisconsislsofIighlunilsshovingeilherredorvhileIighllhroughrecisiondenedangIes
IachIighlunilisselloadierenlmidangIeandbeIovlhalangIeshovsredandaboveshovs
vhileTheeeclislovhileIighlloaircraflabovelhemidangIeandredbeIovTheoveraII
eeclislogiveareferencelolhemedianangIevhichissellolherequiredgIidealhie
PAPI Installation
InslaIIalionbyGodfreySyslemsInlernalionaIInc
|igurcCa|tcriCai|||||sqsicnaiCcrk
L ten Hoopen
|igurcPrccisicnapprcacnpainin!icaicrsPAP|
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Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
PAPI Indicatinns The ossibIe combinalions of lhe Iighl sels give dierenl
indicalionsreIalinglolheaircraflosilioncorreclIylheiIolseyevilhresecllolhedened
glide path.
Well above
Slightly above
On glide path Slightly below
Well below
PAPIs
Circ!ing Apprnach Where the runway is used for circling approaches (visual
manoeuvringcircIingaIAIIselisIaceoneilhersideoflherunvayNormaIIylherevouId
only be one set on the left hand side. This allows the pilot to use the PAPI wing bars as a
horizonlaIreferenceforaircraflailudeduringlheIalerarloflhecircIingmanoeuvre
MinimumEycHcightMEHT If the PAPI system was located exactly at the threshold
oflherunvayandlheiIolevavisuaIaroachkeeinglheaircraflexaclIyallheongIide
alhosilionlhevheeIsoflheaircraflvouIdhillhegroundbeforelheaircraflreachedlhe
threshold. The distance before the threshold where the wheels hit the ground would be a
funclionoflhedislancefromlheiIolseyelolheboomoflheundercarriageToovercome
lhis lhe visuaI aiming oinl coincidenl vilh lhe IAII Iocalion is sel a dislance dovn lhe
runvayOncodeinslrumenlrunvaysalIeaslminIenglhlheaimingoinlisselm
fromlhelhreshoIdinvhichcaseforanormaIgIidealhlheiIolseyevouIdbeflabove
the surface on crossing the threshold. This assumes that the on glide path indication is the
midangIevheninfaclilisencomassedinabandvidlhofangIesvilhinvhichlheongIide
path indication is visible. If the height of the pilots eye can be established when the aircraft
isoverlhelhreshoIdvilhlheIoveslossibIeongIidealhindicalionlhiscouIdbeusedlo
delermineifanaircraflcanuselheIAIIsyslemasseluforlhalrunvayThegurequoled
on the ICAO aerodrome chart is the MEHT (minimum eye height) and is printed alongside the
IocalionoflheIAIIonlhecharlDuringlyeralinginslruclionyouviIIbemadeavareof
lheeyeloundercarriagerequiremenloflhelyesolhalyoucanassesslheusabiIilyoflhe
PAPIs.

|igurcPAP|in!icaiicns
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Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
RUNWAYLIGHTING
Runway Edgc Lights Runway edge lights are provided for a runway intended for
usealnighlorforarecisionaroachrunvayinlendedforusebydayornighlandshouId
berovidedonarunvayinlendedforlakeovilhanoeralingminimumbeIovanRVRof
the order of 800m by day. Runway edge lights are placed along the full length of the runway
in two parallel rows equidistant from the centre line. The lights shall be uniformly spaced. At
inlerseclionsofrunvaysIighlsmaybesacedirreguIarIyoromiedrovidedlhaladequale
guidanceremainsavaiIabIelolheiIolRunvayedgeIighlsarexedvariabIeinlensilyvhile
shovinginlhedireclionfromvhicharoachesaremadeInlhecaseofadisIacedlhreshoId
the lights between the beginning of the runway and the displaced threshold show red in the
approach direction. A caution zone may be established over the last 600m (or
1

3
rd of the runway
whichever is least) where the lights are yellow. When the runway edge lights are intended to
rovidecircIingguidancelheyshaIIshovaIIroundomnidireclionaI
Runway Thrcshn!d and Wing Bar Lights Runway threshold lights are provided for
a runway equipped with runway edge lights (except on a non-instrument or non-precision
approach runway where the threshold is displaced and wing bar lights are provided). When
lhelhreshoIdisallheexlremilyofarunvaylhelhreshoIdIighlsareIacedinarovalrighl
angles to the runway axis as near to the extremity of the runway as possible. For a displaced
lhreshoIdlheIighlsareinlheformofabarreevingbareilhersideofhedisIacedlhreshoId
RunvaylhreshoIdandvingbarIighlsarelobexedunidireclionaIIighlsshovinggreenin
the direction of approach to the runway.
Runway End Lights Runway end lights are provided for a runway equipped with
runvay edge Iighls Runvay end Iighls are xed unidireclionaI Iighls shoving red in lhe
direction of the runway. Runway end lights are placed in a line at right angles to the runway
axisasnearlolheendoflherunvayasossibIeandshouIdconsislofalIeaslsixIighlsThe
Iighls shouId be eilher equaIIy saced belveen lhe rovs of runvay edge Iighls or
symmetrically disposed about the runway centre line.
Runway Ccntrc Linc Lights Runvay cenlre Iine Iighls are rovided on Cal IIIII
precision approach runways. They should be provided on a Cat I precision approach runway
where the width between the runway edge lights is greater than 50m. Runway centre line lights
areloberovidedonarunvayinlendedlobeusedforlakeovilhanoeralingminimum
beIov an RVR of lhe order of m Runvay cenlre Iine Iighls are xed variabIe inlensily
vhileOverlheIaslmfromlherunvayendlheIighlsshovaIlernaleredandvhilefrom
mlomfromlherunvayendandaIIredfrommlolherunvayend
Runway Tnuchdnwn Znnc Lights Touchdown zone lights are provided in the
louchdovnzoneofaCalIIIIIrecisionaroachrunvayTouchdovnzoneIighlsexlendfrom
the threshold for a distance of 900m where the runway is 1800m or more in length. The lights
arearrangedinlheformofslriseilhersideoflhecenlreIinelhevidlhoflheslrisislobe
lhesamevidlhaslhelouchdovnzonemarkingsTouchdovnzoneIighlsarexedvariabIe
inlensilyunidireclionaIshovingvhile
5tnpwayLights Stopway lights are provided for a stopway intended for use at night
vilh lhe Iighls Iaced aIong lhe fuII Ienglh of lhe slovay Slovay Iighls shaII be xed
variabIeinlensilyunidireclionaIIighlsshovingredinlhedireclionoflherunvay
401
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
TAXIWAYLIGHTING
App!icatinn Taxiway lighting provides pilots with guidance and information during
lhelaxiloandfromlherunvayIlconsislsofcenlreIineIighlsedgeIighlsguardIighlsand
stop lights at holding points.
TaxiwayEdgcLighting Taxiway edge lighting is provided along the edges of holding
baysdeanliicingfaciIiliesaronselcIlisinlendedforusealnighlonlaxivaysnolrovided
vilhlaxivaycenlreIineIighlingIfhoveversucienlaIlernaliveiIIuminalionisavaiIabIeie
stadium lighting) then the edge lights may be dispensed with. Where a runway forms part of
aslandardlaxirouleinlendedforusealnighlandnolaxivaycenlreIineIighlingexislsedge
Iighls are lo be rovided Taxivay edge Iighls are xed variabIe inlensily omnidireclionaI
blue.
TaxiwayCcntrcLincLightsTaxivaycenlreIineIighlsarerovidedonanexillaxivay
taxiway and apron intended for use in runway visual range conditions less than a value of
minsuchamanneraslorovideconlinuousguidancefromlherunvaycenlreIinelolhe
point on the apron where aircraft commence manoeuvring for parking. These lights need not be
rovidedvherelhereisaIovvoIumeoflracandlaxivayedgeIighlsandcenlreIinemarking
provide adequate guidance. Taxiway centre line lights shall be provided on a runway forming
part of a standard taxiway route and intended for taxiing in runway visual range conditions less
lhanavaIueofmTaxivaycenlreIineIighlsarexedvariabIeinlensilyshovinggreensuch
that the light is visible only from the aeroplanes on or in the vicinity of the taxiway. Within the
ILSMLScrilicaIsensilivearealhecenlreIineIighlsareaIlernalinggreenandyeIIovWhere
aircraflmayfoIIovlhesamecenlreIineinbolhdireclionsaIIlhecenlreIineIighlsshaIIshov
green to aircraft approaching the runway.
5tnpBars Stop bars are a row of red lights showing in the direction of taxiing aircraft
and when illuminated require the aircraft to stop and not proceed until cleared by ATC. One
ormoreslobarsasarorialeshouIdberovidedalalaxivayinlerseclionorlaxihoIding
osilionvhenilisdesiredlosuIemenlmarkingsvilhIighlsandlorovidelracconlroI
by visual means. A stop bar shall be provided at every taxi-holding position serving a runway
when it is intended that the runway will be used in runway visual range conditions less than
avaIueofmWherelhenormaIslobarIighlsmighlbeobscuredfromaiIolsvievfor
examIe by snov or rain or vhere a iIol may be required lo slo lhe aircrafl in a osilion
cIose lo lhe Iighls lhal lhey are bIocked from viev by lhe slruclure of lhe aircrafl a air of
elevated lights should be added to each end of the stop bar.
402
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
Figure 15.4 Taxiway Lighting
|igurcArangcncniscjrunuaqan!iaxiuaq|igniing
403
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
RunwayGuardLights These are used to warn pilots and drivers of vehicles that they
are about to enter an active runway. They are installed at the entrance to runways used in RVR
condilionsIesslhanmvhereaslobarisnoledandinRVRcondilionsofm
vhere lrac densily is high There are lvo conguralions of runvay guard Iighls knovn as
ConguralionAandConguralionTheIighlsareashingyeIIovandshovinlhedireclion
of taxiing aircraft.
|igurc|unuaqan!guar!|ignis
404
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
405
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
QUE5TION5
1. How many bars are there on a full Calvert approach light system?
a. 5
b. 4
c. 3
d. 2
2. What length should the approach lighting system for a CAT I Calvert design be?
a. 900m.
b. 600m.
c. 1200m.
d. 400m.
3. What colour are runway end lights?
a. Unidirectional red.
b. Unidirectional white.
c. Omni directional red.
d. Omni directional white.
4. What is the colour of threshold lighting?
a. Omni directional green.
b UnidireclionaIgreenshovinginlhedireclionoflhearoach
c UnidireclionaIvhileshovinginlhedireclionoflhearoach
d. Red uni-directional.
OnaCalIIighlingsyslemvhalislheIenglhoflhesingIedoubIeandlrebIeIighlsegmenlson
the centre-line of the approach lighting system?
a. 150m.
b. 200m.
c. 250m.
d. 300m.
Whal coIour Iighls are runvay edge Iighls nol incIuding caulionary areas or redisIaced
thresholds?
a. White or yellow.
b. White.
c. Red.
d. Blue.
AnaerodromeidenlicalionbeacononaIandbasedaerodromeis
a. blue.
b. white.
c. green.
d. red.
406
Chapter 21
Aerodrome Lighting
8. What colour is an aerodrome beacon for a land aerodrome?
a. Flashing green.
b. Flashing green and white.
c. Steady green.
d. Flashing red.
9. What is the colour of threshold lights?
a. Steady white.
b. Flashing white.
c. Steady green.
d. Flashing green.
10. What is the length of the approach lighting for a CAT I system?
a. 300m.
b. 600m.
c. 900m.
d. 1200m.
Whalisabarree
a. 3 or more single lights close together which appear at a distance to be a short bar.
b. Frangible approach lights.
c. Lead in lights.
d. Frangible lights.
12. When the lights of an aerodrome are required to be on (night-time etc.) they can only be switched
orovidingilisossibIelosvilchlhemon
a nolmorelhanhourbeforelheITAofanarrivingighl
b nolmorelhanminulesbeforelheITAofanarrivingighl
c nolmorelhanminulesbeforelheITAofanarrivingighl
d nolmorelhanminulesbeforelheITAofanarrivingighl
13. Taxiway edge lights are:
a xedshovingbIue
b xedshovinggreen
c xedshovingyeIIov
d ashingshovingbIue
ArecisionaroachCalegoryIIighlingsyslemlhecenlreIineandlhebarreeIighlshavelo
be:
a ashinggreenIighlsforvhichlheinlensilyoflheIighlisad|uslabIe
b xedvhileIighlsforvhichlheinlensilyoflheIighlisad|uslabIe
c ashingvhileIighlsforvhichlheinlensilyoflheIighlisad|uslabIe
d xedgreenIighlsforvhichlheinlensilyoflheIighlisad|uslabIe
407
Chapter 21 Aerodrome Lighting
WhaldenesaCaIverllyerunvayaroachIighlingsyslem
a. 3 crossbars with 3 lighting segments providing centreline lighting.
b. 3 crossbars with 2 lighting segments providing centreline lighting.
c. 5 Crossbars with 2 lighting segments providing centreline lighting.
d. 5 Crossbars with 3 lighting segments providing centreline lighting.
OnlheIAIIsyslemlheiIolcanseeduringlhearoachlvovhileIighlsfurlheslfromlhe
runway and two red lights closest to the runway. The aircraft is:
a. under the approach glide path.
b. sbove the approach glide path.
c. precisely on the glide path.
d. on or close to the approach glide path.
TheabbrevialionIAIIslandsfor
a. Precision Approach Path Index.
b. Precision Approach Power Indicator.
c. Precision Approach Path Indicator.
d. Precision Approach Power Index.
18. What is the light indication of a land-based aerodrome beacon?
a GreenaIlernalingvilhvhileashesorvhileashesonIy
b WhileashesonIy
c GreenashesonIy
d. Same as an Aerodrome Identity Beacon.
19. Runway Guard lights are:
a ashingred
b ashingyeIIov
c ashinggreen
d. steady red.
408
Chapter 21
Aerodrome Lighting
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. A 21.12
2. A 21.15
3. A 21.24
4. B 21.23
5. D 21.15
6. A 21.22
7. C 21.10
8. B 21.9
9. C 21.23
10. C 21.15
11. A 21.13
12. A 21.6
13. A 21.29
14. B 21.11
15. D 21.12
16. D 21.19
17. C 21.18
18. A 21.9
19. B 21.32
409
Chapter 22
Aerodrome Services and
Obstacle Marking
CHAPTERTWENTYTWO
AERODROME5ERVICE5ANDOB5TACLEMARKING
Contents
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
VISUALAIDSIORDINOTINGOSTACLIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
VISUALAIDSIORDINOTINGRISTRICTIDUSIARIAS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
IMIRGINCYANDOTHIRSIRVICIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
OTHER AERODROME SERVICES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
410
Chapter 22
Aerodrome Services and
Obstacle Marking
411
Chapter 22
Aerodrome Services and
Obstacle Marking
INTRODUCTION
The marking andor Iighling of obslacIes is inlended lo reduce hazards lo aircrafl
by indicating the presence of obstacles. It does not necessarily reduce operating limitations
vhich may be imosed by obslacIes The resonsibiIily for markingIighling of obslacIes on
or near aerodromes must be determined between the aerodrome licensee and the owners of
the structures. Licensees are responsible for the marking and lighting of all obstacles on the
movement area irrespective of ownership. During the establishment of instrument approach
anddearlureroceduresobslacIesareidenliedloaIIovlhecaIcuIalionofoeralingminima
andobslacIecIearanceheighlaIliludeThelrealmenlofobslacIesinlhischalerisconcerned
vilh lhe idenlicalion and marking of obslacIes on and in lhe vicinily of aerodromes vhich
maybecoIIisionhazardsloIocaIyingandenrouleoeralionsObslacIesinsideandoulside
lhe aerodrome boundary may resuIl in Iimilalions on lhe dislance avaiIabIe for lakeo and
landing and on the range of meteorological conditions in which operations can be undertaken.
For these reasons certain areas of local airspace must be regarded as integral parts of the
aerodrome environment. The degree of freedom from obstacles in these areas is as important in
the granting and retention of an aerodrome licence as the more obvious physical requirements
of the runways and their associated runway strips.
Obstac!c Idcnticatinn 5urIaccs OI5. Aerodrome obstacles are those obstacles
that protrude through the OIS out to a distance of 15km from the aerodrome. The obstacles are
determined by survey and are detailed in the aerodrome entry in the AIP. The OIS is a complex
Iane slarling vilh lhe cIeared slri eilher side of lhe runvay Irom lhe cIeared slri lhe
innerlransilionIaneexlendsfromsurfacelomandexlendsoullomfromlheedges
oflheslrieyondlhislheoulerlransilionIaneIiflslheOISlomandexlendslolhefuII
15km.
1
5
K
m
ARP
150m
AD elevation
Obstacles
Not Obstacles
Obstacle Identification Surface (OIS)
15Km
OIS for take-off climb surfaces extends to 3000m from the end of the runway

|igurcO|siac|ci!cniicaiicnsurjaccsO|S
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Chapter 22
Aerodrome Services and
Obstacle Marking
VI5UALAID5FORDENOTINGOB5TACLE5
Rcquircmcnt Inr marking!ighting The marking andor Iighling of obslacIes
is intended to reduce hazards to aircraft by indicating the presence of the obstacles. Fixed
obslacIes shouId be marked and if lhe aerodrome is used al nighl Iil The marking may be
omiedvhenlheobslacIeisIilbyhighinlensilyobslacIeIighlsbyday
Obstac!c nn thc Mnvcmcnt Arca. Vehicles and other mobile objects excluding
aircraflonlhemovemenlareaofanaerodromeareobslacIesandshaIIbemarkedandiflhe
vehicIesandaerodromeareusedalnighlorincondilionsofIovvisibiIilyIilAircraflservicing
equipment and vehicles used only on aprons may be exempt. Elevated aeronautical ground
lights within the movement area shall be marked so as to be conspicuous by day.
Marking nI nb|cctsAII xed ob|ecls lo be marked shaII vhenever raclicabIe be
coIoured bul if lhis is nol raclicabIe markers or ags shaII be disIayed on or above lhem
OrangeorredcoIoursshouIdbeusedexcelvheresuchcoIoursmergevilhlhebackground
AgainslsomebackgroundsilmaybefoundnecessarylouseadierenlcoIourfromorangeor
redlooblainsucienlconlrasl
Vchic!cs and Mnbi!c Ob|ccts When mobiIe ob|ecls are marked by coIour a singIe
consicuous coIour referabIy red or yeIIovish green for emergency vehicIes and yeIIov
for service vehicles should be used. Aerodrome operators are responsible for ensuring that
vehicIesonlhemovemenlareaofanaerodromeareIilandormarkedasrequiredirreseclive
ofovnershiTheseincIudemainlenancevehicIesATCvehicIesIoIIovMevehicIesaircrafl
loving vehicIes refueIIers elc Whenever a ermied vehicIe is on lhe movemenl area lhe
IighlsarelobesvilchedonVehicIeobslacIeIighlsareIovinlensilyashingyeIIovTheIighls
seciedarelobeedallhehighesloinloflherimemoverTraiIersarelobeIilvilhIov
intensity steady red lights at the highest point. Objects with limited mobility (air bridges etc.)
are to be lit with low intensity steady red lights.
|igurcMarkingcjc|jccis
413
Chapter 22
Aerodrome Services and
Obstacle Marking
Emcrgcncy Vchic!cs Aerodrome ambuIances oIicesecurily re and rescue
aIiances shouId in addilion lo lhe requiremenls of aragrah aIso carry bIue ashing
lights for use whilst responding to an emergency. Vehicles which are not normally based on the
aerodromeciviIianrerescuevehicIesvhencaIIeduonforassislanceareloshovashing
blue lights and are to be escorted by vehicles with radio communication with ATC.
Lighting nI nb|ccts. The presence of objects which must be lit shall be indicated by
IovmediumorhighinlensilyobslacIeIighlsoracombinalionofsuchIighls
NcicHigninicnsiiqc|siac|c|ignisarcinicn!c!jcr!aquscasuc||asnigniusc
45m
90m
135m
150m
Low intensity
RED
Medium intensity
RED
If not clearly visible
by day High
Intensity white
On high structures, 3
lights at 45m intervals
from the top
Over 150m High
Intensity White by day
Or WHITE
Low Int
RED by
night
|igurc|ncrgcncqtcnic|cs
|igurcMcinc!scjc|siac|c|igniing
414
Chapter 22
Aerodrome Services and
Obstacle Marking
Lnw Intcnsity Lights Lovinlensily obslacIe Iighls on xed ob|ecls shaII be xed
red Iighls and have inlensily sucienl lo ensure consicuily considering lhe inlensily of lhe
adjacent lights and the general level of illumination against which they would normally be
viewed. Low intensity obstacle lights on objects with limited mobility such as aerobridges shall
besleadyredTheinlensilyoflheIighlsshaIIbesucienlloensureconsicuilyconsidering
the intensity of the adjacent lights and the general levels of illumination against which they
would normally be viewed. Where the use of low- intensity obstacle lights would be inadequate
oranearIyseciaIvarningisrequiredlhenmediumorhighinlensilyobslacIeIighlsshouIdbe
used.
McdiumIntcnsityLightsMediuminlensilyobslacIeIighlsshaIIbeashingredIighls
excellhalvhenusedincon|unclionvilhhighinlensilyobslacIeIighlslheyshaIIbeashing
vhile Iighls The ash frequency shaII be belveen and er minule Mediuminlensily
obslacIe Iighls Iocaled on an ob|ecl shouId ash simuIlaneousIy Medium inlensily obslacIe
IighlsshouIdbeusedeilheraIoneorincombinalionvilhIovinlensilyobslacIeIighlsvhere
the object is an extensive one or its height above the level of the surrounding ground is greater
than 45m.
High Intcnsity Lights High inlensily obslacIe Iighls shaII be ashing vhile Iighls
High inlensily obslacIe Iighls Iocaled on an ob|ecl shouId ash simuIlaneousIy al a rale
belveenanderminuleHighinlensilyobslacIeIighlsIocaledonalovershouIdash
sequenliaIIyrsllhemiddIeIighlsecondlheloIighlandIasllheboomIighlHighinlensily
obstacle lights should be used to indicate the presence of an object if its height above the level
of the surrounding ground exceeds 150m and an aeronautical study indicates such lights to be
essential for the recognition of the object by day.
Ta!! Ob|ccts. Where an object is
indicated by low or medium intensity obstacle
Iighls and lhe lo of lhe ob|ecl is more
than 45m above the level of the surrounding
ground or the elevation of tops of nearby
buildings (when the object to be marked is
surrounded by buildings) additional lights
shall be provided at intermediate levels.
These additional intermediate lights shall
besacedasequaIIyasraclicabIebelveen
the top lights and ground level or the level of
losofnearbybuiIdingsasarorialevilh
the spacing not exceeding 45m.
LightingnIAircraIt. The lighting of aircraft is detailed at Chapter 6 Rules of the Air.
This subject is covered in detail in the OP syllabus. It should be noted that aircraft parked on
the manoeuvring area are obstacles and should be lit either by the aircraft navigation lights or
by ancillary lighting (anti-collision) that determines the extremities of the aeroplane.
|igurcTa||c|jccis
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Chapter 22
Aerodrome Services and
Obstacle Marking
EnrnutcObstac!cs. Objects located beyond 15 km radius of the aerodrome are normally
consideredlobeobslacIesloaircraflinighlonIyiflheyexceedminheighlIrominenl
objects of less height may be regarded as obstacles if they are on or adjacent to routes regularly
used by helicopters. En-route obstacles are usually lit by steady red lights at night and high
inlensilyashingvhileIighlsbydayInvironmenlaIconsideralionsmayrecIudelheuseof
high intensity lights.
VI5UALAID5FORDENOTINGRE5TRICTEDU5EAREA5
C!nscdrunwaysandtaxiways. A closed marking shall be displayed on a runway or
laxivay or orlion lhereof vhich is ermanenlIy cIosed lo lhe use of aII aircrafl A cIosed
marking shouId be disIayed on a lemorariIy cIosed runvay or laxivay or orlion lhereof
excel vhen lhe cIosing is of shorl duralion and adequale varning by air lrac services is
rovidedOnarunvayacIosedmarkingshaIIbeIacedaleachendoflherunvayororlion
lhereofdecIaredcIosedandaddilionaImarkingsshaIIbesoIacedlhallhemaximuminlervaI
between markings does not exceed 300m. On a taxiway a closed marking shall be placed at
least at each end of the taxiway or portion thereof closed. The marking shall be white when
disIayed on a runvay and shaII be yeIIov vhen disIayed on a laxivay Nole When an
areaislemorariIycIosedfrangibIebarriersormarkingsuliIizingmaleriaIsolherlhanainl
or other suitable means may be used to identify the closed area). When a runway or taxiway
or orlion lhereof is ermanenlIy cIosed aII normaI runvay and laxivay markings shaII be
obIileraledLighlingsonacIosedrunvayorlaxivayororlionlhereofshaIInolbeoeraled
except as required for maintenance purposes.
Nnn!nadbcaringsurIaccsShouIdersforlaxivayshoIdingbaysandaronsandolher
non-load bearing surfaces which cannot readily be distinguished from load-bearing surfaces
andvhichifusedbyaircraflmighlresuIlindamagelolheaircraflshaIIhavelheboundary
between such areas and the load bearing surface marked by a taxi side stripe marking.
Susumu Tokunaga
|igurcC|csc!runuaq
416
Chapter 22
Aerodrome Services and
Obstacle Marking
Prcthrcshn!d arca. When the surface before a threshold is paved and exceeds 60m
inIenglhandisnolsuilabIefornormaIusebyaircrafllheenlireIenglhbeforelhelhreshoId
should be marked with a chevron marking. The chevron marking should point in the direction
of the runway.
EMERGENCYANDOTHER5ERVICE5
RcscucandFircFightingRFF. The principal objective of a RFF service is to save lives.
IorlhisreasonlherovisionofmeansofdeaIingvilhanaircraflaccidenlorincidenloccurring
al or in lhe immediale vicinily of an aerodrome assumes rimary imorlance because il is
within this area that there are the greatest opportunities of saving lives. This must assume at all
limeslheossibiIilyofandneedforexlinguishingarevhichmayoccureilherimmedialeIy
foIIoving an aircrafl accidenl or incidenl or al any lime during rescue oeralions The mosl
imorlanlfaclorsbearingoneecliverescueinasurvivabIeaircraflaccidenlarelhelraining
receivedlheeeclivenessoflheequimenlandlheseedvilhvhichersonneIandequimenl
designaledforrescueandreghlingurosescanbeulinlouseRequiremenlslocombal
buiIding andfueIfarmresorlodeaIvilhfoamingofrunvaysarenollakeninloaccounl
IubIicorrivaleorganisalionssuilabIyIocaledandequiedmaybedesignaledlorovide
lhe RII service Il is inlended lhal lhe re slalion housing lhese organisalions be normaIIy
IocaledonlheaerodromeaIlhoughanoaerodromeIocalionisnolrecIudedrovidedlhe
response time can be met.
Lcvc!nIprntcctinntnbcprnvidcd. The level of protection provided at an aerodrome
for RII shaII be aroriale lo lhe aerodrome calegory IxcelionaIIy vhere lhe number of
movements of the aeroplanes in the highest category normally using the aerodrome is less
lhan in lhe busiesl conseculive lhree monlhs lhe IeveI of roleclion rovided may be
(from 1 January 2000) not less than one category below the determined category. The
aerodromecalegoryshaIIbedelerminedfromlhelabIebeIovbasedonlheIongeslaeroIanes
normaIIyusinglheaerodromeandfuseIagevidlhIfaflerseIeclinglhecalegoryaroriale
to the longest aeroplanes over-all length that aeroplanes fuselage width is greater than the
maximum width for that category then one category higher is used. During anticipated periods
of reduced aclivily lhe IeveI of roleclion avaiIabIe musl be no Iess lhan lhal needed for lhe
highest category of aeroplane planned to use the aerodrome during that time irrespective of the
number of movements.
Category Acrnp!ancOvcra!!Lcngth
Maximum
Fusc!agcWidth
1 0m up to but not including 9m 2m
2 9m up to but not including 12m 2m
3 12m up to but not including 18m 3m
4 18m up to but not including 24m 4m
5 24m up to but not including 28m 4m
6 28m up to but not including 39m 5m
7 39m up to but not including 49m 5m
8 49m up to but not including 61m 7m
9 61m up to but not including 76m 7m
10 76m up to but not including 90m 8m

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Chapter 22
Aerodrome Services and
Obstacle Marking
Rcspnnsc timc. The operational objective of the RFF service should be to achieve
resonselimesoflvominulesandnolexceedinglhreeminuleslolheendofeachrunvayas
veIIasloanyolherarloflhemovemenlareainolimumcondilionsofvisibiIilyandsurface
condilionsResonselimeisconsideredlobelhelimebelveenlheiniliaIcaIIlolheRIIservice
andlhelimevhenlherslresondingvehicIeisinosilionloaIyfoamalaraleofalIeasl
oflhedischargeraleseciedTomeellheoeralionaIob|ecliveasnearIyasossibIein
less than optimum conditions of visibility it may be necessary to provide guidance for RFF
vehicles.
Emcrgcncyacccssrnads. Emergency access roads should be provided on an aerodrome
vhere lerrain condilions ermil lheir conslruclion so as lo faciIilale achieving minimum
resonselimesIarlicuIaraenlionshouIdbegivenlolherovisionofreadyaccessloaroach
areas u lo m from lhe lhreshoId or al Ieasl vilhin lhe aerodrome boundary Where a
fenceisrovidedlheneedforconvenienlaccesslooulsideareasshouIdbelakeninloaccounl
NoleAerodromeserviceroadsmayserveasemergencyaccessroadsvhenlheyaresuilabIe
located and constructed.
FircstatinnsAIIRIIvehicIesshouIdnormaIIybehousedinareslalionSaleIIilere
slalionsshouIdberovidedvheneverlheresonselimecannolbeachievedfromasingIere
slalionThereslalionshouIdbeIocaledsolhallheaccessforRIIvehicIesinlolherunvay
area is direcl and cIear requiring a minimum number of lurns Iroviding lhe resonse lime
canbemellhereslalionneednolbevilhinlheaerodromeconnes
OTHERAERODROME5ERVICE5
AprnnManagcmcnt5crviccWhenvarranledbylhevoIumeoflracandoeraling
condilions an aroriale Aron Managemenl Service nol lo be confused vilh Ground
ConlroIshouIdberovidedonanaronbyanaerodromeATSunilbylheaerodromeoeraling
aulhorily or by a cooeralive combinalion of lhese CommerciaI oeralions roviding lhe
AronManagemenlServiceaIsoroviderefueIIingdeicingbaggageandcargohandIingand
passenger transportation where busses are used. When the aerodrome control tower does not
arlicialeinlhearonmanagemenlserviceroceduresshouIdbeeslabIishedlofaciIilale
the orderly transition of aircraft between the apron management unit and the aerodrome
conlroIloverTyicaIIyvhenlheighlisreadylodearllheiIolviIIcaIIGroundConlroI
and requesl engine slarl This serves nol onIy as a requesl lo acluaIIy slarl lhe engines bul
aIso lo nolifyATC lhal adminislraliveIy and from an engineering oinl of viev lhe ighl is
ready to commence. At this point the tug would be coupled to the aeroplane and the crew
chief vouId be on exlernaI inlercom The iIol vouId lhen requesl ush back and vhen
approved the aircraft will move out on to the taxiway. At the same time the engines will be
slarledandvhenlheighldeckcrevissalisedlhalaIIifveIIlhelugviIIbedisconnecled
and the nose-wheel steering reconnected. When this has been completed the crew chief will
conrmlhalaIIaneIsaresecureandlhalheisnovunIugginghisinlercomIeadAnaron
management service shall be provided with radiotelephony communications facilities. Where
Iov visibiIily rocedures are in eecl ersons and vehicIes oeraling on an aron shaII be
restricted to the essential minimum. An aircraft stand shall be visually monitored to ensure
that the recommended clearance distances are provided to an aircraft using the stand. The
purpose of the apron management service is to:
ReguIalemovemenlvilhlheob|ecliveofrevenlingcoIIisionsbelveenaircrafl
andbelveenaircraflandobslacIes
ReguIaleenlryofaircraflinloandcoordinaleexilofaircraflfromlhearon
vilhlheaerodromeconlroIloverand
418
Chapter 22
Aerodrome Services and
Obstacle Marking
Ensure safe and expeditious movement of vehicles and appropriate regulation
of other activities.
EmcrgcncyVchic!cs. An emergency vehicle responding to an emergency shall be given
riorilyoveraIIolhersurfacemovemenllracAvehicIeoeralingonanaronshaII
Give vay lo an emergency vehicIe an aircrafl laxiing aboul lo laxi or being
ushedorlovedand
Give way to other vehicles in accordance with local regulations.
GrnundscrvicingtnaircraIt. Fire extinguishing equipment suitable for at least initial
inlervenlioninlheevenlofafueIreandersonneIlrainedinilsuseshaIIbereadiIyavaiIabIe
duringlhegroundservicingofanaircraflandlhereshaIIbeameansofquickIysummoninglhe
rescueandreghlingserviceinlheevenlofareorma|orfueIsiIIWhenaircraflrefueIIing
oeralions lake Iace vhiIe assengers are embarking on board or disembarking ground
equipment shall be positioned so as to allow:
Theuseofsucienlnumberofexilsforexediliousevacualionand
A ready escape route from each of the exits to be used in an emergency.
419
Chapter 22
Aerodrome Services and
Obstacle Marking

420
Chapter 22
Aerodrome Services and
Obstacle Marking
QUE5TION5
1. What is the colour of a low intensity obstacle light?
a. Blue.
b. Steady red.
c YeIIov
d. Flashing red.
LovinlensilyobslruclionIighlsonxedob|eclsandsIovmovingob|eclsare
a ashinggreen
b ashingyeIIov
c. steady red.
d. steady blue.
MediuminlensilyobslacIeIighlingviIInormaIIyconsislofashingredIighlsexcellhallhey
maybeashingvhilevhenused
a. in conjunction with high-intensity obstacle lighting.
b. in conjunction with low-intensity obstacle lighting.
c. in conjunction with runway obstacle lighting.
d. in conjunction with the approach path obstacle lighting.
4. OIS stands for:
a. Obstacle Interference Slope.
b ObslacIeIdenlicalionSurface
c. Obstacle Inner Surface.
d ObslacIeIdenlicalionSIoe
5. What colour lights are vehicles moving routinely on the aerodrome required to show?
a. Flashing yellow.
b. Flashing red.
c. Flashing blue.
d. Steady red.
6. What colour are emergency vehicles painted that are used on the manoeuvring area of an
aerodrome?
a. Green.
b. Dayglo orange.
c AsingIeconsicuouscoIourreferabIyredoryeIIovishgreen
d. White and red chequered.
7. An en-route obstacle is located:
a. within 15 kms radius of an aerodrome.
b. outside 5 nms from the boundary of any controlled airspace.
c. beyond 15 kms radius of an aerodrome.
d inanyIocalionlhalmighlbeencounleredduringlhecruisehaseofaighl
421
Chapter 22
Aerodrome Services and
Obstacle Marking
8. An object of limited mobility (an air bridge for example) is lit by:
a. low intensity steady red lights.
b IovinlensilyashingredIighls
c. medium intensity steady red lights.
d mediuminlensilyashingredIighls
MuslanaerodromereslalionbeIocaledvilhinlheconnesofanaerodrome
a Norovidinglheresonselimecanbemel
b Yes
c No
d Norovidingilisvilhinminulesdrivinglimeoflheaerodrome
The IeveI of rescue and re ghling RII faciIilies is deendenl uon lhe calegory of lhe
aerodrome. What factors determine this category?
a AeroIane reference eId Ienglh ving san and ouler main gear vheeI san of lhe
largest aircraft using that aerodrome.
b. The length of the longest runway and the area to be covered.
c. The overall length and the fuselage width of the longest aircraft normally using that
aerodrome.
d. The length of the longest runway and total area of hard standings (including access
roads).
11. The aerodrome category for RFF is based on:
a. the overall length of the longest aeroplane.
b. the longest aeroplane maximum width only.
c. the overall length of the longest aeroplane normally using the aerodrome and its
maximum fuselage width.
d. the overall length of the longest aeroplane normally using the aerodrome and its
maximum fuselage weight.
12. High Intensity Obstacle lights should be:
a ashingvhile
b ashingred
c xedred
d xedorange
422
Chapter 22
Aerodrome Services and
Obstacle Marking
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. B 22.9
2. C 22.9
3. A 22.10
4. B 22.2
5. A 22.6
6. C 22.6
7. C 22.2
8. A 22.6
9. A 22.22
10. C 22.19
11. C 22.19
12. A 22.11
423
Chapter 23 Facilitation
CHAPTERTWENTYTHREE
FACILITATION
Contents
AIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
INTRYANDDIIARTURIOIAIRCRAIT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
424
Chapter 23 Facilitation
425
Chapter 23 Facilitation
AIM
Artic!c . The Standards and Recommended Practices on Facilitation contained in
AnnexarelheoulcomeofArlicIeoflheConvenlionvhichrovideslhallheInlernalionaI
CiviIAvialion Organisalion shaII adol and amend from lime lo lime as may be necessary
international standards and recommended practices and procedures dealing with customs and
immigralionroceduresandolhermaersconcernedvilhlhesafelyreguIarilyandeciency
of air navigation as may from time to time appear appropriate. The policy with respect to
the implementation by States of the Standards and Recommended Practices on Facilitation
is slrenglhened byArlicIe of lhe Convenlion vhich exresses lhe obIigalion acceled by
each Conlracling Slale lo adol aII raclicabIe measures lhrough lhe issuance of seciaI
reguIalionsorolherviselofaciIilaleandexedilenavigalionbyaircraflbelveenlhelerrilories
of Conlracling Slales and lo revenl unnecessary deIays lo aircrafl crevs assengers and
cargoeseciaIIyinlheadminislralionoflheIavsreIalingloimmigralionquaranlinecusloms
andcIearanceandbyArlicIeoflheConvenlionvhichexresseslheunderlakingofeach
Conlracling Slale so far as il may nd raclicabIe lo eslabIish cusloms and immigralion
roceduresaeclinginlernalionaIairnavigalioninaccordancevilhlheraclicesvhichmay
be established or recommended from time to time pursuant to this Convention.
Dncumcntatinn. The documentation required by States for the entry and departure
of aircrafl crev and assengers have evoIved from lhe same documenlalion required for
shipping and much of the terminology has been retained. The rapid movement of aircraft and
lhe hiIosohy of exediling lhe movemenl of aircrafl has Ied lo rocedures vhere lhe oId
documenlsarenovoulofdaleandvheresliIInecessaryhavebeenreIacedbyeIeclronicdala
systems and digital transmission systems.
ENTRYANDDEPARTUREOFAIRCRAFT
Gcncra!. Government regulations and procedures applicable to the clearance of aircraft
shall be no less favourable than those applied to other forms of transportation. Contracting
SlalesshaIIadolroceduresforlhecIearanceofaircraflincIudinglhosenormaIIyaIiedfor
avialion securily uroses as veII as lhose aroriale for narcolics conlroI vhich viII be
applied and carried out in such a manner as to retain the advantage of speed inherent in air
transport.
DncumcntsNodocumenlsolherlhanlhoserovidedforinAnnexshaIIberequired
by the public authorities from operators for the entry and departure of aircraft. Where a
Contracting State introduces electronic data interchange (EDI) techniques for a clearance
funclion aulhorilies shouId aIso execule a Ian for migralion lo comIele reIiance on lhe
electronic system for the exchange of required information with a view towards phasing out the
requirement for preparation and exchange of paper documents. If a state permits a traveller to
enter that state without a visa (i.e. under the US visa waiver scheme) the state of departure will
not require the traveller to obtain any other document relating to the travellers identity other
than the passport.
Gcncra!Dcc!aratinn. A general declaration is an internationally recognised form which
conlainsdelaiIsoflheaircraflRegislralionMarkandnalionaIilylheighlnumberdaleand
IaceofdearlureanddeslinalionIlaIsoconlainsdelaiIsoflheighlroulingandlhenumber
of crew and passengers boarding and disembarking at the various locations. It contains a health
decIaralionandacerlicalesignedbylheIICoranaulhorisedagenlIlislheevenluaIaimlo
eIiminalefromlhegeneraIdecIaralionanyreferenceloassengersConlraclingSlalesviII
not require the presentation of the General Declaration when this information can be
readily obtained in an alternative and acceptable manner.
426
Chapter 23 Facilitation
A Contracting State which continues to require the presentation of the General Declaration
shaIIaccelilvhensignedbyeilherlheaulhorisedagenlorlheiIolincommandbulmay
vhen necessary require lhe heaIlh seclion lhereof lo be signed by a crev member vhen lhe
General Declaration itself has been signed by a non-crew member. Where Contracting States
require the presentation on entry and departure of aircraft of information relating to crew
memberssuchinformalionshaIIbeIimiledlolhenumberofcrevonboardWherelheGeneraI
DecIaralionconlinuesloberequiredlhisinformalionshaIIberovidedinlhecoIumnheaded
TolaInumberofcrev
General Declaration C155
*Outward/Inward
Operator ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................
Flight prefix
Marks of nationality and registration .......................................................... and number .............................................. Date ....................
Departure from ........................................................................................... Arrival at ...................................................................................
(Place) (Place)
Flight Routing
(Place column always to list origin, every en-route stop and destination)
Place Total number of crew Number of passengers on this stage
......................................................................................................................................... Departure Place:
......................................................................................................................................... Embarking........................................................
......................................................................................................................................... Through on same flight ...................................
.........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................... Arrival Place:
......................................................................................................................................... Disembarking...................................................
......................................................................................................................................... Through on same flight ...................................
Declaration of Health For official use
Persons on board with illnesses other than airsickness or the effects of accidents
(including persons with symptoms or signs of illness such as rash, fever, chills,
diarrhoea) as well as those cases of illness disembarked during the flight.
.........................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
Any other conditions on board which may lead to the spread of disease
.........................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
Details of each disinsecting or sanitary treatment (place, date, time, method) during
the flight. If no disinsecting has been carried out during the flight give details of
most recent disinsecting.
.........................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................
Signed if required ............................................................................................................
Crew member concerned
I declare that all statements and particulars contained in this General Declaration, and in any supplementary forms required to be
presented with this General Declartion are complete, exact and true to the best of my knowledge and that all through passengers
*will continue/have continued on this flight
Signature .........................................................................................................................
Authorised agent or Pilot-in-command
Further supplies of this form can be obtained from any Collector of Customs and Excise
*Delete as necessary
C155 PT (January 2001)
Data Protection Act 1998
HM Customs and Excise collects information in order to administer the taxes for which it is responsible (such as VAT, insurance
premium tax, excise duties, air passenger duty, landfill tax), and for detecting and preventing crime.
Where the law permits we may also get information about you from third parties, or give information to them, for example in order
to check its accuracy, prevent or detect crime or protect public funds in other ways. These third parties may include the police,
other government departments and agencies.
|igurcGcncra|!cc|araiicn
427
Chapter 23 Facilitation
ManiIcstsInaddilionlolheGeneraIDecIaralionIassengerandCargomanifeslsare
additional internationally recognised documents that detail names of passengers and the nature
of goods embarked on the aeroplane. When a Contracting State has eliminated the Passenger
Manifesl and no Ionger requires lhe GeneraI DecIaralion excel for uroses of aeslalion
il shaII accel al lhe olion of lhe oeralor eilher a GeneraI DecIaralion or an aroriale
aeslalion signed by lhe aulhorised agenl or iIolin command on one age onIy of lhe
CargoManifeslTheaeslaliononlheCargoManifeslcanberovidedbymeansofarubber
stamp.
PasscngcrBaggagc. Contracting States shall not require the presentation of a list of the
number of ieces of accomanied baggage Oeralors carrying baggage shaII uon requesl
from lhe aulhorilies rovide lhem vilh any avaiIabIe informalion vhere il is nol olhervise
been provided for customs clearance purposes by the passenger.
Ora!Dcc!aratinn. An oral (spoken) declaration is acceptable concerning the content of
crew and passenger baggage. A random inspection of baggage is acceptable.
Cnmp!ctinn nI Dncumcnts Documenls may be lyevrien roduced in eIeclronic
dalaformorhandvrienininkorindeIibIeenciIrovidingilisinaIegibIeform
AdvanccdNnticatinnnIArrivaIWherenonscheduIeighlsaremadebyanaircrafl
registered in an ICAO contracting state which wish to land in another contracting state for non
lrac uroses nd freedom ighl lhe submission of a ighl Ian is considered sucienl
advancednolicalionlolheSlaleofLandinglhallheighlislobeconducledHoveverlhe
aulhorilyofSlaleofLandingviIIaccellhalighlrovidinglheighlIanisreceivedalIeasllvo
hours in advance of the arrival and that landing occurs at a previously designated international
airorlWheresuchaddresseesarerequiredlobenoliedcuslomsimmigralionoIiceelc
lheighlIanislobeaddressedlolhearorialeaulhoriliesoflheslaleconcerned
Crcw and nthcr Opcratnrs Pcrsnnnc!. Contracting States shall ensure that when
inseclion of crev members and lheir baggage is required on arrivaI or dearlure such
inspection shall be carried out as expeditiously as possible. Contracting States shall provide
facilities which will enable crew members of their airlines to obtain without delay and without
chargecrevmemberscerlicalesCMCvaIidforlhecrevmemberslermofemIoymenl
Note: Tnc CMC uas !ctc|cpc! as a car! jcr usc jcr i!cniicaiicn purpcscs |q |cin igni crcu an!
ca|inacn!anis|catinginccrcu|iccnccsicscrtcincirprinarqpurpcsccjacsiingicincprcjcssicna|
qua|icaiicnscjincignicrcu
InlhecaseofairIineighlcrevandcabinaendanlsvhorelainlheircrevmembercerlicales
inlheirossessionvhenembarkinganddisembarkingremainallheairorlvherelheaircrafl
has sloed or vilhin lhe connes of cilies ad|acenl lherelo and dearl on lhe same aircrafl
or lheir nexl reguIarIy scheduIed ighl each Conlracling Slale shaII accel a crev member
cerlicalesforlemoraryadmissionlolheSlaleandshaIInolrequireaassorlorvisa
Note|iisincinicnicjinisprctisicninaiacrcuncn|crccriicaicsna|||crcccgnizc!asasaiisjacicrq
i!cniiiq!ccuncnictcnijincnc|!crisncianaiicna|cjincSiaiccj|cgisirqcjincaircrajicnunicnnc
scrtcs|iisnci!csirc!ic!isccuragcCcniraciingSiaicsjrcnissuingsucncrcuncn|crccriicaicsic
rcsi!cnia|icncrcuncn|crsijincqarcui||ingic!csc
NoteTncinp|cncniaiicncjinispcrniisrapi!an!ccicni!ispcsiiicncjpcrscnnc||qair|incsTnc
ju|||cncicannci|c!critc!jrcnincscprctisicnsuni|cscncSiaicsuiinnc|!acccpiancccjincn
428
Chapter 23 Facilitation
Nnnschcdu!cdOpcratinns. Each Contracting State shall extend privileges of temporary
admissionloighlcrevandcabinaendanlsofanaircrafloeraledforremuneralionorhire
bul nol engaged in scheduIed inlernalionaI air services sub|ecl lo lhe requiremenl lhal such
ighlcrevandcabinaendanlsmusldearlonlheaircraflonilsrslighlouloflhelerrilory
of the State.
429
Chapter 23 Facilitation
QUE5TION5
1. The documents which allow an aircraft entry to a country:
a muslbelyevrien
b canbehandvrieninbIockcailaIsininkorindeIibIeenciI
c. are accepted at the discretion of the state of arrival.
d muslbelyevrienorsenlineIeclronicdalaformal
2. Can an oral declaration concerning the passenger or crew baggage be acceptable?
a Never
b Yes
c. Only crew baggage.
d. Only passenger baggage.
3. The General Declaration is signed by the:
a. the Pilot in Command only.
b. the Pilot in Command or the Agent.
c anyighlcrevmember
d. the Operator.
Whereanaircraflregisleredinaconlraclingslaleismakingaighloverforeign lerrilory for
noncommerciaIurosesorisIandingfornonlracurosesadvancednolicalionislobe
given to the foreign state. The information is to be received:
a. at least 2 hours in advance of arrival.
b. at least 4 hours in advance of arrival.
c. at least 1 hour in advance of arrival.
d. at least 12 hours in advance of the planned ETA.
5. The ICAO Annex which deals with the entry and departure of persons and their baggage for
inlernalionaIighlsis
a. Annex 6.
b. Annex 15.
c. Annex 9.
d. Annex 8.
IncasesvhereavisilorlraveIIingbyairhoIdsavaIidassorlandnovisaisrequiredofhim
contracting states:
a. shall not require the traveller to obtain any other identity document before boarding
the aeroplane.
b. may require the traveller to obtain any other identity document before boarding the
aeroplane.
c incerlaincasesmayrequireaddilionaIidenlicaliondocumenls
d. none of the above answers is correct.
430
Chapter 23
Facilitation
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. B 23.9
2. B 23.8
3. B 23.5
4. A 23.10
5. C 23.1
6. A 23.4
431
Chapter 24 Search and Rescue
CHAPTERTWENTYFOUR
5EARCHANDRE5CUE
Contents
DIIINITIONSANDARIVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
ISTALISHMINTANDIROVISIONOISARSIRVICI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
COOIIRATIONITWIINSTATIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
OIIRATINGIROCIDURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
432
Chapter 24 Search and Rescue
433
Chapter 24 Search and Rescue
DEFINITION5ANDABBREVIATION5
DcnitinnsThefoIIovingdenilionsarerequiredknovIedge
Item Dcnitinn
Alert phase
A situation wherein apprehension exists as to the safety of an
aircraft and its occupants.
Distress phase
A situation wherein there is a reasonable certainty that an aircraft
and its occupants are threatened by grave and imminent danger
or require immediate assistance.
Emergency phase
Agenericlermmeaningaslhecasemaybeuncerlainlyhase
alert phase or distress phase.
Operator
A erson organisalion or enlerrise engaged in or oering lo
engage in an aircraft operation.
Pilot-in-command (PIC)
The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft
duringighllime
Rescue co-ordination
centre (RCC)
AunilresonsibIeforromolingecienlorganisalionofSAR
service and for co-ordinating the conduct of SAR operations
within a SAR region.
State of Registry The State on whose register the aircraft is entered.
Uncertainty phase
A situation wherein uncertainty exists as to the safety of an
aircraft and its occupants.
E5TABLI5HMENTANDPROVI5IONOF5AR5ERVICE
Basis nI Estab!ishmcnt. Contracting States shall arrange for the establishment
and provision of SAR services within their territories. Such services shall be provided on a
hourbasisInrovidingassislanceloaircraflindislressandlosurvivorsofaircraflaccidenls
Contracting States shall do so regardless of the nationality of such aircraft or survivors.
Estab!ishmcnt nI 5AR Rcginns Contracting States shall delineate the SAR regions
within which they will provide SAR service. Such regions shall not overlap. Boundaries of
SARregionsshouIdinsofarasisreasonabIyraclicabIebecoincidenlvilhlheboundariesof
corresondingighlinformalionregions
Estab!ishmcnt and Dcsignatinn nI 5AR 5crvicc Units. Contracting States shall
establish a rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) in each SAR region. Contracting States should
eslabIishrescuesubcenlresvheneverlhisvouIdimrovelheeciencyofSARservicesThe
organisation of SAR services is the responsibility of the RCC and any sub centres established.
In areas where public telecommunications facilities would not permit persons observing
an aircraft in emergency to notify the rescue co-ordination centre concerned directly and
romlIy Conlracling Slales shouId designale suilabIe unils of ubIic or rivale services as
alerting posts.
434
Chapter 24 Search and Rescue
COOPERATIONBETWEEN5TATE5
Rcquircmcnt. Contracting States shall co-ordinate their SAR organisations with
lhose of neighbouring Conlracling Slales Conlracling Slales shouId in so far as raclicabIe
develop common SAR procedures to facilitate co-ordination of SAR operations with those of
neighbouringSlalesSub|ecllosuchcondilionsasmayberescribedbyilsovnaulhoriliesa
Contracting State shall permit immediate entry into its territory of rescue units of other States
for the purpose of searching for the site of aircraft incidents and rescuing survivors of such
accidents. The authorities of a Contracting State which wishes its rescue units to enter the
lerrilory of anolher Conlracling Slale for SAR uroses shaII lransmil a requesl giving fuII
delaiIs of lhe ro|ecled mission and lhe need for il lo lhe rescue coordinalion cenlre of lhe
State concerned or to such other authority as has been designated by that State. The authorities
of Contracting States shall:
ImmedialeIyacknovIedgelhereceilofsucharequesland
AssoonasossibIeindicalelhecondilionsifanyundervhichlhero|ecled
missionmaybeunderlaken
AgrccmcntwithOthcr5tatcs. Contracting States should enter into agreements with
neighbouringSlalesseingforlhlhecondilionsforenlryofeacholhersrescueunilsinlolheir
respective territories. These agreements should also provide for expediting entry of such
units with the least possible formalities. Each Contracting State should authorise its rescue co-
ordination centres to:
requeslfromolherrescuecoordinalioncenlressuchassislanceincIuding
aircraflvesseIsersonneIorequimenlasmaybeneeded
granlanynecessaryermissionforlheenlryofsuchaircraflvesseIs
ersonneIorequimenlinloilslerriloryand
makelhenecessaryarrangemenlsvilhlhearorialecuslomsimmigralion
or other authorities with a view to expediting such entry.
Assistancc tn Othcr 5tatcs. Each Contracting State should authorise its rescue co-
ordinalioncenlreslorovidevhenrequesledassislanceloolherrescuecoordinalion
cenlresincIudingassislanceinlheformofaircraflvesseIsersonneIorequimenl
OPERATINGPROCEDURE5
InInrmatinn Cnnccrning Emcrgcncics. Contracting States should encourage any
person observing an accident or having reason to believe that an aircraft is in an emergency
to give immediately all available information to the appropriate alerting post or to the rescue
co-ordination centre concerned. Any authority or any element of the SAR organisation having
reason to believe that an aircraft is in an emergency shall give immediately all available
informalion lo lhe rescue coordinalion cenlre concerned Rescue coordinalion cenlres shaII
immedialeIy uon receil of informalion concerning aircrafl in emergency evaIuale such
information and determine the extent of the operation required. When information concerning
aircrafl in emergency is received from olher sources lhan air lrac service unils lhe rescue
co-ordination centre shall determine to which emergency phase the situation corresponds and
shall apply the procedures applicable to that phase.
435
Chapter 24 Search and Rescue
FirstAircraIt nn 5ccnc If lhe rsl aircrafl lo reach lhe scene of an accidenl is nol a
SAR aircraft the PIC of that aircraft shall take charge of on-scene activities of all other aircraft
subsequenlIyarrivingunliIlhersldedicaledSARaircraflreacheslhesceneoflheaccidenlIf
inlhemeanlimelheaircraflisunabIeloeslabIishcommunicalionvilhlhearorialerescue
coordinalioncenlreorairlracservicesunililshaIIbymuluaIagreemenlhandoverloan
aircraft capable of establishing and maintaining such communications until the arrival of the
rslSARaircrafl

Dircctinn nI 5urIacc CraIt. When it is necessary for an aircraft to direct a surface
crafl lo lhe Iace vhere an aircrafl or surface crafl is in dislress lhe aircrafl shaII do so by
lransmiingreciseinslruclionsbyanymeansalilsdisosaIAIIshisalseamainlainaradio
watch on the HF Maritime Distress and calling frequency 2 182 Khz (2.182 Mhz). In coastal
valers aII shiing mainlains a valch on VHI IM Chan Aircrafl do nol normaIIy carry
VHI IM lransmiers bul may be abIe lo reIay lhrough Coasl Guard unils or coaslaI radio
stations. If no radio communication can be established the aircraft shall use the appropriate
signaIloaracllheaenlionoflhevesseIIflheIICcanidenlifylhevesseIbynameandorl
of regislralion ainled on lhe slern lhe RCC can ass messages lo lhe vesseI lhrough lhe
maritime communications system.
Cnmmunicatinn with 5urvivnrs. When it is necessary for an aircraft to convey
informalionlosurvivorsorsurfacerescueunilsandlvovaycommunicalionisnolavaiIabIe
ilshaIIifraclicabIedrocommunicalionequimenllhalvouIdenabIedireclconlacllobe
eslabIished or convey lhe informalion by droing lhe message When a ground signaI has
beendisIayedlheaircraflshaIIindicalevhelherlhesignaIhasbeenundersloodornolorif
lhisisnolraclicabIebyuseoflhearorialesignaI
|igurc|A|Ninrc!M|Ausc!jcr|cngrangcSA|
Ian Older
436
Chapter 24 Search and Rescue
5igna!s with 5urIaccAircraIt The following manoeuvres performed in sequence by
an aircraft mean that the aircraft wishes to direct a surface craft towards an aircraft or a surface
craft in distress (repetition of such manoeuvres has the same meaning):
Circling the surface craft at least once
Crossing the projected course of the surface craft close ahead at low altitude
and:
x Rockinglhevingsor
x OeningandcIosinglhelhroIeor
x Changing the propeller pitch.
Heading in the direction in which the surface craft is to be directed.
AssistanccNnLnngcrRcquircdIfassislanceisnoIongerrequiredbyanaircrafllhe
aircraft should indicate the fact by crossing the wake of the surface craft close astern at a low
aIliludeandrockinglhevingsoroeningandcIosinglhelhroIeorchanginglheroeIIer
pitch.
5AR5igna!sThesignaIsdelaiIedbeIovshaIIvhenusedhavelhemeaningindicaled
therein. They shall be used only for the purpose indicated and no other signals likely to be
confusedvilhlhemshaIIbeusedUonobservinganyoflhesignaIsaircraflshaIIlakesuch
action as may be required by the interpretation if the signal.
GrnundAir Visua! 5igna! Cndc In order to communicate basic messages and
inslruclions from ground arlies lo aircrafl an inlernalionaIIy agreed syslem of signaIs has
beeneslabIishedTherearelvoselsSignaIsfromcrashsurvivorssignaIsfromsearchleams
GrnundAirVisua!5igna!CndcInrUscby5urvivnrs. The following signals may be
seloulinsomeformmarkedinsnovoiIonsandburnedgrassinoenareasloaskforheI
Mcssagc 5ymbn!
Rcquircassistancc V
2 Rcquircmcdica!assistancc X
Nnncgativc N
Ycsarm Y
Prncccdinginthisdircctinn

AirtnGrnund5igna!s. To indicate that the ground signals have been understood (lack
oflhesignaIindicaleslhallhegroundsignaIisnolundersloodduringlhehoursofdayIighl
rocklheaircraflsvingsduringlhenormaIhoursofdarknessashingonandolvicelhe
aircrafls Ianding Iighls or if nol so equied by svilching on and o lvice ils navigalion
lights.
|igurcGrcun!Airsigna|sjrcnsurtitcrs
437
Chapter 24 Search and Rescue
438
Chapter 24
Search and Rescue
QUE5TION5
IfyouobserveadislressIighlonlhegroundalnighlyoushouId
a ashIandingIighlsornavigalionIighlslvice
b yoverasIovasossibIelhenashIighls
c yincircIesabovelhenashIighls
d yalrianguIaraern
WhaldoeslheSARsignaIXonlhegroundmean
a. We need help.
b. We are OK.
c. We need medical assistance.
d. We have gone away.
AircraflNoislherslaircraflallhesceneofaSARincidenlbulhasnomeans of conlacling
lheRCCbulNoaircrafldoesandarrivesshorlIyaflervardsIinaIIyNoaircraflaseciaIisl
SAR aircraft) arrives on the scene. What is the transfer of command sequence?
a Noassumescommandlhroughoul
b NofoIIovedbyNofoIIovedbyNo
c NolhenbydiscrelionorhandoverloNonaIIyNoonarrivaI
d NoonIy
4. For what period are SAR services to be provided by a Contracting State?
a. During the hours of operation of an FIR.
b. On a 24 hour basis.
c hours before unliI hours afler lhe rsl ighl arrives and lhe Iasl dearling ighl
within an FIR.
d. During the hours of both commercial and military air operations within the FIR.
Three aircrafl are al lhe scene of an accidenlAircrafl arrives rsl bul cannol conlaclATC
Aircraft 2 arrives second and has good communications with ATC. Aircraft 3 arrives last and is
an SAR aircraft. Who assumes responsibility?
a. Aircraft 1 and 2 wait for aircraft 3 to arrive.
b. Aircraft 2 because he has good communications with ATC.
c. Aircraft 2 until aircraft 3 arrives.
d. Aircraft 1 until aircraft 2 arrives who then passes control to aircraft.
6 Which of the following means Require assistance?
a Y
b X
c. R
d. V
439
Chapter 24 Search and Rescue
WhensighlingadislressareduringdaylimeyoushouId
a. circle once.
b ashIandingIighlsornavigalionIighls
c. rock wings.
d sendlheIeerRinMorsebyIighlslolhedovnedaircrafl
WhoisresonsibIeforlheorganisalionofanecienlSARservice
a. FIC and RCC.
b. RCC and rescue sub-centres.
c IICRCCandACC
d. ICAO through regional navigation plans.
WhaldoeslheSARgroundsignaI> mean?
a. We have gone south.
b. We need assistance.
c. We need medical assistance.
d Yes
440
Chapter 24
Search and Rescue
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. A 24.17
2. C 24.16
3. C 24.9
4. B 24.2
5. D 24.9
6. D 24.16
7. C 24.17
8. B 24.4
9. B 24.16
441
Chapter 25 Security
CHAPTERTWENTYFIVE
5ECURITY
Contents
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
ORGANISATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
IRIVINTATIVISICURITYMIASURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
MANAGIMINTOIRISIONSITOACTSOIUNLAWIULINTIRIIRINCI. . . . 445
IURTHIRSICURITYINIORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
442
Chapter 25 Security
443
Chapter 25 Security
INTRODUCTION
DcnitinnsThefoIIovingdenilionsareexaminabIe
Item Dcnitinn
Airside
The movemenl area of an airorl ad|acenl lerrain and buiIdings or
orlionslhereofaccesslovhichisconlroIIedusedlobecaIIedlhe
aeronautical part).
Screening
The application of technical or other means which are intended to
idenlifyandordeleclveaonsexIosivesorolherdangerousdevices
articles or substances which may be used to commit an act of unlawful
interference.
Security
Safeguarding civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference. This
objective is achieved by a combination of measures and human and
material resources.
Security restricted
area
Thoseareasoflheairsideofanairorlvhichareidenliedasriorily
riskareasvhereinaddilionloaccessconlroIolhersecurilyconlroIs
are applied. Such areas will normally include all commercial aviation
passenger departure areas between the screening point and the
aircrafl lhe ram baggage makeu areas incIuding lhose vhere
aircraft are being brought into service and screened baggage and cargo
are resenl cargo sheds maiI cenlres airside calering and aircrafl
cleaning premises.
Unidenlied
baggage
aggage al an airorl vilh or vilhoul a baggage lag vhich is nol
ickedubyoridenliedvilhaassenger
Anncx. The Annex to the Chicago which contains the SARPs for Security is Annex
17. Information applicable to the implementation of security policy is also contained in other
ICAOubIicalionsandlheaenlionofsludenlsisdravnloaragrahforrevision
OBJECTIVE5
Gcncra!. The aim of aviation security shall be to safeguard international civil aviation
oeralionsagainslaclsofunIavfuIinlerferenceSafelyofassengerscrevgroundersonneI
andlhegeneraIubIicshaIIbelherimaryob|ecliveofeachConlraclingSlaleinaIImaers
related to safeguarding against acts of unlawful interference with international civil
aviation.
Organisatinn Iach Conlracling Slale shaII eslabIish an organisalion deveIo Ians
and imIemenl rocedures vhich logelher rovide a slandardized IeveI of securily for lhe
oeralionofinlernalionaIighlsinnormaIoeralingcondilionsandvhicharecaabIeofraid
expansion to meet any increased security threat.
Faci!itatinn. Each Contracting State should whenever possible arrange for the security
measuresandrocedureslocauseaminimumofinlerferencevilhordeIaylolheacliviliesof
international civil aviation.
444
Chapter 25 Security
ORGANI5ATION
Natinna!Organisatinn. Each Contracting State shall establish a national civil aviation
security programme the objective of which will be to safeguard international civil aviation
oeralionsagainslunIavfuIinlerferencelhroughreguIalionsraclicesandroceduresvhich
lakeaccounloflhesafelyreguIarilyandeciencyofighlsThisviIIincIudelhedesignalion
of an aroriale aulhorily lo coordinale aII securily aclivilies lo imIemenl lhe securily
rogramme lo ensure lhe rogramme meels lhe needs of inlernalionaI lrac lo eslabIish
airorlsecurilycommieesloensurelhalconlingencyIansareinIaceforaclsofunIavfuI
inlerference and lo ensure lraining rogrammes are imIemenled The rogramme may be
extended to cover domestic air service. A copy of the programme is to be given to ICAO.
Airpnrt Dcsign The slale is required lo ensure lhal airorl design requiremenls
including architectural and infrastructure related requirements necessary for the implementation
of security measures are integrated into the design and construction of new facilities and
alterations to existing facilities at airports.
Intcrnatinna! Cnnpcratinn The mosl eeclive means of combaling inlernalionaI
terrorism is to act within a co-ordinated framework and to common standards. Each contracting
state is therefore required to co-operate with other States in order to adapt their respective national
civiI avialion securily rogrammesas necessary lo make avaiIabIe lo olherSlales on requesl
a vrien version of lhe aroriale arls of ils nalionaI civiI avialion securily rogramme
loincIudeinilsbiIaleraIagreemenlsonairlransorlacIausereIaledloavialionsecurilylo
ensurelhalrequeslsfromolherslalesforseciaIsecurilymeasuresinreseclofasecicighl
orseciedighlsbyoeralorsofsucholherSlalesasfarasmayberaclicabIearemelloco
operate with each other in the development and exchange of information concerning training
rogrammesandlocooeralevilholherSlalesinlheeIdofresearchanddeveIomenlofnev
securilyequimenlvhichviIIbeersalisfyinlernalionaIciviIavialionsecurilyob|eclives
PREVENTATIVE5ECURITYMEA5URE5
PrnhibitcdOb|cctsIachconlraclingslaleshaIIeslabIishmeasureslorevenlveaons
explosives or any other dangerous devices which may be used to commit an act of unlawful
inlerference lhe carriage or bearing of vhich is nol aulhorised from being inlroduced by
any means vhalsoever on board an aircrafl engaged in inlernalionaI civiI avialion Nole In
aIyinglhisslandardseciaIaenlionmuslbeaidlolhelhrealosedbyexIosivedevices
conceaIed in or using eIeclric eIeclronic or baery oeraled ilems carried as hand baggage
andorincheckedbaggage
Law EnInrccmcnt Occrs. Contracting States should ensure that the carriage of
veaons on board aircrafl by Iav enforcemenl ocers and olher aulhorised ersons acling
inlheerformanceoflheirduliesrequiresseciaIaulhorisalioninaccordancevilhlheIavs
of lhe Slales invoIved The iIolincommand is nolied as lo lhe number of armed ersons
andlheirsealIocalionAddilionaIIyaIIenrouleslalesasveIIaslhedearlureanddeslinalion
slalesandlheaerodromeaulhoriliesmuslarovelhelransilofarmedsecurilyersonneI
Passcngcrs and Thcir Baggagc. Each contracting state is required to ensure that
adequate measures exists to control the transfer and transit of passengers and their cabin
baggage to prevent unauthorised article being taken on board aircraft engaged in international
civil aviation. States are also to ensure that there is no possibility of mixing or contact between
assengers sub|ecled lo securily conlroI and olher ersons nol sub|ecled lo securily conlroI
aflerlhesecurilyscreeningalairorlshasbeenaIiedIfmixingdoesoccurlheassengers
and their baggage will be re-screened before boarding an aeroplane.
445
Chapter 25 Security
Deportees and Pcrsnns in Custndy. States are required to establish procedures to
ensure that the operator and the PIC are informed when deportees and persons in custody are
travelling so that the appropriate security measures can be enforced. Operators are to ensure
that procedures are detailed for the carriage of deportees and persons in custody. JAR OPS
increases this responsibility to include other olenliaIIydisruliveassengerslheseincIude
person who have been declared as inadmissible.
ChcckcdBaggagcandOthcrGnnds. States are required to establish measures to ensure
that operators do not transport the baggage of passengers who are not on board the aeroplane
unIesslhebaggageisslovedinsearalecomarlmenlsfromlheassengersandilhasbeenlhe
subject of other security control measures.
AcccssSlalesarerequiredloeslabIishroceduresandidenlicalionsyslemslorevenl
unauthorised access by persons or vehicles to the airside of an aerodrome serving international
civiIavialionandolherareasofimorlancelolhesecurilyoflheaerodromeieATC
etc..).
MANAGEMENTOFRE5PON5ETOACT5OFUNLAWFULINTERFERENCE
5aIctynIPasscngcrsandCrcw. Each Contracting State shall take adequate measures
for the safety of passengers and crew of an aircraft which is subjected to an act of unlawful
interference until their journey can be continued.
Air Trac Cnntrn! Iach Conlracling Slale resonsibIe for roviding air lrac
services for an aircraft which is the subject of an act of unlawful interference shall collect all
erlinenl informalion on lhe ighl of lhal aircrafl and lransmil lhal informalion lo aII olher
SlaleresonsibIeforlheAirTracServicesunilsconcernedincIudinglhoseallheairorlof
knovnorresumeddeslinalionsolhallimeIyandarorialesafeguardingaclionmay
belakenenrouleandallheaircraflsknovnIikeIyorossibIedeslinalionIachConlracling
State should ensure that information received as a consequence of action taken is distributed
IocaIIylolheAirTracServicesunilsconcernedlhearorialeairorladminislralionslhe
operator and others concerned as soon as practicable.
Prnvisinn nIAssistancc. Each Contracting State shall provide such assistance to an
aircraflsub|ecledloanaclofunIavfuIseizureincIudinglherovisionofnavigalionaidsair
lracservicesandermissionloIandasmaybenecessilaledbylhecircumslances
DctcntinnnnthcGrnundIachConlraclingSlaleshaIIlakemeasuresasilmaynd
raclicabIeloensurelhalanaircraflsub|ecledloanaclofunIavfuIseizurevhichhasIanded
in its territory is detained on the ground unless its departure is necessitated by the overriding
dulyloroleclhumanIiferecognizinglheimorlanceofconsuIlalionsvhereverraclicabIe
belveen lhe Slale vhere lhal aircrafl has Ianded and lhe Slale of lhe oeralor of lhe aircrafl
and nolicalion by lhe Slale vhere lheaircraflhas Ianded lo lheSlales ofassumedor slaled
destination. The state is required to make provision for the comfort and safety of the crew and
passengers until they can continue their journey.
Opcratnr 5ccurity Prngrammc. Each contracting state is required to ensure that air
lransorloeralorshaveeslabIishedimIemenledandmainlainavriensecurilyrogramme
that meets the requirements of the national aviation security programme for that State. Where
codesharingisimIemenledlheoeralorisloensureconrmlhalilsarlnerairIinecomIies
with the operator security programme.
446
Chapter 25 Security
FURTHER5ECURITYINFORMATION
OthcrAnncxcsandDncumcnts. The content of other ICAO Annexes and Documents
relates directly to security. The student is required to revise the following.
ExtractsIrnmAnncxRu!csnIthcAir
Un!awIu! intcrIcrcncc. An aircraft which is being subjected to unlawful
inlerference shaIIendeavourlonolifylhearorialeATSuniloflhisfacl
anysignicanl circumslances associaled lherevilh and any devialion from
lhecurrenlighlIan necessilaled by lhe circumslances in order lo enabIe
lheATSunillogiveriorilylo lheaircraflandlominimiseconiclvilholher
aircraft. The following procedures are intended as guidance for use by aircraft
when unlawful interference occurs and the aircraft is unable to notify an ATS
unit of this fact.
ActinnbyPICUnIessconsideralionsaboardlheaircrafldiclaleolherviselhe
iIolincommandshouIdaemlloconlinueyingonlheassignedlrackand
at the assigned track and at the assigned cruising level at least until able to
notify an ATS unit or within radar coverage.
Departure from assigned track. When an aircraft subjected to an act of unlawful
interference must depart from its assigned track or its assigned cruising level
vilhoul being abIe lo make radioleIehony conlacl vilh ATS lhe iIolin
commandshouIdvhereverossibIe
x AemllobroadcaslvarningsonlheVHIemergencyfrequencyand
olherarorialefrequenciesunIessconsideralionsaboardlheaircrafl
diclale olhervise Olher equimenl such as onboard lransonders
dala Iinks elc shouId aIso be used vhen il is advanlageous lo do so
andcircumslancesermiland
x IroceedinaccordancevilhaIicabIeseciaIroceduresforinighl
conlingencies vhere such rocedures have been eslabIished and
promulgated
x If nol aIicabIe regionaI rocedures have been eslabIished roceed
alaIeveIvhichdiersfromlhecruisingIeveIsnormaIIyusedforIIR
ighlinlheareabymflifaboveILorbymflif
below FL290.
ExtractsIrnmAnncxOpcratinnnIAircraItPartIIntcrnatinna!Cnmmcrcia!Air
Transpnrt
5ccuritynIthcightcrcwcnmpartmcnt. In all aeroplanes which are equipped
vilhaighlcrevcomarlmenldoorlhisdoorshaIIbecaabIeofbeingIocked
It shall be lockable from within the compartment only.
Acrnp!ancscarchprnccdurcchcck!ist. An operator shall ensure that there is
on board a checklist of the procedures to be followed in searching for a bomb
in case of suspected sabotage. The checklist shall be supported by guidance on
the course of action to be taken should a bomb or suspicious object be found
andinformaliononlheIeaslriskbombIocalionseciclolheaeroIane
447
Chapter 25 Security
Training programmes. An operator shall establish and maintain a training
programme which enables crew members to act in the most appropriate
manner to minimize the consequences of acts of unlawful interference. An
operator shall also establish and maintain a training programme to acquaint
appropriate employees with preventive measures and techniques in relation
loassengersbaggagecargomaiIequimenlsloresandsuIiesinlended
for carriage on an aeroplane so that they contribute to the prevention of acts of
sabotage or other forms of unlawful interference.
Rcpnrting acts nI un!awIu! intcrIcrcncc. Following an act of unlawful
inlerferencelheiIolincommandshaIIsubmilvilhouldeIayareorlofsuch
an act to the designated local authority.
LcastRiskbnmbLncatinnSeciaIisedmeansofaenualinganddireclinglhe
blast should be provided for use at the least-risk bomb location.
Carriagc nI Wcapnns. Where an operator accepts the carriage of weapons
removed from assengers lhe aeroIane shouId have rovision for sloving
such weapons in a place so that they are inaccessible to any person during
ighllime
ExtractsIrnmAnncxFaci!itatinn
Transit and TransIcr nI Passcngcrs and Crcw. Contracting States should
ensurelhalhysicaIfaciIiliesalairorlsarerovidedvherelhevoIumeand
nalureoflhelracsorequirevherebycrevandassengersindirecllransil
onlhesameaircraflorlransferringloolherighlsmayremainlemorariIy
vilhoul being sub|ecl lo inseclion formaIilies excel for avialion securily
measuresorinseciaIcircumslancesNoleThisrovisionisnolinlendedlo
prevent the application of appropriate narcotics control measures.
Inadmissib!c Pcrsnns. Where a person is returned to the Operator for
repatriation to the State of Departure or any other State to which the person
isadmissibIeiflhalersonisinadmissibIelolheSlaleofDeslinalionnolhing
will prevent the operator from seeking compensation from the passenger in the
State of Departure.
Deportees. Contracting States removing deportees from their territory are to
assume all obligations and costs associated with the removal.
Extracts Irnm thc prnccdurcs Inr air navigatinn scrviccs Ru!cs nI thcAir andAir
Trac5crviccsDOC
Emcrgcncy Prnccdurcs. The various circumstances surrounding each
emergency situation preclude the establishment of exact detailed procedures
to be followed. The procedures outlined herein are intended as a general guide
loairlracservicesersonneIAirlracconlroIunilsshaIImainlainfuIIand
comIelecoordinalionandersonneIshaIIuselheirbesl|udgemenlin
handIingemergencysilualionsToindicalelhalilisinaslaleofemergency
an aircraft equipped with an SSR transponder might operate the equipment as
follows:
x ModeACode
or
x Mode A Code lo indicale secicaIIy lhal il is being
subjected to unlawful interference.
448
Chapter 25 Security
PrinrityAnaircraflknovnorbeIievedlobeinaslaleofemergencyincIuding
being subjected to unlawful interference shall be given priority over other
aircraft.
Un!awIu! intcrIcrcncc Air lrac services ersonneI shaII be reared lo
recognize any indication of the occurrence of unlawful interference with an
aircraft.
Vcricatinn nI spccia! 55R cndcs. Whenever unlawful interference with an
aircraflissusecledandvhereaulomalicdislincldisIayofSSRModeACode
andCodeisnolrovidedlheradarconlroIIershaIIaemlloverify
hissusicionbyseinglheSSRdecoderloModeACodeandlhereafler
to Code 7700. An aircraft equipped with an SSR transponder is expected to
oeralelhelransonderonModeACodeloindicalesecicaIIylhalilis
the subject of unlawful interference. The aircraft may operate the transponder
onModeACodeloindicalelhalilislhrealenedbygraveandimminenl
dangerandrequiresimmedialeassislance
ATC Rcspnnsc. Whenever unlawful interference with an aircraft is known
orsusecledATSunilsshaIIromlIyaendlorequeslsbyorloanlicialed
needsoflheaircraflincIudingrequeslsforreIevanlinformalionreIalingloair
navigalion faciIilies rocedures and services aIong lhe roule of ighl and al
anyaerodromeofinlendedIandingandshaIIlakesuchaclionasisnecessary
loexedilelheconduclofaIIhasesoflheighlATSunilsshaIIaIso
x Transmil and conlinue lo lransmil informalion erlinenl lo lhe safe
conducloflheighlvilhoulexeclingareIyfromlheaircrafl
x MonilorandIollherogressoflheighlvilhlhemeansavaiIabIe
and co- ordinate transfer of control with adjacent ATS units without
requiring lransmissions or olher resonses from lhe aircrafl unIess
communication with the aircraft remains normal.
x InformandconlinuelokeeinformedarorialeATSunilsincIuding
lhoseinad|acenlighlinformalionregionsvhichmaybeconcerned
vilhlherogressoflheighl
Note: |napp|qinginisprctisicnacccuninusi|ciakcncja||incjacicrsunicnnaq
accincprcgrcsscjincigniinc|u!ingjuc|cn!uranccan!incpcssi|i|iiqcj
su!!cncnangcsinrcuican!!csiinaiicnTncc|jcciitcisicprcti!casjarin
a!tanccasispraciica||cininccircunsianccscacnATSuniiuiinapprcpriaic
injcrnaiicnasicinccxpccic!crpcssi||cpcnciraiicncjincaircrajiiniciis
arcacjrcspcnsi|i|iiq
x Nolify
The operator or his designated representative.
The appropriate RCC in accordance with appropriate alerting
procedures.
The designated security authority. It is assumed that the
designaled securily aulhorily andor lhe oeralor viII in
turn notify other parties concerned in accordance with pre-
established procedures.
449
Chapter 25 Security
x ReIay aroriale messages reIaling lo lhe circumslances associaled
vilh lhe unIavfuI inlerference belveen lhe aircrafl and designaled
authorities.
ExtractsIrnmAnncxAcrndrnmcs
Isn!atcdAircraItParkingPnsitinn. An isolated aircraft parking position is to
be designated for the parking of aircraft subject to unlawful interference. The
position shall be never less then 100m from other parking positions. It is not to
be over underground utilities such as gas and aviation fuel and where feasible
electrical or communications cables.
450
Chapter 25
Security
QUE5TION5
WhenlakingrearmsonboardanaeroIanecarriedbyanaulhorisedersonvhoneedslobe
informed?
a. The commander.
b. The commander and the authority of the state of destination.
c. The authority of the state of destination.
d. The operator.
InICAOAnnexSecurilyvhaldoesSecurilymean
a. To safeguard international civil aviation operations against Unlawful Interference.
b. To safeguard international civil aviation operations.
c. To safeguard international civil aviation operations against hi-jacking.
d. To safeguard international civil aviation operations against terrorism.
3. ICAO Annex 17 states that each State is responsible for establishing security at:
a. all aerial locations within the FIR.
b. at each aerodrome serving international civil aviation.
c. all international airports.
d. all international and commercial airports.
ConlraclingSlalesmusldesignasecurilyrogrammevilhregardloUnIavfuIInlerferencelo
safeguard:
a assengerscargoandcrevsforinlernalionaIighls
b assengerscrevsgroundersonneIandlhegeneraIubIic
c crevsonIyforinlernalionaIighls
d assengerscargoandcrevsforinlernalionaIighlsandallheirdiscrelionaIIoflhese
fordomeslicighls
IfarmedersonneIarelobecarriedloensurelhesafelyofanaircrafllhen
a. the PIC must be informed.
b. the state of departure must notify the state of arrival.
c. the state of departure must notify the airport of arrival.
d. all of the above.
AccordingloAnnexsecurilyisdefinedasacombinalionofmeasuresandhuman
resources intended to safeguard:
a. civil aviation operations against acts of unlawful interference.
b. international civil aviation operations against acts of unlawful interference.
c. international aviation operations against acts of unlawful interference.
d. aviation operations against acts of unlawful interference.
7. Operators are to ensure that procedures are detailed for the carriage of:
a. deportees and people under lawful custody.
b deorleeseoIeunderIavfuIcuslodyandinadmissibIes
c. only people under lawful custody when physically restrained.
d. only deportees and inadmissibles.
451
Chapter 25 Security
8. Airlines are to have procedures in place when carrying potentially disruptive passengers which
include:
a inadmissibIesdeorleesersonsincuslody
b. persons in custody.
c inadmissibIesdeorlees
d deorleesersonsincuslody
9. An aircraft subjected to Unlawful Interference cannot be denied:
a. permission to land and fuel.
b AirTracServicesermissionloIandandlheuseofnavigalionaIaids
c. food and water for the occupants of the aircraft.
d AirTracServicesandfueI
TovhomdoeslheNalionaISecurilyorganisalionofaslalehavelomakeavaiIabIeavrien
version of its national security programme for civil aviation?
a. ICAO and ECAC.
b. ICAO.
c. ECAC.
d. Other States.
11. An isolated parking area is to be provided for an aircraft subjected to unlawful interference
which is never less than ............ metres from other parking positions:
a. 1000.
b. 2500.
c. 3000.
d. 100.
12. A national civil aviation security programme must be established by:
a. ICAO and other organisations including the Contracting States concerned.
b. ICAO.
c. all Contracting States.
d. ECAC.
MemberSlalesshouIdensurelhalsecicsecurilymeasuresareconducledinlheairlransorl
of potentially disruptive passengers. These are seen as:
a. none of the answers are correct.
b deorleesinadmissibIeassengersandersonsincuslody
c. deportees and inadmissible passengers only.
d. deportees and persons in custody.
14. The State shall take adequate measures for the safety of passengers and crew of an aircraft
subjected to an act of unlawful interference until:
a. the end of the subsequent investigation.
b. as such time as requested by the passengers and crew.
c. their journey can be continued.
d. they are returned to their country of origin.
452
Chapter 25
Security
15. A person found to be inadmissible shall be given to the custody of the operator who shall be
responsible for:
a lransorlalionlovherelheersoncommencedhisher|ourneyorloanyIacevhere
the person is admissible at the expense of the operator without redress.
b lransorlalionlovherelheersoncommencedhisher|ourneyorloanyIacevhere
the person is admissible at the expense of the operator. However nothing precludes the
oeralorfromrecoveringfromsuchaersonanylransorlalioncoslsarisingfromhis
her inadmissibility.
c. returning such a person to their country of origin.
d. returning such a person to their normal residence.
453
Chapter 25 Security
454
Chapter 25
Security
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. B 25.9
2. A Denilions
3. B 25.2
4. D 25.5
5. D 25.9
6. A 25.5
7. A 25.11
8. A 25.11
9. B 25.16
10. D 25.5
11. D 25.24
12. C 25.3
13. B 25.11
14. C 25.17
15. B 25.22
455
Chapter 26
Aicraft Accident and
Incident Investigation
CHAPTERTWENTY5IX
AIRCRAFTACCIDENTANDINCIDENTINVE5TIGATION
Contents
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
O}ICTIVIOIINVISTIGATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
INVISTIGATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
SIRIOUSINCIDINTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
IUCONSIDIRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
QUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
ANSWIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
456
Chapter 26
Aicraft Accident and
Incident Investigation
457
Chapter 26
Aicraft Accident and
Incident Investigation
INTRODUCTION
Anncx. The ICAO SARPs for the investigation of aircraft accidents and incidents are
contained in Annex 13.
App!icabi!ity UnIess olhervise slaled lhe secicalions for invesligalions aIy
to activities following accidents and incidents wherever they occurred. In Annex 13 the
secicalions concerning lhe Slale of lhe Oeralor aIy onIy vhen lhe aircrafl is Ieased
charleredorinlerchangedandvhenlhalSlaleisnollheSlaleofRegislryandifildischargesin
resecloflheAnnexinarlorinvhoIelhefunclionsandobIigalionsoflheSlaleofRegislry
AccidcntAnaccidenlisdenedasanoccurrenceassocialedvilhlheoeralionofan
aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of
ighlunliIsuchlimeasaIIsuchersonshavedisembarkedinvhich
A person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of:
x einginlheaircraflor
x DireclconlaclvilhanyarloflheaircraflincIudingarlsvhichhave
becomedelachedfromlheaircraflor
x Direct exposure to jet blast.
Ixcel vhen lhe in|uries are from naluraI causes seIf inicled or inicled by olher
ersons or vhen lhe in|uries are lo a slovavay hiding oulside lhe areas normaIIy
avaiIabIelolheassengersandcrevor
The aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which:
x AdverseIy aecls lhe slrucluraI slrenglh erformance or ighl
characlerislicsoflheaircrafland
x WouId normaIIy require ma|or reair or reIacemenl of lhe aecled
component.
Ixcel for engine faiIure or damage vhen lhe damage is Iimiled lo lhe engine ils
covIingsoraccessoriesorfordamageIimiledloroeIIersvinglisanlennaslyres
brakesfairingssmaIIdenlsorunclurehoIesinlheaircraflskinor
The aircraft is missing or completely inaccessible.
NoteTnc!icrcncc|ciuccnanacci!cnian!ascricusinci!cni|icscn|qinincrcsu|i
458
Chapter 26
Aicraft Accident and
Incident Investigation
DcnitinnsThefoIIovingaddilionaIdenilionsarerequiredknovIedge
Item Dcnitinn
Incident
An occurrence olher lhan an accidenl associaled vilh lhe
oeralion of an aircrafl vhich aecls or couId aecl lhe safely
of operation.
Investigation
A process conducted for the purpose of accident prevention
vhich incIudes lhe galhering and anaIysis of informalion
lhe draving of concIusions incIuding lhe delerminalion of
causes and vhen aroriale lhe making of safely
recommendations.
Serious incident
An incident involving circumstances indicating that an accident
nearly occurred. (Examples given at para 26.3).
Serious injury
An injury which is sustained by a person in an accident and
which:
Requires hospitalisation for more than 48 hours
commencing within seven days from the date the injury
vasreceivedand
Results in a fracture of any bone (except simple fractures
ofngersloesornoseor
InvoIves Iaceralions vhich cause severe haemorrhage
nervemuscIeorlendondamageor
InvoIvesin|uryloaninlernaIorganor
InvoIves second or lhird degree burns or any burns
aeclingmorelhanoflhebodysurfaceor

InvoIves veried exosure lo infeclious subslances or
injurious radiation.
State of design
The State having jurisdiction over the organisation responsible
for the type design.
State of manufacture
The State having jurisdiction over the organisation responsible
forlhenaIassembIyoflheaircrafl
State of occurrence
The State in the territory of which an accident or incident
occurs.
459
Chapter 26
Aicraft Accident and
Incident Investigation
OBJECTIVEOFINVE5TIGATION
Ob|cctivc. The objective of the investigation of an accident or incident shall be the
prevention of accidents and incidents. It is not the purpose of this activity to apportion blame
or liability.
INVE5TIGATION5
Rcspnnsibi!ityInrInstigatinganInvcstigatinn. Where an accident or serious incident
occurs in the territory of a contracting state (other than the State of Registry or the State of the
OeralorlheSlaleofoccurrenceisloinsligalelheinvesligalionIflheaccidenlorincidenl
occurred in a non conlracling slale lhe slale of regislry shouId endeavour lo insligale an
investigation. If the accident or incident occurred outside the territory of any state or the location
oflheoccurrencecannolbedelerminedlheSlaleofRegislryisloinsligalelheinvesligalionIf
lheSlaleofOccurrencedecIinesloinvesligalelheincidenllheSlaleofRegislryorlheSlaleof
the Operator) may investigate.
ParticipatinnTheSlaleofRegislrylheSlaleoflheOeralorlheSlaleofDesignandlhe
SlaleofManufaclureareenlilIedlobereresenledalanyinvesligalionAnyslalevhichvhen
requesledrovidesinformalionfaciIiliesorexerlslolheslaleconduclinglheinvesligalion
is enlilIed lo be reresenled al lhe invesligalion Where lhe cilizens of a slale have suered
falaIiliesorseriousin|urieslhalslaleifarequeslhasbeenmadeviIIbeermiedloaoinl
an expert who should be entitled to:
Visit the scene of the accident
Have access to the relevant factual information
Iarlicialeinlheidenlicalionoflheviclims
Assist in questioning survivors who are citizens of that state
ReceiveacoyoflhenaIreorl
Fina!RcpnrtThenaIreorlofaninvesligalionofanaccidenlislobesenlvilhlhe
minimumdeIaybylheSlaleconduclinglheinvesligalionlo
The state that instigated the investigation
The state of Registry
The state of the Operator
The state of Design
The state of Manufacture
AnyslalevhoscilizenshavesuerfalaIiliesorin|uriesand
AnyslalevhichrovidedreIevanlinformalionsignicanlfaciIiliesorexerls
ICAOIflheinvesligalionconcernedanaircraflvilhmaxmassoverkglhenaI
report is also to be sent to ICAO.

460
Chapter 26
Aicraft Accident and
Incident Investigation
5ERIOU5INCIDENT5
Examp!cs. The incidents listed are typical examples of incidents that are likely to be
serious incidenls The Iisl is nol exhauslive and onIy serves as guidance lo lhe denilion of
serious incident.
Near coIIisions requiring an avoidance manoeuvre lo avoid a coIIision or an
unsafe situation or when an avoidance action would have been appropriate.
ConlroIIedighlinlolerrainonIymarginaIIyavoided
AborledlakeosonacIosedorengagedrunvay
Takeos from a cIosed or engaged runvay vilh marginaI searalion from
obstacle(s).
LandingsoraemledIandingsonacIosedorengagedrunvay
Gross faiIures lo achieve redicled erformance during lakeo or iniliaI
climb.
Iiresandsmokeinlheassengercomarlmenlincargocomarlmenlsorengine
res even lhough such res vere exlinguished by lhe use of exlinguishing
agents.
Ivenlsrequiringlheemergencyuseofoxygenbylheighlcrev
Aircrafl slrucluraI faiIures or engine disinlegralions nol cIassied as an
accident.
MuIliIe maIfunclions of one or more aircrafl syslems seriousIy aecling lhe
operation of the aircraft.
IIighlcrevincaacilalioninighl
Fuel quantity requiring the declaration of an emergency by the pilot.
TakeoorIandingincidenlsincIudingundershoolingoverrunningorrunning
olhesidesofrunvays
SyslemsfaiIuresvealherhenomenaoeralionsoulsidelhearovedighl
enveIoeorolheroccurrencesvhichcouIdhavecauseddicuIliesconlroIIing
the aircraft.
IaiIuresofmorelhanonesysleminaredundancysyslemmandaloryforighl
guidance and navigation.
461
Chapter 26
Aicraft Accident and
Incident Investigation
EUCON5IDERATION5
Dircctivc The IU CounciI Direclive secies lhe requiremenls for
Accident Investigation relating to accidents and serious incidents concerning aircraft registered
in member states. The directive is similar in content to Annex 13.
5cnpc. The directive states that the EU investigation procedure will apply to all
accidenlsandseriousincidenlslhaloccurinlhelerriloryofcommunilyslalesaIsoloaccidenls
and serious incidents occurring outside the community territory where such occurrences are
not investigated by another state.
462
Chapter 26
Aicraft Accident and
Incident Investigation
QUE5TION5
AnaircraflvheeIgelssluckinlhemudvhiIsllaxiinglolherunvayforlakeoandsuslains
damage. Is this:
a. an incident.
b. an accident.
c. a serious incident.
d. a normal operating hazard.
2. Who is responsible for the investigation of an accident?
a. State of Occurrence.
b. State or Registry.
c. ICAO.
d. Combination of A and B.
3. The purpose of Accident Investigations is the prevention of future accidents and:
a. apportion blame.
b. to improve manufacturing design.
c. to help judicial proceedings.
d. nothing more.
}usl before arrivaI al lhe aron lhe aircrafl uninlenlionaIIy laxies onlo lhe grass causing lhe
wheel to ride into a pothole. The aircraft has sustained serious damage and consequently the
crew is forced to delay the departure:
a considering lhal lhere is no hysicaI in|ury and lhal lhe ighl has ended lhe aclion
lhal has lo be laken is mereIy conned lo nolicalion of lhe insurance comany lhe
mechaniclheoeralorandersonsvhoareinchargeofrunvaysandlaxivays
b. this is an accident and the crew should follow the appropriate procedures.
c. this is an incident and the captain has to report this to the aerodrome authority within
48 hours.
d. this is an irregularity in the exploitation. This crew should inform the operator about
the delay caused by necessary repairs.
5. Who is entitled to be represented at any investigation?
a. The State of Registry.
b. The State of Design.
c. The State of Manufacture.
d. All the above.
463
Chapter 26
Aicraft Accident and
Incident Investigation
464
Chapter 26
Aicraft Accident and
Incident Investigation
AN5WER5
Queslion Answer Reference
1. B 26.3
2. D 26.5
3. D 26.4
4. B 26.3
5. D 26.6
465
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
CHAPTERTWENTY5EVEN
REVI5IONQUE5TION5
Contents
RIVISIONQUISTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .467
ANSWIRSTORIVISIONQUISTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492
}AASIICIMINIXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
ANSWIRSTOSIICIMIN}AAIXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .506
466
Revision Questions Chapter 27
467
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
REVI5IONQUE5TION5
1. ICAO Annex 17 lays down the rules to establish security measures for passengers with regard
to:
a cabin baggage checked baggage cargo and olher goods access conlroI and airorl
design.
b. cabin baggage and checked baggage.
c. passenger baggage.
d cabinbaggagecheckedbaggagecargoandolhergoodsandaccessconlroI
2. Ixcel in seciaI cases lhe eslabIishmenl of changeover oinls shaII be Iimiled lo roule
segments of:
a. 100 nms or more.
b. 75 nms or more.
c. 60 nms or more.
d. 50 nms or more.
IxcelvhencIearedbyanATCunilaVIRighlcannolenlerorIeaveaConlroIZonevhen
the cloud base is lower than:
a flandIesslhankmsvisibiIily
b flandIesslhankmsvisibiIily
c flor less than 5 kms visibility.
d flandIesslhankmsvisibiIily
WhenrequeslingloengagelhearkingbrakeamarshaIIerviIIgivelhefoIIovingsignaI
a. arms repeatedly crossed over the head.
b. arms placed down and crossed in front of the body moving horizontally.
c raisearmandhandvilhngersexlendedhorizonlaIIyinfronloflhebodyThencIench
sl
d. arms placed horizontally sideways with palms towards the ground beckoning
downwards.
Whendoingarocedurelurngoingoulboundlurnedolracklhelimelaken
from the beginning of the turn for Cat A and Cat B aircraft is:
a. 1 minute 30 seconds.
b. 1 minute.
c. 1 minute 15 seconds.
d. 2 minutes.
ConcerninglhelhreeenlrieslolhehoIdlheenlryhaslobeovnon
a. heading.
b. track.
c. course.
d. bearing.
468
Revision Questions Chapter 27
WhengiveninslruclionsloselamodecodeaiIolshaII
a onIyuselhevordviIco
b. only read back the code.
c onIyuselhevordroger
d. read back mode and code.
In an inslrumenl aroach rocedure lhe segmenl vhere lhe aircrafl is Iined u vilh lhe
runway centre line and when the decent is commenced is called:
a. intermediate approach segment.
b. initial approach segment.
c. arrival segment.
d naIaroachsegmenl
9. What does DER mean?
a. distance end of route.
b. departure end of runway.
c. distance end of runway.
d. departure end of route.
WhalaclionshouIdbelakenvhenduringanIIRighlinVMCyousueraradiofaiIure
a. Return to the aerodrome from which you departed.
b ConlinueyinginVMCandIandassoonasossibIe
c. Maintain your assigned altitude and land at the nearest aerodrome at which there are
VMC conditions.
d ConlinueyingalyourassignedaIliludeandslarlyouraroachalyourITA
AnATSairsaceinvhichIIRandVIRighlsareermiedandaIIighlsreceiveairlrac
conlroIserviceIIRighlsaresearaledfromolherIIRighlsandreceivelracinformalion
concerningVIRighlsandVIRighlsreceivelracinformalionconcerningaIIolherighls
iscIassiedas
a. Airspace E.
b. Airspace B.
c. Airspace A.
d. Airspace D.
12. What is the speed limit (IAS) in airspace E?
a klsforIIRandVIRbeIovIL
b klsforIIRonIybeIovIL
c klsforIIRandVIRalaIIaIliludes
d klsforIIRonIybeIovIL
WhohaslhenaIaulhorilyaslolhedisosilionoflheaircrafl
a. The State.
b. The Operator.
c. The Commander.
d. The owner.
469
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
14. Who is responsible for the safety of an ATC clearance concerning terrain clearance?
a TheATSreorlingoinlvhenaccelinglheighlIan
b. The Captain.
c. The Operator of the aircraft.
d. ATC.
InModeIaraIIeIRunvayoeralionsaminimumradarsearalioncanberovidedof
a. 3 nms between aircraft on the same localiser course.
b. 2 nms between aircraft on the same localiser course.
c. 3 nms between aircraft on adjacent localiser courses.
d. 5 nms between aircraft on the same localiser course.
IoraconlroIIedighlbeforedearlureaighlIanmuslbeIedalIeasl
a minulesbeforeobIocklime
b. 60 minutes before departure.
c. 10 minutes before departure.
d minulesbeforeobIocklime
AnaircraflonaradararoachshouIdbeloIdloconsidermakingamissedaroachvhen
lhe aircrafl is nol visibIe on lhe radar screen for a signicanl eriod of lime and vhen il is
within:
a. the last 2 nms of the approach.
b. the last 5 nms of the approach.
c. the last 4 nms of the approach.
d. the last 3 nms of the approach.
CIocksandolherlimingequimenlusedbyairlracservicesmuslbecheckedinorderlobe
able to give the time within plus or minus:
a. 15 seconds of UTC.
b. 10 seconds of UTC.
c. 30 seconds of UTC.
d. 1 minute of UTC.
TracksearalionbelveenaircraflusinglhesamexieDRhaslobeaIiedvhenaircrafl
a haveloy
0
searaledaladislanceofmiIesormorefromlhex
b haveloy
0
searaledaladislanceofnmsormorefromlhex
c haveloy
0
searaledaladislanceofnmsormorefromlhex
d haveloy
0
searaledaladislanceofmiIesormorefromlhex
An aircrafl making an aroach musl be loId lo make a missed aroach vhen no Ianding
cIearance has been received from lhe nonradar lrac conlroIIer vhen lhe aircrafl is al a
distance of:
a. 5 nms from the touchdown.
b. 1.5 nms from the touchdown.
c. 4 nms from the touchdown.
d. 2 nms from the touchdown.
470
Revision Questions Chapter 27
Temorary changes of Iong duralion in secicalions for AII suIemenls and informalion
of shorl duralion vhich conlains exlensive lexl and or grahicaI reresenlalion has lo be
published as AIP supplements. Long duration is considered to be:
a. 3 months or longer.
b. 2 months or longer.
c. 1 year or longer.
d 6 months or longer.
HovmanyredIighlshavelobeseenbylheiIolvhosaircraflonnaIaroachfoIIovsa
normaIIAIIdenedgIidealh
a. 2
b. none
c. 3
d. 1
23. A Clearway is a squared area that is established to:
a roleclaircraflduringlakeoandIanding
b loenabIelheaircrafllosloinlhecaseofanaborledlakeo
c loenabIelheaircrafllomakeaarloflheiniliaIcIimbloaseciedaIlilude
d lodecreaselheriskofdamageloaircraflvhichrunolheendoflherunvay
IlsaysinlheAnnexoflheICAOconvenlionlhallhesizesofaireIdsareseciedbycodesfor
dierenlrunvaysWhalislheminimumvidlhofarunvayvilhrunvaycode
a. 40m.
b. 45m.
c. 50m.
d. 35m.
Whensomeonesadmianceloacounlryisrefusedandhesheisbroughlbacklolheoeralor
for transportation away from the territory of the state:
a. the operator wont take any transportation costs from the passenger which arise from
hisherinadmissibiIily
b lhe oeralor is nol resonsibIe for lhal erson lo vhom lhe admiance lo lhe hosl
country is refused.
c. the operator and state of the operator are both responsible for the refused person.
d. the operator will not be prevented from taking any transport costs from a person which
arisesoulofhisherinadmissibiIily
AnaircraflvhichisnolconcernedvilhreguIarinlernalionaIighlsandvhichmakesaighl
loorviaadedicaledaerodromeofamemberSlaleandislemorariIyfreeoflaxesisadmied
will stay within that State without paying customs:
a. during a period which is determined by the State.
b. during a period of 24 hours.
c. during a period of 12 hours.
d. during a period of 48 hours.
471
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
Anaircrafliesovermounlainouslerrainalvhichasearchandrescueoeralionisconducled
lo nd survivors of a Iane crash The iIol sees a ground sign in lhe form of a X This
indicates:
a. we have found all personnel.
b. engineering assistance required.
c. landing impossible.
d. require medical assistance.
A conlroIIed ighl is required lo inform lhe concerned ATC unil vhen lhe average TAS al
cruising level deviates or is expected to deviate compared to that given TAS in the Flight Plan
by at least plus or minus:
a. 10%.
b. 3%.
c. 5%.
d. 2%.
Concerningaircraflregislralionmarkingsnocombinalionscanbeusediflheycanbemislaken
for:
a codesvhichareusedforidenlicalionofICAOdocumenls
b IeercombinalionsbeginningvilhQ
c IeercombinalionsvhichareusedbyinlernalionaIcodeofsignaIs
d IeercombinalionsvhichareusedbyinlernalionaIcodeofsignaIs
WhalislheruIeconcerningIeveIorheighllheaircraflshouIdmainlainvhenyingIIRoulside
controlled airspace unless otherwise directed?
a flabovelhehigheslobslacIevilhinkmsoflheheading
b fl above lhe highesl obslacIe vilhin kms of lhe eslimaled osilion of lhe
aircraft.
c flabovelhehigheslobslacIevilhinnmsoflheIannedlrack
d flabovelhehigheslobslacIevilhinnmsoflheIannedlrack
31. An aircraft is expected to overtake another aircraft is closing from behind in a sector of:
a. 50

both sides of the longitudinal axis.


b. 60

both sides of the longitudinal axis.


c. 80

both sides of the longitudinal axis.


d. 70

both sides of the longitudinal axis.


AircraflAiesinVMCvilhanATCcIearancevilhinaconlroIareaAircraflvilhoulATC
clearance approaches at roughly the same height on a converging heading. Who has right of
way?
a AircraflAregardIessoflhedireclionfromvhicharoaches
b AircraflregardIessoflhedireclionfromvhichAaroaches
c AircraflAifislolherighlofhim
d AircraflifAislolheIeflofhim
472
Revision Questions Chapter 27
TheersonhavingoveraIIresonsibiIilyofanaircraflduringighlislhe
a. pilot in command.
b. operator.
c. ATC Controller if the aircraft is in controlled airspace.
d. owner of the aircraft.
IiIolsarenolaIIovedlouselheindenlfuncliononlheirSSRunIess
a. they operate outside controlled airspace.
b. if asked by ATC.
c. with are within controlled airspace.
d. they operate a transponder with mode C.
35. Transition Level:
a viIIbegivenbyNOTAM
b isubIishedoneveryaroachandIandingcharlforeveryaireId
c. will be calculated by the pilot in command.
d. will be calculated by the ATC service of an ATS unit.
IlisermiedinaarlicuIarsecloriflhereisaconsicuousobslacIeinlhevisuaImaneuvering
areaoulsidelhenaIandmissedaroachareaslodisregardlhalobslacIeWhenusinglhis
olionlheubIishedrocedureshaIIbe
a circIingisonIyermiedinVMC
b. recommended not to execute a circling approach in the entire sector in which the
obstacle is situated.
c. prohibit a circling approach for the concerned runway.
d. forbid a circling approach in the entire sector in which the obstacle is located.
37 If the track on an instrument departure is published the pilot is expected to:
a. correct for the known wind so as to stay within controlled airspace.
b. ask ATC for another heading to steer correcting for wind.
c. ignore the wind and proceed with a heading equal to the track.
d. ask ATC for permission to correct heading for wind.
CIose lo an aerodrome lhal viII be used for Ianding by aircrafl lhe verlicaI osilion shaII be
expressed as:
a. altitude above sea level on or above transition altitude.
b ighlIeveIonorunderlhelransilionaIlilude
c ighlIeveIonorunderlhelransilionIeveI
d. altitude above sea level at or below transition altitude.
AmanoeuvrevherealurnismadefromadesignaledlrackfoIIovedbyalurninlheoosile
direclionloenabIelheaircraflloylherescribedlrackiscaIIed
a. base turn.
b. reverse track.
c. race track.
d. procedure turn.
473
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
ThelransilionofaIliludeloighlIeveIandvisaversaismade
a. on the transition level in the climb and transition altitude in the descent.
b. at the transition altitude in the climb and transition level in the descent.
c. at the transition level only.
d. at the transition altitude only.
LighlsonanaireIdorinlhevicinilycanbeexlinguishediflheycanbereIil
a. at least 5 minutes before the ETA of the aircraft.
b. at least 15 minutes before the ETA of the aircraft.
c. at least 30 minutes before the ETA of the aircraft.
d. at least 60 minutes before the ETA of the aircraft.
AirTracServiceunilconsislsof
a AirTracConlroIUnilsandIIighlInformalionCenlers
b IIighlInformalionCenlersandAirServicesReorlingoces
c AirTracConlroIUnilsIIighlInformalionCenlersandAirTracServicesReorling
oces
d AirServicesReorlingocesandAirTracConlroIUnils
43. An aircraft is maintaining FL 150 in Class C Airspace. Another aircraft below at FL 140 receives
a clearance to descend to FL 70. There is severe turbulence in the area. When at earliest can a
clearance be expected to descend to FL 140 or lower?
a. When the other aircraft has reported to be descending through FL 130.
b. When the other aircraft has reported to have left FL 120.
c. When the other aircraft has reported to have left FL 140.
d. When the other aircraft has reached FL 70.
44. When the captain cannot comply with an ATC clearance:
a lheCalainmuslaccellheATCcIearancebecauseilisbasedonaIedighlIan
b heshe may requesl an amended cIearance and if execulabIe heshe viII accel lhal
clearance.
c heshe may ask a nev cIearance and lhe aroriale ATC musl granl himher lhal
clearance.
d heshemaysuggeslanevcIearanceloATC
45. The transition from IFR to VFR is done:
a. on the Captains initiative.
b. whenever an aircraft in VMC leaves controlled airspace.
c. if told by ATC.
d allhecIearanceIimildisregardinglhevealhersilualion
46. According to international agreements the wind direction must be given in degrees magnetic
converted with local magnetic variation from the true wind direction:
a beforeIandingandlaxiforlakeo
b inanlicialionoflheuervindforareasNorlhof
0
NandSoulhof
0
S.
c vhenanaircraflisrequesledbylhemeleoroIogicaIoceoronseciedoinlslogive
a PIREP.
d. when the local variation is greater than 10
0
East or West.
474
Revision Questions Chapter 27
The IongiludinaI searalion minimum based on lime belveen aircrafl al lhe same IL vhere
there is enough coverage for navigation aids and the preceding aircraft has a higher true
airspeed of 20 kts minimum is:
a. 3 minutes.
b. 15 minutes.
c. 5 minutes.
d. 10 minutes.
48. When independent parallel approaches are used on parallel runways and headings (vectors)
aregivenloinlercellheILSlhegivenheadingmuslbesuchlhallheaeroIanecaneslabIish
onlheIocaIisercourseorlheMLSnaIaroachlrackinIeveIighloveralIeasl
a nmsbeforelheILSgIidesIoeorlheseciedMLSeIevalionangIeisinlerceled
b nmsbeforelheILSgIidesIoeorlheseciedMLSeIevalionangIeisinlerceled
c nmsbeforelheILSgIidesIoeorlheseciedMLSeIevalionangIeisinlerceled
d nmsbeforelheILSgIidesIoeorlheseciedMLSeIevalionangIeisinlerceled
49. What is the length of the approach lighting system of a Cat II precision landing runway?
a. 900m.
b. 600m.
c. 300m.
d. 150m.
50. A PAPI must consist of:
a arovofmuIliIeIighlsorairedunilsvilhoullransilionzonealequaIdislancefrom
each other.
b lvorovsofmuIliIeIighlsorairedunilsvilhoullransilionzonealequaIdislance
from each other.
c arovofmuIliIeIighlsorairedunilsvilhoullransilionzonealequaIdislancefrom
each other.
d lvorovsofmuIliIeIighlsorairedunilsvilhoullransilionzonealequaIdislance
from each other.
51. Lights at the end of the runway shall be:
a. steady unidirectional lights radiating white light in the direction of the runway.
b. steady white lights with controllable intensity.
c. steady omnidirectional red lights with controllable intensity.
d. steady unidirectional lights radiating red light in the direction of the runway.
52. An aircraft is allowed to descend below the MSA if:
a. the pilot follows the published approach procedures.
b. the aircraft receives radar vectors.
c. the pilot has visual contact with the runway and surrounding terrain and is able to
maintain visual contact.
d. all of the above.
475
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
ReeliliveighlIansRILscannolbeusedforighlsolherlhanlhoseexeculedfrequenlIyon
the same days of following weeks and:
a. for at least 20 occasions or every day over a period of at least 20 consecutive days.
b. for at least 20 consecutive days.
c. for at least 10 occasions or every day over a period of at least 10 consecutive days.
d. for at least 20 occasions.
TheVMCminimaforaVIRighlvilhinATSairsacecIassare

a. 8 km visibility at or above 3050m AMSL and clear of cloud.
b nmsvisibiIilyalorabovemAMSLmhorizonlaIandmverlicaIcIearof
cloud.
c kmsvisibiIilyalorabovemAMSLmhorizonlaIandmverlicaIcIearof
cloud.
d. 5 nms visibility at or above 3050m AMSL and clear of cloud.
Theminimumresonselimeforlheaerodromerescueandreghlingserviceslolheendof
each runway as well as to any other part of the movement area is:
a. 3 minutes and not exceeding 4 minutes.
b. 2 minutes and not exceeding 3 minutes.
c. 2 minutes and not exceeding 4 minutes.
d. 3 minutes and not exceeding 5 minutes.
TheminimumnumberofrescueandreghlingvehicIesrequiredforaCalAerodromeis
a. 3
b. 4
c. 5
d Noneoflheaboveiscorrecl
AxedobslacIelhalexlendsabovealakeocIimbsurfacevilhinshaIIbemarked
andlherunvayislobeusedalnighlmuslbeIil
a. 3000m
b fl
c. 5000m
d. 2 nms
A marshaIIer crosses hisher hands in fronl of lhe face aIms oulvards and lhen moves lhe
arms outwards. What does this signal indicate?
a. Clear to move forward.
b rakeso
c. Remove chocks.
d. Clear to close all engines.
WhalisrequiredforanIIRighlinadvisoryairsace
a NoighlIanrequired
b. Flight plan required and PIC must notify of any changes regardless if wanting advisory
service or not.
c. Flight plan required but PIC need not notify of any changes.
d AighlIanisonIyrequiredifadvisoryserviceisrequired
476
Revision Questions Chapter 27
60. What is the separation that must be maintained before intercepting the ILS on an independent
parallel approach?
a fl
b. 500 ft.
c. 330 ft.
d. 660 ft.
61. A Type Rating is applicable to:
a anaircraflrequiringaCerlicaleofAirvorlhiness
b anaircraflvilhaCerlicaleofAirvorlhinessissuedbylheSlale
c. an aircraft that requires multi-pilot operation.
d. an aircraft that requires additional skills training.
62. If an aircrafl is radar veclored lo inlercel a ILS IocaIiser vhal is lhal maximum inlercel
angle?
a. 45.
b. 30.
c. 15.
d. 20.
63. What are the objectives of ATC Services?
a To revenl coIIisions belveen aircrafl lo revenl coIIisions belveen aircrafl on lhe
manoeuvring area and obstructions on that area and to expedite and maintain an
orderIyovofairlrac
b. To prevent collisions between controlled aircraft and to expedite and maintain an
orderIyovofairlrac
c TorovidesearalionofaircraflandloexedileandmainlainanorderIyovofair
lrac
d. To provide separation of controlled aircraft and to expedite and maintain an orderly
ovofairlrac
OeralionaIIysignicanlchangeslolheAIIshaIIbeubIishedinaccordancevilh
a. AICs.
b. AIP supplements.
c. AIRAC procedures.
d TriggerNOTAMS
65. A check list of AIP Supplements is published:
a. annually.
b. monthly.
c. weekly.
d. every six months.
477
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
66. A heavy aircraft makes a missed approach on a parallel runway in the opposite direction. A
light aircraft has a wake turbulence separation of 2 minutes. This wake turbulence separation
will apply when the parallel runways are:
a. more than 760m apart.
b. more than 915m apart.
c. less than 915m apart.
d. less than 760m apart.
67. A TODA consists of:
a lhelakeorunavaiIabIeexcIudinglhecIearvay
b lhelakeorunavaiIabIeincIudinglhecIearvay
c lhelakeorunavaiIabIeexcIudinglheslovay
d lhelakeorunavaiIabIeonIy
68. The continued validity of a C of A of an aircraft is subject to the laws of:
a. the State of Registration.
b. the State of Registration ands the State of the Operator.
c. the State of the Operator.
d. the State of Registry and the State of Design.
69. ATIS will only broadcast cloud base information when the cloud base is:
a fl
b fl
c. when Cbs are present.
d. when the cloud base is below MSA.
70. Which International Agreement relates to Penal Law?
a. Tokyo.
b. Montreal.
c. Hague.
d. Rome.
71. Voice ATIS:
1. cannot be broadcasted on a voice ILS.
2. cannot be broadcasted on voice VOR.
3. is broadcasted only on a discreet VFH frequency.
isbroadcasledoneilheradiscreelVIHVORoranILSfrequency
a. 1 only is correct.
b. 2 only is correct.
c. 4 only is correct.
d andarecorrecl
478
Revision Questions Chapter 27
AeroIanescerliedlo}ARmuslnoloeraleacrossareasvhereSRvouIdbeeseciaIIy
dicuIlvilhoulsurvivaIequimenlifiliesloadislancecorresondinglogrealerlhan
a. 30 minutes at cruising speed from an area suitable for making an emergency landing.
b. 60 minutes at cruising speed from an area suitable for making an emergency landing.
c. 90 minutes at cruising speed from an area suitable for making an emergency landing.
d. 120 minutes at cruising speed from an area suitable for making an emergency landing
WhenaxeddislancemarkinghasloberovidedlhismarkingshaIIcommenceal
a. 150m from the threshold.
b. 300m from the threshold.
c. 150m from the aiming point.
d. 300m from the aiming point.
74. What is the minimum width of a code 4 runway?
a. 18m.
b. 23m.
c. 30m.
d. 45m.
WhalislhevidlhofacodeIeerDlaxivayusedbyaircraflvilhanoulergearvheeIsanof
less than 9m ?
a. 10.5m.
b. 15m.
c. 18m.
d. 23m.
76. What is the meaning of the symbol LLLsearch parties?
a. We have only found some personnel.
b. We have found all personnel.
c. Operation completed.
d Nolhingfound
ARNIrouledesignaledasAZindicaleslhallherouleisalorbeIovILandaIIlurns
shaIIbemadevilhinlheaIIovabIeRNIloIeranceofalangenliaIarcbelveenlheslraighlIeg
segments with a radius of:
a. 10nm for turns between 30

and 90

.
b. 15nm for turns between 30

and 90

.
c. 22.5nm for turns between 30

and 90

.
d. 30nm for turns between 30

and 90

.
ARNIrouledesignaledasAYindicaleslhallherouleisaloraboveILandaIIlurns
shaIIbemadevilhinlheaIIovabIeRNIloIeranceofalangenliaIarcbelveenlheslraighlIeg
segments with a radius of:
a. 10nm for turns between 30

and 90

.
b. 15nm for turns between 30

and 90

.
c. 22.5nm for turns between 30

and 90

.
d. 30nm for turns between 30

and 90

.
479
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
IfnoICAOidenlierhasbeenaribuledloanaerodromevhalshouIdbeenleredinoxof
the Flight Plan?
a. ZZZZ
b NNNN
c AN
d ADXXX
80. Which of the following is not a valid SSR mode A squawk?
a. A5555
b. A5678
c. A2345
d. A3333
81. A separation minima shall be applied between a light or medium aircraft and a heavy and
between a light and a medium aircraft when the heavier aircraft is making a low or missed
approach and the lighter aircraft is utilizing an opposite direction runway on a parallel runway
separated by:
a. less than 915m.
b. more than 760m.
c. less than 760m.
d. more than 915m.
AconlraclingslalevhichconlinueslorequirelheresenlalionofaCargoManifeslshaIIaarl
fromlheinformalionindicaledinlheheadingoflheformaloflhecargomanifeslnolrequire
more than the following items:
a irvaybiIInumberandlhenumberofackagesonIy
b. total weight and the number of packages only.
c. total weight and the nature of the goods only.
d airvaybiIInumberlhenumberofackagesandlhenalureofgoods
ConlraclingslalesshaIIcarryoullhehandIingforvardingandcIearanceofairmaiIandshaII
comply with the documentary procedures as proscribed by:
a. the Acts in force of the Universal Postal Union.
b. the Acts in force of the General Postal Union.
c. the Acts in force of the Warsaw Convention.
d. the Acts in force of the International Postal Union.
84. Unaccompanied baggage carried by air shall be cleared under a procedure applicable to:
a accomaniedbaggageorunderasimIiedcuslomsroceduredislinclanddierenl
from that normally applicable to other cargo.
b. cargo.
c. dangerous goods.
d. mail.
480
Revision Questions Chapter 27
AnareasymmelricaIaboullheexlendedrunvaycenlreIineandad|acenllolheendoflheslri
primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage to an aircraft undershooting or overrunning
lherunvayisdenedasa
a. clearway.
b. runway strip extension.
c. runway end safety area.
d. altimeter operating area extension.
IoraninslrumenlrunvayhovfarfromlhecenlreIineoflherunvayisarunvayvacaled
sign positioned?
a ToadislanceoflheneareslIaernAhoIdingosilion
b AllheendoflheILSMLSSensiliveArea
c. It depends on the Aerodrome Category.
d. 85m.
87. What is required if a stop bar is not provided at a runway entrance and runway is to be used
with RVR of less than 550m?
a olhaIaernAandhoIdingosilion
b. High intensity taxiway centerline lights only.
c. Runway guard lights.
d. Both high intensity taxiway centerline lights and high intensity taxiway edge lights.
IndeendenlaraIIeIaroachesmaybeconducledloaraIIeIrunvaysrovidedlhalaNTZ
of at least:
a. 915m is established between extended centre lines.
b. 760m is established between extended centre lines.
c miseslabIishedbelveenexlendedcenlreIines
d. 610m wide is established between extended centre lines.
ATISbroadcaslsshouIdconlaincIouddelaiIsvhen
a. they are below 2500m.
b lheyarebeIovmorMSAvhicheverislhegrealer
c. they are below 1000m.
d lheyarebeIovmorMSAvhicheverislhegrealer
90. What action should be taken if contact is lost with the runway during a circling approach?
a Descendlo DecisionHeighland if sliII no conlaclvilh lhe runvayinilialea missed
approach.
b. Land on the instrument runway.
c. Initiate a missed approach.
d. Return to the FAF.
91. The height of the marks on lighter than air aircraft other than unmanned free balloons shall
be:
a. at least 30cm.
b. at least 50cm.
c. at least 60cm.
d. at least 80cm.
481
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
Whenanaircraflsub|ecledlounIavfuIinlerferencehasIandedinaConlraclingSlaleilshaII
notify by the most expeditious means of the State of Registry and the State of the Operator of
lheIandingandinaddilionshaIIsimiIarIylransmilaIIolherreIevanlinformalionlo
a each Slale vhose cilizens suered falaIilies or in|uries each Slale vhose cilizens
veredelainedashoslageseachSlalevhosecilizensvereknovnlobeonboardand
ICAO.
b. ICAO only.
c. each State whose citizens were known to be on board only.
d. ICAO and each State whose citizens were known to be on board only.
Accordinglo}ARICLrecognisedinslruclorcalegoriesare
a IIATRIACRIAIRIAonIy
b. FI(A) and CRI(A) only.
c. FI(A) and IRI(A) only.
d IIATRIACRIAIRIAMCCIAandSIIAonIy
Nole II IIying Inslruclor TRI Tye Raling Inslruclor CRI CIass Raling Inslruclor
IRIInslrumenlRalingInslruclorMCCIMuIlicrevCooeralionInslruclorSII
Synthetic Fight Instructor.
WhenaSlalerendersvaIidaIicenseissuedbyanolherConlraclingSlaleasanaIlernalivelo
issuanceofilsovnIicenselhevaIidilyshaII
a. not extend beyond 15 days after the validity of the license.
b. not extend beyond the period of validity of the license.
c. be at the discretion of the Contracting State rendering it valid.
d. be at the discretion of ICAO.
WhereinlheAIIvouIdyounddelaiIsoninslrumenlhoIdingrocedures
a GIN
b INR
c. AD
d. AGA
96. The loading limitations shall include:
a. all limiting mass and centres of gravity.
b aIIIimilingmasscenlresofgravilyosilionmassdislribulionsandoorIoading
c. aIIIimilingmasscenlresofgravilyosilionandoorIoading
d aIIIimilingmassmassdislribulionsandcenlresofgravily
97. The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) establishes:
a. standards and recommended international practices for contracting member states.
b. aeronautical standards adopted by all states.
c. proposals for aeronautical regulations in the form of 18 annexes.
d slandardsandrecommendedraclicesaIiedvilhoulexcelionbyaIIslalessignalory
to the Chicago convention.
482
Revision Questions Chapter 27
AccordingloAnnexlheregislralionmarkshaIIbeIeersnumbersoracombinalionofIeers
and numbers and shall be that assigned by:
a. the State of Registry or Common Mark Registering Authority.
b. the State of Registry only.
c. the International Civil Aviation Organisation.
d. the International Telecommunication Union.
Accordinglo}ARICLlheriviIegesoflhehoIderofanunreslricledIIAralingareloconducl
ighlinslruclionforlheissueofaCILA
a. provided that the FI(A) has completed not less than 15 hours on the relevant type in the
preceding 12 months.
b. rovided lhal lhe IIA has comIeled al Ieasl hours of ighl lime as a iIol of
aeroIanesincIudingalIeaslhoursofighlinslruclion
c. without restriction.
d rovidedlhallheIIAhascomIeledhoursofighlinslruclion
Accordinglo}ARICLanaIicanlforaCILAvhohassalisfacloriIyfoIIovedandcomIeled
an inlegraled ying lraining course shaII have comIeled as a iIol of aeroIanes having a
cerlicaleofairvorlhinessissuedoracceledbya}AAMemberSlalealIeasl
a hoursofighllime
b hoursofighllime
c hoursofighllimeIushoursofinslrumenlgroundlime
d hoursofighllimeIushoursofinslrumenlgroundlime
101. If radio communication is established during an interception but communications in a common
Ianguage is nol ossibIe vhich hrase shouId be ronounced by lhe inlerceling aircrafl lo
request the intercepted aircraft to descend for landing?
a. Let down.
b. Descend.
c. Descend for landing.
d YouIand
AnaircraflmanoeuvringsinanairorlscircuilreceivesaseriesofredashesfromlheconlroI
loverThissignieslhallheaircraflmusl
a. not land because the airport is not available for landing.
b. give way to another aircraft.
c. return to land and that clearance to land will be communicated in due course.
d. not land for the moment regardless of previous instructions.
WhichaclionshaIIbelakenbyanaircraflinlhelracaernofanaerodromeexeriencing
radio faiIure lo indicale dicuIlies vhich comeI il lo Iand vilhoul requiring immediale
assistance?
a SvilchingonandolhreelimeslheIandingIighls
b ThereealedsvilchingonandooflheIandingIighls
c SvilchingonandofourlimeslhenavigalionIighls
d SvilchingonandofourlimeslheIandingIighls
483
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
ThemainfaclorslhaldiclalesingeneraIlhedesignofaninslrumenldearlurerocedureis
are:
a. the terrain surrounding the aerodrome.
b. ATC availability and requirements.
c. availability of navigation aids.
d. airspace restrictions applicable and in force.
105. One of the conditions to descent below the MDA on a circling approach is:
a. the landing runway and an alternative landing possibility (runway) are in sight.
b. the required visual references have been established and can be maintained.
c lheCeiIingisflorhigher
d lhehorizonlaIvisibiIilyisalIeaslNMandlheCeiIingisflorhigher
106. If for any reasons a pilot is unable to conform to the procedures for normal conditions laid
dovnforanyarlicuIarhoIdingaernheshouId
a. advise ATC as early as possible.
b execule a nonslandard hoIding aern in accordance vilh lhe erformance of his
aeroplane.
c remainvilhinlherolecledareabulmaydevialefromlherescribedhoIding
d. follow the radio communication failure procedure.
107. The Transition Level:
a shaIIbelheIoveslighlIeveIavaiIabIeforuseabovelhelransilionaIlilude
b shaII be lhe highesl avaiIabIe ighl IeveI beIov lhe lransilion aIlilude lhal has been
established.
c isubIishedforlheaerodromeinlheSeclionINRoflheAII
d. is calculated and declared for an approach by the Pilot-in command.
WhenlheaircraflcarriesserviceabIeModeClransonderlheiIolshaIIconlinuousIyoerale
this mode:
a. only when directed by ATC.
b. unless otherwise directed by ATC.
c onIyvhenlheaircraflisyingvilhinconlroIIedairsace
d. regardless of ATC instructions.
TheseedIimilalionforVIRighlsinsideATSairsacecIassiedasCvhenyingbeIov
mflAMSLis
a. not applicable.
b. 240 KT IAS.
c. 250 KT IAS.
d. 250 KT TAS.
484
Revision Questions Chapter 27
TheVMCminimaforaVIRighlinsideanATSairsacecIassiedasis
a NMvisibiIilybeIovmflAMSLcIearofcIouds
b NM visibiIily vhen beIov m fl AMSL m horizonlaI and m
vertical from cloud.
c kmvisibiIilyvhenalorabovemflAMSLandcIearofcIouds
d kmvisibiIilyvhenalorabovemflAMSLandmhorizonlaIand
m vertical from clouds.
111. Area Control Centres issue clearances for the purpose of:
a achievingsearalionbelveenIIRighls
b achievingsearalionbelveenconlroIIedighls
c. providing advisory service.
d rovidingighlInformalionService
IIighl informalion service rovided lo ighls shaII incIude lhe rovision of informalion
concerning collision hazards to aircraft operating in airspace classes:
a. A to G (inclusive).
b. C to G (inclusive).
c. F and G.
d. A to E (inclusive).
TheVerlicaISearalionMinimumVSMforighlsinaccordancevilhIIRvilhinconlroIIed
airspace below FL 290 is:
a. 500 ft (150 m).
b flm
c flm
d flm
TheCIearanceloymainlainingovnsearalionvhiIeinvisuaImeleoroIogicaIcondilions
may be given by the appropriate ATS authority. This has to be requested by the pilot of a
conlroIIedighlandhaslobeagreedbylheiIoloflheolheraircrafl
The conditions are:
a AirsaceCIassCVMChoursofdayIighl
b AirsaceCIassDandIVMChoursofdayIighl
c AirsaceCIassCDandIVMC
d AirsaceCIassCDVMC
IorconlroIIedlraclhalshaIIbesearaledinlhevicinilyofanairorlsearalionminimamay
be reduced:
a. if the commander of the involved aircraft so requests.
b onIyiflheairlracconlroIIerhaslheinvoIvedaircraflinsighl
c. when the commander in the following aircraft has the preceding aircraft in sight and is
able to maintain own separation.
d allhediscrelionoflheairlracconlroIIer
485
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
In order lo meel lhe vake lurbuIence crileria vhal minimum searalion shouId be aIied
vhen a medium aircrafl is laking o behind a heavy aircrafl and bolh are using lhe same
runway?
a. 3 minutes.
b. 2 minutes.
c. 1 minute.
d. 4 minutes.
WhichdoesATCTermRadarconlaclsignify
a YouraircraflhasbeenidenliedonlheradardisIayandradarighlinslruclionsviII
berovidedunliIradaridenlicalionislerminaled
b YouraircraflhasbeenidenliedandyouviIIreceivesearalionfromaIIaircraflvhiIe
in contact with this radar facility.
c YouviIIbegivenlracadvisoriesunliIadvisedlhallheservicehasbeenlerminaledor
that radar contact has been lost.
d ATCisreceivingyourlransonderandviIIfurnishveclorsandlracadvisoriesunliI
you are advised that contact has been lost.
WhenlhelransonderaearslobeunserviceabIeriorlodearlureandresloreisimossibIe
than:
a you musl indicale lhe faiIure in lhe ghl Ian afler vhich lheATC viII endeavor lo
rovideforconlinualionoflheighl
b dearlurelolheneareslsuilabIeairorlvherereaircanbeeecledisaIIoved
c youarenolaIIovedlocommencelheighl
d lheighlcanonIyconlinueinlhemosldireclmanner
AnoliceconlaininginformalionconcerningighlsafelyairnavigalionlechnicaIadminislralion
orIegisIalivemaersandoriginaledallheAISofaslaleiscaIIed
a. Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP).
b. Aeronautical Information Circular (AIC).
c. AIRAC.
d NOTAM
WhicharloflheAIIconlainsaIislvilhLocalionIndicalors
a INR
b GIN
c. LOC.
d. AD.
Which code Ieer shaII be chosen lo idenlify a laxivay lo be used by an aircrafl having a
wheel base of 15m?
a CodeIeer
b CodeIeerC
c CodeIeerI
d CodeIeerD
486
Revision Questions Chapter 27
122. InarecisionaroachcalegoryIIighlingsyslemlhesingIelvoandlhreeIighlsourceson
the centre line have a length of:
a. 250m.
b. 200m.
c. 150m.
d. 300m.
123. When a person is found inadmissible and is returned to the operator for transport away from
lhelerriloryoflheslalelheoeralor
a. shall not be preclude from recovering from such person any transportation costs arising
from his (her) inadmissibility.
b. shall not recover from such person any transportation costs arising from his (her)
inadmissibility.
c. is not responsible for the person inadmissible for entry in the receiving state.
d. the state of the operator are both responsible for the person inadmissible.
124. Who is responsible for the initiation of an accident investigation?
a. The Authority of the State in which the accident took place.
b. The Operators of the same aircraft type.
c. The aircraft manufacturer.
d. The State of design and manufacturer.
WhenilbecomesaarenllhalanaircraflisindicuIlylhedecisionloinilialelheaIerlhases
is the responsibility of the:
a oeralionaIairlracconlroIcenlres
b ighlinformalionorconlroIorganisalions
c airlraccoordinalionservices
d. search and rescue co-ordination centres.
An aircrafl inlerceled by a miIilary aircrafl shaII immedialeIy aeml lo eslabIish radio
communication with the intercepting aircraft on the following frequencies:
a MHzandifcommunicalionscannolbeeslabIishedonMHz
b MHzandifcommunicalionscannolbeeslabIishedonMHz
c MHzandifcommunicalionscannolbeeslabIishedonMHz
d MHzandifcommunicalionscannolbeeslabIishedonMHz
Whal are lhe dierences belveen lhe ruIes and reguIalions in lhe UIR comared vilh lhe
airspace below?
a. The same rules apply.
b TheyareagreedbylheAirNavigalionMeeling
c. They are identical to the airspace below.
d. They do not have to be identical to the airspace below.


487
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
Ixcel in seciaI cases lhe eslabIishmenl of changeover oinls shaII be Iimiled lo roule
segments of:
a. 100nms or more.
b. 75nms or more.
c. 60nms or more.
d. 50nms or more.
129. ThebodyvhichgovernsIicensingofiIolIicensesorlheequivaIenldocumenlsmusldecideif
lheexerienceoflheiIolinlrainingdoneonasimuIalorisaccelabIeasarloflhelolaIying
time of 1500 hours. Exemption from such experience shall be limited to a maximum of:
a hoursofvhichnolmorelhanhoursmaybedoneonaighlrocedurelrainer
orasynlhelicighllrainer
b hoursofvhichnolmorelhanhoursmaybedoneonaighlrocedurelraineror
asynlhelicighllrainer
c hoursofvhichnolmorelhanhoursmaybedoneonasynlhelicighllrainer
d hoursofvhichnolmorelhanhoursmaybedoneonaighlrocedurelrainer
orabasicinslrumenlighllrainer
130 WhengiveninslruclionsloselamodecodeaiIolshaII
a onIyuselhevordviIco
b. only read back the code.
c onIyuselhevordroger
d. read back mode and code.
WhohaslhenaIaulhorilyaslolhedisosilionoflheaircrafl
a. The State.
b. The Operator.
c. The Commander.
d. The owner.
132. Who is responsible for the safety of an ATC clearance concerning terrain clearance?
a TheATSreorlingoinlvhenaccelinglheighlIan
b. The Captain.
c. The Operator of the aircraft.
d. ATC.
AnaircraflonaradararoachshouIdbeloIdloconsidermakingamissedaroachvhen
lhe aircrafl is nol visibIe on lhe radar screen for a signicanl eriod of lime and vhen il is
within:
a. the last 2 nms of the approach.
b. the last 5 nms of the approach.
c. the last 4 nms of the approach.
d. the last 3 nms of the approach.
488
Revision Questions Chapter 27
AnaircraflvhichisnolconcernedvilhreguIarinlernalionaIighlsandvhichmakesaighl
loorviaadedicaledaerodromeofamemberSlaleandislemorariIyfreeoflaxesisadmied
will stay within that State without paying customs:
a. during a period which is determined by the State.
b. during a period of 24 hours.
c. during a period of 12 hours.
d. during a period of 48 hours.
TheersonhavingoveraIIresonsibiIilyofanaircraflduringighlislhe
a. pilot in command.
b. operator.
c. ATC Controller if the aircraft is in controlled airspace.
d. owner of the aircraft.
IiIolsarenolaIIovedlouselheindenlfuncliononlheirSSRunIess
a. they operate outside controlled airspace.
b. if asked by ATC.
c. with are within controlled airspace.
d. they operate a transponder with mode C.
LighlsonanaireIdorinlhevicinilycanbeexlinguishediflheycanbereIil
a. at least 5 minutes before the ETA of the aircraft.
b. at least 15 minutes before the ETA of the aircraft.
c. at least 30 minutes before the ETA of the aircraft.
d. at least 60 minutes before the ETA of the aircraft.
AirTracServiceunilconsislsof
a AirTracConlroIUnilsandIIighlInformalionCenlres
b IIighlInformalionCenlresandAirServicesReorlingoces
c AirTracConlroIUnilsIIighlInformalionCenlresandTracAirServicesReorling
oces
d AirServicesReorlingocesandAirTracConlroIUnils
139. According to international agreements the wind direction must be given in degrees magnetic
converted with local magnetic variation from the true wind direction:
a beforeIandingandlaxiforlakeo
b inanlicialionoflheuervindforareasNorlhofNandSoulhofS
c vhenanaircraflisrequesledbylhemeleoroIogicaIoceoronseciedoinlslogive
a PIREP.
d. when the local variation is greater than 10 East or West.
489
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
140. A PAPI must consist of:
a arovofmuIliIeIighlsorairedunilsvilhoullransilionzonealequaIdislancefrom
each other.
b lvorovsofmuIliIeIighlsorairedunilsvilhoullransilionzonealequaIdislance
from each other.
c arovofmuIliIeIighlsorairedunilsvilhoullransilionzonealequaIdislancefrom
each other.
d lvorovsofmuIliIeIighlsorairedunilsvilhoullransilionzonealequaIdislance
from each other.
ReeliliveighlIansRILscannolbeusedforighlsolherlhanlhoseexeculedfrequenlIy
on the same days of following weeks and:
a. for at least 20 occasions or every day over a period of at least 20 consecutive days.
b. for at least 20 consecutive days.
c. for at least 10 occasions or every day over a period of at least 10 consecutive days.
d. for at least 20 occasions.
AeroIanescerliedlo}ARmuslnoloeraleacrossareasvhereSRvouIdbeeseciaIIy
dicuIlvilhoulsurvivaIequimenlifiliesloadislancecorresondinglogrealerlhan
a. 30 minutes at cruising speed from an area suitable for making an emergency landing.
b. 60 minutes at cruising speed from an area suitable for making an emergency landing.
c. 90 minutes at cruising speed from an area suitable for making an emergency landing.
d. 120 minutes at cruising speed from an area suitable for making an emergency landing.
IfnoICAOidenlierhasbeenaribuledloanaerodromevhalshouIdbeenleredinoxof
the Flight Plan?
a. ZZZZ
b NNNN
c AN
d ADXXX
144. Which of the following is not a valid SSR mode A squawk?
a. A5555
b. A5678
c. A2345
d. A3333
ConlraclingSlalesshaIIcarryoullhehandIingforvardingandcIearanceofairmaiIandshaII
comply with the documentary procedures as proscribed by:
a. the Acts in force of the Universal Postal Union.
b. the Acts in force of the General Postal Union.
c. the Acts in force of the Warsaw Convention.
d. the Acts in force of the International Postal Union.
490
Revision Questions Chapter 27
146. Unaccompanied baggage carried by air shall be cleared under a procedure applicable to:
a accomaniedbaggageorunderasimIiedcuslomsroceduredislinclanddierenl
from that normally applicable to other cargo.
b. cargo.
c. dangerous goods.
d. mail.
ATISbroadcaslsshouIdconlaincIouddelaiIsvhen
a. they are below 2500m.
b lheyarebeIovmorMSAvhicheverislhegrealer
c. they are below 1000m.
d lheyarebeIovmorMSAvhicheverislhegrealer
148. The height of the marks on lighter than air aircraft other than unmanned free balloons shall
be:
a. at least 30cm.
b. at least 50cm.
c. at least 60cm.
d. at least 80cm.
Whenanaircraflsub|ecledlounIavfuIinlerferencehasIandedinaConlraclingSlaleilshaII
notify by the most expeditious means of the State of Registry and the State of the Operator of
lheIandingandinaddilionshaIIsimiIarIylransmilaIIolherreIevanlinformalionlo
a each Slale vhose cilizens suered falaIilies or in|uries each Slale vhose cilizens
veredelainedashoslageseachSlalevhosecilizensvereknovnlobeonboardand
ICAO.
b. ICAO only.
c. each State whose citizens were known to be on board only.
d. ICAO and each State whose citizens were known to be on board only.
Accordinglo}ARICLrecognisedinslruclorcalegoriesare
a IIATRIACRIAIRIAonIy
b. FI(A) and CRI(A) only.
c. FI(A) and IRI(A) only.
d IIATRIACRIAIRIAMCCIAandSIIAonIy
Nole II IIying Inslruclor TRI Tye Raling Inslruclor CRI CIass Raling Inslruclor
IRIInslrumenlRalingInslruclorMCCIMuIlicrevCooeralionInslruclorSII
Synthetic Flight Instructor.
491
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
492
Revision Questions Chapter 27
AN5WER5
1. A 41. D 81. C 121. B
2. C 42. C 82. D 122. D
3. C 43. A 83. A 123. A
4. C 44. B 84. A 124. A
5. B 45. A 85. C 125. A
6. A 46. A 86. B 126. A
7. D 47. C 87. C 127. D
8. D 48. D 88. D 128. C
9. B 49. A 89. B 129. D
10. B 50. A 90. C 130. D
11. D 51. D 91. B 131. C
12. A 52. D 92. A 132. B
13. C 53. C 93. D 133. A
14. B 54. C 94. B 134. A
15. A 55. B 95. B 135. A
16. B 56. A 96. B 136. B
17. A 57. A 97. A 137. D
18. C 58. C 98. A 138. C
19. B 59. B 99. B 139. A
20. D 60. A 100. A 140. A
21. A 61. C 101. B 141. C
22. A 62. A 102. A 142. C
23. C 63. A 103. B 143. A
24. B 64. C 104. A 144. B
25. D 65. B 105. B 145. A
26. A 66. D 106. A 146. A
27. C 67. B 107. A 147. B
28. D 68. A 108. B 148. B
29. D 69. B 109. C 149. A
30. B 70. A 110. D 150. D
31. D 71. A 111. B
32. D 72. C 112. B
33. A 73. A 113. C
34. B 74. D 114. B
35. D 75. C 115. C
36. D 76. C 116. B
37. A 77. B 117. A
38. D 78. C 118. B
39. D 79. A 119. B
40. B 80. B 120. B
493
Chapter 27 Revision Questions
JAA5PECIMENEXAMINATION
1. The standards contained in the annexes to the Chicago Convention are to be considered:
a. advice and guidance for the aviation legislation within the member states.
b. binding for all member states.
c binding for aII member slales lhal have nol nolied ICAO aboul a nalionaI
dierence
d bindingforaIIairIinecomaniesvilhinlernalionaIlrac
2. Which of the annexes deals with the transportation of cargo?
a. Annex 9 Facilitation.
b. Annex 18 Transportation of Dangerous Goods.
c. Annex 16 Environmental Protection.
d. Annex 6 Operation of Aircraft.
WhichICAObodyfurnisheslheSlandardsandRecommendedIraclicesSARISforadolion
by the Council?
a. The Assembly.
b TheRegionaIAirNavigalionMeeling
c. The Council itself.
d TheAirNavigalionCommission
4. To what did the Tokyo convention of 1963 address itself?
a. Licensing of scheduled air services.
b. Damage caused by a contracting states aircraft to property in the same state.
c. Damage caused by a contracting states aircraft to property in another state.
d Inlerferencevilhanaircraflinighl
5. It is suspected that a person on board an aircraft will commit an act that would jeopardise the
safelyoflheaircrafllheIICmay
a. request the crew to detain the passenger.
b. ask the passenger to disembark.
c. order the other passengers to detain the passenger in question.
d handhimheroverlolheaulhorilies
6. What freedom covers landing and refuelling in another state?
a. 1
st
b. 2
nd
c. 3
rd
d. 4
th
WhichoflhefoIIovingisnolermiedinlheregislralionmarkofanaircrafl
a IourIeerQcodes
b IiveIeerinlernalionaIidenlicalionsignaIs
c ThreeIeerinlernalionaIidenlicalionsignaIs
d. Any number identifying an ICAO document.
494
Revision Questions Chapter 27
WhalregislralionisdisaIIovedbecauseofossibIeconfusionvilhdislressurgencysignaIs
a. RCC
b NNN
c XXX
d. ZZZ
YoucanusesimuIalorhourslovardslhehoursrequiredforanATILHovaresimuIalor
hours are limited?
a MaximumofnolmorelhaninaroceduraIighllrainer
b MaximumofnolmorelhaninaroceduraIighllrainer
c MaximumofnolmorelhaninaroceduraIighllrainer
d MaximumofnolmorelhaninaroceduraIighllrainer
10. The holder of a pilot licence when acting as co-pilot under supervision of the PIC and performing
the functions and duties of the PIC shall be entitled to be credited:
a vilh of lhe ighl lime lovards lhe lolaI lime required for a higher grade of
licence.
b infuIIbulnolmorelhanhrslovardslhelolaIlimerequireforahighergradeof
licence.
c lheighllimeinfuIIlovardslhelolaIlimerequiredforahighergradeofIicence
d lhe ighl in fuII lovard lhe lolaI lime require