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ANSYS.

ANSYS
ANSYS
ANSYS FLOTRAN


ANSYS.
:
1. ANSYS.
1.1. ANSYS.
1.2.
1.2.1. .
1.2.1.1. .
1.2.1.2. .
1.2.1.3. .
1.2.2. .
1.2.3. .
1.2.3.1. .
1.2.4. .
1.2.4.1. .
1.2.4.2. .
1.2.4.3. .
1.2.4.4. .
1.2.4.4.1. .
1.2.4.4.2. .
1.2.4.4.3. .
1.2.4.4.4.
1.2.4.4.5. : .
1.2.4.4.6. : .
1.2.4.4.7. : .
1.2.4.4.8. .
1.2.4.5. .
1.2.4.6. .
1.2.4.7. /
.
1.2.4.8. () .
1.2.4.9. .
1.2.5. .
1.2.6. .
1.2.6.1. .
1.2.6.2. .
1.2.6.3. .
1.2.6.4. .
1.2.7. .
2.
2.1.
2.2. ?
2.3. , .
2.4. .
2.5. .
2.6. .
2.6.1. : .
2.6.2. : .
2.6.3. .
2.6.4. .
2

2.6.5. .
2.6.5.1. .
2.6.5.2. .
2.6.5.3. .
2.6.6. ( ).
2.6.6.1. .
2.6.6.2. .
2.6.6.3.
2.6.7. .
2.6.7.1. .
2.6.7.2. .
2.6.7.3. .
2.6.7.4. .
2.6.7.5. .
2.6.7.6.
.
2.6.8. .
2.6.8.1. .
2.6.8.2. .
2.6.8.3. , .
2.6.8.4. .
2.6.8.5. .
2.6.8.6. .
2.6.8.7. .
2.6.8.8. ,
.
2.6.9. .
2.6.10. .
2.6.11. .
2.6.11.1. .
2.6.12. .
2.6.13. .
2.6.13.1. .
2.6.13.2. ANSYS
2.6.13.3. , ISTRESS
2.6.13.4. , ISWRITE
2.6.14. , ( TABLE).
2.6.14.1. .
2.6.14.2. .
2.6.14.3. .
2.6.14.4. .
2.6.15. .
2.6.15.1. Function Editor
2.6.15.2. Function Loader
2.6.15.3. .
2.6.15.4.
.
2.7. .
2.7.1. .
2.7.1.1. Solution Controls
2.7.1.2. Time
2.7.1.3. .
3

2.7.1.4. .
2.7.1.5. .
2.7.1.6. .
2.7.2. .
2.7.3. .
2.7.4. , .
2.7.5. Biot-Savart.
2.7.6. Spectrum Options
2.8. .
2.9. .
2.9.1. PSMESH
2.9.2. EINTF
2.9.3. PSMESH
2.9.4. ( GUI)
2.9.4.1.
2.9.4.2. .
2.9.4.3. .
2.9.4.4. .
2.9.4.5. .
2.9.4.6. .
2.9.4.7. : .
2.9.4.8. : .
2.9.4.9. : .
2.9.4.10. :
.
2.9.4.11. ANSYS

ANSYS
1. .
1.1. .
1.2. ANSYS .
1.2.1. .
1.2.2. .
1.2.3. .
1.3. .
1.4. .
1.5. GUI .
2. .
2.1. .
2.2. .
2.3. , .
2.4. .
2.5. .
2.5.1. .
2.6. .
2.6.1. .
2.6.2. .
2.6.2.1. (TEMP)
2.6.2.2. (HEAT)
2.6.2.3. (CONV)
2.6.2.4. (HFLUX)
2.6.2.5. (HGEN)
2.6.3. .
2.6.4. .
2.6.5. .
2.6.6. .
2.6.6.1. .
2.6.7. .
2.6.8. .
2.6.9. .
2.6.10. .
2.6.11. .
2.6.12. .
2.6.13. .
2.7. ( ).
2.7.1. .
2.7.2. .
2.7.3. .
2.8. ( )
1: , .
2: .
3: .
4: .
5: .
6: .
7: .
8: .
9: .
5

10: AREMOTE
11: .
12: () .
13: .
14: - .
15: .
16: .
17: .
18: .
19: AREMOTE.
20: ,
.
21:
.
22:
23: .
24: .
25:
26: ANSYS
2.9.
2.9.1. .
2.9.2. .
1: .
2: .
3: - .
4: .
5: .
6: .
7: .
8: .
3. .
3.1. .
3.2. , .
3.3. .
3.4. .
3.5. .
3.5.1. .
3.5.2. .
3.5.2.1. .
3.5.2.2. .
3.5.3. .
3.5.3.1. .
3.5.3.2. .
3.5.4. .
3.5.5. .
3.6. .
3.6.1. .
3.7. .
3.7.1. .
3.7.2. .
3.7.3.
.
6

3.8. .
3.8.1. .
3.8.2. .
3.8.3. .
3.9.
3.10. .
3.10.1. .
3.10.2. .
3.10.3. GUI .
3.10.4. .
3.11. .
4. .
4.1. ?
4.2. .
4.3. .
4.4. LINK31.
4.5. .
4.6. .
4.6.1. .
4.6.1.1. .
4.6.1.2. .
4.6.1.3. .
4.6.2. .
4.6.2.1. .
4.6.2.2. .
4.6.3. AUX12
.
4.7. .
4.7.1. .
4.7.1.1. .
4.7.1.2. .
4.7.1.3. .
4.7.1.4. .
4.7.1.5. .
4.8.
( ).
4.8.1. .
4.8.2. .


ANSYS/FLOTRAN

1. FLOTRAN CFD
1.1. FLOTRAN CFD
1.2. FLOTRAN
1.2.1.
1.2.2.
1.2.3.
1.2.4.
1.2.5.
1.2.6.
1.3. GUI
2. FLOTRAN
2.1. , FLOTRAN
2.1.1. FLUID141
2.1.1.1 .
2.1.1.2
2.1.1.3 .
2.1.1.4 .
2.1.1.5
2.1.1.6 FLUID141
2.1.1.7 FLUID141
2.1.1.8 .
2.1.2. FLUID142
2.1.2.1 .
2.1.2.2
2.1.2.3 .
2.1.2.4 .
2.1.2.5
2.1.2.6 FLUID142
2.1.2.7 FLUID142
2.1.2.8 .
2.1.3.
2.2. FLOTRAN:
2.2.1. FLOTRAN
2.3. FLOTRAN
2.3.1.
2.3.2.
2.3.3. -
2.3.4.
2.3.5. FLOTRAN
2.3.6.
2.3.7.
2.4. , FLOTRAN
2.4.1.
2.4.2. (Jobname.PFL)
2.4.3.
2.4.4.
2.4.5.
2.4.6. FLOTRAN
8

2.5.
2.5.1.
2.5.2.
2.5.3. .
2.5.4.
2.5.5. .
2.5.6.
2.6. FLOTRAN
2.6.1.
2.6.2.
2.6.3. FLOTRAN
2.7. FLOTRAN
2.8.
3. FLOTRAN
3.1. .
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.5.1. k-e ( )
3.5.2. Zero Equation (ZeroEq)
3.5.3. Re-Normalized Group (RNG)
3.5.4. k- ( Shih (NKE)
3.5.5. Girimaji (GIR)
3.5.6. Shih, Zhu, Lumley (SZL)
3.6.
3.7.
3.8.
4. FLOTRAN
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.4.1.
4.4.1.1.
4.4.1.2. GUI
4.4.1.3.
4.5.
4.5.1.
4.5.2. , ,
4.5.3. , ,
4.5.4.
4.6.
4.7. , Radiosity
4.7.1. .
4.7.1.1. .
4.7.1.2. .
4.7.1.3. .
4.7.1.4. .
4.8. , , FLOTRAN
4.8.1.
4.8.2. ( GUI).
9

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. , / , .
5. .
6: .
7: .
8: .
9: .
10: .
11: .
12: .
13: .
14:

15:
.
4.8.3. .
4.9. FLOTRAN
( ).
4.10. FLOTRAN
5.
5.1.
5.2. .
5.3.
6.
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
6.5.
6.5.1.
6.6.
6.6.1.
6.6.1.1. .
6.6.1.2. .
6.7. ( )
1:
2: .
3: .
4: .
5: .
6: .
7: .
8: .
9: .
10: .
11: .
12:
13: .
6.8. ( ).
7. FLOTRAN
10

7.1.
7.2.
7.2.1.
7.2.2.
7.2.3.
7.2.4.
7.2.4.1. .
7.2.4.2. .
7.2.5.
7.2.6.
7.2.7.
7.2.8.
7.2.9. .
7.3.
7.3.1.
7.4.
7.5.
7.6.
7.6.1. Power Law
7.6.2. Carreau
7.6.3. Bingham
7.7.
8. FLOTRAN
8.1.
8.2.
8.3.
8.4. /
9. FLOTRAN CFD
9.1. ?
9.2. Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm
9.3.
9.3.1. Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR)
9.3.2. Preconditioned BiCGStab (PBCGM).
9.4. .
10. .
10.1. .
10.2. .
10.2.1. .
10.2.2.
10.2.3. .
10.3.
11.
11.1.
11.2.
11.2.1.
11.2.2.
11.2.3.
11.3.
11.3.1. .
11.3.2.
11.3.3.
11.3.4.
11

11.3.5.
11.3.6.
11.4. ,
11.5.
12.
12.1.
12.2. SUPG COLG
12.3.

12

ANSYS
:
1. .
1.1. .
1.2. .
1.2.1. .
1.2.1.1. .
1.2.1.2. - .
1.2.2. .
1.2.3. .
1.3. .
1.4. GUI .
2. .
2.1. .
2.2.
2.3. .
2.4. .
2.4.1. .
2.4.2. .
2.4.3. - .
2.5.
.
2.5.1. .
2.5.2. .
2.6. .
2.6.1. .
2.6.2. -.
2.7. , .
2.7.1. .
2.8. , .
2.9. - , .
2.9.1. .
2.9.2.
2.9.3.
2.10.
2.10.1.
2.10.2.
2.11. - .
2.11.1. .
2.11.2. ( ).
2.12. - , FSSOLV
2.12.1. .
2.12.2. ( )
3. .
3.1. .
3.2.
3.3. .
3.4. .
3.4.1. .
13

3.4.2. .
3.4.3. .
3.4.4. .
3.4.5. .
3.5. .
3.6. (
).
3.6.1. .
3.6.2.
3.6.3. .
3.6.4. .
3.7. (
)
3.7.1.
3.7.2.
3.7.3.
3.7.4.

14


ANSYS.
1. ANSYS
1.1. ANSYS.
ANSYS ,

.
ANSYS
.
.
ANSYS :
1. .
2. .
3. .

1.2. .
,
. .
, PREP7, ,
, .

1.2.1. .
.
1.2.1.1. .
, ANSYS, .
, ,
, ( , .db).

.
, FILE file,
. , ,
:

ANSYS.
ANSYS Operations Guide.
ANSYS :
:
/FILNAME

15

GUI:
Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname

/FILNAME .
, ANSYS.
/FILNAME
. (,
, Jobname.LOG, Jobname.ERR) /FILNAME,
Key /FILNAME . ,
.
1.2.1.2. .
/TITLE (Utility Menu> File> Change Title), . ANSYS
.
/STITLE. ,
.
1.2.1.3. .
ANSYS .
,
,
( ).
- (MEMS), ,
System of Units ( ) ANSYS
Coupled-Field Analysis Guide ( ANSYS).
/UNITS, ANSYS,
.
; .

1.2.2. .
ANSYS 150 .
, :
BEAM4, PLANE77, SOLID96, . :
BEAM

MESH

CIRCUit

PIPE

COMBINation

PLANE

CONTACt

PRETS ( )

FLUID

SHELL

HF ( )

SOLID

HYPERelastic

SOURCe

INFINite

SURFace
16

INTERface

TARGEt

LINK

TRANSducer

MASS

USER

MATRIX

VISCOelastic ( )

(
, , , , ).
.

, BEAM4 (UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY,


ROTZ), ,
. PLANE77 (TEMP),
, .
PREP7 .
ET (ET, ETCHG, )
GUI; ANSYS Commands
Reference ( ANSYS).
. ,
, BEAM4 SHELL63,
1 2 .
ET,1,BEAM4
ET,2,SHELL63

.
, ,
TYPE (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem
Attributes).
, KEYOPT (KEYOPT(1),
KEYOPT(2), ). , KEYOPT(9) BEAM4
, KEYOPT(3)
SHELL63 . KEYOPT
ET KEYOPT (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete).

1.2.3. .
, ,
beam . , BEAM3 ( beam )
: (AREA), (IZZ),
(HEIGHT), (SHEARZ), (ISTRN),
(ADDMAS).
,
.
R (R, RMODIF, )
GUI; ANSYS Commands
17

Reference ( ANSYS). ,
,
.
, ,
REAL (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem
Attributes).
, :

R ,
, Table 4.n.1 ANSYS Elements
Reference ( ANSYS).
, ,
( REAL )
. ANSYS ,
.

.

RLIST and ELIST, RKEY = 1 ( ). RLIST
.
ELIST,,,,,1 ,
.
:
ELIST
GUI:
Utility Menu> List> Elements> Attributes + RealConst
Utility Menu> List> Elements> Attributes Only
Utility Menu> List> Elements> Nodes + Attributes
Utility Menu> List> Elements> Nodes + Attr + RealConst
:
RLIST
GUI:
Utility Menu> List> Properties> All Real Constants
Utility Menu> List> Properties> Specified Real Const

,
( , ,
), ,
( ):
/ESHAPE EPLOT
GUI:
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Size and Shape
Utility Menu> Plot> Elements

18

ANSYS ,
link shell pipe .
.
1.2.3.1. .
If you are building a model using BEAM44, BEAM188, or BEAM189, you can use the section
commands (SECTYPE, SECDATA, etc.) or their GUI path equivalents to define and use cross
sections in your models. See Beam Analysis and Cross Sections in the ANSYS Structural Analysis
Guide for information on how to use the BeamTool to create cross sections.
, BEAM44, BEAM188, BEAM189,
(SECTYPE, SECDATA, ) GUI
.
BeamTool Beam Analysis and
Cross Sections ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide (
ANSYS).

1.2.4. .
.
, .
,
.
.
( ,
). ANSYS .
, ,
MAT.
1.2.4.1. .
,
.
( ) :
:
MP
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models
; , EX, EY, EZ
, KXX, KYY, KZZ , .
X;
, , X. :
MP,EX,1,2E11
MP,DENS,1,7800
MP,KXX,1,43

! 1 2E11
! 1 7800
! 43

Y Z (
X), , ,
19


. , (NUXY) 0.3,
(GXY) EX/2(1+NUXY)),
1.0. ANSYS Elements Reference (
ANSYS).
, ,
GUI . , ,
, 10
.


. , ANSYS
.
,
MP MPTEMP MPTGEN.
MPTEMP MPDATA. MP ,
, . , ,
:
= C0 + C1T + C2T2 + C3T3 + C4T4
Cn . ,
MP, C0, C1, C2, C3, C4. C0,
; C0 C1,
. , ,
,
(- )
. MPTEMP
MPTGEN MP
.

MPTEMP MPDATA. MPTEMP ( MPTGEN)
MPDATA . ,
4:
MPTEMP,1,1600,1800,2000,2325,2326,2335 ! 6 (temps 1-6)
MPTEMP,7,2345,2355,2365,2374,2375,3000 ! 6 temps (temps 7-12)
MPDATA,ENTH,4,1,53.81,61.23,68.83,81.51,81.55,82.31
!
MPDATA,ENTH,4,7,84.48,89.53,99.05,112.12,113.00,137.40 !

,
ANSYS , .
,
, MPTEMP ( )
( MPTEMP
MPTGEN). MPPLOT
. MPLIST .
20

MPPLOT

,
, MPDATA
. , ,
82.31 83.09,
MPDATA,ENTH,4,6,83.09
,
: MPTEMP
MPDRES
. ,
2345 2340,
:
MPTEMP,7,2340
MPDRES,ENTH,4

! 7,
! ENTH 4 -

MPDRES .
, , .
, , ,
. MPDRES .
MPDRES
.
MPTRES
.
.
(ALPX, ALPY,
ALPZ), , , ( )
21

(
, MP,REFT TREF), MPAMOD
.
ANSYS
.
(
) .
CDWRITE,MAT ,
.

.
CDWRITE ANSYS
(ANSYS Emag, ANSYS Professional, ),
Jobname.CDB, CDWRITE
, , .
Jobname.CDB.
1.2.4.2. .
,
, .
TB. ,
TB,BH,2 B-H 2.
TBPT.
B-H :
TBPT,DEFI,150,.21
TBPT,DEFI,300,.55
TBPT,DEFI,460,.80
TBPT,DEFI,640,.95
TBPT,DEFI,720,1.0
TBPT,DEFI,890,1.1
TBPT,DEFI,1020,1.15
TBPT,DEFI,1280,1.25
TBPT,DEFI,1900,1.4

, TBPLOT TBLIST.
TBPLOT

22

1.2.4.3. .

, (
, ).
: SOLID64, PLANE13, SOLID5 SOLID98.

. , TB
( Lab = ANEL) ,
TBDATA.
TBLIST. Data Tables - Implicit Analysis ANSYS
Elements Reference.
1.2.4.4. .
ANSYS , ,
.
.
ANSYS
CFD , FLDATA.
1.2.4.4.1. .
Main
Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models. Define
Material Model Behavior ( ),
.
.

23

1.2.4.4.2. .
Material Models Available ( )
(, , ,
).

ANSYS LS-DYNA,
LS-DYNA.
, .
, .
.

24

, Structural , Linear, Nonlinear .


,
,
(, Mises Plasticity : Bilinear, Multilinear, Nonlinear).
, ,
. ,
.
1.2.4.4.3. .
,

.
.

:
.
, .
,
.
(, ,
, ).
.

( ). ,
,
.
.
.
25

, , ,
Add Temperature ( ).
,
.
.

.
, .
,
, Add
Temperature. ,
.
You can delete a temperature column by positioning the text cursor in any field within the column,
and clicking on the Delete Temperature button. ,
Delete
Temperature.
.

. . ,
, ,
Add Row ( Add Point).
.

26

, .
,
Add Row ( Add Point).
, .
Delete Row
( Delete Point).
/ .
, (
). , .
. ,
.
, .

.
, ,
.
/ , ,
Ctrl-c ,
, Ctrl-v.
,
, Shift
. , ,
Ctrl.

27

Add Temperature:
. ,
.
Delete Temperature: ,
. ,
.
Add Row (or Add Point):
. ,
.
Delete Row (or Delete Point): , .
Graph: ANSYS.

Graph OK.
OK: ANSYS
. Material Models Defined (
) Material Model Number # (
), # = 1 , ,
Material ID ( ).
Cancel: .
Help: .

1. OK Cancel. Enter
.
, , ,
.
,
.
A Dialog Box and Its Components ANSYS Operations Guide.
.
, (
Structural, Nonlinear, Inelastic
) ( /
)
(, ).
.
, .
OK , ,
. OK
, ,
.
1.2.4.4.4.
Material Models Defined ( Define Material Model
Behavior) . OK
, Material Model Number # (
1), .
, Material >New
28

Model, Define Material ID.


( ),

.
1.2.4.4.5. : .

.

,
.

, Voce law,
.
1. ANSYS Preprocesso >Material
Props>Material Models. Define Material Model
Behavior.
2. Material Models Available :
Structural, Linear, Elastic, Isotropic. .
3. (EX PRXY
). OK. Material Model Number 1 Material
Models Defined.
4. Material Models Available Nonlinear,
Inelastic, Rate Independent, Isotropic Hardening Plasticity, Mises Plasticity,
Nonlinear. , ,
. ,
. ANSYS ,
. ,
(
), .
5. Add Temperature. .
6. Temperature T1.
7. .
8. Temperature T2.
9. .
,
, Temperature T2,
Add Temperature. .

. ,
, Add Row.
10. OK. . ,
Material Model Number 1.
1.2.4.4.6. : .

29

, , .
,
Material Models Defined.
:
;
.
,
. :
1. Nonlinear Isotropic. .
2. OK.
.
.
:
1. Define Material Model Behavior :
Edit >Copy, 1 Material number, 2 Material number.
OK. Material Models Defined
Material Model Number 2. Material Model Number 2,
Material Model Number 1.
2. Nonlinear Isotropic Material Model Number 2.
.
3. Temperature Add
Temperature. T3.
4.
.
5. OK. .
Nonlinear Isotropic Material Model Number 2,
.
1.2.4.4.7. : .
, .
,
.
Chaboche.
, ANSYS
.
1. ANSYS GUI: Preprocessor>Material
Props>Material Models. Define Material Model
Behavior.
2. Material Models Available :
Structural, Linear, Elastic, Isotropic. .
3. Enter values for material properties, as required (EX for elastic modulus, and PRXY for
Poisson's ratio). Click on OK. Material Model Number 1 and Linear Isotropic appear in
the Material Models Defined window. (EX
, PRXY ).
30

4. Material Models Available, :


Nonlinear, Inelastic, Rate Independent, Combined Kinematic and Isotropic Hardening
Plasticity, Mises Plasticity.
5. Chaboche and Nonlinear Isotropic.
Chaboche.
6. Chaboche ( Help
).
7. Chaboche .
, Add Row,
.
8. Chaboche,
.
9. OK.
.
10. , (
Help ).
11. OK. . Material Model Number 1
: Linear Isotropic, Chaboche, and Nonlinear Isotropic.
1.2.4.4.8. .
:

,
Material Models Defined
Define Material Model Behavior.

ANSYS.
TB,MOONEY
*MOONEY.

1.2.4.5. .
.
ANSYS
,
( ).
ANSYS
.
:

,
, ,
. :
,
.
,
ANSYS , , , ANSYS,
.
/MPLIB (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material
Library> Library Path),
31

.
-,
ANSYS .

,
. , ,
STEELCST.SI_MPL.

.
(, ),
.


. /MPLIB,
MPREAD, MPWRITE ANSYS Elements Reference (
ANSYS).
1.2.4.6. .
ANSYS.
, .
. , ,
, ANSYS,
.
1.2.4.7. / .
, ,
:
:
/MPLIB,R-W_opt,PATH
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Library> Library Path

,
/ansys70/matlib/.

ANSYS,

R-W_opt, READ ( ), WRITE (


) STAT ,
. PATH, .
1.2.4.8. () .
, ,
:
1. ,
/UNITS. , ,
/UNITS,SI.

32

2. MP (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material


Props> Isotropic).
.
3. PREP7 :
MPWRITE,Filename,,,LIB,MAT
Filename , .

MPWRITE (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Library>


Export Library).
MPWRITE MAT
(
/MPLIB (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props>
Material Library> Library Path), ANSYS
).
.

MPWRITE. ,
JOBNAME.
.xxx_MPL, xxx
.
, CGS, .CGS_MPL.
.USER_MPL (
) ,
.

1.2.4.9. .
ANSYS,
:
1. /UNITS
.

ANSYS SI.
2. ,
:
:
MAT
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes

ANSYS
.
33

3. ,
:
:
MPREAD,Filename,,,LIB
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Library> Import Library
LIB .
,
, /MPLIB ,
ANSYS /ansys70/matlib. LIB,
.

1.2.5. .


.
.

:
.
, ANSYS
( ).
. ,
.
, ,
.

34

,
, , ,
ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide.

1.2.6. .
, SOLUTION
, ,
. PREP7.
1.2.6.1. .
.
, ,
. ANSYS :
, , , , ,
.
. ,
.
ANSYS ,
.
. :
, Newton-Raphson.
ANTYPE (Main Menu> Preprocessor>
Loads> Analysis Type> New Analysis or Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Analysis Type>
Restart). TRNOPT, HROPT,
MODOPT, SSTIF, NROPT, . GUI
ANSYS Elements Reference.
(full transient) ,
(Solution Controls)
.
, .
. ()
, (
), . ,

.
.
.
.
, (, , )
.
ANTYPE,TRANS
TRNOPT,FULL
NLGEOM,ON

35

.

, .
1.2.6.2. .
, ANSYS
( , , )
. ,
ANSYS, :

DOF ( ).
.
.
.
.
.

( ,
, ) ( ).
, .
.
. ,

.
.

.
.

.
ANSYS
( ) .
, ,
.
.
1.2.6.3. .
( ,
) .
.
1.2.6.4. .
:
:
SOLVE
36

GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS
Main Menu> Solution> solution_method
, ANSYS
.
(Jobname.RST, Jobname.RTH, Jobname.RMG, Jobname.RFL)
. ,
,
( ) .
:
:
LSSOLVE
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files

1.2.7. .
ANSYS .
: POST1 POST26.
POST1, ,
( ) . POST1
/POST1 (Main Menu> General Postproc),
. ,
. POST1 ,
, ,
, .
POST26, ,
( ).
POST26 /POST26 (Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro),
.
( ), .
POST26
. POST1 POST26
.

37

2. .
2.1. .

.
. ANSYS
. ,
.

2.2. ?
ANSYS
. :
: , , , ( ),

: , , , ,

: , , ,

: , , , ,
: ,

: DOF , ( ),
, ,
.

DOF
(DOF).

38

,
.
, . :
,
.
, .
: ,
.
. : ,
, .
( ) , ,
, .
.
,
.
, ,
.

, .

2.3. , .
, .
,
,
,
. ,
.
ANSYS ,
, ,
. ,
:
:
ESEL
GUI:
Utility Menu> Select> Entities
,
,

.
.

39


. :

,
.
,

(
).

, .


. ,
( ),
.
, , , .
, .

5 - 10
, .
,
, 15 25 .

, .

40

2.4. .
ANSYS

. ,
,
, , . ,
.
, ,
, .
( TIME) .
:
:
TIME
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and
Substps
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time - Time
Step
Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab)
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time - Time Step
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time /Frequenc> Time - Time Step
, ,
.
, time = 2.0
.
, .
,
. , 100
41

, , 100
, , .
, ,
, . ,
,
.
, (arc-length
method) . ,
, ( ,
). ALLF (
, )
.
.
,
. ,
.

. ,
.

2.5. .
,
, .

,
,
().
,
, ,
(b).

KBC (Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control: Transient Tab, Main
Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps / Main Menu>
Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps / Main Menu> Solution> Load
42

Step Opts > Time/Frequenc> Time & Time Step, or Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>
Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps / Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>
Time and Substps / Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time & Time
Step) ( ). KBC,0 ,
, KBC,1 .
.
,
, , , ,
.
( ), ,
.

2.6. .
( , )
( ). ,
. , (
) .
, , ,
. , ,
.

2.6.1. : .

.

. ,
.
,
.
, .

, ,
. ,
.

.
,
(
, ).
, .

.
,
.
43

, ,
:


. , DL,,,UX
D,,,UX's .

. , SFADELE,,,PRES
SFE,,,PRES's .
(DL,,,SYMM, DL,,,ASYM, DA,,,SYMM,
DA,,,ASYM) , ,
, , .

2.6.2. : .
:

,
.
.

.


.
,
.


, , , ,

.

2.6.3.
,
ANSYS.
( UX, ROTZ, AY, )
. ,
ANSYS, ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide.
, , ,
.
, .

ANSYS

UX, UY, UZ
ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ
44

ANSYS

TEMP, TBOT, TE2, . . .


TTOP

AX, AY, AZ
MAG

VOLT

VX, VY, VZ
PRES
ENKE
ENDS

D, DLIST, DDELE

DSYM, DSCALE, DCUM

DK, DKLIST, DKDELE

DL, DLLIST, DLDELE

DA, DALIST, DADELE

SBCTRAN

DTRAN

GUI,
.
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> load type> On Nodes
Utility Menu> List> Loads> DOF Constraints> On All Keypoints (or On Picked KPs)
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> load type> On Lines
GUI ,
ANSYS Commands Reference.

2.6.4. .
DSYM
. .
ANSYS Commands Reference.
, KCN
DSYM.
. DL DA
,
.
DL DA , ,

FLOTRAN.
.
45

.
(POST1),
,
, POST1 .
,
,
. POST1
SET (Utility Menu> List> Results> Load Step Summary)
:
*** ***
1, ,
. POST1

2.6.5. .
, ,
, :
:
DTRAN
46

GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Operate> Transfer to FE>
Constraints
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Operate> Transfer to FE> Constraints
,
:
:
SBCTRAN
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Operate> Transfer to FE> All
Solid Lds
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Operate> Transfer to FE> All Solid Lds
2.6.5.1. .
,
.
, ,
DCUM (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Settings> Replace vs.
Add> Constraints). :
NSEL,...
D,ALL,VX,40
D,ALL,VX,50
DCUM,ADD
D,ALL,VX,25
DCUM,IGNORE
D,ALL,VX,1325
DCUM

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!


VX = 40
VX 50 ()

VX = 50+25 = 75

VX !
DCUM ()

NSEL, D, DCUM ANSYS Commands Reference.


, DCUM
DCUM.
, DCUM .
2.6.5.2. .

:
:
DSCALE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Operate> Scale FE Loads>
Constraints
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Operate> Scale FE Loads> Constraints

47

DSCALE DCUM
DOF ( ). DOF
:
:
DOFSEL
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Operate> Scale FE Loads>
Constraints (or Forces)
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Settings> Replace vs. Add>
Constraints (or Forces)
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Operate> Scale FE Loads> Constraints (or
Forces)
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Settings> Replace vs. Add> Constraints (or
Forces)
, VX,
:
DOFSEL,S,VX
DSCALE,0.5
DOFSEL,ALL

! VX
! VX 0.5
! DOF

(TEMP) ,
TBASE DSCALE
( |TEMP-TBASE|)
. .
DSCALE

2.6.5.3. .
,
DK, DL, DA , ANSYS .
:

48

( )
, DL DL.

DL DK.

( / ) DA DA.
DA
, DL .
, DA ,
DK .

ANSYS ,
, :
1. , ,
DA (
).
2. , ,
SYMM ASYM DA (
).
3. , ,
DL (
).
4. , ,
SYMM ASYM DL (
).
5. , DK
.
, DK
DL DL DA. ,
, ,
, ,
. .

.
,

:
*** WARNING ***
DOF constraint ROTZ from line 8 (1st value=22) is overwriting a D on
node 18 (1st value=0) that was previously transferred from another
DA, DL,or set of DK's. (, ROTZ
8 ( = 22) D 18
( = 0), DA, DL,
DK.)

DK, DL, DA

.

49

,
, DADELE, DLDELE, / DDELE.

.
VX, VY, VZ,
( )
( /).
.

2.6.6. ( ).
,
ANSYS. ( FX, MZ, CSGY, )
. ,
ANSYS, ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide.
, , ,
. , ,
.
,

ANSYS

FX, FY, FZ

MX, MY, MZ

HEAT, HBOT, HE2, . . . HTOP

CSGX, CSGY, CSGZ

FLUX

CHRG

AMPS

CHRG

FLOW

F, FLIST, FDELE

FSCALE, FCUM

FK, FKLIST, FKDELE

SBCTRAN

FTRAN

GUI,
:
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> load type> On Nodes
50

Utility Menu> List> Loads> Forces> On All Keypoints (or On Picked KPs)
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> load type> On Lines
ANSYS Commands Reference.
2.6.6.1. .
, ,
. ,
, :
:
FCUM
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Settings> Replace vs Add> Forces
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Settings> Replace vs. Add> Forces
:
F,447,FY,3000
F,447,FY,2500
FCUM,ADD
F,447,FY,-1000
FCUM,IGNORE
F,25,FZ,350
FCUM

!
!
!
!
!
!
!

FY = 3000 447
FY 2500 ()

FY = 2500-1000 = 1500 447

!
FCUM ()

F FCUM ANSYS Commands Reference.


, FCUM
FCUM. (), FCUM
.
2.6.6.2. .
FSCALE :
:
FSCALE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Operate> Scale FE Loads> Forces
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Operate> Scale FE Loads> Forces
FSCALE FCUM
. , , .
DOFSEL. , ,
FX, ,
:
DOFSEL,S,FX
FSCALE,0.5
DOFSEL,ALL

! FX
! FX 0.5
! DOF

51

2.6.6.3.
To transfer forces that have been applied to the solid model to the corresponding finite element
model, use one of the following: , ,
, :
:
FTRAN
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Operate> Transfer to FE> Forces
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Operate> Transfer to FE> Forces
, SBCTRAN:
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Operate> Transfer to FE> All
Solid Lds
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Operate> Transfer to FE> All Solid Lds

2.6.7. .
,
ANSYS. ,
.
, .
.

ANSYS

PRES[1]

CONV

HFLUX

INF

MXWF

INF

MXWF

CHRGS

INF

FSI

IMPD

SELV

52

1. PRESS.
.

SF, SFLIST, SFDELE

SFSCALE, SFCUM, SFFUN, SFGRAD

SFE, SFELIST, SFEDELE

SFBEAM, SFFUN, SFGRAD

SFL, SFLLIST, SFLDELE

SFGRAD

SFA, SFALIST, SFADELE

SFGRAD

SFTRAN

GUI,
:
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> load type> On Nodes
Utility Menu> List> Loads> Surface> On All Elements (or On Picked Elements)
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> load type> On Lines
ANSYS Commands Reference.

.
ANSYS ,
, .
, ,
, ,
.
ANSYS (
) .
(SHELL91 SHELL99)
, . KEYOPT(11)
.
, ,
.
2.6.7.1. .
,
:
:
SFBEAM
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On
Beams
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Beams
53

,
, , .
, ,
. ( )
, JOFFST -1.
.
.

2.6.7.2. .
SFFUN (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Settings> For Surface
Ld> Node Function, or Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Settings> For Surface Ld>
Node Function)
.
, , , .
, .
. ,

1, 2, 3 4, .

, ,
:
*DIM,ABC,ARRAY,4
ABC(1)=400,587.2,965.6,740
SFFUN,HFLUX,ABC(1)
!
SF,ALL,HFLUX,100
! 100

! ABC
! ABC
! ABC

! ,
+ ABC(i) I .

*DIM, SFFUN, SF ANSYS Commands Reference.


SF ,
100, . 1 4 ,
100 + ABC(i): 100 +
400 = 500 1 , 100 + 587.2 = 687.2 2 , .

54

.
, SFFUN
SF SFE. ,
SFFUN .
2.6.7.3. .

()
:
:
SFGRAD
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Settings> For Surface Ld>
Gradient
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Settings> For Surface Ld> Gradient

, ,
.
, ( Lab),
, (SLKCN
Sldir, ), (SLZER), (SLOPE).
, (Lab =
PRES) .
(SLKCN = 0) Y (Sldir = Y).
(, 500, SF )
500 Y = 0 (SLZER = 0), 25
Y (SLOPE = -25).
.

:
55

SFGRAD,PRES,0,Y,0,-25
NSEL,...
SF,ALL,PRES,500

!
!
!
!

Y -25

:
500 Y=0, 250 Y=10, 0 Y=20

(, SLKCN = 1),
: , SLZER , SLOPE
/. , :
1: CSCIR (
) ,
.
2: SLZER CSCIR. SLZER 180,
180 [CSCIR,KCN,0], SLZER 0
360 0 [CSCIR,KCN,1].
. ,
, , 11.
, 400
-90 580 +90. ,
180, -90
+90. ():
SFGRAD,PRES,11,Y,-90,1
SF,ALL,PRES,400

!
!
!
!
!

theta
11. 90
1
:
400 90, 490 0, 580 +90.

-90, 400,
, , 490 0 580 +90.
.

56

270, -90, SLZER:


SFGRAD,PRES,11,Y,270,1 !
!
!
SF,ALL,PRES,400
!
!

theta C.S. 11.


270,

:
400 90., 490 0., 580 +90.

,
, . ,
180 ( -90 +90), SLZER
-180 +180.
400 270,
220 +90, 130 0, 40 -90.
, . SLZER 180,
180, 0 and 360, 0.
2 () 1 ().

57

, 0,
(270 0 360).
0 +90 270 360
. , 1.
CSCIR,11,1
SFGRAD,PRES,11,Y,270,1
SF,ALL,PRES,400

!
!
!
!
!
!
!

0
theta C.S. 11.
270,

:
400 270., 490 360., 220 +90.
130 0.

400 270 ,
400 270, 490 360, 220 90, 130 0.
,
. ,
,
. , , 0
130, ,
( 358) 488.

.
, SFGRAD
. ,
SFGRAD . , SFGRAD
,
.
If you need this capability, use SURF153 with face 3 loading or SURF154 with face 4 loading.
. ,
SFGRAD, , ,
.
2.6.7.4. .

58

,
, .

:
:
SFCUM
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Settings> Replace vs. Add>
Surface Loads
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Settings> Replace vs. Add> Surface Loads
,
SFCUM. ,
(), SFCUM . SFSCALE
.
SFCUM SFSCALE . Lab
.
2.6.7.5. .

, :
:
SFTRAN
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Operate> Transfer to FE> Surface
Loads
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Operate> Transfer to FE> Surface Loads
, SBCTRAN
( )
2.6.7.6. .
Currently, the following surface effect elements are available: SURF151 and SURF153 for 2-D
models and SURF152 and SURF154 for 3-D models.
, . ,
,
. ,
( )
.
: SURF151 SURF153
SURF152 SURF154 .

2.6.8. .
,
ANSYS. ,
59

. , ,
, , .

ANSYS

TEMP[1]

FLUE

HGEN

TEMP[1]

JS

MVDI

VLTG

Temperature

TEMP[1]

Volume Charge Density

CHRGD

Heat Generation Rate

HGEN

Force Density

FORC

Electric
Fluid

1.

BF, BFLIST, BFDELE

BFSCALE, BFCUM, BFUNIF

BFE, BFELIST, BFEDELE

BFESCAL, BFECUM

BFK, BFKLIST, BFKDELE

BFL, BFLLIST, BFLDELE

BFA, BFALIST, BFADELE

BFV, BFVLIST, BFVDELE

BFTRAN

, ,
.
GUI,
:
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> load type> On Nodes
Utility Menu> List> Loads> Body> On Picked Elems
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> load type> On Keypoints
Utility Menu> List> Loads> Body> On Picked Lines
60

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> load type> On Volumes


ANSYS Commands Reference.

,
. , ANSYS ,
:

, .
, , .
,
BFUNIF.

2.6.8.1. .
BFE . ,
.
,
. ,
. ANSYS Elements
Reference .

(PLANEn SOLIDn),
.
BFE

(SHELLn),
, .
BFE .

61

(SHELL63 , SHELL51 )
(BEAMn, LINKn, PIPEn, )
;
.

BFE .

, () ,
,
() .
, BF.

2.6.8.2. .
BFK .
,
,
. , (
) , .
.
BFK .
,
, .
BFK .
62

2.6.8.3. , .
BFL, BFA, BFV
, . ,
.
,
.
2.6.8.4. .
BFUNIF .
;

.
ANSYS
.
:
:
BFUNIF
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Structural or Thermal>
Temperature> Uniform Temp
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Settings> Uniform Temp
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural
Temperature> Uniform Temp

or

Thermal>

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Settings> Uniform Temp


2.6.8.5. .

63

,
, .
, :
:
BFCUM, BFECUM
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Settings> Replace vs Add> Nodal
Body Ld
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Settings> Replace vs Add> Elem
Body Lds
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Settings> Replace vs Add> Nodal Body Ld
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Settings> Replace vs Add> Elem Body Lds
GUI
GUI.
(),
.
2.6.8.6. .

, :
:
BFTRAN
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Operate> Transfer to FE> Body
Loads
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Operate> Transfer to FE> Body Loads
, SBCTRAN.
2.6.8.7. .
,
:
:
BFSCALE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Operate> Scale FE Loads> Nodal
Body Ld
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Operate> Scale FE Loads> Nodal Body Ld
:

64

BFESCAL
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Operate> Scale FE Loads> Elem
Body Lds
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Operate> Scale FE Loads> Elem Body Lds
BFCUM BFSCALE , BFECUM
BFESCAL .
2.6.8.8. ,
.

BFK, BFL, BFA, BFV ANSYS
.
BFV, BFA, BFL ,
. ,
, , .
, BFV, BFA, BFL BFK
:
A: BFV, BFA, BFL,
, BFV, BFA, BFL, .
,
. BFK .
.
B: BFV, BFA, BFL,
, BFV, BFA, BFL.
BFE BFV, BFA, BFL.
: (1 )
BFE , (2) BFK , (3)
BF , (4) BFUNIF .
.
C: BFV, BFA, BFL .
BFE BFV, BFA, BFL.
: (1 )
BFE , (2) BFK , (3) BFL
, , BFA
, , (5) BFV
, , (6)
BF , (7) BFUNIF .
.
:
65

BFL BFL (
).
BFL BFK .
BFA BFA (
/ ).
BFA BFL .
BFA BFK .
BFV BFV (
// ).
BFV BFA .
BFV BFL .
BFV BFK .

ANSYS
:
1. , BFV
BFE , , , BF
( , ).
2. , BFA
BFE , , , BF
( ).
3. , BFL BFE
, , BF
( ).
4. BFK BF , (
, , ).
, , BFK
BFL , BFL BFA , BFA
BFV . ,
(, ) ,
, (, ) .
.

.
,
( ) :
***WARNING***
Body load TEMP from line 12 (1st value=77) is overwriting a BF on
node 43 (1st value=99) that was previously transferred from another
BFV, BFA, BFL or set of BFK's.
TEMP 12 ( =77) BF 43
( =99) BFV, BFA, BFL BFK
.

BFK, BFL, BFA, BFV



. , BF

66

, BFVDELE, BFADELE,
BFLDELE, / BFDELE.

2.6.9. .
:

Command
ACEL
CGLOC
CGOMGA
CMDOMEGA
CMOMEGA
DCGOMG
DOMEGA
IRLF
OMEGA
,
.
STAT, INRTIA.
. . ,
. ,
.
ACEL, OMEGA, DOMEGA ,

.

.
ACEL
Y,
.
CGOMGA DCGOMG
. CGLOC
.
, ,
.
CMOMEGA CMDOMEGA
.

.
.
67

, ,
( ,
, , MASS21,
). , ANSYS
. ,
,
(lb/in3) (lb-sec2/in/in3), .
:

.
.
(g = 1.0).



, g:
.

g = 1.0

g = 386.0

MP,DENS,1,0.283/g

MP,DENS,1,0.283/g

ACEL,,g

ACEL,,g

2.6.10. .

. ,
(
). ,
.
, :
:
LDREAD
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> load type> From source
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> load type> From source

ANSYS Coupled-Field Analysis Guide.

2.6.11. .
, , ,
Y , ,
. ,
. , ,
360.
68

. , 1500
10 , 47,124 lb. (1500*2 *5
= 47,124) N :
F,N,FY,47124

,
. ,
(360).
,
, . MODE
(Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> For Harmonic Ele or Main
Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> For Harmonic Ele),
(D, F, SF, etc.), .
ANSYS Commands Reference.

360 .
2.6.11.1. .

, , .
69

, , ,
UX
.
.

2.6.12. .
, ANSYS
. , LINK1.

. , ,
, ,
() .
.

2.6.13. .
ANSYS
.
( , ).
.

.
,
.
ISTRESS.
ISFILE
.
.

SHELL181, .
MATx
70

.
SHELL181
ISFILE, delete, elementID, .
SHELL181
.
: PLANE42, SOLID45,
PLANE82, SOLID92, SOLID95, LINK180, SHELL181, PLANE182, PLANE183, SOLID185,
SOLID186, SOLID187, BEAM188, BEAM189. ISWRITE
, .
/SOLUTION.
ANSYS Commands Reference.
(ISFILE, ISTRESS, USTRESS)
.
.
2.6.13.1. .
LOC ISFILE ,
.
. LOC
0, . LOC = 1
.
LOC = 2.

. LOC = 3 ,
.
.

Section 13.1 Chapter 14 ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference. BEAM
SHELL .
, ISFILE,
ASCII .
,
.
"EIS"
. .
LOC ISFILE 0, 1
3. LOC = 2,
. : 0
( ), 1 .
, ISFILE.
,
. LOC = 0,
. LOC = 1,
.
ANSYS .
, ANSYS
. LOC = 3,
71


.
. (ESYS),
.
ISWRITE ,
.
2.6.13.2. ANSYS
,
ISFILE .
10 1 .
PLANE42. X = 0
.
, istress.ist, , ANSYS.
,
, .
! ************ ANSYS ************
!
! , istress.ist,
! 5 PLANE42.
!
! 1
!
Sx
Sy
Sz
Sxy
Syz Sxz
eis,
1
-3117691.453622 , -87.56555196445 , 0.0, -99999.99999990 , 0.0, 0.0
-3117691.453622 , -326.7990889251 , 0.0, -99999.99999990 , 0.0, 0.0
3117691.453622 , -326.7990889248 , 0.0, -99999.99999990 , 0.0, 0.0
3117691.453622 , -87.56555196422 , 0.0, -99999.99999990 , 0.0, 0.0
!
! 2
!
Sx
Sy
Sz
Sxy
Syz Sxz
eis,
2
-2424871.130595 , 23.46311893908 , 0.0, -99999.99999991 , 0.0, 0.0
-2424871.130595 , 1219.630803748 , 0.0, -99999.99999991 , 0.0, 0.0
2424871.130595 , 1219.630803748 , 0.0, -99999.99999991 , 0.0, 0.0
2424871.130595 , 23.46311893943 , 0.0, -99999.99999991 , 0.0, 0.0
!
! 3
!
Sx
Sy
Sz
Sxy
Syz Sxz
eis,
3
-1732050.807568 , -6.286923759268 , 0.0, -99999.99999989 , 0.0, 0.0
-1732050.807568 , -4551.724125935 , 0.0, -99999.99999990 , 0.0, 0.0
1732050.807568 , -4551.724125935 , 0.0, -99999.99999989 , 0.0, 0.0
1732050.807568 , -6.286923743552 , 0.0, -99999.99999989 , 0.0, 0.0
!
! 4
!
Sx
Sy
Sz
Sxy
Syz Sxz
eis,
4
-1039230.484542 , 1.684576148808 , 0.0, -99999.99999990 , 0.0, 0.0
-1039230.484542 , 16987.26570008 , 0.0, -99999.99999991 , 0.0, 0.0
1039230.484542 , 16987.26570014 , 0.0, -99999.99999991 , 0.0, 0.0
1039230.484541 , 1.684576134896 , 0.0, -99999.99999990 , 0.0, 0.0
!
! 5

72

!
Sx
Sy
Sz
Sxy
Syz
eis,
5
-346410.1615140 ,-0.4513808515767 , 0.0, -100000.0000001 , 0.0,
-346410.1615140 , -63397.33867442 , 0.0, -100000.0000001 , 0.0,
346410.1615140 , -63397.33867442 , 0.0, -100000.0000001 , 0.0,
346410.1615140 ,-0.4513808514312 , 0.0, -100000.0000001 , 0.0,
!
!
!***************************************************************

Sxz
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

ANSYS (
ISFILE) istress.ist .

105 .
/prep7
/title, ANSYS
et,1,PLANE42
! PLANE42
mp,ex,1,1.0e9
mp,nuxy,1,0.3
!
!
!
n,1
n,2,2.0
n,3,4.0
n,4,6.0
n,5,8.0
n,6,10.0
n,7,,1.0
n,8,2.0,1.0
n,9,4.0,1.0
n,10,6.0,1.0
n,11,8.0,1.0
n,12,10.0,1.0
!
! 5
!
e,1,2,8,7
e,2,3,9,8
e,3,4,10,9
e,4,5,11,10
e,5,6,12,11
! x=0
nsel,s,loc,x,
d,all,all
nall
finish
!
/solu
! istress.ist
! .
!
! LOC ISFILE .
!
isfile,read,istress,ist,,1
! List the initial stresses
isfile,list
outres,all,all
solve
finish
!

73

/post1
set,last
prnsol,u
finish

2.6.13.3. , ISTRESS
ISTRESS
. ISFILE
. ISFILE
.
.
solution
!
! .
!
istress,1322.34,2022.21,302.43,4040.32,5076.32,6021.456
!
! , 1
!
! isfile,list
isfile,dele,1
!
! .
!
isfile,list
solve
FINISH

2.6.13.4. , ISWRITE
, ISWRITE ,
.
.
, .
:
!
! ******* INITIAL STRESS FILE ev181-64s.ist
!
!
!INITIAL STRESS RECORD FOR ELEMENT
3
!
SX
SY
SZ
SXY
eis,
3,1
78.6886
122.471
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
47.2161
73.4892
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.730024E-02
0.167903E-01
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
-47.2015
-73.4556
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
-78.6740
-122.437
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
!
!
!INITIAL STRESS RECORD FOR ELEMENT
2
!
SX
SY
SZ
SXY
eis,
2,1

<----

File Name

<---- Element Records.


SYZ
SXZ
55.7557

0.000000E+00

33.4552

0.000000E+00

0.442187E-02

0.000000E+00

-33.4464

0.000000E+00

-55.7469

0.000000E+00

SYZ

SXZ

74

111.393
-10.2521
0.000000E+00
-5.40234
0.000000E+00
66.8419
-6.14723
0.000000E+00
-3.24392
0.000000E+00
0.149626E-01
0.101159E-01
0.000000E+00 -0.630216E-02
0.000000E+00
-66.8120
6.16746
0.000000E+00
3.23132
0.000000E+00
-111.363
10.2724
0.000000E+00
5.38973
0.000000E+00
!
!
!INITIAL STRESS RECORD FOR ELEMENT
1
!
SX
SY
SZ
SXY
SYZ
eis,
1,1
-486.946
-146.209
0.000000E+00
-82.7928
0.000000E+00
-292.163
-87.7187
0.000000E+00
-49.6735
0.000000E+00
0.121788E-01
0.172217E-01
0.000000E+00
0.534346E-02
0.000000E+00
292.187
87.7531
0.000000E+00
49.6842
0.000000E+00
486.971
146.244
0.000000E+00
82.8035
0.000000E+00
!
!

0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

SXZ
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

2.6.14. , ( TABLE).
, TABLE,
. , ,
.
; ,
, , , .

.
,
: % %. ,
, :
SF,all,conv,%sycnv%,tbulk

,
.
,
, "new table".
, .
, Utility Menu> Parameters>
Array Parameters> Define/Edit, *DIM.
, .

( ) TABLE Type Array Parameters ANSYS APDL
Programmer's Guide.
75

2.6.14.1. .
,
, .

.
. ,
*DIM.
.

TIME, X, Y, Z

D,,(TEMP, TBOT, TE2, TE3, . . ., TTOP)

TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP

F,,(HEAT, HBOT, HE2, HE3, . . ., HTOP)

()

TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP, SF,,CONV


VELOCITY

()

TIME, X, Y, Z

SF,,,TBULK

TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP

SF,,HFLU

TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP

BFE,,HGEN

TIME

BFUNIF,TEMP

TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP

D,(UX,UY,UZ,ROTX,ROTY,ROTZ)

TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP

F,(FX,FY,FZ,MX,MY,MZ)

TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP

SF,,PRES

TIME

BF,,TEMP

TIME, X, Y, Z

D,,VOLT

TIME, X, Y, Z

F,,AMPS

TIME, X, Y, Z

D,,PRES

TIME, X, Y, Z

F,,FLOW

FLOTRAN

TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP, D,,(VX,VY,VZ,PRES,TEMP,ENKE,


ENDS,SP01-SP06)
VELOCITY,
PRESSURE

TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP, D,,(UX,UY,UZ)


ALE
VELOCITY, PRES, Xr,
Yr, Zr
76

TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP, SF,,HFLU


VELOCITY,
PRESSURE
SF,,CONV

TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP, BFE,,HGEN


VELOCITY,
PRESSURE

TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP, BF,,HGEN


VELOCITY,
PRESSURE

TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP, BF,,FORCE


VELOCITY,
PRESSURE

TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP, SF,,RAD


VELOCITY,
PRESSURE

VELOCITY
FLUID116 .
SURF151, SURF152,
FLUID116 .
.

SURF151, SURF152

TIME, X. Y, Z

FLUID116

TIME, X, Y, Z

TIME, X, Y, Z

2.6.14.2. .
,
. ,
. ,

. ,
.
, , (HF)
(RPM) (TEMP). TEMP.
RPM, . ,
: RPM TIME ,
HF RPM TEMP.
77

*DIM,SYCNV,TABLE,3,3,,RPM,TEMP
SYCNV(1,0)=0.0,20.0,40.0
SYCNV(0,1)=0.0,10.0,20.0,40.0
SYCNV(0,2)=0.5,15.0,30.0,60.0
SYCNV(0,3)=1.0,20.0,40.0,80.0
*DIM,RPM,TABLE,4,1,1,TIME
RPM(1,0)=0.0,10.0,40.0,60.0
RPM(1,1)=0.0,5.0,20.0,30.0
SF,ALL,CONV,%SYCNV%

,
( ).
2.6.14.3. .
, ,
. *TOPER (Utility Menu>
Parameters> Array Operations> Table Operations).
.
, .
2.6.14.4. .
,
:


, .
.

( , )

ANSYS (/PBC, /PSF, ),
(/PNUM,TABNAM,ON).
(/PNUM,SVAL) POST1.
*STATUS (Utility Menu>
List> Other> Parameters).

2.6.15. .
Function Tool .
Function Tool : Function Editor
( ) Function Loader
, .
TABLE
. Function Editor Utility Menu>
Parameters> Functions> Define/Edit, Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>
Functions> Define/Edit. Function Loader Utility Menu>
Parameters> Functions> Read from file, or via Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>
Functions> Read file.
:
78

,
.
TABLE
, .
,
.
,
TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP;
,
TIME, X, Y, Z, TEMP.

Function Tool .

: ,
.
:
.
: ,
.
.
, .
: ,
.
: .
.

2.6.15.1. Function Editor


Function Editor .
, .
,
, .
,
. .
Function Editor . :

. :
* (TIME)
X * (X) .
Y * (Y) .
Z * (Z) .
* ( TEMP)
(TFLUID) (
FLUID116 SURF151 SURF152)
* (VELOCITY) ( Velocity
FLUID116)
* (PRES)
Tsurf* (TS) ( SURF151 SURF152)
() ( DENS)
( C)
( kxx)
79

( kyy)
( kzz)
( )
( )
* (Xr) (ALE)
* (Yr) (ALE)
* (Zr) (ALE)
(GAP)
(OMEGS) ( SURF151, SURF152)
(OMEGF) ( FLUID116)
(SLIP) ( FLUID116)

, (*)
.
.

Function Editor; ,
. ,
, .
( 6 ) .
.
. 0-9
. ,
, , INV
.

, ,
, .
( , , )
, .
, GRAPH/LIST
Function Editor.

.
Function Editor .
.

(, ), STO
. , STO,
.
. , STO M1
Memory1. , INV
INS MEM .

.
, RCL. ,
.
TABLE ,
.
80

Function Editor.
1. Function Editor Utility Menu> Parameters> Functions>
Define/Edit or Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Functions> Define/Edit.
2. . : (single)
(multivalued function). ,
. ,
. ,
.
3. (degrees) (radians). ,

*AFUN.
4. ( ) ,
( )
, .
, 10 .
, 5 .
5. Regime 1.
, Function.
6. .
7. Regime 2. ,
.
. .
8. .
9. 6 .
,
.
10. , (). Editor>
Comment .
11. . Editor> Save .
.func.
ANSYS
. ,

.
, , ,

. Function Loader.
2.6.15.2. Function Loader
,
, Function Loader.
1. Function Loader Utility Menu> Parameters> Functions>
Read from file.
2. , ,
.

81

3. Function Loader, (
).
, (%tabname%)
4. , Function Regime
, . Function.
.
,
, .
.

.

Function Loader.
.
5. .
6. Save. TABLE
, .
TABLE
Function Loader, .

.
.
ANSYS .
2.6.15.3. .
, .
, ,
, .

.

. ,
, 2 :
1 1 < X < 5,
:
h(x) = 0.332 * (kxx/x) * Re**(1/2) * Pr**(1/3)
82

2 5 < X < 10,


:
h(x) = 0.566 * (kxx/x) * Re**(1/2) * Pr**(1/3)
, :
Re = (dens*vel*x)/visc
:
Pr = (visc*c)/kxx
, :
(dens) = 1, (kxx) = 10, (c) = 10, (visc) =
0.01
(vel) 100 1 50 2.
100 .
1. , PLANE55,
:
2. /prep7
3. rect,1,10,,.5
4. et,1,55
5. !
6. mp,KXX,1.10
!
7. mp,DENS,1,1
!
8. mp,C,1,10
!
9. mp,VISC,1,0.01
!
10. !
11. mp,kxx,2,10
12. mp,dens,2,10
13. mp,c,2,5
14. mat,2
15. esize,,25
amesh,all

, .
. , ,

.
16. . Utility Menu> Parameters> Functions> Define/Edit
. ,
, X .
Function Editor, Multivalued function
based on regime variable ( ,
) xloc .

83

1. .
Regime 1.
1 < X < 5. 1 5 .
2. ,
, ,
. , ,
, . DENS, X, VISC
( {}) , .
, * /.
:

84

1. STO, M0 , 0.
2. , , (Results box),
Clear, , .
VISC, SPHT, KXX . , STO,
M1. :

85

1. .
Clear .
,
. ({KXX} {X}) .
M0 and M1 . ,
INV, RCL, M0 M1 .

1. . Regime2.
10 .
,
.
. , ,
. M0 M1,
.
:

86

1. . ,
File> Comments.
2. , File> Save.
. .func.
,
ANSYS.
3. .
Utility Menu> Parameters> Functions> Read from File.
.func, .
(Function Loader).
4. ,
. , heatcf (
7 ).
.
veloc. Regime 1, 1
( ) 100 ( ).
, .
:

87

1. .

(Function Loader).

.
2. Regime 2 1 50.
, OK ,
. , OK ,
.
3. .
.
4. nsel,s,loc,y,0
5. d,all,temp,25
6. nsel,s,loc,y,0.5
7. sf,all,conv,%heatcf%,100
8. finish
9. /solu
10. time,1
11. deltim,.1
12. outres,all,all
13. allsel
14. solve
15. finish
16. /post1

88

17. set,last
18. /psf,conv,hcoe,2,0.e+00,1
19. /replot ! .
finish

2.6.15.4.
.

.
,
,
.

Plot Information Graph .


.

(Image Capture).
89

, List Plot Information, ANSYS


.
Plot Information.
.

, , ,
Excel .

2.7. .
,
, , ,
.
. :

.
90

.
.
, .
Biot-Savart.
.

2.7.1. .

, ,
, .
.
2.7.1.1. Solution Controls
,
Solution Controls .
2.7.1.2. Time
TIME
. , TIME .
, .
ANSYS.
TIME,0 TIME,() TIME,
ANSYS : 1.0
1.0 + .
, , ,
, TIME,1E-6.
2.7.1.3. .

, .
:
:
DELTIM
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time & Time
Step
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab)
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time & Time Step
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time & Time Step
:
NSUBST
GUI:
91

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq &
Substeps (or Time and Substps)
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab)
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps (or Time
and Substps)
Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps (or
Time and Substps)
NSUBST DELTIM
. ANSYS
.
2.7.1.4. .
AUTOTS .
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time & Time
Step (or Time and Substps)
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab)
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time & Time Step (or Time
and Substps)
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time & Time Step (or Time
and Substps)
,
,
.
( ) , AUTOTS
.
2.7.1.5. .
,
.
KBC: KBC,0 KBC,1 .
.
:
KBC
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Sol'n Control ( : Transient Tab)
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps (or Time
and Substps or Time & Time Step)
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps (or Time
and Substps or Time & Time Step)
:
92

,
(, , ,
).
, :
, ,
, (
BFUNIF GUI
).
.
, ,
. ,
(ANTYPE,HARM HROPT,FULL),
,
, PLANE2, SOLID45, SOLID92,
SOLID95, .
, ,
.

,

, BFUNIF,
.
,
, BFUNIF
.

BFUNIF, , ,
, .

. .

(KBC = 0) .

TUNIF[2] TUNIF[3]


TBULK

TUNIF[2] TUNIF

HCOEF

[4]

TUNIF[2]
TUNIF[3]

BFUNIF[5]


BFUNIF[3]

93

[1]

1. OMEGA ,
.
2. TUNIF .
3. , TUNIF BFUNIF
.
4.
KBC .
5. BFUNIF TUNIF, BFUNIF
.
2.7.1.6. .
:

,
. :
:
TREF
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Reference Temp
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Settings> Reference Temp
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Reference Temp
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Settings> Reference Temp

( )
. ()
, :
:
KUSE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Reuse Tri Matrix
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Reuse Tri Matrix

,
Newton-Raphson. KUSE 1,
.
, (
Jobname.TRI) ,
, KUSE 1. KUSE,-1
.
.
94

( )
X.
(
)
( ).
:
:
MODE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> For Harmonic Ele
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> For Harmonic Ele


:
:
MAGOPT
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Magnetics> potential

formulation method

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Magnetics> potential formulation method

:
:
NUMEXP,EXPSOL
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single
Expand> Range of Solu's
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Range of
Solu's
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single
Expand> By Load Step
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single
Expand> By Time/Freq
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> By Load
Step
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> By
Time/Freq

2.7.2. .
.
:
.

95

GUI
TIMINT

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads>


Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time
.
Integration

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>


Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab)
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>
Time/Frequenc> Time Integration
Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged
Menu>
Time/Frequenc>
Time
Integration
HARFRQ Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads>
Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq .
& Substeps
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>
Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps
ALPHAD Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads>

Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>


.
Damping
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>
Sol'n Contro( : Transient Tab)
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>
Time/Frequenc> Damping
Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged
Menu> Time/Frequenc> Damping
BETAD

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads>

Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>


.
Damping
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>
Sol'n Contro ( : Transient Tab)
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>
Time/Frequenc> Damping
Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged
Menu> Time/Frequenc> Damping

DMPRAT Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads>

Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>


.
Damping
Main Menu> Solution> Time/Frequenc>
Damping
MDAMP

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads>

Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>


.
Damping

96

GUI

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>


Time/Frequenc> Damping

2.7.3. .
. :

GUI
NEQIT

Main Menu> Preprocessor>


Loads> Load Step Opts> ,
( =
Nonlinear> Equilibrium Iter
25)
Main Menu> Solution> Load
Step Opts> Sol'n Control ( :
Nonlinear Tab)
Main Menu> Solution> Load
Step
Opts>
Nonlinear>
Equilibrium Iter
Main
Menu>
Solution>
Unabridged Menu> Nonlinear>
Equilibrium Iter

CNVTOL Main Menu> Preprocessor>


Loads> Load Step Opts>
Nonlinear> Convergence Crit
Main Menu> Solution> Load
Step Opts> Sol'n Control ( :
Nonlinear Tab)
Main Menu> Solution> Load
Step
Opts>
Nonlinear>
Convergence Crit
Main
Menu>
Solution>
Unabridged Menu> Nonlinear>
Convergence Crit
NCNV

Main

Menu>

Preprocessor>

Main Menu> Solution> Sol'n


Main Menu> Solution> Load
Main

Menu>

Solution>

97

GUI

Criteria to Stop

2.7.4. , .
:
,
GUI

OUTRES Main Menu> Preprocessor> ANSYS


Loads> Load Step Opts> Output
.
Ctrls> DB/Results File
Main Menu> Solution> Load
Step Opts> Sol'n Control ( : Basic
Tab)
Main Menu> Solution> Load
Step Opts> Output Ctrls>
DB/Results File
Main Menu> Solution> Load
Step Opts> Output Ctrls>
DB/Results File
OUTPR

Main Menu> Preprocessor>


Loads> Load Step Opts> Output ( ,
Jobname.OUT) .
Ctrls> Solu Printout
Main Menu> Solution> Load
Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu
Printout
Main Menu> Solution> Load
Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu
Printout

OUTRES OUTPR:
OUTRES,ALL,5
!
OUTPR,NSOL,LAST
!
.

OUTPR OUTRES ( 50)


, ,
. ,
10
.
OUTRES,ALL,10
OUTRES,NSOL,5

98

, ( ),
,
.
OUTRES,NSOL,5
OUTRES,ALL,10

,
OUTRES,NSOL,10
OUTRES,NSOL,ALL,TIP


TIP . , ,
10 .


; OUTRES ANSYS
Elements Reference.
OUTRES (FREQ = NONE)
(OUTRES,ALL,NONE)

OUTRES.
, ERESX,
.
:
ERESX
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt
ANSYS ,

.
ERESX,NO,
,
. ERESX,YES, ,
.

2.7.5. Biot-Savart.
, .
:
Biot-Savart

99

GUI
BIOT

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads>


Load Step Opts> Magnetics>
.
Options Only> Biot-Savart
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step
Opts> Magnetics> Options Only>
Biot-Savart

EMSYM Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> .


Load Step Opts> Magnetics>
Options Only> Copy Sources
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step
Opts> Magnetics> Options Only>
Copy Sources

2.7.6. .
,
.
ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide.

2.8. .
,
. ,
,
.
LSWRITE ( ,
Jobname.S01, Jobname.S02, Jobname.S03,
). :
:
LSWRITE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Write LS File
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File
Solution Controls
, , Basic
( Solution Controls
).
,
.
:
/SOLU
0

! SOLUTION

100

! 1:
D, ...
!
SF, ...
...
NSUBST, ...
!
KBC, ...
OUTRES, ...
OUTPR, ...
...
LSWRITE
! : Jobname.S01
! 2:
D, ...
!
SF, ...
...
NSUBST, ...
!
KBC, ...
OUTRES, ...
OUTPR, ...
...
LSWRITE
! : Jobname.S02
0

ANSYS.
LSWRITE (R)
(MP).
LSWRITE
, ,
. ,
SFE ( SFBEAM) ,
.
n,
LSREAD,n , ,
LSWRITE,n ( n).

, .
LSREAD GUI:
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Read LS File
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Read LS File

LSDELE ANSYS.
LSDELE GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Operate> Delete LS Files
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Operate> Delete LS Files

, , LSCLEAR

. , ,

.
101

LSCLEAR:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Delete> All Load Data> data type
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Reset Options
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Settings> Replace vs Add
Main Menu> Solution> Reset Options
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Settings> Replace vs Add> Reset Factors

2.9. .

. PRETS179 (
) PSMESH
.
,

EINTF.

.
, , ,
, . PSMESH
,
.

2.9.1. PSMESH
,
PSMESH.
, (
) .
.

.
(Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections>
Delete Section).
.
.

102

PSMESH
. ( PTSMESH),
.
.
,
: , , ,
. , (A B)
. A B
,
.
(K)
.
, PSMESH.

2.9.2. EINTF
,
(PRETS179) EINTF,TOLER,K
(Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create> elements> pretension> At Coincident Nodes...).
, ANSYS .
EINTF
. (A B) .

, .

2.9.3. PSMESH

PSMESH.
1. ,
. ,
( example)
103

1. , (npts)
.
psmesh,,example,,volu,1,0,z,0.5,,,,npts

2. .
. ,
.
. .
sload,1,9,tiny,forc,100,1,2

3. SLOAD.
.
.

180 ,
. , .
.

104

PSMESH
, PRETS179. ()
.
.

. ,
70F. (
105

) , PSMESH, ,
.
.
/prep7
/title,Sample application of PSMESH
et,1,92
mp,ex,1,1e7
mp,alpx,1,1.3e-5
mp,prxy,1,0.30
mp,ex,2,3e7
mp,alpx,2,8.4e-6
mp,prxy,2,0.30
tref,70
/foc,,-.09,.34,.42
/dist,,.99
/ang,,-55.8
/view,,.39,-.87,.31
/pnum,volu,1
/num,1
cylind,0.5,, -0.25,0, 0,180
cylind,0.5,, 1,1.25,
0,180
cylind,0.25,, 0,1,
0,180
wpoff,.05
cylind,0.35,1, 0,0.75, 0,180
wpoff,-.1
cylind,0.35,1, 0.75,1, 0,180
wpstyle,,,,,,,,0
vglue,all
numc,all
vplot
mat,1
smrt,off
vmesh,4,5
mat,2
vmesh,1,3
/pnum,mat,1
eplot
psmesh,,example,,volu,1,0,z,0.5,,,,elems
CM,lines,LINE
/dist,,1.1
cmplot
/solu
eqslve,pcg,1e-8
asel,s,loc,y
da,all,symm
asel,all
dk,1,ux
dk,12,ux
dk,1,uz
sload,1,9,,force,100,1,2
/title,Sample application of PSMESH - preload only
solve
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
! .
!
! 150F.
! ,
! ;
!
! ,

106

! .
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
/post1
plnsol,s,z
/solu
antype,,restart
tunif,150
/title,Sample application of PSMESH - uniform 150 deg
solve
/post1
plnsol,s,z

2.9.4. ( GUI)
2.9.4.1.
1. Utility Menu> File> Change Title
2. , Sample Application of PSMESH OK.
2.9.4.2. .
SOLID92.
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete.
Element Types
2. Add. Library of Elements.
3. , Structural, Solid.
4. Tet 10 node 92 OK.
5. Close Element Types.
2.9.4.3. .
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models.
Define Material Model Behavior
2. Material Models Available Structural, Linear, Elastic,
Isotropic. .
3. 1E7 EX, 0.3 PRXY OK. Linear Isotropic
Material Model Number 1 Material Models Defined
4. Structural Material Models Available, Thermal Expansion
Coef, Isotropic. .
5. 1.3E-5 ALPX OK. Thermal Expansion (iso)
Material Model Number 1 Material Models Defined.
6. Material> New Model, 2 ID
OK. Material Model 2 Material Models Defined.
7. Isotropic Structural, Linear, Elastic Material Models
Available. .
8. 3E7 EX, 0.3 PRXY OK. Linear Isotropic
Material Model Number 2 Material Models Defined.
9. Isotropic Structural, Thermal Expansion Coef Material
Models Available. .
10. 8.4E-6 ALPX OK. Thermal Expansion (iso)
Material Model Number 2 Material Models Defined.
11. Material> Exit Define Material Behavior.
107

12. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Settings> Reference


Temp.
13. 70 OK.
2.9.4.4. .
1. Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Settings> Focus Point.
Focus Point
2. User Specified.
3. -.09, .34, .42 OK.
4. Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Settings> Magnification.
Magnification.
5. User Specified.
6. .99 OK.
7. Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Settings> Angle of Rotation.
Angle of Rotation.
8. -55.8 OK.
9. Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Settings> Viewing Direction.
Viewing Direction.
10. .39, -.87, .31 XV, YV, ZV OK.
11. Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering.
(Volume numbers).
12. Numbering shown with Colors only OK.
2.9.4.5. .
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Volumes> By Dimensions.
Create Cylinder by Dimensions.
2. :
Outer radius (RAD1): 0.5
Z-coordinates (Z1, Z2): -0.25, 0
Ending angle (THETA2): 180
3. Apply .
4. :
Outer radius (RAD1): 0.5
Z-coordinates (Z1, Z2): 1, 1.25
Ending angle (THETA2): 180
5. Apply .
6. :
Outer radius (RAD1): 0.25
Z-coordinates (Z1, Z2): 0, 1
Ending angle (THETA2): 180

108

7. OK Create Cylinder by
Dimensions.
8. Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Offset WP by increments
9. 0.05 X, Y, Z Offset, , OK.
0.05 .
10. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Volumes> Cylinder> By
Dimensions. Create Cylinder by Dimensions.
11. :
Outer radius (RAD1): 1
Optional inner radius (RAD2): 0.35
Z-coordinates (Z1, Z2): 0, 0.75
Ending angle (THETA2): 180
12. OK .
13. Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Offset WP by increments.
14. -0.10 in X, Y, Z Offset, enter, OK.
-0.10 .
15. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Volumes> Cylinder> By
Dimensions. Create Cylinder by Dimensions.
16. :
Outer radius (RAD1): 1
Optional inner radius (RAD2): 0.35
Z-coordinates (Z1, Z2): 0.75, 1
Ending angle (THETA2): 180
17. OK .
18. Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Display Working Plane (toggle off).
19. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Glue>
Volumes.
20. (Pick all).
21. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Numbering Ctrls> Compress Numbers.
22. All Item to be compressed OK.
23. Utility Menu> Plot> Volumes.
2.9.4.6. .
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Meshtool.
2. Element Attributes, Global Set.
3. Material number 1 OK.
4. , smart sizing (off) Mesh.
5. 4 5 ( ) OK .
6. Utility Menu> Plot> Volumes.
7. MeshTool Global Set Element Attributes.
8. Material number 2 OK.
9. Mesh.
10. 1, 2, 3 OK .
11. MeshTool.
109

12. Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering.


13. Material numbers Elem/Attrib numbering OK.
14. Utility Menu> Plot> Elements.
15. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Sections> Pretension> Pretensn Mesh> With
Options> Divide at Valu> Elements in Volu.
16. 1 OK.
17. OK:
NAME: Example
KCN: Global Cartesian
KDIR: Z-axis
VALUE: 0.5
ECOMP: elems
18. Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Create Component.
19. Line (Cname).
20. Lines Entity OK.
21. Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Settings> Magnification.
22. User Specified.
23. 1.1 User specified distance OK.
24. Utility Menu> Plot> Components> Selected Components.
2.9.4.7. : .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Types> Sol'n Controls.


Sol'n Options.
Pre-Condition CG Equation Solvers OK.
Utility Menu> Select> Entities.
Areas, By Location, Y-coordinates OK.
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement>
Symmetry B.C.> On Areas.
7. Pick All.
8. Utility Menu> Select> Entities.
9. , Areas Sele All.
10. OK.
11. Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement>
On Keypoints.
12. (KeyP No. = 1)
OK .
13. UX UZ DOFs ( )
(Lab2) Apply .
14. (KeyP No. = 12)
OK .
15. UX (Lab2) OK.
16. Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pretensn Sectn.
17. 1 Example Pretension Sections.
18. 100 Force ( Pretension Load) OK.
19. Utility Menu> File> Change Title.
20. Sample Application of PSMESH - Preload Only OK.
21. Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS.
110

22. OK
.
23. Close Solution is Done.
2.9.4.8. : .
1. Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu.
Contour Nodal Solution Data.
2. Stress Z-direction (SZ)
OK.
2.9.4.9. : .
1. Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Restart.
.
2. Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Settings> Uniform Temp.
3. 150 OK.
4. Utility Menu> File> Change Title.
5. Sample Application of PSMESH - Uniform 150 deg
OK.
6. Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS.
2.9.4.10. :
.
1. Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu.
Contour Nodal Solution Data.
2. Stress Z-direction (SZ)
, OK.
2.9.4.11. ANSYS
1. QUIT ANSYS.
2. Quit - No Save!
3. OK.

111

ANSYS
1. .
1.1. .

.
:

.
.
.
.

, , , ,
.
(,
).

1.2. ANSYS .
ANSYS:

Multiphysics.
Mechanical.
Professional.
FLOTRAN.
ANSYS ,
(
ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference). ANSYS
, .
ANSYS .
ANSYS :

.
.
.

1.2.1. .
.
, ;
ANSYS .
,
.
112

(
),
, ANSYS LINK34.
FLOTRAN CFD
, ,
,
.

1.2.2. .
ANSYS , ,
:

LINK31.
, (
SURF151, SURF152 ).
AUX12
.
Radiosity Solver.
4. .

1.2.3. .
,
, ( )
(, ). ,
MASS71 .

1.3. .
ANSYS :
1.


.
,
.
2.

.

113

1.4. .
, - -
, .
ANSYS
.
(ANSYS Coupled-Field
Analysis Guide).

1.5. GUI .
ANSYS GUI
( ). ,
.
ANSYS (ANSYS Commands
Reference).
GUI , .
GUI .
GUI
,
.
, ,
.
,
.

(ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide)
(Material Model Interface).

2. .
2.1. .
ANSYS:

Multiphysics.
Mechanical.
FLOTRAN.
Professional.

( ) .
.

, .

, , ,

114

.
:

.
.
.
( ,
).
( , ).
.
,
; , , .
,
.
.

2.2. .
ANSYS 40 ( )
.
,
.

115

PLANE35
PLANE55
PLANE75

2-D
2-D
2-D

PLANE77

2-D

PLANE78

2-D

,
,
,
,
,

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

SOLID70
SOLID87
SOLID90

3-D
3-D
3-D

,
,
,
,

( )
( )
( )

LINK31

2-D 3-D

,
,

( )

,
,
,

( )
( )

LINK32
LINK33

2-D
3-D

LINK34

3-D

,
,

( )

SHELL57

3-D

,
,

( )

116

PLANE13

2-D

CONTAC48

2-D

CONTAC49

3-D

FLUID116

3-D

SOLID5

SOLID98

3-D

3-D

PLANE67

2-D

LINK68

3-D

SOLID69

3-D

SHELL157

3-D


()
,


()
, 3

()
, 5

, 2 4
.
()
,

, 8
.
()
,

, 10
.

, 4
.

, 2
.

, 8
.

, 4
.

.
,

,
.
,

117

MASS71

1-D, 2-D, or 3-D

COMBIN37

1-D

SURF151

2-D

SURF152

3-D

,
,
4 .

, 2 4

, 4 9

TARGE169

2-D

Target segment
element

TARGE170

3-D

Target segment
element


, 2 .


, 3 .


, 4 .


, 8 .


,

CONTA171

2-D

CONTA172

2-D

CONTA173

3-D

CONTA174

3-D

MATRIX50

INFIN9

2-D

INFIN47

3-D

COMBIN14

1-D, 2-D, or 3-D

,
.

,
118

COMBIN39

COMBIN40

1-D

1-D

.
,

,
.
,
,

, .

119

2.3. , .
( )
( ) ,
GUI .

2.4. .
:

.
.
.
,
. ,
.
. ,
.

2.5. .

. ANSYS (PREP7)
, , , (
). (ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide)
.
:

:
: ET
GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete

:
: MP
GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models>Thermal
,
( MPTEMP MPTGEN),
( MPDATA).
GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models>Thermal

120

(HF),
GUI .

.
(HF),
, ,
, .

2.5.1. .
; ,
, ,
.
.
ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide.
,
. ,
( ),
. ,
.
.
X, Y Z;
.
,
. .

. ,
, .
, .
2 1.
,
. ANSYS
Modeling and Meshing Guide.

2.6. .
: , , ,
.

2.6.1. .
:

GUI, Main Menu Solution> Analysis Type> New


Analysis> Steady-state (static).
ANTYPE,STATIC,NEW.
121

(,
), ANTYPE,STATIC,REST.
Jobname.ESAV
Jobname.DB .

2.6.2. .
( , ,
, ), ( ).
,

( Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide).
:

2.6.2.1. (TEMP)
, , ,
.

2.6.2.2. (HEAT)
.
( ,
.) .
, .
, , .

,
, , ,
.
. ,
, .
,
.

2.6.2.3. (CONV)
,
( ) .
,
LINK34.

2.6.2.4. (HFLUX)
.
,
( , ) FLOTRAN CFD.
,
122

. CONV HFLUX
( ). , ANSYS
.

2.6.2.5. (HGEN)

, , ,
.
.
, .

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>


Apply> Thermal> Temperature

(TEMP)

(HEAT)

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>


Apply> Thermal> Heat Flow
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>
Apply> Thermal> Heat Flux

(CONV),
SF


(HFLUX)

(HGEN)

GUI

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>


Apply> Thermal> Convection
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>
Apply> Thermal> Heat Generat

BF

,
.

"

"
,

"
"

DK

DKDELE

DKLIST

DTRAN

DDELE

DLIST

DSCALE

DCUM,
TUNIF

FK

FKDELE

FKLIST

FTRAN

FDELE

FLIST

FSCALE

FCUM

SFL

SFLDELE

SFLLIST

SFTRAN

SFGRAD

SFA

SFADELE

SFALIST

SFTRAN

SFGRAD

SF

SFDELE

SFLIST

SFSCALE

"

SFE

SFEDELE

SFELIST

SFSCALE

BFK

BFKDELE

BFKLIST

BFTRAN

SFGRAD,
SFCUM
SFBEAM,
SFCUM,
SFFUN,
SFGRAD
-

123

"
"
"
"
"

"

BFL

BFLDELE

BFLLIST

BFTRAN

BFA

BFADELE

BFALIST

BFTRAN

BFV

BFVDELE

BFVLIST

BFTRAN

BF

BFDELE

BFLIST

BFSCALE

BFCUM

BFE

BFEDELE

BFELIST

BFSCALE

BFCUM

( List, )
. Solution
(, .), ( )
( , .).
,
:
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temperature> On Keypoints

2.6.3. .
,
,
.
ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide

.




D

, X, Y, Z

F
, X, Y, Z,
, X, Y, Z, TEMP,

SF

()

, X, Y, Z
SF
()

, X, Y, Z,
SF

, X, Y, Z,
BF
(FLUID116)

SFE

, X, Y, Z
D
.

.
ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.
124

,
.

Tsurf* (TS) ( SURF151


SURF152)
() ( DENS)
( C)
( kxx)
( kyy)
( kzz)
( )
( )

125

2.6.4. .
,
.
.

GUI

TIME

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>


Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step

NSUBST

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>


Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps

DELTIM

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>


Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step

KBC

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>


Time/Frequenc> Time -Time Step

NEQIT

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>


Nonlinear> Equilibrium Iter

AUTOTS

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>


Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step

CNVTOL

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>


Nonlinear> Convergence Crit

NCNV

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>


Nonlinear> Criteria to Stop

LNSRCH

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>


Nonlinear> Line Search

PRED

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>


Nonlinear> Predictor

OUTPR

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>


Output Ctrls> Solu Printout

,
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>
OUTRES
.
Output Ctrls> DB/Results File

2.6.5. .
:

.
.
,
.

126

, , 1.0 1.0
.


.

.
.

.
,
. ( ),
.

2.6.6. .

.
:

.

. 25,
.

.
,
, .

.
ANSYS
. ,
.
( VALUE CNVTOL) ( TOLER).
VALUE TOLER. , 500
0.001,
0.5 .
, ANSYS
( T = Ti -Ti-1) .
,
0.5 .
, ANSYS
.
127

()
.

.
, ANSYS

.

.
ANSYS -.

.

.

2.6.6.1. .
, ANSYS
(
). , ,
(GST)
.
GST
. GST:
: /GST
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Grph Solu Track
GST.

128

2.6.7. .
.
:

.

(Jobname.OUT).

, .
, ANSYS
(Jobname.RTH).

2.6.8. .
. :

( ).
.
:
( ;
).

, ANSYS
.

129

:
: NROPT
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options

. :
(
).
.
(JCG).
JCG
(ICCG).
(PCG)
PCG
(AMG)
(DDS)
( )
GUI:
: EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options

( )
, (, AUX12
).
,
Jobname.EMAT Jobname.EROT.

.
( )
.
( ) ( ).
:
: TOFFST
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options

2.6.9. .
,
. ,
:
: RESUME
GUI:
130

Utility Menu>File>Resume Jobname.db


Utility Menu>File>Resume from

2.6.10. .
:
: SOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS

2.6.11. .
ANSYS Jobname.RTH.
:
2.6.11.1. .
(TEMP)

2.6.11.2. .
(TFX, TFY, TFZ, TFSUM)
(TGX, TGY, TGZ, TGSUM)
.
.

POST1
(Main Menu>General Postproc).
, .
ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide

.

ANSYS (
RESUME ).
Jobname.RTH.

2.6.12. .
,
. :
SET
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> By Load Step
, ,
.
(GUI),
131

. TIME
. , , ANSYS
.

2.6.13. .
ANSYS ,
.
GUI:
:
:
PLESOL PLETAB
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solu
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Elem Table
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu
.

:
:
132

PLVECT
GUI:
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Pre-defined or Userdefined
.

:
: PRESOL PRNSOL PRRSOL
GUI: Main Menu>General Postproc>List Results>Element Solution
Main Menu>General Postproc>List Results>Nodal Solution
Main Menu>General Postproc>List Results>Reaction Solu
GUI , , ANSYS
( ).

2.7. ( ).

.
( )
.

2.7.1. .
,
.
133

450F (232C).
, 100F (38C).
250 Btu/hr-ft2-F (1420 watts/m2-K).
(
).

.


.
. ,
.

70

0.285 0.285 0.285 0.285 0.285 (lb/in3)

8.35 8.90 9.35 9.80 10.23 (Btu/hr-ft-F)

0.113 0.117 0.119 0.122 0.125 (Btu/lb-F)

426

200

405

300

352

400

275

500

221

(F)

(Btu/hr-ft2-F)

2.7.2. .
, , ,
. ,
,
450F. Y=0.
134


.
.

,
( ).
, ,
50.
. ,

.

2.7.3. .

.
/PREP7
/TITLE, Steady-state thermal analysis of pipe junction
/UNITS,BIN
/SHOW
ET,1,90
MP,DENS,1,.285
MPTEMP,,70,200,300,400,500
MPDATA,KXX,1,,8.35/12,8.90/12,9.35/12,9.80/12,10.23/12
MPDATA,C,1,,.113,.117,.119,.122,.125
MPDATA,HF,2,,426/144,405/144,352/144,275/144,221/144
!
RI1=1.3
RO1=1.5
Z1=2
RI2=.4
RO2=.5
Z2=2
CYLIND,RI1,RO1,,Z1,,90
WPROTA,0,-90
CYLIND,RI2,RO2,,Z2,-90
WPSTYL,DEFA
BOPT,NUMB,OFF
VOVLAP,1,2
/PNUM,VOLU,1
/VIEW,,-3,-1,1
/TYPE,,4
/TITLE,Volumes used in building pipe/tank junction
VPLOT
VDELE,3,4,,1
! Meshing
ASEL,,LOC,Z,Z1
ASEL,A,LOC,Y,0
CM,AREMOTE,AREA

! ()
!

.
! 20 ,

! = .285 lbf/in^3
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
.
!
!
!

!
! Z

! Y

!
AREMOTE

/PNUM,AREA,1

135

/PNUM,LINE,1
/TITLE,Lines showing the portion being modeled
APLOT
/NOERASE
LPLOT
/ERASE
ACCAT,ALL
LCCAT,12,7
LCCAT,10,5
LESIZE,20,,,4
LESIZE,40,,,6
LESIZE,6,,,4
ALLSEL
ESIZE,.4
MSHAPE,0,3D
MSHKEY,1
SAVE
VMESH,ALL
/PNUM,DEFA
/TITLE,Elements in portion being modeled
EPLOT
FINISH
/COM, *** Obtain solution ***
/SOLU
ANTYPE,STATIC
NROPT,AUTO
TUNIF,450
CSYS,1
NSEL,S,LOC,X,RI1
SF,ALL,CONV,250/144,450
CMSEL,,AREMOTE
NSLA,,1
D,ALL,TEMP,450
WPROTA,0,-90
CSWPLA,11,1
NSEL,S,LOC,X,RI2
SF,ALL,CONV,-2,100
ALLSEL
/PBC,TEMP,,1
/PSF,CONV,,2
/TITLE,Boundary conditions
NPLOT
WPSTYL,DEFA
CSYS,0
AUTOTS,ON
NSUBST,50
KBC,0
OUTPR,NSOL,LAST
SOLVE
FINISH
/COM, *** Review results ***
/POST1
/EDGE,,1
/PLOPTS,INFO,ON
/PLOPTS,LEG1,OFF

!
!

! 4
! 6
! 4
!
!

!
!
! .

!
!
.
! .
!

!
! AREMOTE
! , AREMOTE
!

!
!
.
!
!
!
( )
!

!
!
! ( )
!

!
!
!

136

/WINDOW,1,SQUARE
/TITLE,Temperature contours at pipe/tank junction
PLNSOL,TEMP
CSYS,11
NSEL,,LOC,X,RO2

!
!
! Nodes and elements at outer radius of pipe

ESLN
NSLE
/SHOW,,,1
/TITLE,Thermal flux vectors at pipe/tank junction
PLVECT,TF

!
!

FINISH
/EXIT,ALL

2.8. ( )
, ANSYS
,
( ). ,
.

1: , .
ANSYS .
:
1.

Utility Menu>File>Change Title,


.
2.
.
3.
OK.

2: .
( ).
/UNITS,BIN ENTER.

3: .
.
:
1.

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete.


.
2.
Add. .
3.
"Thermal Solid." (
). "Brick20node 90." OK.
4.
Close .

4: .
:
137

1.

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models.


(Define Material Model Behavior).
2.
(Material Models Available)
: Thermal, Density. .
3.
.285 DENS () OK. 1
(Material Models Defined) .
4.
(Material Models Available)
: Conductivity, Isotropic. .
5.
Add Temperature ( ).
.
6.
1 5 : 70, 200, 300, 400, 500.
70,
500. .
, Ctrl-c.
7.
KXX () , ,
, OK.
, 12.
ANSYS , .
8.
8.35/12
9.
8.90/12
10.
9.35/12
11.
9.80/12
10. 23/12
12.

(Material Models Available),


Specific Heat (). .
13.
Add Temperature. .
14.
1 Ctrl-v.
15.
() , ,
. OK.
16.
.113
17.
.117
18.
.119
19.
.122
.125
20.

Material>New Model (Define


Material Model Behavior), 2 Define Material ID (
). OK. Material Models Defined Material Model
Number 2 ( 2).
21.
(Material Models Available)
Convection or Film Coef ( ).
.
22.
Add Temperature ( ).
.
23.
1 Ctrl-v.
24.
HF ( )
.
, HF 144. 7
ANSYS , .
138

25.
26.
27.
28.

426/144
405/144
352/144
275/144
221/144

29.

Graph ()
, OK.
30.
,
Material>Exit.
31.
SAVE_DB ( ),
ANSYS.

5: .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Utility Menu>Parameters>Scalar Parameters.


.
(Selection) (
). ENTER.
, , .
RI1=1.3
( )
RO1=1.5
( )
Z1=2
( )
RI2=.4
( )
RO2=.5
( )
Z2=2

8.

( )
Close.

6: .
1.

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Volumes> Cylinder> By


Dimensions. .
2.
"Outer radius" ( ) RO1, "Optional inner radius"
( ) RI1, "Z coordinates" (z ) 0 Z1
"Ending angle" ( ) 90.
3.
OK.
4.
Utility Menu>WorkPlane>Offset WP by Increments.
.
5.
"XY, YZ, ZX Angles" 0,-90.
6.
OK.
7.
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Volumes> Cylinder> By
Dimensions. .
8.
"Outer radius" RO2, "Optional inner radius" RI2, "Z
coordinates" 0 Z2 . "Starting angle" ( )
-90 "Ending Angle" ( ) 0.
9.
OK.
10.
Utility Menu>WorkPlane>Align WP with>Global Cartesian.

7: .
139

1.

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Overlap>


Volumes. .
2.
Pick All ( ).

8: .
, .
:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Utility Menu>PlotCtrls>Numbering.
.
VOLU Volume numbers ( )
OK.
Utility Menu>PlotCtrls>View Settings>Viewing Direction.
.
"Coords of view point" ( ) (-3,-1,1)
OK.
.
SAVE_DB ( ),
ANSYS.

9: .
.
1.

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Delete> Volume and Below.


.
2.
3, 4 ENTER. OK
.

10: AREMOTE
, Y Z
AREMOTE.
:
1.

Utility Menu> Select> Entities.


.
2.
Areas ().
By Location ( ). Z Coordinates.
3.
"Min,Max" Z1.
4.
Apply ().
5.
Y Coordinates
6.
"Min,Max" 0.
7.
OK.
8.
Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Create Component.
.
9.
"Component name" ( ) AREMOTE. "Component
is made of" ( ) Areas ().
10.
OK.

11: .
140

:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Utility Menu>PlotCtrls>Numbering.
.
,
AREA Area numbers LINE Line numbers. OK.
Utility Menu>Plot>Areas.
Utility Menu>PlotCtrls>Erase Options.
"Erase between Plots" ( ).
Utility Menu>Plot>Lines.
Utility Menu>PlotCtrls>Erase Options.
"Erase between Plots" ( ).

12: () .

, .
:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Volumes> Mapped>


Concatenate> Areas. .
Pick All ( ).
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Volumes> Mapped>
Concatenate> Lines. .
12 7 ( ).
Apply ().
10 5 ( ).
OK.

13: .
1.

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> ManualSize>Lines>


Picked Lines. .
2.
6 20 ( ).
3.
OK. .
4.
4 "No. of element divisions" ( ).
5.
OK.
6.
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> ManualSize> Lines>
Picked Lines. .
7.
40 ( ).
8.
OK. .
9.
6 "No. of element divisions" ( ).
10.
OK.

14: - .
, ,
.
1.
2.

Utility Menu>Select>Everything.
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> ManualSize> Global>
Size. .
141

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

0.4 "Element edge length" ( ) OK.


Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesher Opts.
.
Mapped OK.
.
Quad () OK.
SAVE_DB
.
Main Menu>Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Volumes> Mapped> 4 to 6
sided. . Pick All ( ). ANSYS
.
, ,
.

15: .
1.

Utility Menu>PlotCtrls>Numbering.
.
2.
Line, Area, Volume.
3.
OK.

Step 16: .

,
.
1.

Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis.


.
2.
OK ().
3.
Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options.
.
4.
OK , .

17: .
.
1.

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temperature>


Uniform Temp. .
2.
"Uniform temperature." 450. OK.

18: .

.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Utility Menu >WorkPlane> Change Active CS to> Global Cylindrical.


Utility Menu> Select> Entities. .
Nodes By Location X Coordinates From Full
RI1 "Min,Max" OK.
142

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Convection> On


Nodes. .
Pick All. .
"Film coefficient" 250/144.
"Bulk temperature" 450.
OK.

19: AREMOTE.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly >Select Comp/Assembly.


.
OK AREMOTE.
Utility Menu> Select> Entities. .
Nodes (), Attached To ( ), Areas,All ( ).
OK.
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> ThermalTemperature> On
Nodes. .
Pick All. .
"Load TEMP value" 450.
OK.
SAVE_DB ANSYS.

20: ,
.
(
) .
1.

Utility Menu>WorkPlane>Offset WP by Increments.


.
2.
0,-90 "XY,YZ,ZX Angles" OK.
3.
Utility Menu>WorkPlane>Local Coordinate Systems>Create Local CS>At
WP Origin. .
4.
"Type of coordinate system" "Cylindrical 1" OK.
5.
Utility Menu>Select>Entities. .
6.
Nodes, By Location, X Coordinates.
7.
RI2 "Min,Max".
8.
OK.
9.
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Convection> On
Nodes. .
10.
Pick All. .
11.
2 "Film coefficient" ( ).
12.
100 "Bulk temperature" ( ).
13.
OK.
14.
Utility Menu>Select>Everything.
15.
Utility Menu>PlotCtrls>Symbols. .
16.
"Show pres and convect as" ( )
Arrows () OK.
17.
Utility Menu>Plot>Nodes. ANSYS ,
.

143

21:
.
1.

,
Utility Menu>WorkPlane>Change Active
CS to>Global Cartesian
2.
Utility Menu>WorkPlane>Align WP With>Global Cartesian.

22:
50
.
1.

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Options> Time/Frequenc> Time and


Substps. .
2.
50 "Number of substeps" ( )
3.
"Automatic time stepping" (
) On ().
4.
OK.

23: .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. ANSYS


.
.
Close .
OK Solve Current Load Step (
).
Yes Verify ().
. Solution is done! (
), Close.

24: .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Utility Menu >PlotCtrls> Style> Edge Options.


Edge Options ( ).
"Element outlines" "Edge only" ( )
OK.
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu.
.
"Item to be contoured" "DOF solution", "Temperature
TEMP" .
OK.
.

25:

.

144

1.

Utility Menu>WorkPlane>Change Active CS to>Specified Coord Sys.


.
2.
11 "Coordinate system number"
3.
OK.
4.
Utility Menu>Select>Entities.
.
5.
Nodes, By Location, X Coordinates.
6.
RO2 "Min,Max".
7.
Apply.
8.
Elements, Attached To, Nodes.
9.
Apply.
10.
Nodes, Attached To OK.
11.
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Predefined.
.
12.
"Vector item to be plotted" "Flux & gradient" "Thermal
flux TF" .
13.
OK.
.

26: ANSYS
QUIT,
.

2.9.

,
.
, , ,
, .

2.9.1. .
.
/batch,list
/show
/title,
/com
/com * -----------------------------------------------------------------/com *
/com *
/com *

/com * -----------------------

-----------------

----------------------

145

/com *

/com *
/com *
/com *
/com * . 2 x 1
/com * .
/com * .
/com * X

/com * 'cnvtab'.
/com **
*dim,cnvtab,table,5,,,x

! .

cnvtab(1,0) = 0.0,0.50,1.0,1.50,2.0

! , Var1 = 'X'

cnvtab(1,1) = 20.0,30.0,50.0,80.0,120.0
/prep7
esize,0.5
et,1,55
rect,0,2,0,1
amesh,1
MP,KXX,,1.0
MP,DENS,,10.0
MP,C,,100.0
lsel,s,loc,x,0
dl,all,,temp,100
alls
lsel,u,loc,x,0
nsll,s,1
sf,all,conv,%cnvtab%,20

146

alls
! .

/psf,conv,hcoef,2
/pnum,tabn,on

nplot
fini
/solu
anty,static
kbc,1
nsubst,1
time,60
tunif,50
outres,all,all
solve
finish
/post1
set,last
!

sflist,all
/pnum,tabn,off

!
! .

/psf,conv,hcoef,2
/pnum,sval,1

eplot
plns,temp
fini

2.9.2. .

1: .
1.

Utility Menu> Parameters> Array Parameters> Define/Edit.


. Add

147

2.

. cnvtab
"Parameter name" ( ).
3.
"Table" ().
4.
I,J,K 5,1,1.
5.
X .
6.
OK.
7.
, cnvtab
Edit (). (
TABLE Type Array Parameters, ANSYS APDL
Programmer's Guide)
8.
.
; . 6
. () . 5 0.0, 0.5,
1.0, 1.5, 2.0. .
9.
1 6 .
() , . 20,
30, 50, 80, 120.
10.
File>Apply/Quit.
11.

.
2: .
1.

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete.


. Add.
2.
.
Thermal Solid Quad 4node 55 .
3.
OK.
4.
.
5.
Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models.
.
6.
,
Thermal, Density. .
7.
DENS () 10. OK.
(Material Models Defined) Material Model Number 1
( 1).
8.
Material Models Available ( )
Conductivity, Isotropic. .
9.
KXX ( ) 1.0. OK.
10.
(Material Models Available)
Specific Heat. .
11.
OK. () 100.0.
12.
Material>Exit
.
3: - .
1.

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Rectangle> By


Dimensions.
(Create Rectangle by Dimensions).
2.
X1,X2 0, 2.
3.
Y1, Y2 Y1, Y2.
148

4.
5.
6.

OK. .
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool.
Size Controls Mesh Tool Globl,Set.
Global Element Sizes ( )
7.
Element endge length ( ) 0.5 OK.
8.
Mesh Mesh Tool Areas Map, Quad and 3/4 sided
9.
MESH. .
10.
Pick All.
.
11.
MeshTool.
12.
SAVE_DB, .
4: .
1.
2.

Utility Menu> Plot> Lines.


Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temperature> On
Lines. .
3.
X 0
( ). OK.
4.
.
5.
VALUE () 100. OK.
6.
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Convection> On
Lines. .
7.
x = 0.
8.
OK. .
9.
"Apply Film Coef on lines," (
) "Existing table." ( ).
10.
VALI.
11.
"VAL2I Bulk temperature" ( ) 20.
OK.
12.
Apply CONV on lines (
). , "Existing table" CNVTAB. OK.
ANSYS x = 0.
13.
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temperature>
Uniform Temp. .
14.
50. OK.
5: .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols. .


"Surface Load Symbols" ( )
"Convect FilmCoef".
"Arrows" "Show pres and convect as". OK.
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. .
( Table Names ,
off on). OK.
CNVTAB .
.
6: .

149

1.

Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis.


.
2.
, Steady-State OK.
3.
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and
Substps. .
4.
60 "Time at end of load step." ( ).
5.
1 Number of substeps. ( ).
6.
Stepped. OK.
7.
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File.
.
, "Item to be controlled" "All items.".
8.
"File write frequency" ( ) "Every substep"
( ). OK.
9.
Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. .
, .
10.
Solve Current Load Step ( )
OK .
"Solution is done!". Close.
7: .
1.
2.

Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> Last Set.


Utility Menu> List> Loads> Surface Loads> On All Nodes.
SFLIST. Close.
3.
Utility Menu>PlotCtrls>Numbering. .
4.
Table Names.
5.
Numeric contour. OK.
6.
Utility Menu>PlotCtrls>Symbols. .
7.
"Surface Load Symbols" ( ),
"Convect FilmCoef." ( ).
8.
"Show pres and convect as" (
), "Arrows." () OK.
9.
Utility Menu>Plot>Elements.
10.
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu.
.
11.
, DOF Solution Temperature
. OK.
8: .
1.

. QUIT
ANSYS (ANSYS Toolbar). OK.

3. .
3.1. .
ANSYS:

Multiphysics;
Mechanical;
150

Professional;
FLOTRAN.
,
.

. , ,
, , .
.
,
. ,
. ,
Function Tool. Function Tool ,
.
, .
Function Tool Applying Loads Using
Function Boundary Conditions ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide
,
,
.
, .

,
.
.

3.2. ,
.
, .
Steady-State Thermal Analysis. ,
, ANSYS ANSYS
Commands Reference.

3.3. .
151

.
.
.

. .
, ,
.

3.4. .
.
ANSYS , ,
. (PREP7) ANSYS
:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
.
.
.
( - ).
.
ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide.

3.5. .

.

3.5.1. .
:

Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New


Analysis> Transient.
, ANTYPE,TRANSIENT,NEW.
(,
), ANTYPE,TRANSIENT,REST.
, Jobname.ESAV and Jobname.DB
.

3.5.2. .
:

;
.
152

3.5.2.1. .

,
, , .
:
:
TUNIF
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Settings> Uniform Temp
, .
:
:
TREF
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Settings> Reference Temp

.
,
, :
:
D
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temperature> On
Nodes
, ,

. :
:
DDELE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Delete> Thermal> Temperature> On
Nodes
153

3.5.2.2. .
( )
.
GUI:
:
IC
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> Define

.
,
. ,
,
:
:
ICLIST
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> List Picked
,
,
.
:
(, ,

.).

TIMINT,OFF,THERM (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load


Step Opts> Time/ Frequenc> Time-Time Integration) .
TIME (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts>
Time/ Frequenc> Time-Time Step) .
(e.g. 1E-6 seconds).
(ramped) (stepped)
KBC (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/ Frequenc> Time-Time
Step). (ramped) ,
.
LSWRITE (Main
Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Write LS File).


.
TIMINT,ON,THERM .
154

D, DDELE, LSWRITE, SF, TIME, TIMINT


ANSYS Commands Reference.

3.5.3. .
,
.
3.5.3.1. .
, (
, )
( )
.
:

;
;
;
;
.
:

1.

.
:
TIME
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/ Frequenc> Time-Time Step

2.

stepped ramped.
:
KBC
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/ Frequenc> Time-Time Step

3.
4.

.

:
:
LSWRITE
155

GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Write LS File
5.

1 4 ( ).
( ),
0
.
:

1.

(, ),
TABLE, Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters ANSYS
Basic Analysis Guide
2.
(AUTOTS,ON).
(DELTIM)
(NSUBST).
3.
. ,

. ,
,
, .
:
TSRES
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Sub Stps
( ),
, ,
. ,
TSRES,
, DELTIM NSUBST.
(FREQ = %array% OUTRES,
array ), ( TSRES),
, FREQ
TSRES
, DELTIM,DTIME NSUBST,NSBSTP.
, FREQ 1.5, 2, 10, 14.1, 15, TSRES
1, 2, 10, 14, 16 ( ,
)
DTIME = .2, .
FREQ 14.1 , TSRES ,
14 0.2; FREQ
14.2.
156


TSRES , AUTOTS,ON.
(AUTOTS,OFF), TSRES .
:
*DIM
GUI:
Utility Menu> Parameters> Array Parameters> Define/Edit
, ,

(
TIME).
, .

[DELTIM,DTIME] [NSUBST,NSBSTP].
4.

n1,
( ,
, ).
,
. ,
.
OUTRES.
:
OUTRES
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Ouput Ctrls> DB/Results File

.
TSRES
, , ,
, FLUID116
:

LINK31
LINK32
LINK33
PLANE35
MATRIX50
PLANE55
SHELL57
PLANE67 ( )
157

LINK68 ( )
SOLID69 ( )
SOLID70
MASS71
PLANE75
PLANE77
SOLID87
SOLID90
FLUID116
SURF151
SURF152
SHELL157
TARGE169
TARGE170
CONTA171
CONTA172
CONTA173
CONTA174

3.5.3.2. .
:
.

()
. ,
(NSUBST) (DELTIM)
(TIME).
(
). SOLCONTROL
ANSYS Commands Reference.
() :
:
SOLCONTROL
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Controls

.
.
, 1.0.
, 1.0 ,
.
:

158

:
TIME
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/ Frequenc> Time and
SubstpsMain Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/ Frequenc> Time-Time
Step

,
.

.
.
(,
)

, .
,

.
, ( ), ANSYS

( )
: ITS = 2 / 4
( )
.
, k/varrhoc. k
, varrho , .
(ITS = 2 / 4 )
, ANSYS, , ,
.
,

.

.
,
. ( 1E-10)
ANSYS.
:
:
NSUBST or DELTIM
159

GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/ Frequenc> Freq and Substps or
Time and Substps
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/ Frequenc> Time-Time Step
(stepped) ,
. (ramp) ,
( )
.
:
:
KBC
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/ Frequenc> Time and
SubstpsMain Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/ Frequenc> Time-Time
StepMain Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/ Frequenc>Freq and Substps

3.5.4. .
ANSYS .
Full .
Quasi
.
( ).
.
.
Linear
.
.
ANSYS THOPT.
Quasi Linear
ICCG and JCG.
EQSLV.
Quasi ,
, .
0.05, 5%
. Quasi

. ,
( 64), (
MPTEMP)
. THOPT.

160

:
THOPT
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
,
. :
.

,
. SOLCONTROL,ON, 15 26
.
, :
:
NEQIT
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Equilibrium Iter
.

.
ANSYS
.
, .

. THOPT,Quasi
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
NSUBST DELTIM.
, .
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step
:
161

:
AUTOTS
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step
, ,
, :
:
TINTP
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time Integration
.

,
.

.
.
, ANSYS
.
:
:
TIMINT
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time Integration

.

.
ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference.
,
( THETA) 1.0.
:
162

:
TINTP
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time Integration
.

ANSYS
. ,
.
( VALUE CNVTOL) ( TOLER).
VALUE TOLER. , 500
0.001,
0.5 .
, ANSYS
( T = Ti -Ti-1) .
,
0.5 .
, ANSYS
.
()
.
:
:
CNVTOL
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Convergence Crit
, ANSYS
( ).
, ,
(GST)
.
GST
. GST:
:
/GST
GUI:
163

Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Grph Solu Track
.

ANSYS
, ANSYS ,
.
:
:
NCNV
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Criteria to Stop
.

ANSYS
. :
:
LNSRCH
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Line Search
.

.
:
:
PRED
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Predictor

3.5.5. .
.
:


164


(Jobname.OUT).
:
OUTPR
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout
,

, ANSYS
(Jobname.RTH).
:
OUTRES
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File

3.6. .
,
. , :
:
SAVE
GUI:
Utility Menu>File>Save As
Utility Menu>File>Save Jobname.db
,
:
:
RESUME
GUI:
Utility Menu>File>Resume Jobname.db
Utility Menu>File>Resume from
165

3.6.1. .
:
:
LSSOLVE
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files

.
ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide
SOLUTION,
:
:
FINISH
GUI:
Main Menu>Finish

3.7. .
ANSYS
Jobname.RTH. (
):

(TEMP)

(TFX, TFY, TFZ, TFSUM).
(TGX, TGY, TGZ, TGSUM).
..

3.7.1. .
:
, POST1 (Main Menu>General Postproc.). POST1
( ) .

POST26
( ) .
POST26
,
.

166


.
ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.

.
, ANSYS
.
Jobname.RTH.

3.7.2. .
POST1,
. :
:
SET
GUI:
Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> By Time/Freq
, ANSYS
.
ANSYS ,
. ANSYS
.
:
GUI:
Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> By Load Step

3.7.3.
.
POST26
( ) . ANSYS
. 1 .
POST26,
.

167

,
:
:
NSOL
GUI:
Main Menu>TimeHist Postproc>Define Variables

,
:
:
ESOL
GUI:
Main Menu>TimeHist Postproc>Define Variables

,
:
:
RFORCE
GUI:
Main Menu>TimeHist Postproc>Define Variables
,
PLVAR (Main Menu> TimeHist Postproc> Graph Variables).
.
:
:
EXTREM
GUI:
Main Menu>TimeHist Postproc>List Extremes
,

.

168

POST26 ,
, ..
ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.

3.8. .
,
ANSYS .
, .

ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.

3.8.1. .
:
PLESOL
GUI:
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solu
:
PLETAB
GUI:
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Elem Table
:
PLNSOL
GUI:
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu

3.8.2. .
:
PLVECT
GUI:
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Pre-defined or User-defined

169

3.8.3. .
:
PRESOL
GUI:
Main Menu>General Postproc>List Results>Element Solution
:
PRNSOL
GUI:
Main Menu>General Postproc>List Results>Nodal Solution
:
PRRSOL
GUI:
Main Menu>General Postproc>List Results>Reaction Solu

3.9. ( ).
,
ANSYS,
, .
,
:

; ,
, ,
..
,
.
.
, ,
.
,
:

; ()
, .

( ).
170

, /,
:
H=

pc(T)dT

C(T)

,
.
,
.
, PLANE55
SOLID70. ,
, KEYOPT (
).
, THETA = 1,

( THETA = 0.5).

. ,
:
:
LNSRCH
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Line Search

171

3.10. .
.

3.10.1. .
.

.
L 4 .
,
.

.
.
.

3.10.2. .
( ), , :

(KXX)

0.025 Btu/(hr-in-F)

(DENS)

0.054 lb/in3
172

(C)

0.28 Btu/(lb- F)


(KXX):
0 F

1.44 Btu/(hr-in- F)

2643 F

1.54

2750 F

1.22

2875 F

1.22

(ENTH):
0 F

0.0 Btu/in3

2643 F

128.1

2750 F

163.8

2875 F

174.2

2875 F

80 F

0.014 Btu/(hr-in2- F)

80 F

.
.

,
.
.

3.10.3. GUI .
Thermal Tutorial.

3.10.4. .
ANSYS .
(, )
.
/TITLE,

/PREP7
K,1,0,0,0
K,2,22,0,0

173

K,3,10,12,0
K,4,0,12,0
/TRIAD,OFF

/REPLOT
!
!

A,1,2,3,4
SAVE
RECTNG,4,22,4,8

APLOT

AOVLAP,1,2

ADELE,3,,,1

! 3

SAVE
!
MP,DENS,1,0.054

MP,KXX,1,0.025
MP,C,1,0.28
!
!

MPTEMP,1,0,2643,2750,2875,,,
MPDATA,KXX,2,1,1.44,1.54,1.22,1.22,,,
MPDATA,ENTH,2,1,0,128.1,163.8,174.2
MPPLOT,KXX,2,,,,,

MPPLOT,ENTH,2,,,,,

SAVE
!
ET,1,PLANE55

! PLANE55

!
SAVE
SMRT,5

! 5

174

MSHAPE,0,2D

! .

MSHKEY,0

AMESH,5

! , 5

!
TYPE,1

! 1

MAT,2

! 2

REAL

ESYS,0

AMESH,4

! , 4

!
SAVE
SFL,1,CONV,0.014,,80,,

SFL,3,CONV,0.014,,80,,
SFL,4,CONV,0.014,,80,,
SAVE
FINISH
/SOLU
!
ANTYPE,4

SOLCONTROL,ON,0
!
! .

!
APLOT
ASEL,S,,,4

! , 4

NSLA,S,1

! , .

NPLOT
IC,ALL,TEMP,2875
NSEL,INVE

!
! 2875F
! , 5

175

/REPLOT

IC,ALL,TEMP,80

! 80F

ALLSEL,ALL

SAVE
!
TIME,3

AUTOTS,-1

DELTIM,0.01,0.001,0.25,1
KBC,0

!
!

!
OUTRES,ALL,ALL

SAVE
/STAT,SOLU

/REPLOT

APLOT

SOLVE
FINISH
!
/POST26

EPLOT

cntr_pt=node(16,6,0)

NSOL,2,cntr_pt,TEMP,,center

! cntr_pt

PLVAR,2

FINISH
/EOF

3.11. .
ANSYS, ANSYS Verification Manual Heat Transfer
Training Manual,
.
176

,

, , , ..
,
(724) 514-2882.
ANSYS Verification Manual ,
ANSYS. , ANSYS Verification
Manual, .
. ANSYS,
,
.
ANSYS Verification Manual .
VM28
VM94 .
VM104 ()
VM109 - .
VM110
VM111
VM112 -
VM113 -
VM115
VM116 .
VM159
VM192 .

4. .
4.1. ?
. /
.
. ,
, ,
, .

4.2. .
ANSYS
. :

177

LINK31 ,

.
SURF151 SURF152
.
AUX12
,
( , Multiphysics, Mechanical
Professional).
, 3D (2D)
. 3D (2D) ,
(
, Multiphysics, Mechanical Professional).
, ,
.
.

4.3. .
, :

:
, . ANSYS . ANSYS

, .
.
:
, .
.
.
:
, I,
J.
. ANSYS
, ()
Hemicube .
: ,
, ,
. ANSYS
.
,
( ). ,
.
:
=
+ = 1

:

178

.
.
:
.
. ,
.
, 460, ,
273.
: , ,
ANSYS
.
.
: , ,

, .
:
,
.

ANSYS.
, ,
.

4.4. LINK31.
LINK31 ,
.
:

.


- .
LINK31

.

4.5. .

,
.
ANSYS : SURF151
SURF152 . KEYOPT(9)
.
( 1) KEYOPT(9) = 1.

4.6. (
AUX12).
179


, .
ANSYS Multiphysics, Mechanical Thermal.
(-)

.

4.6.1. .
:
1.
2.
3.

.
.
.

4.6.1.1. .
,
LINK32 SHELL57 .
:
1.

(PREP7).
,
.

.
.

2.

SHELL57
LINK32 ,
.
,
:
180

:
ESURF
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Surf/Contact> Surf Effect>
General Surface> Extra Node
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Surf/Contact> Surf Effect>
General Surface> No extra Node
, .
,
.
.

.
, SHELL57 LINK32,
( ) .
.
. ,
( )
Z SHELL57 Y
LINK32.
, ,
, .
, :
.
181

3.

.
, .
.
. ,
.

4.6.1.2. .
:

, .
(2-D 3-D)
.
(
).
.

:
1.

AUX12 :
:
/AUX12
GUI:
Main Menu>Radiation Opt

2.

, .
(elements by type) (all
attached nodes). GUI Utility
Menu> Select> Entities ESEL,S,TYPE NSLE.
, .
3.
:
:
GEOM
182

GUI:
Main Menu>Radiation Opt> Matrix Method> Other Settings
AUX12
.
. (
NDIV = 0), ( NDIV > 0),
. ANSYS
, NDIV. , NDIV =
10 ,
36 .
4.

, , .
1.
:
EMIS
GUI:
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Matrix Method> Emissivities

5.

.
0.119E-10 Btu/hr-in2-R4 (
5.67E-8 W/m2-K4).
:
STEF
GUI:
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Matrix Method> Other Settings

6.

:
:
VTYPE
GUI:
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Matrix Method> Write Matrix
:

183

( )
(
).
:

( ).

.
,
.

.
.
NZONE VTYPE Write
Matrix.

:
:
SPACE
GUI:
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Matrix Method> Other Settings

7.

WRITE Write Matrix


Jobname.SUB.
, .
WRITE MPRINT,1.
8.
:
:
ALLSEL
GUI:
Utility Menu>Select>Everything
.

4.6.1.3. .
, ANSYS (PREP7)
. :
1.

:
:
/PREP7
184

GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor
MATRIX50 () .
2.

:
:
TYPE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes

3.

:
:
SE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Superelements> From .SUB File

4.

SHELL57
LINK32 :
:
EDELE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Delete> Elements
( ).

5.
6.

(SOLUTION).
:
:
D, F
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> option

185

(
), .
.
7.

4.6.2. .

,
.
.

4.6.2.1. .
, ,
. ,
,
. :
, ( 1),
.

4.6.2.2. .
,
.
, ,

.
, ,

.
,
:

.

.

( ) ,
.
(. 1).
,
,
.
.
,
, (
)
.
186

4.6.3.
.

AUX12

,
.
,


.
,
.
.
,

. ,
,
( ).
, .
,
.
() ,
,
.
. (
NZONE VTYPE) (
), , NZONE
.
20
.
LINK32, ,
,
.
( ) .

1.0 .

***** FORM FACTORS ***** TOTAL= Value ( =
) MPRINT,1.
1.0. . ,
, MPRINT,1

1.0. ,

.

4.7. .

187

ANSYS Multiphysics, Mechanical Thermal



, .
(, ), .

4.7.1. .
:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
.
.
.
.

4.7.1.1. .
:
1.

(PREP7).
,

.
.
,
.
2.
SF, SFA, SFE, or SFL

. , ,
.
SF,
SFA, SFE, or SFL VALUE = -N.
(N ).
3.

,
. :
:
/PSF
GUI:
Utility Menu>PlotCtrls>Symbols
SHELL57 SHELL157,
.
SF, SFA, or SFE.

4.7.1.2. .
188

,
. :
:
STEF
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Radiation Opts> Solution Opt
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> Solution Opt
Main Menu> Solution> Radiation Opts> Solution Opt
,
. ,
:
:
TOFFST
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>Radiation Opts>Solution Opt
Main Menu>Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> Solution Opt
Main Menu>Solution> Radiation Opts> Solution Opt
, , (
) .
. :
:
RADOPT
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>Radiation Opts>Solution Opt
Main Menu>Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> Solution Opt
Main Menu>Solution> Radiation Opts> Solution Opt
,
.
:
:
189

SPCTEMP
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>Radiation Opts>Solution Opt
Main Menu>Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> Solution Opt
Main Menu>Solution> Radiation Opts> Solution Opt
SPCTEMP .
.
, :
:
SPCNOD
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>Radiation Opts>Solution Opt
Main Menu>Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> Solution Opt
Main Menu>Solution> Radiation Opts> Solution Opt
() ,
,
.
. SPCNOD.
. SPCNOD
.

4.7.1.3. .

:
:
HEMIOPT
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Radiation Opts> View Factor
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> View Factor
Main Menu> Solution> Radiation Opts> View Factor

190

HEMIOPT
Hemicube. 10.
.
:
V2DOPT
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Radiation Opts> View Factor
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> View Factor
Main Menu> Solution> Radiation Opts> View Factor
V2DOPT
. , (
). (20 )
.
( )
( 200).
.
:
:
VFOPT
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Radiation Opts> View Factor
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> View Factor
Main Menu> Solution> Radiation Opts> View Factor
VFOPT, Opt
(Opt = NEW). ,
(Opt = OFF).
( )
SOLVE /SOLU.
SOLVE, ANSYS ,
VFOPT.

4.7.1.4. .
.
.
:
191

:
VFCALC
GUI:
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> Compute
,

.
:
VFQUERY
GUI:
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> Query

*GET,Par,RAD,,VFAVG.

4.7.1.5. .
.
.
:
:
TUNIF
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Settings> Uniform Temp

:
:
NSUBST or DELTIM
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substps or
Time and Substps
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step
192

,
(ramped) . :
:
KBC
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step

4.7.2. .
,

( ),
.
:
1.

MP .
.
,
.
2.
.
:
ANTYPE
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis
3.

.
:
QSOPT
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Quasi-Static
SOLCONTROL,ON.
OPNCONTROL.
( , )
.
, QSOPT,ON
(TIME = 1).
:
193


OPNCONTROL, ,
.
(TIME) (DELTIM)
, .

4.8.
( ).

.
, .
ANSYS
.

4.8.1. .
,
. 0.9.
1500F.
0.7
100F.
70F.
.

4.8.2. .
ANSYS
. , .
/TITLE, .
! .
/PREP7

194

CYL4,0,0,.5,0,.25,180

! 1

CYL4,0.2,0,1,0,.75,180

! 2

ET,1,PLANE55

LSEL,S,LINE,,1
SFL,ALL,RDSF,.9, ,1,

LSEL,S,LINE,,7
SFL,ALL,RDSF,.7, ,1,

LSEL,S,LINE,,3
DL,ALL, ,TEMP,1500,1

LSEL,S,LINE,,5
DL,ALL, ,TEMP,100,1

ALLSEL
STEF,0.119E-10
TOFFST,460
RADOPT,0.5,0.01,0,
SPCTEMP,1,70
V2DOPT,0.0,0,0,

! -
!
!
! 1
!

ESIZE,0.05,
AMESH,ALL
MP,KXX,1,.1

FINISH
/SOLU
TIME,1
DELTIM,.5,.1,1
NEQIT,1000
SOLVE
FINISH
/POST1

195

ASEL,S,AREA,,1
NSLA,S,1
PRNSOL,TEMP
FINISH

196

ANSYS/FLOTRAN
1. FLOTRAN CFD
1.1. FLOTRAN CFD
FLOTRAN FLOTRAN CFD ( )
ANSYS
. FLUID141 FLUID142
FLOTRAN CFD :
.
.
.
ANSYS ANSYS FLOTRAN
, :

.
.

.
.

1.2. FLOTRAN
FLOTRAN:


,
,
().
. ,
, . ,
.
, ,
GUI .
:
FLDATA1,SOLU,FLOW,TRUE
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

1.2.1. .
,
, .
.

1.2.2. .
,
().
197

, ANSYS ,
.
(incompressible),
()
.
.

1.2.3. .
.
,
.
, .
, -
, .
, ,
.

1.2.4. .
,
. ANSYS
.

1.2.5.
, ANSYS
.

1.2.6. .
.

, .

1.3. GUI .
ANSYS GUI
( ). ,
, .
ANSYS (ANSYS Commands
Reference).
GUI , .
GUI .
GUI ,
,
.
, ,
, .
,
.
198


(ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide)
(Material Model Interface).

2. FLOTRAN
2.1. , FLOTRAN
ANSYS FLOTRAN, FLUID141 FLUID142,
.
ANSYS ,
, .



FLUID141

2-D

, ,
,


( 6 )

FLUID142

3-D

, 8
,

, 5

, ,
,


( 6)

2.1.1 FLUID141
FLUID141
, ,
.
, .
FLOTRAN CFD
(
FLUID116). FLUID141
.
FLOTRAN CFD
, ,
.
, ,
(,
, .)
.
.
199


.
,
.
, 6 .

. , .
, ()
, , .
Z (,
; VZ).
( ).
FLUID141

2.1.1.1 .
,
FLUID141. ()
() .
KEYOPT(3)
, .
SF, SFA, SFE,
SFL FSIN.
( ),
(, ).
Sequentially Coupled Physics Analysis (
) ANSYS Coupled-Field Analysis Guide (
ANSYS).

2.1.1.2
[MAT] FLUID141 1,
. , ,
FLDATA. ,
.
, .
, FLDATA7,PROT
( floprp.ans). (
) .
200

6 ( - , 4 -
).
FLDATA1,SOLU,TURB,T.
KEYOPT(1) .
. KEYOPT(4)

(ALE).
,
.

2.1.1.3 .

(, ).
, .

1.
, ,
:
(K), (f) (C).
, X.
:
= (/)
= (/(*))
RE = ( ): RE = ( V Dh) /
f = ( ): f = a RE-b
C = FLOTRAN (1/length2). FLOTRAN
.
,
ENKE = 0 ENDS = 1 .
.
ANSYS Power Law, Bingham Carreau.
ANSYS ,
. UserVisLaw ANSYS
Guide to User Programmable Features ( ANSYS
).

2.1.1.4 .

. ,
, .
,
.
( TYPE = 4) .
,
X.
201

V , C1, C2 C3 .
( TYPE = 5),

.

2.1.1.5
[MAT] 1,
. .
100 . ,
, MP.
, MP
MPDATA.

.
,
FLUID141.

2.1.1.6 FLUID141

FLUID141

I, J, K, L

VX, VY, VZ, PRES, TEMP, ENKE, ENDS


: KXX, KYY, C, DENS

: , , , (
FLDATA MPTEMP MPDATA).

HFLUX, CONV, RAD, RDSF, FSIN

HGEN, FORC

, ,
, ,
, ,
, .
KEYOPT(1)

0 -
202

2 - 6 -
KEYOPT(3)
0 - ( )
1 - Y-
2 - -
3 -
KEYOPT(4)
0 - .
1 - (UX UY).
FLUID141

R1

TYPE : 1 = :
2 = :

3 = :

4 = :

5 = :

()

TYPE = 1,2,3

DIR

TYPE = 4 : 1 = X, 2 = Y, 3 = Z

()

TYPE = 5

TYPE = 1,2 /

1/L

Kx

TYPE = 3 X

1/L

C1

TYPE = 4 -

M/L2t2

C1x

TYPE = 5 C1 X .

M/L2t2

R4

C
Cx
C2
C2x

TYPE = 1,2 -
TYPE = 3 X
TYPE = 4
TYPE = 5 C2 X .

1/L2
1/L2
M/L3t
M/L3t

R5

Dh
Dhx
C3
C3x

TYPE = 1,2
TYPE = 3 X
TYPE = 4
TYPE = 5 C3 X .

L
L
M/L4
M/L4

R6

a
ax
()

TYPE = 1,2 ,
TYPE = 3 - a X
TYPE = 4,5

R2

R3

203

R7

b
bx
()

TYPE = 1,2 - , .
TYPE = 3 b X
TYPE = 4,5

R8

()
FLDIR
Ky
()
C1y

TYPE = 1
TYPE = 2 : 1 = X, 2 = Y, 3 = Z
TYPE = 3 Y
TYPE = 4
TYPE = 5 C1 Y .

1/L
M/L2t2

R9

()
Cy
()
C2y

TYPE = 1,2
TYPE = 3 Y
TYPE = 4
TYPE = 5 C2 Y

1/L2
M/L3t

R10

()
Dhy
()
C3y

TYPE = 1,2
TYPE = 3 Y
TYPE = 4
TYPE = 5 C3 Y .

L
M/L4

R11

()
ay
()

TYPE = 1,2
TYPE = 3 Y .
TYPE = 4,5

R12

()
by
()

TYPE = 1,2
TYPE = 3 Y
.
TYPE = 4,5

R13

()
Kz
()
C1z

TYPE = 1,2
TYPE = 3 Z ()
TYPE = 4
TYPE = 5 C1 Z () .

1/L
M/L2t2

R14

()
Cz
()
C2z

TYPE = 1,2
TYPE = 3 - Z ()
TYPE = 4
TYPE = 5 C2 Z () .

1/L2
M/L3t

R15

()
Dhz
()
C3z

TYPE = 1,2
TYPE = 3 Z ()
.
TYPE = 4
TYPE = 5 - C3 Z () .

L
M/L4

R16

()
az
()

TYPE = 1,2
TYPE = 3 - Z () .
TYPE = 4,5 -

R17

()
bz
()

TYPE = 1,2 -
TYPE = 3 - Z () .
TYPE = 4,5 -

R19

()

204

2.1.1.7 FLUID141

.
. ANSYS
Basic Analysis Guide.
,
. ,
.
, (
, DOF ).
,
, .
,
FLDATA5,OUTP.
Jobname.PFL .
,
, , , .
, .
Jobname.PFL
.
Jobname.RSW ,
. , , ,
,
( )
( ).
Jobname.RDF ,
.
:
, ETABLE,
ESOL. R . Y R
, . ,
. , .
, .
( ) FLUID141

R
UX

X ( );
( X); 10
( Y)

UY

Y ( );
( X); 10
( Y);

VX:

X ( ); Y
( );
( X); (
Y)

VY:

Y ( ); Y
( ); (
X); ( Y)

VZ:

Z ( )

8
205

PRES:

ENKE:

ENDS:

TEMP:

DENS:

VISC:

COND:

SPHT:

EVIS:

( )

ECON: ( )

CMUV:

TTOT: ( )

HFLU:

HFLM: .

RDFL:

STRM: (2-D)

MACH: ( )

PTOT:

PCOE:

TAUW:

SP0N:

N , N = 1 - 6 (FLOTRAN). 4
, [MSSPEC],
SP0N.

LMDN: N , N = 16 ( 3
, )
EMDN: N , N = 16 ( 2
, )
1. ,
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. , .
6. .
7. .
8. , .
9. Jobname.RFL, (DENS)
.
10. , KEYOPT(4) = 1.

2.1.1.8 .
.
,
206

. X Y.
.
FLUID141 ANSYS.
ANSYS FLUID141.
, FLOTRAN CFD, .
, ,
.
(
), ,
.
/ .
-
.
, .
(RDSF)
R-THETA R-THETA-Z.
:
.

.
.
.
, ,
. MP, MPDATA
ANSYS Commands Reference.
.
,
.
, > 5.
,
, .
, .
, ()
.

2.1.2. FLUID142
FLUID142
, ,
.
, .
FLOTRAN CFD
(
FLUID116). FLUID142
.
FLOTRAN CFD
, ,
. ,
,
(, , .)
.
.
207


.
,
.
, 6 .

. , .
, ()
, , .
Z (,
; VZ).
( ).
FLUID141

2.1.2.1 .
,
FLUID142. 8 .
KEYOPT(3)
.
SF, SFA, SFE, SFL
FSIN.
( ),
.
Sequentially Coupled Physics Analysis ( )
ANSYS Coupled-Field Analysis Guide ( ANSYS).

2.1.2.2
[MAT] FLUID142 1,
. , ,
208

FLDATA. ,
-. ,
, .
, FLDATA7,PROT
( floprp.ans). (
) .
6 ( - , 4 -
).
FLDATA1,SOLU,TURB,T.
KEYOPT(1) .
. KEYOPT(4)

(ALE).
,
.

2.1.2.3 .

(, ).
, .

1.
, ,
:
(K), (f) (C).
, X.
:
= (/)
= (/(*))
RE = ( ): RE = ( V Dh)
/
f = ( ): f = a RE-b
C = (1/length2). FLOTRAN
.
,
ENKE = 0 ENDS = 1 .
.
ANSYS Power Law, Bingham Carreau.
ANSYS
. UserVisLaw ANSYS Guide to
User Programmable Features ( ANSYS
).

2.1.2.4 .

209


. ,
, .
,
.
,
X.
V , C1, C2 C3 .
( TYPE = 5),

.

2.1.2.5
[MAT] 1,
. .
100 . ,
, MP.
, MP
MPDATA.

.
,
FLUID142.

2.1.2.6 FLUID142
FLUID142

I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P

VX, VY, VZ, PRES, TEMP, ENKE, ENDS
.

: KXX, KYY, KZZ, C, DENS

: , , , (
FLDATA)

HFLU, CONV, RAD, RDSF, FSIN

HGEN, FORC

, 6 , ,
,
, ,
210

, .
KEYOPT(1)
.
0 - .
2 - 6 - ( ()
)
KEYOPT(3)
0 - ( )
3 -
KEYOPT(4)
0 -
1 - (UX, UY, and UZ).
FLUID142

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

TYPE

1 = :

2 = :

3 = :

4 = :

5 = :

(Blank) TYPE = 1,2,3

DIR

TYPE = 4 : 1 = X, 2 = Y, 3 = Z

(Blank) TYPE = 5

TYPE = 1,2 /

1/L

Kx

TYPE = 3 X

1/L

C1

TYPE = 4 -

M/L2t2

C1x

TYPE = 5 C1 X

M/L2t2

TYPE = 1,2 -

1/L2

Cx

TYPE = 3 X

1/L2

C2

TYPE = 4

M/L3t

C2x

TYPE = 5 C2 X

M/L3t

Dh

TYPE = 1,2

Dhx

TYPE = 3 X

L
211

C3

TYPE = 4

M/L4

C3x

TYPE = 5 C3 X.

M/L4

TYPE = 1,2 - ,
.

ax

TYPE = 3 X

R6

(Blank) TYPE = 4,5


b
R7

R8

R9

R10

R11

R12

R13

R14

bx

TYPE = 1,2 - ,

.
TYPE = 3 - b X

(Blank) TYPE = 4,5

(Blank) TYPE = 1

FLDIR TYPE = 2 : 1 = X, 2 = Y, 3 = Z

Ky

1/L

TYPE = 3 Y

(Blank) TYPE = 4

C1y

M/L2t2

TYPE = 5 C1 Y

(Blank) TYPE = 1,2

Cy

1/L2

TYPE = 3 Y

(Blank) TYPE = 4

C2y

M/L3t

TYPE = 5 C2 Y

(Blank) TYPE = 1,2

Dhy

TYPE = 3 Y

(Blank) TYPE = 4

C3y

M/L4

TYPE = 5 C3 Y

(Blank) TYPE = 1,2 -

ay

TYPE = 3 Y

(Blank) TYPE = 4,5 -

(Blank) TYPE = 1,2 -

by

TYPE = 3 Y

(Blank) TYPE = 4,5 -

(Blank) TYPE = 1,2 -

Kz

1/L

TYPE = 3 Z (swirl)

(Blank) TYPE = 4 -

C1z

M/L2t2

TYPE = 5 C1 Z (swirl)

(Blank) TYPE = 1,2 -

Cz

1/L2

TYPE = 3 Z (swirl)

(Blank) TYPE = 4 -

C2z

M/L3t

TYPE = 5 C2 Z (swirl)

212

R15

R16

R17

(Blank) TYPE = 1,2 -

Dhz

TYPE = 3 Z (swirl)

(Blank) TYPE = 4 -

C3z

M/L4

TYPE = 5 C3 Z (swirl)

(Blank) TYPE = 1,2 -

az

TYPE = 3 Z (swirl)

(Blank) TYPE = 4,5 -

(Blank) TYPE = 1,2 -

bz

TYPE = 3 Z ()

(Blank) TYPE = 4,5 -

2.1.2.7 FLUID142

.
. ANSYS
Basic Analysis Guide.
,
. ,
. ,
(
, DOF ). ,

, .
,
FLDATA5,OUTP.
Jobname.PFL .
,
, , , .
, .
Jobname.PFL
.
Jobname.RSW ,
. , , ,
,
( )
( ).
Jobname.RDF ,
.
:
, ETABLE,
ESOL. R . Y R
, . ,
. , .
, .
213

( ) FLUID141

R
UX
X ( )
9
UY
Y ( )
9
UZ
Z ( )
9
X ( )
Y
VX:
( )
Y ( )
Y
VY:
( )
Z ( )
Y
VZ:
( )
PRES:
Y
ENKE:
2
ENDS:
2
TEMP:
1
DENS:
8
VISC:
8
COND:
8
SPHT:
8
EVIS: ( )
8
ECON: ( )
2
CMUV:
2
TTOT: ( )
7
HFLU:
1
HFLM:
1
MACH: ( )
6
PTOT:
Y
PCOE:
3
TAUW:
3
N , N = 1 - 6 (FLOTRAN).
SP0N: , [MSSPEC], 4
SP0N.
N , N = 16 (
3
LMDN:
, )
N , N = 16 (
2
EMDN:
, )
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

,
.
.
.
, .
.
.
, swirl .
Jobname.RFL, (DENS)
.
10. , KEYOPT(4) = 1.

2.1.2.8 .
214

.
,
. X Y.
.
FLUID142 ANSYS.
ANSYS FLUID142
, FLOTRAN CFD, .
, ,
.
(
), ,
.
/ .
/
. ,
.
(RDSF)
R-THETA R-THETA-Z.
:
.

.
.
.
, ,
. MP, MPDATA
ANSYS Commands Reference.
.
,
.
, > 5.
,
, .
, .
, ()
.

2.1.3.
FLOTRAN :
, .
, , ,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
, .
,
FLOTRAN
,
.

215

, , ,
, .
, ,
. , swirl ()
, .

2.2.

FLOTRAN:

FLOTRANa :
.
ANSYS FLOTRAN.
GUI
FLOTRANa.
,
FLOTRANa.

2.2.1. FLOTRAN
FLOTRAN,
ANSYS, ,
FLOTRAN. ,
, , FLOTRAN. ANSYS
.
FLOTRAN :
FLOTRAN .
.
/CLEAR (Jobname.RFL),
, ,
.
Jobname.RFL, ,
Jobname.RFO ( ).
( ).
ADAPT FLOTRAN.
FLOTRAN ANTYPE
.
FLOTRAN .
FLOTRAN Transient Analyses.
BFCUM, BFDELE,
BFUNIF, ANSYS ,
BFE.
FLOTRAN CE, CECMOD, CEDELE, CEINTF.
FLOTRAN CNVTOL .
, DSYM, ,
FLOTRAN.
FLOTRAN
.
FLOTRAN FLDATA4,TIME DELTIM
.
FLOTRAN DESOL, PRESOL
HEAT, FLOW, FLUX.
216

FLOTRAN .
, ,
FLOTRAN.
FLOTRAN FLDATA4,TIME,BC KBC
ANSYS. FLOTRAN .
, LCCALC, LCDEF, LCFACT,
LCFILE.
NEQIT,
.
,
. , (
N, NMODIF NROTAT).
FLDATA2,ITER, FLDATA4,TIME FLDATA4A,STEP
, (Jobname.RFL and Jobname.PFL)
FLOTRAN ,
NSVR.
FLDATA2,ITER FLDATA4,TIME ,
.
PRNLD FLOTRAN.
TIME,
FLOTRAN.
TIMINT, FLDATA1,SOLU
.
FLDATA4,TIME TRNOPT
.
RESCONTROL FLOTRAN.
RESCONTROL FLDATA32,REST.
FLOTRAN DK
.

2.3. FLOTRAN
FLOTRAN :
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .

2.3.1. .
.
. ,

,
.

, , . ,
. ,
217

,
.
,
.

2.3.2. .
.
,
.
, FLOTRAN, ,
.
. ,
. ,
.
( ) ,
.
, .
.
0.3, .
0.7,
.

2.3.3. .
/
, / , .
, , /
, .
, ,
,
.
(mapped) / .
MSHKEY,1 (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing>
Mesh> entity> Mapped).

.
ANSYS .
, ,
,
.
,
, (extruded).
. ,
, .
.
ANSYS MeshTool (Main Menu> Preprocessor>
Meshing> MeshTool) , Hex
.

2.3.4. .
218

.
, / .
. ,
,
.
.

2.3.5. FLOTRAN

, .
.

2.3.6. .
,
. , ,
, ( ) ,
( ENKE), (ENDS),
(EVIS).

.

2.3.7. .

.

2.4. , FLOTRAN.
ANSYS
.
, , ,
.. ,
, , FLOTRAN.
, FLOTRANa.
.
, Jobname.RFL, .
, Jobname.RSW, .
, Jobname.RDF, .
, Jobname.DBG, ,
.
, Jobname.RFO, .
, Jobname.CFD, FLOTRANa.
jobname.pv_0000n .

2.4.1. .
FLOTRANe ANSYS.
ANSYS
Jobname.RFL. , ,
219

. , ,
FLDATA5,OUTP (ANSYS Commands Reference).
ANSYS
FLOTRAN.
: ,
,
.
ANSYS
( ),
.
Jobname.RFL.
,
.
,
.
,
.

, ..
, :
:
FLDATA2,ITER,OVER,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
, :
:
FLDATA2,ITER,APPE,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

2.4.2. (Jobname.PFL)
Jobname.PFL FLOTRAN,
.
SOLVE .
.
, , ,
.
.

2.4.3. .
, Jobname.RDF, , .
, ,

.
,
.
, , , .
, ,

220

( ).
.

:
:
FLDATA5,OUTP,RESI,TRUE
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN SetUp> Additional Out> Residual File
, FLREAD (Main Menu> General Postproc>
FLOTRAN 2.1A). ,
(, TEMP PRES ).

2.4.4. .
FLOTRAN
.
.
Jobname.CFD. FLOTRAN ANSYS (
).
Jobname.CFD :
:
FLDATA32,REST,RFIL,T
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Restart Options> CFD Restart File
(TRUE) (FALSE) RFIL. ,
ANSYS , FLOTRAN .
.
,
.CFD ,
. :
:
FLDATA32,REST,WFIL,T
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Restart Options> CFD Restart File
, FLOTRAN

RFIL. , ,
FLDATA32,REST,RFIL,TRUE ,
Jobname.CFD.

2.4.5.
.

, , , ,
, ANSYS.
, ,
.

2.4.6. FLOTRAN.

221

,
Jobname.RFL .RFL.
(Label = NSET), (Label = ITER),
/ (Label = LSTP),
(Label = TIME). :
FLDATA32,REST,Label,Value. (NSET,
ITER, LSTP TIME) Label. Value ,
.
, ,
.
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up>
Restart Options> Restart/Iteratio (or Restart/Load step, Restart/Set, etc.)
, ANSYS (
) .
, ANSYS
Jobname.RSO ,
Jobname.RFL. Jobname.RSO
, Value FLDATA32,REST .
FLOTRAN , Value.

2.5.
ANSYS
.

2.5.1. .

, ,
. 0.0
( ) 1.0 .
:
:
FLDATA25,RELX,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation

FLDATA25,RELX ANSYS Commands Reference

2.5.2. .

, . ,
,
.
, . .
222

(MOME),
(TURB), (PRES)
(TEMP). :
:
FLDATA26,STAB,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms
,
.
1.0 1.010-7.

2.5.3. .

.

(MOME), (TURB)
(TEMP). :
:
FLDATA34,MIR,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization

, ,
. 0.1 1.0.

.

2.5.4. .
.

,
. ,
.
:
:
FLDATA26,STAB,VISC,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms

2.5.5. .

.
223

, , (VY, VY, VZ, PRES, TEMP).


:
:
FLDATA31,CAPP
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping
,
.
,
,
.
, ANSYS
.
, ,
. , ,
.
.

.
, .

, .

2.5.6. .
ANSYS .
2. ,
/ ,
. 2
, .

, .
, ,
:
:
FLDATA30,QUAD,Label,Value
(Label , , Value
).
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> CFD Quad
Orders
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> CFD Quad Orders

FLDATA30,QUAD (ANSYS Commands Reference).

2.6. FLOTRAN

224

,
FLOTRAN .

2.6.1. .
, FLOTRAN,
,
. ,
,
.

.
, ANSYS, Multiphysics
FLOTRAN
,
. ANSYS
. , ANSYS
.
, ,

.
, ,
.
, :
:
FLDATA2,ITER,EXEC,Value (Value .)
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

2.6.2. .
ANSYS
. (VY, VY, VZ),
(PRES), (TEMP), (ENKE),
(ENDS)
(SP01-SP06).
:
, ,
- (-1) ,
.
. .
, ,
(GST), .
GST .
() GST :
:
/GST
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Grph Solu Track

225

, ANSYS
GST.

(a) , (b)
b , ANSYS .
.
,
.
, :

.
226

, .
( / )
GST :
GST FLOTRANe, , , ,
. GST
, FLOTRAN, ANSYS Thermal
Analysis Guide, ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide, ANSYS Structural Analysis
Guide.
GST 10 (
10 , 10 ).
ANSYS STOP.
, .
SOLVE Main Menu> Solution>
Run FLOTRAN.
, ,
.

2.6.3. FLOTRANa.
,
. , :
:
FLDATA3,TERM,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
, ANSYS Commands Reference.

, .

.
FLOTRAN
Transient Analyses.
FLOTRAN ,
Jobname.ABT , ANSYS .
"terminate".
Windows,
Jobname.ABT. FLOTRAN
Jobname.ABT. , FLOTRAN ,
Jobname.RFL, Jobname.PFL .

2.7. FLOTRAN
, :
1. ?
2. , ?
,
.
,
,
,
227

. ,
, .
.
, :
.
ANSYS ,
Jobname.PFL. FLOTRAN
.
, .
Jobname.PFL. :
:
FLDATA5,OUTP,SUMF,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived
Value , ANSYS
Jobname.PFL.
, .
Mapping Results onto ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide
.

2.8. .
, , .
, .
. ANSYS
Jobname.PFL ,
.
1. Jobname.PFL. ,
. ,
:


( ,
).
2. , .
3. , ,
, .
Jobname.PFL.
4. ,
,
.
5. ,
(, ).
6. , ,

.
.
.

228

7. ,
.
:
:
FLDATA29,MODV
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> Modify Results
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> Modify Results

229

3.
FLOTRAN
3.1. .

.
. , , : .
/
(, ), .
.
.

,
. (,
).
.


, .
,
, .
, ,
.

230


, .

.
.
, ,
. , (
/) ( ).
e = + t
, , .

3.2. .

.
. /,
/ :

(/) (/)
/. ,
,
:

, .
, , , ,
2300.
( )
.
500000.

3.3. .
(, ). ,
, ?
?
, , ,
, . ,
1.0
.
.
.
,
. ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
, ,

231


.
EVIS.
Jobname.PFL.
.
/.

3.4. .
, ,
.
, . ,
( )
1000; .
.
.

:
:
FLDATA24,TURB,RATI,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param
, ,
(ENKE)
(ENDS) . ENKE ENDS ,
(ININ),

(INSF),
. ININ INSF 0.01.
,
:
:
FLDATA24,TURB,ININ,Value
FLDATA24,TURB,INSF,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param

3.5. .
FLOTRAN :
1. k- .
2. Zero Equation (ZeroEq)
3. Re-Normalized Group (RNG)
4. k- Shih (NKE)
5. Girimaji (GIR)
6. Shih, Zhu, Lumley (SZL)
:
:
FLDATA1,SOLU,TURB,T
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options
232

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options


:
:
FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
k- . ,
.
. . ,

k- .

.
, , RNG, NKE, GIR SZL
.
, (, )
(, 180 ).
, k- ,
( ).
RNG, NKE, GIR SZL
C.
.
ANSYS Commands Reference
ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference.
3.5.1. k-e ( )
k- Zero Equation .
k- . k-
.
k- :
:
FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,1
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
C, C1, C2, SCTK SCTD k- ,
:
C - k-

.
C1 - k- .
C2 - k- .
SCTK .
SCTD .
C, C1, C2, SCTK SCTD k-
:
233

:
FLDATA24,TURB,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
KAPP, EWILL, WALL, VAND TRAN, :
:
FLDATA24,TURB,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Wall Parameters
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Wall Parameters
BETA - ,

BUC3, BUC4, and BETA, :


:
FLDATA24,TURB,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Buoyancy Terms
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Buoyancy Terms
ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference ANSYS Commands
Reference.
3.5.2. Zero Equation (ZeroEq)
Zero Equation (ZeroEq)
. .
,
180.
Zero Equation (ZeroEq), :
:
FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,2
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
,
. 2
.
ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference ANSYS Commands
Reference
3.5.3. Re-Normalized Group (RNG)
Re-Normalized Group (RNG)
(, 180).
SZL,
, RNG .
RNG :
234

:
FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,3
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
RNG , FLDATA24A,RNGT
GUI.
RNG k- . C, C1, C2, SCTK,
SCTD
k - . :
BETA RNG,
ETAI - .
(wall parameters) , k-
.
ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference ANSYS Commands
Reference.
3.5.4. k- Shih (NKE)
k - Shih (NKE) C ,
k - .
NKE GIR .
NKE :
:
FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,4
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
NKE , FLDATA24B,NKET
GUI.
NKE k - . C2, SCTK, SCTD
k . :
C1MX - 1
.
, k - .
ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference ANSYS Commands
Reference.
3.5.5. Girimaji (GIR)
Girimaji (GIR)
. GIR NKE .
GIR :
:
FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,5
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
235

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model


, FLDATA24C,GIRT
GUI.
GIR k - .
. SCTK SCTD
k - .
:
G0 -

G1 - .
G2 - C2.
G3 - C3.
G4 - C4.
, k - .
ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference ANSYS Commands
Reference.
3.5.6. Shih, Zhu, Lumley (SZL)
SZL , NKE GIR.

.
SZL,
RNG.
,
SZL RNG, NKE GIR. SZL
, ,
.
SZL :
:
FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,6
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
SZL FLDATA24D,SZLT
GUI.
SZL k - .
. SCTK SCTD
k - .
:
SZL1 (Aszl1) ( ), C.
SZL2 (Aszl2) - ( ), C.
SZL3 (Aszl3) .
, k - .
ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference ANSYS Commands
Reference.

3.6.
236


, . ,
, , .

.

MSHAPE,0,2D MSHKEY,1.
.

MSHAPE,1,2D MSHKEY,0.
.
"Log Law of the Wall",
Y+ .
. Y+
(YPLU).
Y+ 30 1000.
, 5000. FLOTRAN
Y+ 30 , , ,
.
.

237

Y+ , 1, ,
. Y+ 5000
.


, . ,
, , ,
.
.

3.7. .
, , .
(VX, VY, VZ PRES) ,
( (ENKE)
(ENDS) ).
, ,
.
:
:
D
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type
, :
:
DA DL
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition
type> On Areas
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type> On Areas
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition
type> On Lines
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type> On Lines
,
(
, ).
GUI
.
,
.
.
.
.
, ,
.
: .
.
.
: ( 0)
.
238


. ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference.
/
. .

.

.
.
, FLOTRAN
.
.
, .
.

.
.
, . ,
, ,
.
(L),
(D) :
: L/D ~ 0.06 Re
: L/D ~ 4.4 Re1/6
, 20 25 . /
,
. , .
: ,
. .
:
( ALE ).
/ ALE.
,
GUI:
D,NODE,ENDS,-1
DL,LINE,AREA,ENDS,-1,Value2
DA,AREA,ENDS,-1,Value2
,
, .
, VZ
.
: 0.
: , .
0.
, 1.
,
.
GUI, .
: ,
.

239

: , .
PERI,DX,DY,DZ, DX, DY, DZ
. /
.
: , ,
.
, .
.
1
2

: VX, VY, VZ = 0
VX, VY, VZ

: : VX VY
VX, VY, VZ
VZ = 0

: : P = 0
VX, VY, VZ

:VX VY
VZ = 0

: P = 0

:VX VY
VZ = 0

: VX, VY, VZ = 0

: VX, VY, VZ = 0

: P = 0

:P = 0


.
: ,
. ANSYS
, .
(v
):
, , ININ 0.01, 1
.
:

INSF .
ININ INSF :
:
FLDATA24,TURB,ININ,Value and FLDATA24,TURB,INSF,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param
240

(ENKE)
(ENDS) FLDATA24.
,
.
(ENKE) (ENDS) 1.0.
. ENDS 1.0, ENKE
.
: FLOTRAN .
,
. FLDATA24,TURB,WALL,EQLB.
,
FLDATA24,TURB,KS,Value. , KS,
(, , ).
, , 0.0 ( ).
(CKS),
0.5 1.0, .
, , 0.5, , KS
.
, KS.
FLDATA24,TURB,CKS,Value.
,
.
. KS CKS
.
. ,
, ,
. , KS CKS
FLDATA24,TURB.
,
. ,
FLDATA24,TURB.
.
, FLDATA24,TURB. ,
CKS ( )
FLDATA24,TURB, .

3.8.
/
. ,
.
1. , .
:
:
FLDATA1,SOLU,TURB,T
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options
2. ,
. , Y+
5000.
241

Y+ :
:
FLDATA5,OUTPUT,YPLU,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived
3. .
0.01 (
).
:
:
FLDATA26,STAB,TURB,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms
4. 0.5.
0.2, .
:
:
FLDATA25,RELX,PRES,Value
FLDATA25,RELX,VX (or VY, VZ),Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation
5. (
).
( ),
107.
:
:
FLDATA24,TURB,RATI,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param
6. ,
. , ,
. ,
0.1 0.0
, .
.
7. - ,
.
( )
.
,
.
:
:
242

FLDATA31,CAPP,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping
FLDATA31, Label
, VELO (), TEMP (). Value ,
(T or F) .
.
.
8. , ,

.

10-18
(FLDATA21,CONV,PRES,1.E-18).
, ( ) ,
, 10 (.
Jobname.DBG).
9. .
,
.
10. ,
2 .
11. Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG)
.

243

4. FLOTRAN
4.1.
,
. ,
/
.
,

.

:
:
FLDATA1,SOLU,TEMP,TRUE
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
FLOTRAN
.
. ,
FLDATA1 ANSYS Commands Reference ( ANSYS).

4.2. .
ANSYS - .
,
. , , , .

4.3. .
, ,
.
/ .

:
:
MP
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> CFD> Conductivity>
Isotropic
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> CFD> Specific Heat
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props

4.4.
ANSYS :
1. .
2. .
3.
.
244

4.
.
5.
.
6. ( ).
, ,
.
.
( Applying Loads Using
TABLE Type Array Parameters ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide).
( Applying Loads Using Function Boundary
Conditions ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide).
FLOTRAN .

4.4.1. .
, FLOTRAN
.
GUI .

GUI

(TEMP)

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>


Apply> Temperature

(CONV), (HFLU),
(RAD), -
(RDSF)

SF

Main Menu> Solution> Define


Loads>
Apply>
Thermal>
Convection
Main Menu>
Solution>
Define
Loads> Apply> Thermal> Heat Flux
Main Menu> Solution> Define
Loads> Apply> Thermal> Ambient
Rad
Main Menu> Solution> Define
Loads> Apply> Thermal> Surface
Rad

(HGEN)

BF

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads>


Apply> Fluid/CFD> Heat Generat

, , .
4.4.1.1. .
,
FLOTRAN.
FLOTRAN.

DDELE

DLIST

,
-
,

SFL

SFLDELE

SFA

SFADELE

SFALIST

SFTRAN

SFGRAD

SF

SFDELE

SFLIST

SFE

SFEDELE

SFELIST

SFSCALE

SFE

SFEDELE

SFELIST

SFSCALE

BFL

BFLDELE

BFLLIST

BFTRAN

245

BFA

BFADELE

BFALIST

BFTRAN

BFV

BFVDELE

BFVLIST

BFTRAN

BF

BFDELE

BFLIST

BFE

BFEDELE

BFELIST

BFSCALE

4.4.1.2. GUI
, , GUI.
Solution Menu ( ) (Apply, Delete, .),
(temperature, heat flux, etc.), (node, line, or area) .
, ,
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temperature> On Lines
GUI:
Utility Menu> List> Loads> load type
4.4.1.3. .

.

.
,
.
: , : ,
.
: -, :
.
: , :
.
: , .
, , ,
. ANSYS
.

. , ,
(,
), ,
. , FLOTRAN,
,
.
,
, .

, FLOTRAN
. .

, ANSYS
, :
246

:
FLDATA14,TEMP,BULK,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
,
, .
, ,
. SF.
STEF (,
0.119E-10 Btu/hr/in2/R4). ( )
1.0.
/
,
/ , .
,
. , , FLOTRAN

.

4.5. .
,
.

4.5.1. .

.
, .
,
1, :
:
FLDATA25,RELX,TEMP,1.0
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/DOF Relaxation
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/Prop Relaxation
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/DOF Relaxation
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/Prop Relaxation
.
FLOTRAN CFD
.

4.5.2. , ,
.

, .
247


, .
, ,
.
, 2
(, 100 / ). FLOTRAN
.
:
:
FLDATA1,SOLU,IVSH,T
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

4.5.3. , .
,
. .
:
:
:
ACEL
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity

:
:
FLDATA13,VARY,Label,TRUE (Label = )
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid properties

,
.
, .
,
TDMA.
( )/10, 100.

4.5.4. .

/,
. ,
TDMA, .
TDMA :
:
FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,1
GUI:
248

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD
Conjugate Residual
, Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm (TDMA). :
:
FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,2
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD
,
(
FLDATA18 ANSYS Commands Reference).
conjugate residual ,
.

Preconditioned Conjugate Residual, ,
TDMA Conjugate Residual. PCR
, 30. :
:
FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,3
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD

, , ,
Jobname.RFL (DENS)
.
Conjugate Residual Preconditioned Conjugate Residual
Jobname.DBG ( FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation).

Preconditioned Generalized
Minimum Residual. :
:
FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,4
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD
Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR)
.
PGMR , PCCR,
, , . PGMR
1.E-10.
, FLOTRAN 1.E-10.
1.E-20.
, , 12 . PGMR
12 , 12 20 .
FLOTRAN
. (
) KXX, KYY KZZ
. FLOTRAN

249

. FLOTRAN
.
:
:
MP or MPDATA
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> CFD> Conductivity>
Orthotropic
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props

, ,
.
,
/.
:
:
FLDATA1,SOLU,FLOW,F
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
:
FLDATA1,SOLU,TEMP,T
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
:
FLDATA25,RELX,TEMP,1.0
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation
:
FLDATA2,ITER,EXEC,1
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
:
FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,3
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Contr> TEMP Solver CFD
,
.
FLOTRAN
. :
.
250


.
. ,
.
.
:
:
FLDATA37,ALGR,HFLM,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Ctr
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Ctr

4.6. .
Jobname.PFL ,
. ,
.

.

. , Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG)
, Monotone Streamline Upwind (MSU).
, Collocated Galerkin
(COLG).
.
, ,
, .
, TOFFST.
, .
, ,
.
.
.
, .
,
.
, . (
) .
,
. ,
.
,

,
.
FLOTRAN .

. ,
.
.
,
251

.
, , ,
.

4.7. ,
Radiosity
FLOTRAN
,

. FLOTRAN FLUID141
FLUID142.
. FLDATA1, SOLU,
RDSF.

X Y .
R-Theta R-Theta-Z
2-D 3-D .

4.7.1. .
Radiosity :
6.
7.
8.
9.

.
.
.
.
4.7.1.1. .
:

4.

(PREP7).
, , ,

. Radiosity
.
Radiosity , .
5.
SF, SFA, SFE, or SFL
,
. , ,
.
SF,
SFA, SFE, or SFL VALUE = -N.
(N ).
, FLUID141 FLUID142 ,
.

.
,

, .
252

6.

, ,
. :
:
/PSF
GUI:
Utility Menu>PlotCtrls>Symbols
SHELL57 SHELL157,
.
SF, SFA, or SFE.
4.7.1.2. .
,
. :
:
STEF
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Radiation Opts> Solution Opt
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> Solution Opt
Main Menu> Solution> Radiation Opts> Solution Opt
,
. ,
:
:
TOFFST
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>Radiation Opts>Solution Opt
Main Menu>Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> Solution Opt
Main Menu>Solution> Radiation Opts> Solution Opt
, , (
) .
. :
:
RADOPT
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>Radiation Opts>Solution Opt
Main Menu>Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> Solution Opt
Main Menu>Solution> Radiation Opts> Solution Opt
,
.
:
:
SPCTEMP
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>Radiation Opts>Solution Opt
Main Menu>Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> Solution Opt
Main Menu>Solution> Radiation Opts> Solution Opt
SPCTEMP .
.
, :
:
253

SPCNOD
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>Radiation Opts>Solution Opt
Main Menu>Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> Solution Opt
Main Menu>Solution> Radiation Opts> Solution Opt
() ,
SPCNOD .
.
SPCNOD.
. SPCNOD
.
4.7.1.3. .

:
:
HEMIOPT
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Radiation Opts> View Factor
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> View Factor
Main Menu> Solution> Radiation Opts> View Factor
HEMIOPT
Hemicube. 10.
.
:
V2DOPT
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Radiation Opts> View Factor
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> View Factor
Main Menu> Solution> Radiation Opts> View Factor
V2DOPT
. , (
). (20 )
.
( )
( 200).
.
:
:
VFOPT
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Radiation Opts> View Factor
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> View Factor
Main Menu> Solution> Radiation Opts> View Factor
VFOPT, Opt
(Opt = NEW). ,
(Opt = OFF).
( )
SOLVE /SOLU.
SOLVE, ANSYS ,
VFOPT.
254

4.7.1.4. .
.
.
:
:
VFCALC
GUI:
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> Compute
,

.
:
VFQUERY
GUI:
Main Menu> Radiation Opt> Radiosity Meth> Query

*GET,Par,RAD,,VFAVG.

4.8. , ,
FLOTRAN
, ,
: .

4.8.1. .
,
, . ,
, FLUID141.
, , ,
, .
.

,
,
.
1.01E+05,
:
Ra = g TL3 2Cp/k
:
255

g =
= 1/T
T = THOT - TCOLD
L =
=
Cp =
k =
=
:
2
: 0.03m x 0.03m; 9.81 m/s
: 293K; 1.0135E+05 Pa
: , SI
: (Vx = Vy = 0);
THOT = 320K;
TCOLD = 280K

4.8.2. ( GUI).
:
1: .
ANSYS :
1. GUI Utility Menu> File> Change Title.
.
2. "Buoyancy driven flow in a square cavity." (
).
3. OK.
4. Main Menu> Preferences.
.
5. FLOTRAN CFD .
6. OK. ANSYS
FLOTRAN.
2: .
FLUID141.
:
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete.
.
2. Add. .
3. FLOTRAN CFD "2D FLOTRAN 141."
4. OK. ANSYS .
5. Close.
3: .
, .
:
256

1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas>


Rectangle> By Dimensions.
.
2. X coordinates 0.0, 0.03.
3. Y coordinates 0.0, 0.03.
4. OK.
ANSYS.
4: , / , .

. :
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool. Size
Controls ( ) Lines,Set. .
2. Pick All ( ).
.
3. 25.
4. OK.
5. MeshTool Areas Mesh. Quad and Free.
MESH.
6. Pick All / .
7. Close MeshTool.
8. SAVE_DB, ANSYS.
5: .
, , .
:
1. Utility Menu> Select> Entities.
.
2. Nodes () Exterior ().
3. OK.
4. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply>
Fluid/CFD> Velocity> On Nodes. .
5. Pick All ( ).
.
6. 0 VX VY
7. OK.
6: .
.
:
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply>
Thermal> Temperature> On Nodes. .
2. Box. ,
.
3.
/ .
4. OK.
5. 320 .
6. OK.
257

7. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply>


Thermal> Temperature> On Nodes. .
8. 2.
9.
/ .
10. OK.
11. 280 .
12. OK.
13. Utility Menu> Select> Everything. ,
.
14. SAVE_DB .
7: .
.
,
FLOTRAN:
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options.
.
2. "Adiabatic or thermal?" Thermal.
3. OK.
4. Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl.
.
5. 200 Global Iterations (EXEC)
6. 50 .RFL File Overwrite Freq ( .RFL ).
7. 50 Output summary frequency (SUMF).
8. OK.
8: .
:
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties.
.
2. AIR-SI "Density," "Viscosity," "Conductivity," "Specific heat"
(, , ).
3. Yes "Allow density variations?" ( ?)/
4. Apply. .
5. ,
OK.
9: .
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow
Environment> Gravity. .
2. 9.81 "Accel in Y direction" ( Y).
3. OK.
10: .
FLOTRAN.
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver
Contr> PRES Solver CFD. .
258

2. TDMA.
3. OK. .
4. , "No. of TDMA sweeps for pressure"
100. OK.
5. SAVE_DB .
6. Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.
7. Solution is
done.
11: .
1. Main Menu> General PostProc> Read Results> Last Set.
2. Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Results> Contour Plot>
Nodal Solu.
3. "Item to be Contoured" DOF Solution
4. TEMP.
5. OK.

12: .
1. Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Results> Contour Plot>
Nodal Solu. "Other quantities."
2. "Strm func2D STRM" ( ).
3. OK.
.

259

13: .
1. Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Device Options.
2. Vector mode (On).
3. OK.
4. Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Result> Vector Plot> Predefined.
5. , "DOF solution" "Velocity" OK.
.

14:
, , (.03 x .03).
.
1. Utility Menu> WorkPlane> WP Settings.
2. 0.0005 Snap Increment ( )
3. Spacing 0.0001 ( ).
4. Tolerance () 0.00005.
5. OK.
6. Utility Menu> Plot> Elements.
7. Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Flow Trace> Defi Trace Pt.
8. 5 6 .
9. OK .
260

10. Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Flow Trace> Plot Flow
Trace.
11. "Temperature TEMP".
12. OK. ANSYS
.
.
, Close.
.
.

15: .
1. Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Results> Flow Trace> Plot Flow
Trace.
2. "VSUM."
3. OK. ,
,
.
. ,
Close.
4. . Utility Menu>
PlotCtrls> Animate> Particle Flow.
OK (
).
5. , ANSYS Quit .
OK.

4.8.3. .
/TITLE,Buoyancy driven flow in a square cavity
/PREP7
ET,1,FLUID141
!
RECTNG,,0.03,,0.03
!
LPLOT
LESIZE,ALL, , ,25,1,0
!
AMESH,1
EPLOT
NSEL,S,EXT
!

261

D,ALL,,,,,,VX,VY
NSEL,S,NODE,,1
!
NSEL,A,NODE,,52
NSEL,A,NODE,,77,100
D,ALL,TEMP,320
NSEL,S,NODE,,2
!
NSEL,A,NODE,,27,51
D,ALL,TEMP,280
NSEL,ALL
ESEL,ALL
FLDATA1,SOLU,TEMP,1
!
FLDATA2,ITER,EXEC,200
!
FLDATA2,ITER,OVER,50
FLDATA5,OUTP,SUMF,50
!*
FLDATA13,VARY,DENS,1
!
FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,AIR-SI
FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,AIR-SI
FLDATA7,PROT,COND,AIR-SI
FLDATA8,NOMI,COND,-1
FLDATA7,PROT,SPHT,AIR-SI
!*
ACEL,0,9.81,0
!
FLDATA18,METH,PRES,1
!
FLDATA19,TDMA,PRES,100
FINISH
/SOLU
SOLVE
!
FINISH
/POST1
SET,LAST
PLNSOL,TEMP
!
PLNSOL,STRM
!
/DEVICE,VECTOR,1
!*
PLVECT,V, , , ,VECT,ELEM
!
wpstyle,0.0005,0.0001,-1,1,0.00005,0,2,,5
EPLOT
TRPOIN,P
! P
!
PLTRAC,FLUID,TEMP
!
PLTRAC,FLUID,V,SUM
!
FINISH

4.9.
FLOTRAN ( ).

, , ,
(
, radiosity).
.

0.9.
:
/prep7
et, 1, 141
rectng, , .027744, , .027744
esize, , 20
amesh, all
nsel, s, ext

!
!
!
!
!

262

d, all,,,,,,vx,vy

allsel
lsel, s, loc, x, 0.0
nsll, s, 1
d, all, temp, 500
lsel, s, loc, x, .027744
nsll, s, 1
d, all, temp, 200
nsel, all
esel, all
fldata1, solu, temp, 1
fldata2, iter, exec, 200
fldata2, iter, over, 50
fldata5, outp, sumf, 50
!
fldata13, vary, dens, 1
fldata7, prot, dens, air-si
fldata7, prot, visc, air-si
fldata7, prot, cond, air-si
fldata8, nomi, cond, -1
fldata7, prot, spht, air-si
!
acel, 0, 9.81, 0
fldata18, meth, pres, 1
fldata19, tdma, pres, 100
fldata18, meth, temp, 6
stef,5.67e-8
toff,0
radopt,.5,0.0001
finish
/solu
allsel
nsel,s,ext
sf, all, rdsf, 0.9, -1
allsel
solve
finish
/post1
set last
plnsol, temp
plnsol, strm

!
! x = 0 500
!
! x = 0.027744 200
!
!

! -
! 0
! radiosity

!
!

!
,

!
!

4.10. FLOTRAN
FLOTRAN CFD Tutorial. ANSYS
Verification Manual :
VM46
VM121 -
VM178
VM209
VM219 .

263

5.
:
:
FLDATA1,SOLU,TRAN,TRUE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
,
, , .
:
:
FLDATA4,TIME and FLDATA4A,STEP
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
,
FLOTRAN.

5.1.
FLOTRAN
. :
:
FLDATA4A,TIME,STEP,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
,
User Defined ( ).
. .

> 0

-1

-2

-3

-4
.
/
.
,
/
. ,
.
3 ( ) ,
( ) .

264


.
,
, .
FLOTRAN
.
:
.
.
, ,
:
:
FLDATA4A,TIME,GLOB,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
:
:
FLDATA4,TIME,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
, .
( ),
, .
,
.
.

5.2.
,
.
:
:
FLDATA4,TIME,TEND,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
:
:
FLDATA4,TIME,NUMB,Value
, (
) .

Jobname.PFL :
:
FLDATA4,TIME,Label,Value FLDATA4A,STEP,Label,Value
GUI:
265

Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl


Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
,
.
.
,
,

STEP,APPE,n

Jobname.RFL n

TIME,APPE,x

Jobname.RFL x

STEP,SUMF,n

Jobname.PFL
n

TIME,SUMF,x

Jobname.PFL
x

STEP,OVER,n

TIME,OVER,x

5.3. .
, FLOTRAN
( ), . (ramp)
:
:
FLDATA4,TIME,BC,1
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Execution Control
.
:
:
FLDATA4,TIME,TEND,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Execution Control
.
FLOTRAN .
,
(
FLOCHECK) ( ),
,
.
,
TEND, .
TIME STEP. ,

. , TEND,

.
STEP, TEND .
266

TEND 106
.
(VX, VY,
VZ) .
, FLOTRAN
.

:
:
FLOCHECK,2
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Flocheck
FLOCHECK,2 Jobname.RFL.

.
FLOTRAN .
,
,

,
FLOCHECK .

267

6. .
6.1.
, .
(,

). ( , , )

0.3 0.7.

. ,
: , :
:
R ;
(Cp/Cv);
T .
, -
.
.

6.2. .

.
, .
:
:
FLDATA14,TEMP,TTOT,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
(
) .
( ),
.
. |V|
:

(M):

.
:
:
FLDATA17,GAMM,COMP,
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
268

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
ANSYS
.

.
,

,
.
,
,

6.3. .
,
. ,
, .
.
, ,
,
.

. .
, .
,
. ,
(,
)
.
(,
0).
, ANSYS
.
, ,
.

6.4. .
, ,
/ , .
.

269

(a) , (b) ,
(c) .
()
.
, ,
.

6.5. .
, -
, .
, .

.
, ,
.

,
.
.
() .
, 1 psi,
13.7 psi ,
14.7 psi. ,
.
.
.
.
, ,
.
.
, .
,
.
.
270

, . ,
3, 4 .
,
( ).
,
.

6.5.1. .


.
10-3 10-6.
.

.
,
, .
10-4 .
RTR Jobname.DBG.
.
( )
. .

. , ,

.
,
, , .

6.6. .
6.6.1.
, .
, 2.432 , 0.5 0.8
. 6.13769e+6 dynes/cm2.
6.6.1.1. .
, ,
cm-g-sec.
6.6.1.2. .
,
FLUID141.
. ,
550 K.
6.13769e+6 dynes/cm2 0
. VY 0
VX VY 0 .
20 , 10.
20 1, 0.1,
0.01, 0.001, 0.0001 0.00001. 140.
271

160 0. 300
0, 100

.
400 .

6.7. (
)

.

1:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Utility Menu> File> Change Title.


"Compressible Flow in a Converging Diverging Nozzle."
OK.
Main Menu> Preferences.
FLOTRAN CFD
OK.

2: .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete.


Add.
"FLOTRAN CFD" "2D FLOTRAN 141."
OK.
Close.

3: .
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Keypoints> In Active CS.
2. "Keypoint number (NPT)" ( ) 1 "Location
in active CS (X and Y)" ( ) 0
2.432, . Apply ().
3. 2 (X,
Y): 2 (0, 0), 3 (1, 2.432), 4 (1, 0), 5 (2, 2.232), 6 (2, 0), 7 (5, 0), 8 (5, 0.7), 9 (6, 0), 10 (6,
0.5), 11 (14, 0), 12 (14, 0.8). Apply.
OK.
4. SAVE_DB ANSYS.

4: .
1. Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering.
2. "Line Numbers (LINE)" ( )
OK.
3. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> In Active
Coord.
4. 2 4 Apply.
5. 3 4 : 3 4; 1 3; 1 2;
5 8. , Apply.
, OK.
6. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Tan to 2
Lines.
7. 3 Apply.
8. 5 Apply.
9. 5 OK.
10. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> In Active
Coord.
272

11. 10 12 OK.
12. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Tan to 2
Lines.
13. 5 Apply.
14. 8 Apply.
15. 7 Apply.
16. 10 OK.
17. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> In Active
Coord.
18. 4 6 Apply.
19. 18 19: 6 7;
7 9; 9 11. , Apply.
OK.

5: .
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Arbitrary>
Through KPs.
2. (2, 4, 3, 1) Apply.
3. : (4, 6, 5, 3), (6,
7, 8, 5), (7, 9, 10, 8), (9, 11, 12, 10). Apply.
, OK.
4. SAVE_DB ANSYS.

6: .
1. Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters.
2. ( ENTER
).
ntran = 24
rtran = 10
na = 10
nb = 10
nc = 25
nd = 10
ne = 100
re = -1.5
3. Close .

7: .
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Lines> Picked Lines.
2. 4 Apply.
3. "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" ( ) ntran,
"Spacing ratio (SPACE)" rtran. Apply.
4. 2, 3 2.
5. 13 Apply.
6. "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" ntran, "Spacing ratio
(SPACE)" 1/rtran. Apply.
7. 5 6 14, 15, 16.
8. 1 Apply.
9. "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" na, "Spacing ratio (SPACE)"
1. Apply.
10. 8, 9 3.
11. 6 Apply..
273

12. "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" nb, "Spacing ratio (SPACE)"


1. Apply.
13. 11 12 9.
14. 5 Apply.
15. "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" nc, "Spacing ratio (SPACE)"
1. Apply.
16. 14 15 10.
17. 8 Apply.
18. "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" nd, "Spacing ratio (SPACE)"
1. Apply.
19. 17 18 11.
20. 7 Apply.
21. "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" ne, "Spacing ratio (SPACE)"
re. Apply.
22. 20 21 12 OK.
23. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Areas> Mapped> 3 or 4 sided.
24. Pick All. .

8: .
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Numbering Ctrls> Compress Numbers.
2. Nodes "Item to be compressed" Apply.
3. Elements "Item to be compressed" OK.

9: .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Utility Menu> Select> Entities.


"Lines" and "By Num/Pick," OK.
Utility Menu> Plot>Lines.
1, 9, 10, 11, 12 OK.
Utility Menu> Select> Entities.
"Nodes" "Attached to," Lines, all, OK.
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD>
Velocity> On Nodes.
8. Pick All.
9. "Velocity component (VY)" 0 OK.
10. Utility Menu> Select> Entities.
11. "Lines" "By Num/Pick," Sele All. OK.
12. 4 OK.
13. Utility Menu> Select> Entities.
14. "Nodes" and "Attached to," Lines, all, OK.
15. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD>
Pressure DOF> On Nodes.
16. Pick All.
17. "Pressure value (PRES)" 6.13769e+6, OK.
18. Utility Menu> Select> Entities.
19. "Lines" and "By Num/Pick," Sele All.
OK.
20. 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 OK.
21. Utility Menu> Select> Entities.
22. "Nodes" and "Attached to," Lines, all, OK.
23. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD>
Velocity> On Nodes.
24. Pick All.
25. "Velocity component (VX)" "Velocity component (VY)" 0,
OK.
274

26. Utility Menu> Select> Entities.


27. "Lines" and "By Num/Pick," Sele All, OK.
28. 16 OK.
29. Utility Menu> Select> Entities.
30. "Nodes" "Attached to," Lines, all, OK.
31. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD>
Pressure DOF> On Nodes.
32. Pick All.
33. "Pressure value (PRES)" 0, OK.

10: .
1. Utility Menu> Select> Everything.
2. Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties.
3. "Density (DENS)," "Viscosity (VISC)," "Conductivity(COND),"
"Specific heat (SPHT)" AIR-CM.
4. yes "Allow density variations?" ( ?).
5. Apply.
6. OK.

11: .
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref
Conditions.
2. "Reference pressure (REFE)" ( ) 1.01325e+6
"Nominal temperature (NOMI)" ( ) and "Stagnation
(total) temperature (TTOT)" ( ) 550, OK.

12:
1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options.
2. Turbulent "Laminar or turbulent (TURB)" Compressible
"Incompress or compress (COMP)". OK.
3. Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Contr> PRES
Solver CFD.
4. Precond conj res.
5. OK.
6. "Convergence criterion" 1.e-12, OK.

13: .
1. Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop
Relaxation.
2. "Density relaxation" 1.0 OK.
3. Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability
Parms.
4. "Momentum inertia" 1.0, "Pressure inertia" 1.e-4,
"Artificial viscosity" 10, OK.
5. Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl.
6. "Global iterations (EXEC) 20 OK.
7. Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.
8. 20 Solution is
done. . Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up>
Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms.
9. "Artificial viscosity" 1 OK.
10. Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.
11. 3 "Artificial viscosity"
( ) .1, .01, .001, .0001, and
.00001.
275

12. 140 , Solution is


done. . Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up>
Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms.
13. "Artificial viscosity" 0 OK.
14. Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl.
15. "Global iterations (EXEC) 160 OK.
16. Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.
17. 300 , Solution is
done. . Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up>
Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms.
18. "Momentum inertia" 10, "Pressure inertia" 1.e-2,
OK.
19. Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl.
20. "Global iterations (EXEC) 100 OK.
21. Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.
22. 400 , Solution is
done. . Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up>
Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms.
23. "Momentum inertia" 1e+15, "Pressure inertia" 1.e+15,
OK.
24. Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl.
25. "Global iterations (EXEC) 400 OK.
26. Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.
Solution is done .
27. QUIT ANSYS.
OK.

6.8. (
).

.
.
/title, Compressible Flow in a Converging Diverging Nozzle
/prep7
!
!
!
et,1,141
!
!
!
/pnum,line,1
k,1,0,2.432
k,2,0,0
k,3,1,2.432
k,4,1,0
k,5,2,2.232
k,6,2,0
k,7,5,0
k,8,5,.7
k,9,6,0
k,10,6,.5
k,11,14,0
k,12,14,.8
l,2,4

276

l,3,4
l,1,3
l,1,2
l,5,8
l2tan,3,5
l,10,12
l2tan,5,7
l,4,6
l,6,7
l,7,9
l,9,11
a,2,4,3,1
a,4,6,5,3
a,6,7,8,5
a,7,9,10,8
a,9,11,12,10
!
! /
!
ntran=24
rtran=10
na=10
nb=10
nc=25
nd=10
ne=100
re=-1.5
lesize,4,,,ntran,rtran
lesize,2,,,ntran,rtran
lesize,13,,,ntran,1/rtran
lesize,14,,,ntran,1/rtran
lesize,15,,,ntran,1/rtran
lesize,16,,,ntran,1/rtran
lesize,1,,,na
lesize,3,,,na
lesize,6,,,nb
lesize,9,,,nb
lesize,5,,,nc
lesize,10,,,nc
lesize,8,,,nd
lesize,11,,,nd
lesize,7,,,ne,re
lesize,12,,,ne,re
amesh,all
numcmp,node
numcmp,elem
!
!
!
lsel,s,,,1
lsel,a,,,9,12,1
nsll,,1
d,all,vy,0
lsel,all
lsel,s,,,4
nsll,,1
d,all,pres,6.13769e+6
lsel,all
lsel,s,,,3
lsel,a,,,5,8,1
nsll,,1
d,all,vx,0
d,all,vy,0
lsel,all

277

lsel,s,,,16
nsll,,1
d,all,pres,0
!
!
!
alls
/solu
flda,prot,dens,air-cm
flda,prot,visc,air-cm
flda,prot,cond,air-cm
flda,prot,spht,air-cm
flda,vary,dens,t
!
!
!
flda,pres,refe,1.01325e+6
flda,temp,ttot,550
flda,temp,nomi,550
!
!
!
flda,solu,turb,t
flda,solu,comp,t
flda,meth,pres,3
flda,conv,pres,1e-12
!
! Solve
!
flda,relx,dens,1
flda,stab,mome,1
flda,stab,pres,1e-4
flda,stab,visc,10
flda,iter,exec,20
solve
flda,stab,visc,1
solve
flda,stab,visc,.1
solve
flda,stab,visc,.01
solve
flda,stab,visc,.001
solve
flda,stab,visc,.0001
solve
flda,stab,visc,.00001
solve
flda,stab,visc,0
flda,iter,exec,160
solve
flda,stab,mome,10
flda,stab,pres,1e-2
flda,iter,exec,100
solve
flda,stab,mome,1e+15
flda,stab,pres,1e+15
flda,iter,exec,400
solve

278

7. FLOTRAN
7.1.
,
, . ,
. (VOF),
.
:
:
FLDATA7,PROT,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
. ,
.
(, )
:
:
MP
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Other> Change Mat Props> Polynomial
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Thermal> Density
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Thermal> Specific
Heat
Main Menu> Preprocessor>
Conductivity> Isotropic

Material

Props>

Material

Models>

Thermal>

Main Menu> Solution> Other> Change Mat Props> Polynomial


.
.
ANSYS .
1 ,
. ,
.

7.2. .
"Fluid property type" ( ) ,
( , ).
, , , ,
.
.
, .
.

/--

/-

/2

/3
279


/2--
,
, ,
.
, ,
, .

.
[1]

SI (meter-kg-sec)

Joule

CGS (cm-g-sec)

Erg

mm-g-sec

Centi-erg

British (ft-slug-sec)

lbf-ft

PSI

lbf-in
1. 1 Joule = 1.0E9 Centi-ergs; 1 BTU = 778.26 lbf-ft.

7.2.1. .
, : CONSTANT,
CMIX, TABLE, (floprp.ans),
(USER), (AIR).

7.2.2. .
,
CONSTANT, CMIX, TABLE, GAS, LIQUID,
(floprp.ans), (AIR),
(USER). :
CGAS.

AIR
AIR-SI

meter-kg-sec
meter-kg-sec

AIR-CM cm-g-sec
AIRMM

mm-g-sec

AIR-FT ft-slug-sec
AIR-IN

in-(lbf-s /in)sec

Pascals

kg/m3

kg/m-sec

Pascals

kg/m-sec

g/cm-sec (poise)

kg/m
2

dynes/cm

g/cm
3

Pascals

g/m

lbf/ft2

slugs/ft3

psi

g/mm-sec

slug/ft-sec
4

lbf-sec /in

lbf-s/in2

7.2.3. .

280

: CMIX, TABLE, CONSTANT,


LIQUID, GAS, Power Law (POWL), Bingham (BING), Carreau (CARR),
(floprp.ans), (USER USRV).
AIR ,
.
Sutherland ( ).
LIQUID
(), ,
Sutherland .

: Power Law, Bingham, Carreau.

7.2.4.
.
/ .
, .
/. :
:
FLDATA7,PROT,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Label : DENS (), VISC (), COND (), SPHT
(), SFTS ( ).
Value .

(,
FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,%Table%).

7.2.4.1. .
,
. Utility Menu>
Parameters> Array Parameters> Define/Edit, *DIM .
,
. ,
.
, :
(TEMP)
(PRESSURE)
(TIME)
X- (X)
Y- (Y)
Z- (Z)
(VELOCITY)
, *DIM .
,
, .
, .
,
.
281

7.2.4.2. .
, .
Value

CONSTANT

GAS

LIQUID

TABLE
( MPDATA MPTEMP)
meter-kg-sec

AIR or AIR-SI

meter-kg-sec, AIR_B or AIR .


SI_B
cm-g-sec

AIR-CM

cm-g-sec, AIR-CM_B
.
mm-g-sec

AIR-MM

mm-g-sec, AIR-MM_B
.
fl-slug-sec

AIR-FT

fl-slug-sec, AIR-FT_B
.
in-(lbf-s**2/in)-sec ( AIR-IN
psi )
in-(lbf-s**2/in)-sec ( AIR-IN_B
psi ),
.
, Power Law

POWL

, Carreau

CARR

, Bingham

BING

CMIX

: USER
UserVisLaw , UserSpht , UserDens
, UserCond .
. CGAS
.
, .
_B ( ),

.

.
.

282

, ,
CONSTANT, GAS, LIQUID. :
:
FLDATA8,NOMI,Label,Value
FLDATA9,COF1,Label,Value
FLDATA10,COF2,Label,Value
FLDATA11,COF3,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Label
Value.
GAS LIQUID ,
. COF1
, , NOMI.
COF1 , ,
NOMI. GAS LIQUID ,
, COF1, COF2 COF3.
Power Law, Bingham, Carreau, NOMI, COF1, COF2, COF3
. ANSYS,
Inc. Theory Reference.

7.2.5. .
CONSTANT,
FLDATA8,NOMI GUI. ,
1.205 :
:
FLDATA8,NOMI,DENS,1.205
GAS, .
:
Density = NOMI * (P/COF2) / (T/COF1)
LIQUID,
:
Density = NOMI + COF2*(T - COF1) + COF3*(T - COF1)2
CMIX, :

, N , Yi
i i i .
CGAS, :

, N , Yi
i , Mi i , R
P .
283

TABLE,
MPTEMP MPDATA ( GUI).
USER, UserDens.

7.2.6. .
CONSTANT,
FLDATA8,NOMI GUI. ,
1.205 :
:
FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,1.205
GAS, Sutherland .
NOMI, COF1, COF2.
R (COF2/NOMI*COF1)
():
/NOMI = (T/COF1)1.5 * (COF1 + COF2)/(T + COF2)
, , ,
:
= 4.18 x 10-5 T = 760
= 5.76 x 10-5 T = 1010
, .
, NOMI = 4.18x10-5 COF1 = 760.
Sutherland:
/4.18 x 10-5 = (T/760)1.5 (760 + COF2)/(T + COF2)
COF2
"" 5.76x10-5 T = 1010. ,
.
LIQUID, Sutherland
:
(""):
/NOMI = EXP{COF2*(1/T - 1/COF1) + COF3(1/T - 1/COF1)2}
POWL, Power Law:

BING, Bingham:

CARR, Carreau:

CMIX, :

, N , Yi
i i i .

284

TABLE,
MPTEMP MPDATA ( GUI).
USER USRV,
UserVisLaw.

7.2.7. .
CONSTANT,
FLDATA8,NOMI GUI. ,
1.205 :
:
FLDATA8,NOMI,SPHT,1.205
USER, UserSpht.
CMIX, :

, N , Yi
i Cpi i .
TABLE,
MPTEMP MPDATA ( GUI).

7.2.8. .
CONSTANT,
FLDATA8,NOMI GUI. ,
1.205 :
:
FLDATA8,NOMI,COND,1.205
GAS, Sutherland .
NOMI, COF1, COF2.
R (COF2/NOMI*COF1)
():
/NOMI = (T/COF1)1.5 * (COF1 + COF2)/(T + COF2)
LIQUID, Sutherland
.
(""):
/NOMI = EXP{COF2*(1/T - 1/COF1) + COF3(1/T - 1/COF1)2}
CMIX, :

, N , Yi i
Ki i .
TABLE,
MPTEMP MPDATA ( GUI).
USER USRV,
UserCond.

7.2.9. .
CONSTANT,
FLDATA8,NOMI GUI. ,
285

73.0
:
:
FLDATA8,NOMI,SFTS,73.0
LIQUID,
:
= NOMI + COF2*(T - COF1) + COF3*(T - COF1)2
USER,
UserSfts.

7.3. .
ANSYS
. , :
:
FLDATA14,TEMP,NOMI,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
, .
,
:
:
TOFFST,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
FLOTRAN ,
FLDATA,TEMP,NOMI TOFFST
GUI.
.

. ,
.
, ,
ANSYS
. ,
FLDATA12,PROP,IVISC,Value (Main
Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties).
, NOMI,
.

7.3.1. .
,
, .

FLDATA13,VARY,Label,Value Label SPHT, DENS,VISC, SFTS, COND.


286

Value (T F).
, CONSTANT COF1 GAS
LIQUID.

7.4. .
CGAS, CMIX, TABLE, USER, GAS, LIQUID, CONSTANT AIR
, , ,
floprp.ans ( ), .
ANSYS ,
.
. :
1. .
2. .
id ( 01 99)
n
Ci .
ID.
"y" , ,
.
ID: 01
y = C1 + C2T + C3T2 + ... + CnTn-1
ID: 02

ID: 03
In(y) = C1 + C2T + C3T2 + ... + CnTn-1
ID: 04

Power Law ID: 05


y = C1TC2
Ideal Gas Law ID: 11

Sutherland's Formula ID: 12

ID: 15

Power Law ID: 16 ( )

287


.
Bingham ID: 17 ( )

: 19
y = y (C1, C2, C3, C4)
.
, floprp.ans, .
.

[A8] .

nLines [I6]

nLines

Proplab, tProp, nProp


(PropCF(i)=1,nProp)
[A4, 1x, 2I6, 5E12.5/6E 12.5]
=
NLines =
Proplab = ( ):
SPHT -
DENS -
VISC -
COND -
GAMM -
tProp
nProp
PropCF

7.5. .
:
, Cp/Cv,
. .
:
:
FLDATA17,GAMM,COMP,VALUE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
:
floprp.ans GAMM.
FLOTRAN () .
.

288

.
:
:
FLDATA15,PRES,REFE,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
(, ).
.
:
TOFFST,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
, .
, TOFFST
GUI.
( ) , ANSYS
.
:
:
FLDATA14,TEMP,NOMI,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions
:
:
ACEL,ACELX,ACELY,ACELZ
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity

7.6. .
ANSYS (
FLUID141 FLUID142). :
Power Law, ,
.
Carreau, Power Law. ,
.
Bingham .
UserVisLaw
.

.

7.6.1. Power Law


289

Power Law, :
:
FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,POWL
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
,
. ,
Power Law :
:
FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,Value (specifies nominal viscosity)
FLDATA9,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies the cutoff shear rate)
FLDATA10,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies the consistency coefficient)
FLDATA11,COF3,VISC,Value (specifies the power)
ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference.
, SOLVE
Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

7.6.2. Carreau
Carreau, :
:
FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,CARR
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
,
. ,
Carreau :
:
FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,Value (specifies the zero shear viscosity)
FLDATA9,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies the infinite shear viscosity)
FLDATA10,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies the time constant)
FLDATA11,COF3,VISC,Value (specifies the power)
ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference.
, SOLVE
Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

7.6.3. Bingham.
Bingham, :
:
FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,BING
290

GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
,
. ,
Bingham :
FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,Value (specifies the plastic viscosity)
FLDATA9,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies the plastic/yield stress)
FLDATA10,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies the Newtonian viscosity)
ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference.
.
:
FLDATA12,PROP,VISC,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

7.7. .
, ,
, .
,
.
USERVISLAW,
. ,
ANSYS .
. :
:
FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,USRV (or USER)
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
,
. :
:
FLDATA12,PROP,UFRQ,1 FLDATA5,OUTP,VISC,T
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
, ,
. :
:
FLDATA7,NOMI,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 1)
FLDATA6,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 2)
291

FLDATA9,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 3)


FLDATA10,COF3,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 4)
UserVisLaw.
Power Law . ,
ANSYS Guide to User Programmable
Features.
:
:
FLDATA12,PROP,IVISC,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
()
SOLVE Main Menu> Solution> Run
FLOTRAN.

292

8. FLOTRAN
8.1. .
:
:
KEYOPT
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> FLOTRAN
Coor Sys
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> FLOTRAN Coor Sys
,
VX, VY, VZ . KEYOPT,
, .
VZ .

KEYOPT(3) VX

VY

VZ

2D 1
Y

2D - 2

2D

theta

3D

theta

, ( VZ)
.
. ,
Y VZ .
X
VZ . ,
.
293


Z KEYOPT(3) = 3.

8.2. .
.
,
.
.
, ,
. ,
, .
:
:
CGOMGA
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords
, , Z
. , ANSYS
Z (.
X, Y
). , ,

.
, :
:
CGLOC
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords
.

8.3.

294

,
X-Y.
:
:
FLDATA1,SOLU,SWIRL,TRUE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
"theta",
. .
, .
,
1.0
.

8.4. /

,
.
.
.
ANSYS Elements Reference.
,
.
ENKE 0.0 ENDS 1.0. :
:
D
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Turbulence>
On Nodes
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Turbulence> On Nodes

.
.
. - "Head-Capacity Curve,"
( )
.
,
.
FLOTRAN,

.
ANSYS . "Type
Four" ,
"Type Five"
. .

295


. , ,
, .
,
"s":

, V .
. , , psi,
in/sec.
, ,
. ,
.
type 5 , .
x S X,
:

, y z Y
Z , :

296

9. FLOTRAN
.

CFD

9.1. ?
,
:
1. , .
, Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm (TDMA),
.
2. .
,
.
:
Conjugate Residual (CR),
Preconditioned Conjugate Residual (PCCR), Preconditioned Generalized Minimum
Residual (PGMR), Preconditioned BiCGStab (PBCGM).
preconditioned conjugate gradient
.
3. .

/
.
:
:
FLDATA18,METH,Label,Value (Label = DOF)
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> PRES Solver
CFD
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> PRES Solver CFD
: 1 (TDMA), 2 (conjugate residual), 3 (preconditioned conjugate
residual gradient), 4 (preconditioned generalized minimum residual), 5 (
), 6 (preconditioned BiCGStab).
, .
preconditioned conjugate gradient
2 3.
(TDMA)
.
10. . , ,
(10 ) ,
.
,
conjugate direction. TDMA
.
.

9.2. Tri-Diagonal Matrix


TDMA :
:
297

FLDATA19,TDMA,Label,Value (Label = DOF)


GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

9.3. .

, RTR ( ZTR
). RTR
, 10-7.
,
:
:
FLDATA21,CONV,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

,
:
:
FLDATA22,MAXI,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

Jobname.DBG
, ,
PRES TEMP .
:
;
( );
.
,
.
,
(, 10-15).
.
.
RTR ZTR ( 1020)
.

.
298

.
,
:
:
FLDATA23,DELT,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

Label .


. RTR
DelMax , value. ,

.
,
. ,
( FLDATA23,DELT)
:
:
FLDATA20,SRCH,Label,Value
2,
. .
20 , ,
N (N ).
SRCH
, .
.

9.3.1. Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR)


PGMR L U .
PGMR ,
299

LU
.
, PCCR LU .
PCCR L U . ,
Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR)
.
,
L U .
.
FLOTRAN PGMR .
. .

, PRES TEMP.

:
:
FLDATA20A,PGMR,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

1 10. ,
6.

.
MODP. ,
TDMA ,
PGMR .
.
, SRCH
. ,
:
:
FLDATA20,SRCH,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

PGMR 12
20. 12.
PGMR .

Jobname.OUT. FLOTRAN
jobname.dbg. jobname.dbg , ,
,
.

300

PGMR ,
jobname.dbg. NORM Jobname.OUT
,
FLOTRAN.
PGMR :
.
.
.
.
PGMR
. ,
.
. ,
.
, .
FLOTRAN
. , FLOTRAN
.
,
, , .
Norm.
, ,
, 10-10.
10-20.

9.3.2. Preconditioned BiCGStab (PBCGM).


PBCGM ,

.

( ) .
.
PGMR, PBCGM L U
. ,
LU .
Preconditioned BiCGStab (PBCGM) .
.
L
U .
.
FLOTRAN PBCGM .
.
,
GUI:
:
FLDATA20B,PBCGM,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

301

0 10. ,
6.
.
SRCH
, .
,
.
GUI:
:
FLDATA20,SRCH,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF
solver

PBCGM, 1
8. .

9.4. .

,
.
.
.
, VX,
VY, VZ, FLOTRAN Preconditioned Conjugate Residual (PCCR).
.

302

10. .
10.1. .
FLOTRAN CFD
.
, ,
. FLOTRAN
. ,
Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations (SIMPLE).
, Patankar S.V., Spalding
D.B., "A calculation procedure for heat, mass and momentum transfer in three-dimensional
parabolic flows," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol 15, pp. 1787-1806, 1972.

: SIMPLEF and SIMPLEN. , SIMPLEF
,
. Schnipke R.J. Rice
J.G. ("
"
, Swansea, , 1985).
SIMPLEF
SIMPLE, Van Doormaal J.P. Raithby G.D. (" SIMPLE
" Numerical Heat Transfer, vol. 7, pp. 147163, 1984).
, SIMPLEN FLOTRAN.
Wang G. (" SIMPLE
" Computational Fluid and Solid
Mechanics, vol. 2, pp. 1014-1016, Elsevier, 2001).
SIMPLEF . SIMPLEN
:
:
FLDATA37
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Control
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Control

10.2. .
FLOTRAN ,
. ,
, .

10.2.1. .
: Monotone Streamline
Upwind (MSU), Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG), Collocated Galerkin (COLG).
.

SIMPLEF
SIMPLEN

SUPG

SUPG

303

SIMPLEF

SIMPLEN

SUPG

MSU

MSU

MSU

SUPG

SUPG

SUPG

SUPG

10.2.2.
SIMPLEF TDMA
.
. ,
.
.
SIMPLEN
. ,
SIMPLEN, FLOTRAN
PBCGM ,
. PBCGM
.

10.2.3. .
, ,

. , , 0.5

SIMPLEF. SIMPLEN
.
, SIMPLEN
,
1.0. ,
, . ,
SIMPLEF ,
, 0.5. SIMPLEN, FLOTRAN
1.0 , 0.5
0.8 .

10.3.

. 100 (
). 322 = 1024 .
SIMPLEF SIMPLEN
SIMPLEF
SIMPLEN
0.5

0.8

0.9

0.95

0.98

0.99

325

153

81

66

114

176

CPU (sec)

12.9

7.2

4.0

3.3

5.7

8.9

RELX

304

SIMPLEN,
(RELX) 0.8 0.95.
0.95, .
RELX 0.95.
SIMPLEN
, SIMPLEF.
, 1282 = 16,384
, SIMPLEN.
RELX 0.99, SIMPLEN 40
, SIMPLEF.
SIMPLEN ,
. , SIMPLEN
. SIMPLEN ,
SIMPLEF .
Wang G., "A fast and robust variant of the SIMPLE algorithm
for finite-element simulations of incompressible flows," Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics,
vol. 2, pp. 1014-1016, Elsevier, 2001.
, .
.
/title, Lid driven cavity flow analysis using SIMPLEF/SIMPLEN algorithms
NDL = 32
!
MU
= 0.010
!
RHO = 1.0
L
= 1.0
sL
= 1.0e-8
Vel = 1.000
niter = 10000
/PREP7
et,1,141
esha,2
rect,,L,,L
lesi,all,,,NDL
amesh,1
alls
!
nsel,s,ext
d,all,vx
d,all,vy
nsel,r,loc,y,L-sL,L+sL
d,all,vx,vel
d,all,vy
d,all,enke,-1
alls
d,1,PRES
fini
save
/SOLU
flda,iter,exec,niter
flda,nomi,visc,MU
flda,nomi,dens,RHO
flda,term,pres,1.e-6
solve
fini
/delete,,rfl
/SOLU

!
!

!
!

! SIMPLEF
!

! SIMPLEN

305

flda,algr,segr,simplen
solve
fini
/delete,,rfl
/SOLU
flda,relx,vx,0.9
flda,relx,vy,0.9
solve
fini
/delete,,rfl
/SOLU
flda,relx,vx,0.95
flda,relx,vy,0.95
solve
fini
/delete,,rfl
/SOLU
flda,relx,vx,0.98
flda,relx,vy,0.98
solve
fini
/delete,,rfl
/SOLU
flda,relx,vx,0.99
flda,relx,vy,0.99
solve
fini

306

11.
11.1.

,
.
.
, .

.
.

GUI.

11.2. .
: ,
. .

11.2.1 .
,
,
. , ,
FLOTRAN.
, .
, ,

.
. keyopt
PREP7.
, , , (, MSSPEC)
PREP7, SOLUTION.
PREP7.
, :
:
FLDATA1,SOLU,SPEC,T
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

11.2.2. .
,
, .
, ,

.

307

MSNOMF (
GUI ) ( ) :
:
IC,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> Define
1.0.
, :
:
FLDATA7,PROT,Label,CMIX
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

11.2.3. .
,
:

:
R . :
:
MSDATA
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
Mi i ,
:
:
MSSPEC
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
N .
P (PRES).
T (TEMP).
,
:
:
FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,CGAS
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

11.3. .
308

:
1. .
2. .
3. , .
4. .
5. .
6. (
).

11.3.1.
, :
:
KEYOPT,1,1,n (n = ( 2, 6))
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
, ,
GUI :
:
MSSPEC
FLOTRAN
. SP01, SP02 .

11.3.2.
.
, ,
ALGEB :
:
MSDATA
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
,
.
1.0.

MSDATA .
.

11.3.3.
:
FLDATA6
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> Print Controls
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> Print Controls

11.3.4.

309

, (CONSTANT,
Liquid, etc.).
, CMIX . :
FLDATA7,PROT,Label,Type
Label DENS, VISC, COND, SPHT, Type
CMIX. Label = DENSE, Type CGAS. CGAS
MSSPEC
GUI.
,
, . ,
CONSTANT, LIQUID, GAS.
:
:
MSPROP
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

.
,
. CMIX CGAS, MSPROP
GUI. , ,
, .
:
Dmi Yi .
.
,
, :


. ,
.
.
:

SCTi ,
:
:
MSSPEC
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
, 1.0.

11.3.5. .
,
. , , ,
LAB :
310

:
D
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor>
Displacement> On Nodes

Loads>

Define

Loads>

Apply>

Fluid/CFD>

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement> On Nodes


,
. 1.0.

11.3.6. .
0.5.
:
:
MSRELAX
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

. :
:
MSMIR,SPNUM,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

, .
0.1 1.0.
,
, :
:
MSSOLU, MSMETH
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

.
:
:
MSCAP
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
()
:
:
FLDATA1,SOLU,Spec,T
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

11.4. , .

311

FLOTRAN 1 ( MAT,1
GUI) ,
, .
CMIX,
, 1.0 .
, 1.0.
,
;
.
,
, , .

, , ,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
( 1 2)
.
/BATCH,LIST
/tit,heat exchanger problem
!two different fluids separated by a
!cartesian geometry, pressure-driven
!solve by 2 species
LX
= 10
NDX
= 10
LY1
= 2
LY2
= 0.1
LY3
= 1.0
NDY1 = 10
NDY2 = 3
NDY3 = 10
YOFFSET = 0
! X
/prep7 $smrt,off
et,1,141
!species
keyopt,1,1,2
!axisymm
!keyopt,1,3,2
!

solid wall
flow
!
!
!
!
!

X
X
1

2

! XY
! 2
RY

312

esha,2
!
rect,,LX,YOFFSET,YOFFSET+LY1
!
rect,,LX,YOFFSET+LY1,YOFFSET+LY1+LY2
!
rect,,LX,YOFFSET+LY1+LY2,YOFFSET+LY1+LY2+LY3
!
nummrg,all
numcmp,all
lsel,s,,,3,9,3
lsel,a,,,1
lesi,all,,,NDX,
lsel,s,,,2,4,2
lesi,all,,,NDY1,-5.0
lsel,s,,,5,7,2
lesi,all,,,NDY2,-5.0
lsel,s,,,8,10,2
lesi,all,,,NDY3,-5.0
allsel
mat,1
! 1
amesh,1
! 1
amesh,3
! 2
mat,2
! 2
amesh,2
!
!inner region 1
!bc inlet
lsel,s,,,4
nsll,s,1
d,all,pres,10
! 1
d,all,temp,100
!bc outlet
lsel,s,,,2
nsll,s,1
d,all,pres,0.
!
!symm
lsel,s,,,1
nsll,s,1
d,all,vy,0
!
!region 2
!bc inlet
lsel,s,,,8
nsll,s,1
d,all,pres,10.
! 2
d,all,temp,400
!bc outlet
lsel,s,,,10
nsll,s,1
d,all,pres,0.
! 2
!top wall
lsel,s,,,9
nsll,s,1
d,all,vx,0
!
d,all,vy,0
allsel
!solid properties
mp,dens,2,5.
!
mp,kxx,2,100
mp,c,2,13
/SOLU
!ic for species
nsel,s,loc,x,,lx
! 1
nsel,s,loc,y,o,ly1
ic,all,sp01,1.0
!
ic,all,sp02,0.0
nsel,s,loc,x,,lx
nsel,s,loc,y,ly1+ly2,ly1+ly2+ly3 ! 2

313

ic,all,sp01,0.0
ic,all,sp02,1.0
allsel
FLDA,ITER,EXEC,200
FLDA,PROT,DENS,CMIX
FLDA,PROT,VISC,CMIX
FLDA,PROT,COND,CMIX
FLDA,PROT,SPHT,CMIX
flda,vary,dens,t
flda,vary,visc,t
flda,vary,cond,t
flda,vary,spht,t
FLDA,NOMI,DENS,1.0
FLDA,NOMI,VISC,2.0
FLDA,NOMI,COND,3.0

FLDA,NOMI,SPHT,4.0
msprop,1,spht,constant,1
msprop,2,spht,constant,2
msprop,1,dens,constant,1
msprop,2,dens,constant,2
msprop,1,visc,constant,1.0
msprop,2,visc,constant,2.0
msprop,1,cond,constant,.1
msprop,2,cond,constant,.2
FLDA,CONV,PRES,1.0E-10
FLDA,TERM,PRES,1.E-09
FLDA,OUTP,SP01,T
FLDA,OUTP,SP02,T
save
SOLVE
FLDA,SOLU,ENRG,T
FLDA,SOLU,FLOW,F
FLDA,METH,ENRG,3
FLDA,ITER,EXEC,50
FLDA,RELX,TEMP,1.
SOLVE
fini
/exit,nosa

! 2

!
!
!
!
!

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!


1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
PCCR

11.5.
: (O2), (N2), (H2).
, . :
:
:
:
VX = 0
VY = -0.1
TEMP = 300
O2 = 1.0
N2 = 0.0
H2 = 0.0

VX = 0.1
VY = 0
TEMP = 400
O2 = 0.0
N2 = 1.0
H2 = 0.0

VX = 0
VY = 0.1
TEMP = 300
O2 = 0.0
N2 =0.0
H2 = 1.0

.
/batch,list
/filename,spec
/com ** Analysis Types Laminar and Turbulent, Incompressible
/com
2D - quadrilateral and triangular elements
/com ** Features
Thermal, Multiple Species Transport
/com ** Options
Dilute mixtures, composite property types (CGAS, CMIX)
/com ** Variable laminar properties

314

/com ** Turbulence
/com ** Construction of geometry
/prep7
!!!!!!! SI
lenin=.3
half=lenin/2.
width=.1
hfwid=width/2.
outlen=1.2
!!!!!!!
rect,-lenin,0,-hfwid,hfwid
rect,.2,.3,.25,.25+lenin
rect,.2,.3,-.25,-.25-lenin
rect,.4,.4+outlen,-.15,.15
!!!!!!!
l2tan,-3,-8
l2tan,-6,-15
l2tan,-13,-10
l2tan,-12,-1
!!!!!!!
nlcurv=16
rlcurv=1
nscurv=9
rscurv=1
nispan=8
rispan=-1.5
nospan=13
rospan=-2
nilen=10
rilen=-2
nolen=24
rolen=4
!!!!!!!
!flst,2,2,4,orde,2
!fitem,2,17
!fitem,2,20
lsel,s,,,17,20,3
lesize,all,,,nlcurv,rlcurv
lsel,s,,,18,19
!fitem,2,18
!fitem,2,-19
lesize,19,,,nscurv,rscurv
!flst,2,3,4,orde,3
!fitem,2,2
!fitem,2,5
!fitem,2,11
lsel,s,,,2,5,3
lsel,a,,,11
lesize,all,,,nispan,1
!flst,2,3,4,orde,3
!fitem,2,4
!fitem,2,7
!fitem,2,9
lsel,s,,,4,7,3
lsel,a,,,9
lesize,all,,,nispan,rispan
!flst,2,6,4,orde,6
!fitem,2,1
!fitem,2,3
!fitem,2,6
!fitem,2,8
!fitem,2,10
!fitem,2,12
lsel,s,,,1,3,2

315

lsel,a,,,6,12,2
lesize,all,,,nilen,rilen
lsel,s,,,13,16
lesize,13,,,nolen,rolen
lesize,15,,,nolen,1./rolen
lesize,16,,,nospan,rospan
lesize,14,,,nospan,rospan
alls
!!!!!!! ...
!flst,2,8,3
!fitem,2,2
!fitem,2,12
!fitem,2,11
!fitem,2,13
!fitem,2,16
!fitem,2,6
!fitem,2,5
!fitem,2,3
a,2,12,11,13,16,6,5,3
alls
/com **
!!!!!!! (5)
asel,s,,,5
et,1,141
mshape,1,2d
amesh,5
!!!!!!!
asel,s,,,1,4
mshape,0,2d
mshkey,1
amesh,all
/com **
!!!!!!!
lsel,s,,,1,3,2
lsel,a,,,6,12,2
lsel,a,,,13,17,2
lsel,a,,,18,20
nsll,,1
d,all,vx,0
d,all,vy,0
!!!!!!!
vtop=.1
vbot=.1
vlef=.1
lsel,s,,,7
nsll
d,all,vx,0
d,all,vy,-vtop
nsll,,1
d,all,temp,300
lsel,s,,,4
nsll
d,all,vx,vlef
d,all,vy,0
nsll,,1
d,all,temp,400
lsel,s,,,9
nsll
d,all,vx,0
d,all,vy,vbot
nsll,,1
d,all,temp,300
lsel,s,,,14
nsll,,1

316

d,all,pres,0
flda,conv,iter,5
save
finish
alls
/solu
/com ** FLOTRAN INPUT
flda,iter,exec,40
flda,temp,nomi,300
! 300K
flda,prot,dens,air-si
!
flda,vary,dens,true
flda,prot,visc,air-si
flda,vary,visc,true
flda,prot,cond,air-si
flda,vary,cond,true
flda,prot,spht,air-si
save
solve
! 40 300K
finish
!
/prep7
flda,prot,dens,cmix
!
flda,prot,visc,cmix
!
keyopt,1,1,3
!
flda,solu,spec,t
!
msdata,2
! 2 (N2)
!
!!!!!!!
msspec,1,o2,31.999
msprop,1,DENS,GAS,1.2998,300,1.01325E+5
msvary,1,dens,t
msnomf,1,.3
msprop,1,VISC,CONSTANT,1.2067E-5
msprop,1,mdif,CONSTANT,2.149E-5
msprop,1,cond,CONSTANT,.02674
mscap,1,1
!
msspec,2,n2,28.018
msprop,2,DENS,GAS,1.1381,300,1.01325E+5
msvary,2,dens,t
msnomf,2,.3
msprop,2,VISC,CONSTANT,1.786E-5
msprop,2,mdif,CONSTANT,1.601E-5
msprop,2,cond,CONSTANT,.02598
mscap,2,1
!
msspec,3,h2,2.016
msprop,3,DENS,GAS,0.0819,300,1.01325E+5
msvary,3,dens,t
msnomf,3,.4
msprop,3,VISC,CONSTANT,8.94E-6
msprop,3,mdif,CONSTANT,4.964E-5
msprop,3,cond,CONSTANT,.1815
mscap,3,1
!
msrelx,1,1.0
msrelx,3,1.0
msmeth,1,3
mssolu,1,,,2,1.e-8
msmeth,3,3
mssolu,3,,,2,1.e-8
alls
!!!!!!!
lsel,s,,,7

317

nsll,,1
d,all,o2,1.0
d,all,n2,0.0
d,all,h2,0.0
lsel,s,,,4
nsll,,1
d,all,o2,0.0
d,all,n2,1.0
d,all,h2,0.0
lsel,s,,,9
nsll,,1
d,all,o2,0.0
d,all,n2,0.0
d,all,h2,1.0
alls
!!!!!!!
flda,iter,exec,20
! 20
flda,conv,outp,land
!
save
finish
/solu
solve
! 20
!
!
flda,solu,temp,t
! Achieve a constant flow temperature solution
flda,solu,flow,f
!
flda,meth,temp,3
! PCCR
flda,conv,temp,1.e-10
! PCCR
flda,iter,exec,5
!
flda,relx,temp,1.0
!
save
solve
!!
flda,iter,exec,35
flda,solu,flow,t
solve
flda,iter,exec,50
save
solve

! Achieve a flow and thermal solution


! 50
!

318

12.
12.1.
, , ,
, .
,
.
.
: Monotone
Streamline Upwind (MSU), Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG), Collocated Galerkin
(COLG). , ,
:
:
FLDATA33,ADVM,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection
:
:
MSADV,SPNUM,MTHA
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species
MSU SUPG COLG. MSU
.
SUPG COLG ,
. COLG
, .

SUPG COLG.
ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference.

12.2. SUPG COLG


, SUPG COLG
. ,
,
, :
:
FLDATA34,MIR,Label,Value
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization
Value
0.1 1.0. Value .

319

,

SUPG COLG:
6
10
0.1.
, .
:
FLDATA24,TURB,RATI,1.0E6
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence Model
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence Param
:
FLDATA25,RELX,EVIS,0.1
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation


, MSU. ,
, , SUPG
COLG .
, , SUPG COLG
, .
:
FLDATA33,ADVM,MOME,SUPG
FLDATA33,ADVM,MOME,COLG
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection

Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection


,
, .
,
.

12.3.
SUPG COLG , MSU,
.
.
.
.
. FLOTRAN
, , .
MSU ,
SUPG COLG .
0 1.0, SUPG COLG
.
320

, ()
.

321

ANSYS
1.
1.1. .
, ()
().
, ,
: ,
.
-, - .
,
( -), (-
), (- ),
( ),
(- ) - (MEMS).

1.2. .
,
: .

1.2.1. .
,
. :
- - .
1.2.1.1. .
()
.
, ,
.
-,
.
1.2.1.2. - .
- ANSYS
- ANSYS FLOTRAN
,

.
,

.
,

.

1.2.2. .
322

,
, .
,
. ,
SOLID5, PLANE13, SOLID98.
MEMS TRANS126.

1.2.3. .
,

.
,
.
,
,
. ,
,
. ,

.
.
-

FLOTRAN , ANSYS.
:

.
-
.

.

1.3. .
ANSYS ,
. .
, EMUNIT ANSYS
Commands Reference

.
(MEMS),
, .
1-1 1-8
MKS MKSV MSVfA.
1.1. MKS uMKSV
323


MKS

(kg)(m)/(s)

kg

kg

Pa

(kg)/(m)(s)

m/s

m/s

m/(s)

kg/(m)3

m/(s)

106

10

(kg)(m)/(s)2

kg

kg

10

MPa

(kg)/(m)(s)2

106

m/s

MKSv

-6

m/s
2

m/(s)2

10

m/(s)

kg/(m)3

10-18

kg/(m)3

kg/(m)3

Pa

kg/(m)(s)2

10-6

MPa

kg/(m)(s)2

Pa

kg/(m)(s)2

10-6

MPa

kg/(m)(s)2

(kg)(m)2/(s)3 1012

pW

(kg)(m)2/(s)3

1.2. MKS uMKSV

MKS

MKSv

W/mK

(kg)(m)/(K)(s)3 106

pW/(m)K (kg)(m)/(K)(s)3

W/(m)2

kg/(s)3

pW/(m)2

kg/(s)3

J/(kg)K

(m)2/(K)(s)2

1012

pJ/(kg)K

(m)2/(K)(s)2

(kg)(m)2/(s)3

1012

pW

(kg)(m)2/(s)3

(kg)/(m)(s)3

10-6

pW/(m)3

kg/(m)(s)3

W/m3

W/(m)2K kg/(s)2

pW/(m)2K kg/(s)2

kg/(m)(s) kg/(m)(s)

10-6

kg/(m)(s)

kg/(m)(s)

(m)2/s

1012

(m)2/s

(m)2/s

(m)2/s

1.3. MKS uMKSV


MKS

MKSv

A
V

A
2

(kg)(m) /(A)(s)

1012

pA

pA

(kg)(m)2/(pA)(s)3
324

MKS

MKSv

1012

(A)(s)
2

pC

(pA)(s)

S/m

(A) (s) /(kg)(m) 10

pS/m

(pA)2(s)3/(kg)(m)3

(Kg)(m3/(A)2(s)3 10-6

T m

(kg)(m)3/(pA)2(s)3

[1]

F/m

(A)2(s)4/(kg)(m)3 106

pF/m

(pA)2(s)2/(kg)(m)3

(kg)(m)2/(s)2

1012

pJ

(kg)(m)2/(s)2

(A)2(s)4/(kg)(m)2 1012

pF

(pA)2(s)4/(kg)(m)2

V/m

(kg)(m)/(s)3(A)

10-6

V/m

(kg)(m)/(s)3(pA)

(A)(s)/(m)2

pC/(m)2

(pA)(s)/(m)2

C/(m)2

1. 8.854 x 10-6 pF/m.


1.4. MKS uMKSV


MKS

MKSv

Weber

(kg)(m)2/(A)(s)2 1

Weber

(kg)(m)2/(pA)(s)2

Tesla

kg/(A)(s)2

10-12

Tesla

kg/(pA)(s)2

A/m

A/m

106

pA/m

pA/m

1012

pA

pA

A/(m)2

A/(m)2

pA/(m)2

pA/(m)2

H/m
[1]

(kg)(m)/(A)2(s)2 10-18

TH/m

(kg)(m)/(pA)2(s)2

(kg)(m)2/(A)2(s)2 10-12

TH

(kg)(m)2/(pA)2(s)2

1. 4 x 10-25 TH/m.

.
1.5. MKS uMSVfA

MKS

Msvfa

325

MKS

m

(kg)(m)/(s)

Mass

kg

kg

Pa

(kg)/(m)(s)

m/s

m/s
2

106

10

nN

(g)(m)/(s)2

10

-3

kPa

g/(m)(s)2

106

m/s

10

m/(s)

m/(s)

kg/(m)3 kg/(m)3

Pa

Msvfa

m/s
2

m/(s)2

10

m/(s)

10-15

g/(m)3

g/(m)3

kg/(m)(s)2

10-3

kPa

g/(m)(s)2

Pa

kg/(m)(s)2

10-3

kPa

g/(m)(s)2

(kg)(m)2/(s)3 1015

fW

(g)(m)2/(s)3

1.6. MKS uMSVfA


Msvfa

MKS

W/mK
2

(kg)(m)/(K)(s)3 109

fW/(m)2

g/(s)3

(m)2/(K)(s)2

1012

fJ/(g)K

(m)2/(K)(s)2

(kg)(m)2/(s)3

1015

fW

(g)(m)2/(s)3

W/m3

(kg)/(m)(s)3

10-3

fW/(m)3

g/(m)(s)3

W/(m)2K kg/(s)2

103

fW/(m)2K g/(s)2

kg/(m)(s) kg/(m)(s)

10-3

g/(m)(s)

g/(m)(s)

(m)2/s

1012

(m)2/s

(m)2/s

W/(m)

J/(kg)K

kg/(s)

fW/(m)K (g)(m)/(K)(s)3

10

(m)2/s

1.7. MKS uMSVfA

MKS

Msvfa
1015

(kg)(m)2/(A)(s)3 1

(A)(s)

S/m

1015
3

(A) (s) /(kg)(m) 10

fA

fA

(g)(m)2/(fA)(s)3

fC

(fA)(s)

nS/m

(fA)2(s)3/(g)(m)3
326

Msvfa

MKS

(kg)(m3/(A)2(s)3 10-9

(g)(m)3/(fA)2(s)3

[1]

F/m

(A)2(s)4/(kg)(m)3 109

fF/m

(fA)2(s)2/(g)(m)3

(kg)(m)2/(s)2

1015

fJ

(g)(m)2/(s)2

(A)2(s)4/(kg)(m)2 1015

fF

(fA)2(s)4/(g)(m)2

(kg)(m)/(s)3(A)

10-6

V/m

(g)(m)/(s)3(fA)

103

fC/(m)2

(fA)(s)/(m)2

V/m

C/(m)2 (A)(s)/(m)2

1. 8.854 x 10-3 fF/m.


1.8. MKS uMKSVfA

MKS

MKSv

Weber (kg)(m)2/(A)(s)2 1

Weber

(g)(m)2/(fA)(s)2

Tesla kg/(A)(s)2

10-12

A/m

A/m

109

fA/m

fA/m

1015

fA

fA

A/(m)2 A/(m)2

103

fA/(m)2

fA/(m)2

g/(fA)(s)2

[1] H/m

(kg)(m)/(A)2(s)2 10-21

(g)(m)/(fA)2(s)2

(kg)(m)2/(A)2(s)2 10-15

(g)(m)2/(fA)2(s)2

1. 4 x 10-28 (g)(m)/(fA)2(s)2.

1.4. GUI .
ANSYS
GUI. ,

. ANSYS
ANSYS Commands Reference.
GUI , . ,
GUI .
GUI
, ,
.
327

, ,
.
,
.

.

328

2. - .
2.1. - .


. ,
.
,
.
. ,
,
.
. , ,
, .
. ,
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
.
,
.
. ,
.
:

.
.
, .

, ANSYS:

.
.
.
- .
.
.

ANSYS .
, , .
.

2.2. .

329

ANSYS - ,
.
,
, . ASCII
, , :
:
PHYSICS,WRITE,Title,Filename,Ext,-GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Physics> Environment
Main Menu> Solution> Physics> Environment
.
PHYSICS. ANSYS
, .
, .
, /TITLE (Utility Menu> File>
Change Title).
PHYSICS,WRITE (, Jobname.PH1)
ANSYS:

KEYOPT .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
GUI.
(/TITLE card)

PHYSICS,READ (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Physics>


Environment> Read) ,
, (
). ,
ANSYS , , ,
, .

2.3. .

.
.

.
, , .

330

.
.
2.1. .

2.2 , .
.
.

. , ,
.
. ,
,
.
( ).
2.2.
( ).

ANSYS ,
. , ,
331

,
, ( AATT VATT).
,
. ,
. ,
1. ,

. :
:
EMODIF
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Move/Modify> Elements> Modify Attrib
,
.
,
,
. -
,
.
,
:

SAVE RESUME
.
( ).
SET
.
/CONFIG,NOELAB,1 "NO_ELDBW = 1"
config70.ans.

2.4. .
LDREAD ,

, .
LDREAD
. ,
, , LDREAD
.
...


...



FLOTRAN [TEMP, TBOT, TE2, . . . TTOP] ()
.
,


.
332

...


...

[FORC]
,
[FORC]


. [HGEN]
.

[JS]


[PRES]

()
(
).


[REAC]


[HFLU]

(
) .



[EHFLU]

(
)
.

FLOTRAN (
)

.
[HFLM]

2.4.1. .
,
.
:

,
ANSYS.
, , ()
.

. ,
,
, .

ANSYS ( p-):
() () .
; .
.
333


. ,
. ,
SOLID92 (10- ) SOLID87
(10- ). , SOLID92
SOLID90 (20- ).
,
. , LDREAD,
. KEYOPT ,
.
,

:

[TEMP, TBOT, TE2, . . . TTOP]


[HGEN]
[JS]
[PRES]
[HFLU]
[HFLM]

, :

* [FORC]
[REAC]

*
: PLANE53, PLANE121, SOLID122, SOLID123.

,
. .

SOLID45

SOLID70

SOLID97,
SOLID122[2]
SOLID117[1]

SOLID92

SOLID87

SOLID98,
HF119[1]

SOLID123[2]

SOLID98

SOLID95

SOLID90

SOLID117,
HF120

SOLID122

SOLID5,
SOLID69

PLANE42

PLANE55 PLANE13,
PLANE121[2]
PLANE53[2]

PLANE2

PLANE35

PLANE82

PLANE77 PLANE53

FLUID142

FLUID141

PLANE121

SOLID5,
SOLID69

PLANE67
PLANE67

334

SHELL63,
SHELL181

SHELL57,
SHELL131

SHELL91,
SHELL93

SHELL132

LINK8

LINK33

FLUID116

SHELL157

LINK68

,

. , /
FLUID142, SOLID70 ,
SOLID70 .
, VOLT
(
ANSYS).
1. .
2. KEYOPT .

2.4.2. , .

.
( , /FILNAME (Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname)).
, .
Jobname.RFL FLOTRAN
Jobname.RMG .
Jobname.RTH .
Jobname.RST (

).

2.4.3. - .
-
,
. , 2
1.0 in/sec 0.0 5.0 in/sec 4.0 . ,
2 .
PHYSICS,READ,FLUID (Main Menu> Solution> Physics> Environment> Read)
, .
3.0 in/sec 2.0 ,
:
:
FLOCHECK,2
GUI:
335

Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flocheck


, 3.0 in/sec 2
.
, 5.0 in/sec 4 ,
:
:
FLDATA4,TIME,BC,1
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl
, , SOLVE.

FLOTRAN FLOTRAN.

2.5.
.
,
.
1. ,
, . :
ANSYS
, ,
.
, ,
(
).

.
.
2. .
, .

ANSYS , ,
.
,
(, ET,1,141 ET,2,142
FLOTRAN, ET,1,13 ET,2,117 ).
( = 0, ET,3,0)
.
.
,

.
, ,

( AATT (Main Menu>
Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> All Areas or Picked Areas)
VATT (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> All
Volumes or Picked Volumes)).
.
336

.
PHYSICS,WRITE
. , -
:

:
PHYSICS,WRITE,Fluids
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Physics> Environment> Write


. :

:
PHYSICS,Clear
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Physics> Environment> Clear

,
.

SAVE.
, "Induct",
Induct.PH1
Induct.PH2. PHYSICS
ANSYS.

3. ,
.
4. /SOLU
5. PHYSICS,READ,Magnetics
6. SOLVE
7. FINISH
8. /SOLU
9. PHYSICS,READ,Fluids
10. LDREAD,FORCE,,,,2,,rmg
SOLVE

!
!

, LDREAD
. Jobname.RTH.

Jobname.RST.

2.5.1. .

(, , )
.


.

337


, / .
, . , ,
( )
. ,
, ,
.
.

,
. ANSYS
.
: DAMORPH (
), DVMORPH (
), DEMORPH ( ). RMSHKY
:


. ,
.
/
.
.
.

. ,
.
.

.
( , , , ).
. ,
, ,
, , , ,
.

. ,
.
, DAMORPH, DVMORPH, DEMORPH ,
.
, .
,

338

,
.
IC.
DAMORPH, DVMORPH, DEMORPH
,
. ICDELE.
ANSYS
.
.
.

.
. ,
.
,
.
( SET POST1).
,
. ,
.
, UPCOORD
FACTOR = -1.0
:
UPCOORD,Factor
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Updt Node Coord
,
, .
, .
. 3-D
:

- (
)
- ( )
- ( )
- - ()
- - ()

(
SMRTSIZE).
.
, . 1 (area 1)
, 2 .
2 .

339

( ,
).
,
.
. 3 .
,
,
. ,
2 3 .
.


:
DAMORPH, DVMORPH, DEMORPH
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Modify Mesh> Refine At> Areas
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Modify Mesh> Refine At> Volumes
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Modify Mesh> Refine At> Elements

2.5.2.
.

. ,

340

.
,
. ,
. EMAT,
ESAV, DB . EMAT ESAV
/ASSIGN.
, .
:
1. /ASSIGN EMAT ESAV
.
2. .
3. /ASSIGN EMAT ESAV
.
,
.

2.6.
.

,
. .
.

2.6.1. .

-
,

, .
, ,
. ESSOLV ,

. ,
.
,
.
, .
2.6.1.1.
ESSOLV ,
. ,
,
.
,
,
/ . ,
(
) .
341

ANSYS SMRTSIZE
.
ESSOLV
. , ,
, . ,
(, ).
, ESSOLV .
.
ESSOLV
(, SHELL63, SHELL93),
,
. SFA ,
. ,
.

,
KEYOPT(7) = 1
.
2.6.1.2.
,
ESSOLV.

,
. .
,
, ,
.
(ET,,0).
(PHYSICS,WRITE).
(PHYSICS,CLEAR)
, ,
, ,
, .
PHYSICS,WRITE).
(
ESSOLV).
,
, .
.
(
GUI ESSOLV).
( ) ( )
.
,
.
342

,
. ,
.

ANSYS.
ESSOLV.

2.6.1.3. .

,
.
,
, 0.5%
. ,
ELECTOL STRUTOL ESSOLV.
, ,
, , MXLOOP = 1
ESSOLV.
ESSOLV
. ,
_ESSOLV.DB RESUME.
ESSOLV.

343

2.6.1.4. .

. , ESSOLV
.
.
; ,
. ,
, UPCOORD,-1.
:
1. :
:
PHYSICS,READ
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Physics> Environment> Read
344

2. :
:
SET
GUI:
Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> Last Set
3. ,
:
:
NSEL
GUI:
Utility Menu> Select> Entities
:
UPCOORD,-1.
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Updt Node Coord
,
UPCOORD,1.
.
:
1. :
:
PHYSICS,READ
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Physics> Environment> Read
2. :
:
SET
GUI:
345

Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> Last Set


2.6.1.5. ESSOLV .

. ESSOLV
. *DO *ENDDO .
.
ESSOLV, RUSEKY .
SAVE ESSOLV.
,
. ESSOLV
.
,
(RESTKY) (>1).
,
, .

2.6.2. -.
FSSOLV ,
CFD ( ) .
(FSI).
,
. CFD
, .
, .
2.6.2.1. .
FSSOLV ,
. ,
,
.
,
,
/ . ,
(
) .
ANSYS SMRTSIZE
.
FSSOLV ,
. , FSSOLV
.
2.6.2.2.

346

,
FSSOLV.

, .
.
,
, ,
.
(ET,,0). (PHYSICS,WRITE).
(PHYSICS,CLEAR)
, ,
, ,
, .
PHYSICS,WRITE).
(
FSSOLV).
,
, .
.
(
GUI FSSOLV).
( ) ( )
.
,
.
FSSOLV.

2.6.2.3. Solution
,

, .
(
, ) 0.5%
.
, FSSOLV: FORCTOL,
MOMETOL, STRUTOL.
(
FLDATA,ITER,EXEC) CFD
. - ,
,
. FLUITER.
, , ,
MXLOOP = 1 FSSOLV.
, FSSOLV
.
, _FSSOLV.DB RESUME.
, FSSOLV.
347

- , FSSOLV
.
, . ,
.
20%
,
.

2.6.2.4. .
CFD .
, FSSOLV .
.
.
, , UPCOORD,-1.
:
1. :
:
348

PHYSICS,READ
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Physics> Environment> Read
2. :
:
SET
GUI:
Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> Last Set
3. ,

GUI:
:
NSEL
GUI:
Utility Menu> Select> Entities
:
UPCOORD,-1.
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Updt Node Coord
,
UPCOORD,1. CFD .
CFD :
1. :
:
PHYSICS,READ
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Physics> Environment> Read
2. CFD :
349

:
SET
GUI:
Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> Last Set
2.6.2.5. FSSOLV .
,
. FSSOLV
. , *DO *ENDDO
. .
FSSOLV RUSEKY 1.
SAVE FSSOLV.
,
. FSSOLV
.

(RESTKY) . ,
,
.

2.7.

-,

,
.

2.7.1. .
, , ,
(Ti) (To)
. ,
, .

350

Material Properties


()
E = 30 x 106 psi

a = .1875 in.

Ti =
200F

b = .40 in.

To = 70F = .65 x 10-5 in/inF

c = .60 in.


()
E = 10.6 x 106 psi
= 1.35 x 10-5 in/inF

= 0.3

= 0.33

K = 2.2 btu/hr-in-F

K = 10.8 btu/hr-in-F

:
1. .
2. PREP7 .
,
.
3. .
4. .
, .
.
/batch,list
/show
/title,
/prep7
et,1,plane77,,,1
! PLANE77
mp,kxx,1,2.2
!
mp,kxx,2,10.8
!
rectng,.1875,.4,0,.05!
rectng,.4,.6,0,.05
aglue,all
numcmp,area
asel,s,area,,1

aatt,1,1,1
asel,s,area,,2
aatt,2,1,1
asel,all
esize,.05
amesh,all
! /
nsel,s,loc,x,.1875

351

d,all,temp,200
!
nsel,s,loc,x,.6
d,all,temp,70
nsel.all
finish
/solu
solve
finish
/post1
path,radial,2
!
ppath,1,,.1875
!
ppath,2,,.6
pdef,temp,temp
!
pasave,radial,filea !
plpath,temp
!
finish
/prep7
et,1,82,,,1
! , SOLID82
mp,ex,1,30e6
!
mp,alpx,1,.65e-5
mp,nuxy,1,.3
mp,ex,2,10.6e6
!
mp,alpx,2,1.35e-5
mp,nuxy,2,.33
nsel,s,loc,y,.05
!
cp,1,uy,all
nsel,s,loc,x,.1875
cp,2,ux,all
nsel,s,loc,y,0
d,all,uy,0
nsel,all
finish
/solu
tref,70
ldread,temp,,,,,,rth !
solve
finish
/post1
paresu,radial,filea
pmap,,mat
pdef,sx,s,x
!
pdef,sz,s,z
!
plpath,sx,sz
!
plpagm,sx,,node
finish

2.8.

,
. .
,
. ,
.
:
1. .
2. .
352

3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .
/batch,list
/show
/title,
/prep7
et,1,plane77,,,1
! PLANE77
mp,kxx,1,2.2
!
mp,kxx,2,10.8
!
rectng,.1875,.4,0,.05
!
rectng,.4,.6,0,.05
aglue, all
numcmp,area
asel,s,area,,11
!
aatt,1,1,1
asel,s,area,,2
aatt,2,1,1
asel,all
esize,.05
amesh,all
!
nsel,s,loc,x,.1875
d,all,temp,200
!
nsel,s,loc,x,.6
d,all,temp,70
nsel,all
physics,write,thermal
!
physics,clear
!
et,1,82,,,1
mp,ex,1,30e6
mp,aplx,1,.65e-5
mp,nuxy,1,.3
mp,ex,2,10.6e6
mp,alpx,2,1.35e-5
mp,nuxy,2,.33
nsel,s,loc,y,.05
cp,1,uy,all
nsel,s,loc,x,.1875
cp,2,ux,all
nsel,s,loc,y,0
d,all,uy,0
nsel,all
tref,70
physics,write,struct
save
finish
/solu
physics,read,thermal

! , SOLID82
!

solve
finish
/post1
path,radial,2
ppath,1,,.1875
ppath,2,,.6

!
!

!
!
!

!
!

353

pdef,temp,temp
pasave,radial,filea
plpath.temp
finish
/solu
physics,read,struct
ldread,temp,,,,,,rth
solve
finish
/post1
paresu,raidal,filea
pmap,,mat
pdef,sx,s,x
pdef,sz,s,z
plpath,sx,sz
plpagm,sx,,node
finish

!
!
!

!
!
!
!

354

355

2.9.
.

.
,
.
.

2.9.1.
, , .
0.35 m/sec.
. APDL ,
ANSYS.

2.9.2. .
- .
: () , (b)
, , () .
.

.
.
, .
, ,
. .
356

,
.

.
2.9.2.1. .
, .
,
, AATT.
, 1.
.

2.9.2.2. .
.
FLDATA.
, FLOTRAN .
. .

(0)

FLUID141

357

, .
,
.
. 1
. "gasket."
()

CM,GASKET,NODES
GUI:
Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Ass'y> Create Component

.
:
PHYSICS,WRITE,FLUID,FLUID
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Physics> Environment> Write

2.9.2.3.


.
358

:
PHYSICS,CLEAR
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Physics> Environment> Clear

. FLUID141
PLANE42. ,
.

HYPER56

Mooney-Rivlin

,
.
.

.
(.,
PHYSICS,WRITE,STRUC,STRUC).

2.9.2.4. /
359

( ),
-. , (maximum
gasket displacement (MGD)) .
, MGD
.
FLOTRAN .

.
.
,
,
.
.
,
, .
, :
1. .
:
PHYSICS,READ,fluid
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Physics> Environment> Read
2. FLOTRAN (
)
:
FLDATA2,ITER,EXEC,100
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Execution Control
3. FLOTRAN.
:
SOLVE
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN
4. .
360

:
PHYSICS,READ,struc
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Physics> Environment> Read
5. /ASSIGN
.
:
/ASSIGN,esave,struc,esav
/ASSIGN,emat,struc,emat
GUI:
Utility Menu> File> ANSYS File Options
6.
.
-.
:
PARSAV,ALL
GUI:
Utility Menu> Parameters> Save Parameters
:
RESUME
GUI:
Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db
:
PARRES
GUI:
Utility Menu> Parameters> Restore Parameters
7. .
-.

361

:
ANTYPE,STATIC,REST
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Restart
8. /
FLOTRAN.
9. LDREAD.
:
LDREAD,PRES,LAST,,,,,rfl
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> From Fluid
Analy
10. .
:
RESCONTROL,,NONE
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Nonlinear> Restart Control
11. .
:
SOLVE
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Solve
:
SAVE
GUI:
Utility Menu> File> Save as Jobname.db
12. (
AREA2).

362

:
DAMORPH,AREA2,,2
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Modify Mesh> Refine At> Areas
13. .
GASKET .
14.
.
15. gasket.grph.

2.9.3.
- ,
. 0.5%. FLOTRAN,
400 .
, FLOTRAN
100.
.
( )
( ) .

363

,
. 25%
, . ,
.

.
:
UPCOORD,-1
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Updt Node Coord

364

/Batch,list
/prep7
/sho,gasket,grph
shpp,off
ET,1,141
!
ET,2,56,
!
!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!
.
!
!!!!!!! gasket.grph.
!
!
-
!
-
!
!
|
|
!
|
|
!
|----------| " "
!
|
______|
!
|
|______
!
|
|
!
|----------| " " (sf)
!
|
|
!
!! 1. :
!!

!!
!!

!!

!!
.
!!
.

365

!!
!!

!!
yent = 0.0
! Y
dyen = 1.0
!
ysf1 = yent+dyen ! Y
dsf1 = 0.5
ygas = ysf1+dsf1 ! Y
dg = 0.02
!
dg2=dg/2.
ytg = ygas+dg
! Y
dsf2 = 0.5
!
ysf2 = ytg + dsf2! Y
dyex = 6.0
!
x = 0.
!
dgasr =.20
!
piper = 0.3
!
xrgap = piper-dgasr
!!
!!!
!!
rect,xrgap,piper,ygas,ytg
! A1: ( 1-4)
rect,x,piper,ysf1,ysf2
! A2:
rect,x,piper,yent,ysf1
! A3:
rect,x,piper,ysf2,ysf2+dyex
! A4:
aovlap,all
k,22,xrgap+dg2,ygas+dg2
rarc = dg2*1.1
larc,1,4,22,rarc
al,6,4
adelete,7
al,6,3,22,7,8,5,21,1
!!
ngap = 10
!
ngas = 10
!
rgas = -2
!
nflu = ngap+ngas !
raflu = -3
!
nenty =8
! -
raent =5
!
nfl1 = 20
! .
nthgas = 4
!
nfl2 = 3
! .
next = 30
!
rext = 6
rafls = 12
! - .
lesize,1,,,ngas,rgas
lesize,3,,,ngas,rgas
nfl11= nfl1*2+9
lsel,s,,,2,4,2 ! ( lesize 8 )
lesize,all,,,nthgas
alls
lesize,5,,,nflu,raflu
lesize,7,,,nflu,raflu
lesize,9,,,nflu,raflu
lesize,15,,,nflu,raflu
lesize,18,,,nenty,1./raent
lesize,17,,,nenty,1./raent
lesize,21,,,nfl1,rafls
lesize,8,,,nfl11,-1./(rafls+3)
lesize,22,,,nfl1,rafls
lesize,19,,,next,rext
lesize,20,,,next,rext

366

!!! AATT,MAT,REAL,TYPE
-
asel,s,,,1,2
aatt,2,2,2
!
( 2)
asel,s,,,3
cm,area2,area
alist
! ,
asel,a,,,5,6
aatt,1,1,1
alls

! ( 1)

eshape,2
asel,u,,,2,3
amesh,all
eshape,0
asel,s,,,2,3
amesh,all
!----------------!!!!! gasket.grph
asel,s,,,1,3
esla,s
/Title,
eplot
/ZOOM,1,RECT,0.3,-0.6,0.4,-0.5
alls
!----------------!!
!!!!! 2.
et,1,141
et,2,0
!
vin=3.5e-1
! (meters/second)
!!
CFD
flda,solu,flow,1
flda,solu,turb,1
flda,iter,exec,400
flda,outp,sumf,10
!!
CFD
flda,prot,dens,constant
flda,prot,visc,constant
flda,nomi,dens,1000.
! 1000 kg/m3
flda,nomi,visc,4.6E-4 ! 4.6E-4 kg-s/m ( )
flda,conv,pres,1.E-8
!
!!
CFD ( )
lsel,s,,,8,17,9
lsel,a,,,20
dl,all,,vx,0.,1
!
lsel,s,,,9
dl,all,,vx,0.,1
dl,all,,vy,vin,1
!
lsel,s,,,2
lsel,a,,,18,19
lsel,a,,,21,22
dl,all,,vx,0.,1
!
dl,all,,vy,0.,1
lsel,s,,,1,3,2
lsel,a,,,6
dl,all,,vx,0.,1
!
dl,all,,vy,0.,1
lsel,s,,,15
dl,15,,pres,0.,1
!
!!!
lsel,s,,,1
nsll,,1

367

cm,gasket,node
nlist !
/com, +++++++++ -------alls
/title,
physics,write,fluid,fluid
!!
!!!!! 3.
!!
physics,clear
et,1,0
!
et,2,56
! - 2
mp,ex,2,2.82E+6
!
mp,nuxy,2,0.49967 !
tb,mooney,2
tbdata,1,0.293E+6 ! Mooney-Rivlin
tbdata,2,0.177E+6 !
"
"
"
lsel,s,,,2
nsll,,1
d,all,ux,0.
d,all,uy,0.
alls

/title,
finish
/solu
antype,static
nlgeom,on
cnvtol,f,,,,-1
physics,write,struc,struc
physics,clear
save
!!
!!!!! 4. -
!!
loop=25
!
toler=0.005
!
*dim,dismax,array,loop
!
*dim,strcri,array,loop
!
*dim,index,array,loop
*do,i,1,loop
! ->
/solu
physics,read,fluid
!
*if,i,ne,1,then
flda,iter,exec,100
! 100
*endif
!
solve
! FLOTRAN
fini
! end of fluid portion
physics,read,struc
!
/assign,esave,struc,esav !
/assign,emat,struc,emat
*if,i,gt,1,then
!
parsave,all
!
resume
!
!
parresume
!
/prep7
antype,stat,rest
fini
*endif

368

/solu
solc,off
lsel,s,,,1,3,2
!
lsel,a,,,6
!
nsll,,1
esel,s,type,,2
ldread,pres,last,,,,,rfl ! () Flotran
alls
rescontrol,,none
!
solve
*if,i,eq,1,then
save
!
*endif
fini
/post1
cmsel,s,gasket
nsort,u,sum,1,1
*get,dismax(i),sort,0,max
strcri(i)=toler*dismax(i)
alls
fini

/prep7
mkey=2
!
damorph,area2, ,mkey
!
!---------------!!!!! gasket.grph
fini
/prep7
et,1,42
asel,s,,,1,3
esla,s
/Title, EPLOT DAMORPH,area2, ,%mkey% %i%
eplot
alls
!----------------cmsel,s,gasket
nlist !
/com, +++++++++ -------alls
fini
/assign,esav
/assign,emat
!!!!
imax= i
index(i)=i
*if,i,gt,1,then
strcri(i)=abs(dismax(i)-dismax(i-1))-toler*dismax(i-1)
*if,strcri(i),le,0,then
strcri(i)=0
*exit
!
*endif
*endif
*enddo
!!!!!
save
!
!!!!!
*vwrite
(/' . -
/nopr

')

369

*vlen,imax
*vwrite,index(1),dismax(1),strcri(1)
(f7.0,2e17.4)
finish
!!!!!
!!!
1. Flotran.
physics,read,fluid
/post1
set,last
/Title, Flotran:
plnsol,strm
/Title, Flotran:
plnsol,pres
fini
!!!
2. .
physics,read,struc
/post1
set,last
upcoord,-1
!
/Title, : von Mises
plnsol,s,eqv,1,1
fini
!/exit,nosave

2.10.

.
,
.

2.10.1. .

.
. .
, ,
.
,
.
.

2.10.2. .
370

700.
,
. ,
.
/
, , , ,
. .

.
2.10.2.1. 1:

1
371

2.10.2.2. 2:
. .
.
2.10.2.3. 3: .

, .
.

PLANE13

MURX(T), RSVX(T)

PLANE13

MURX

PLANE13

MURX

Type (0)

.
.
:
PHYSICS,WRITE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Physics> Environment

2.10.2.4. 4: .
:

.
:
372

PHYSICS,CLEAR
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Physics> Environment

KEYOPT
. (
).
.

PLANE55

KXX(T),
ENTH(T)

Type
(0)

Type
(0)

SURF151

EMIS

.
,
.
.

:
PHYSICS,WRITE
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Physics> Environment> Write
Main Menu> Solution> Physics> Environment> Write
2.10.2.5. 5: .
.
373

:
PHYSICS,READ
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Physics> EnvironmentMain Menu> Solution> Physics>
Environment> Read
2.10.2.6. 6: DO
*DO ,
.

.
:
SOLVE
GUI:
Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS

.
:
LDREAD
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Temperature> From
Therm Analy

, ESAV EMAT
/ASSIGN.
:
/ASSIGN
GUI:
Utility Menu> File> ANSYS File Options

.
:
PHYSICS,READ
374

GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Physics> Environment> Read

.
:
LDREAD
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Heat Generat> From
Mag Analy

.
.
:
/ASSIGN
GUI:
Utility Menu> File> ANSYS File Options

2.10.2.7. 7: .
t.
2.10.2.8. 8: .
.
2.10.2.9. .
.
/batch,list
/filenam,induc
/prep7
shpp,off
/title,
/com,
et,1,13,,,1
! PLANE13, , AZ
et,2,13,,,1
et,3,151,,,1,1,1
! SURF151, ,
r,3,0
! SURF151
row=.015
!
ric=.0175
!
roc=.0200
!
ro=.05
!
t=.001
!
freq=150000
! (.)
pi=4*atan(1)
!

375

cond=.392e7
!
muzero=4e-7*pi
!
mur=200
!
skind=sqrt(1/(pi*freq*cond*muzero*mur)) !
ftime=3
!
tinc=.05
!
time=0
!
delt=.01
!
emunit,mks
!
mp,murx,1,1
!
mp,murx,3,1
!
mptemp,1,25.5,160,291.5,477.6,635,698
!
mptemp,7,709,720.3,742,761,1000
mpdata,murx,2,1,200,190,182,161,135,104 !
mpdata,murx,2,7,84,35,17,1,1
mptemp
mptemp,1,0,125,250,375,500,625
!
mptemp,7,750,875,1000
mpdata,rsvx,2,1,.184e-6,.272e-6,.384e-6,.512e-6,.656e-6,.824e-6
mpdata,rsvx,2,7,1.032e-6,1.152e-6,1.2e-6 !
rectng,0,row,0,t
!
rectng,row,ric,0,t
!
rectng,ric,roc,0,t
!
rectng,roc,ro,0,t
! ()
aglue,all
numcmp,area
ksel,s,loc,x,row
!
kesize,all,skind/2
! /
!
.
ksel,s,loc,x,0
!
kesize,all,40*skind
!
lsel,s,loc,y,t/2
!
lesize,all,,,1
! 1
lsel,all
asel,s,area,,1
aatt,2,1,1
!
asel,s,area,,3
aatt,3,1,2
!
asel,s,area,,2,4,2
aatt,1,1,2
!
asel,all
mshape,0,2d
mshk,1
amesh,1
!
lsel,s,loc,y,0
lsel,a,loc,y,t
lsel,u,loc,x,row/2
lesize,all,.001
lsel,all
amesh,all
!
n
! SURF151
*get,nmax,node,,num,max
lsel,s,loc,x,row
type,3
real,3
mat,2
lmesh,all
*get,emax,elem,,num,max
emodif,emax,3,nmax
! ,
!

et,3,0
! 3
nsel,s,loc,x
d,all,az,0
! .

376

nsel,all
esel,s,mat,,3
bfe,all,js,,,,15e6
!
esel,all
finish
/solu
antyp,harm
harfrq,150000
physics,write,emag
!
finish
/prep7
lsclear,all
!
et,1,55,,,1
! PLANE55
et,2,0
!
et,3,151,,,1,1,1
! SURF151
keyopt,3,9,1
r,3,1,5.67e-8
! , -
mptemp
mptemp,1,0,730,930,1000
!
mpdata,kxx,2,1,60.64,29.5,28,28
mptemp
!
mptemp,1,0,27,127,327,527,727
mptemp,7,765,765.001,927
mpdata,enth,2,1,0,91609056,453285756,1.2748e9,2.2519e9,3.3396e9
mpdata,enth,2,7,3.548547e9,3.548556e9,4.3520e9
mp,emis,2,.68
!
finish
/solu
antype,trans
toffst,273
tunif,100
!
d,nmax,temp,25
!
cnvtol,heat,1
!
kbc,1
!
trnopt,full
autos,on
!
deltim,1e-5,1e-6,delt,on
outres,basic,all
!
physics,write,thermal
!
finish
*do,i,1,ftime/tinc
!
time=time+tinc
!
physics,read,emag
! /
/solu
*if,i,eq,1,then
tunif,100
!
*else
ldread,temp,last,,,,,rth
!
*endif
solve
!
finish
physics,read,thermal
!
/assign,esav,therm,esav
!
!

/assign,emat,therm,emat
/solu
*if,i,gt,1,then
antype,trans,rest
!
*endif
time,time
!
esel,s,mat,,2
!
ldread,hgen,,,,2,,rmg
! , /

esel,all

377

solve
finish
/assign,esav
/assign,emat
*enddo
finish
save
/post26
/show
nsol,2,1,temp,,tempcl
nsol,3,2,temp,,tempsurf
plvar,2,3
prvar,2,3
finish

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

2.10.2.10.

2.11. .
, - ,
ESSOLV.

2.11.1. .
, .
. ,
.
.
378

2.11.2. ( )
.
/batch,list
/prep7, Silicon beam deflection from an applied voltage
et,1,121
et,2,121
emunit,epzro,8.854e-6
mp,perx,2,1
!

!
!
!
!

PLANE121

, MKSV

bl=150
bh=2.0
glc=bl/2
gl=90
gh=1.5

!
!
!
!
!

(m)



gap=4.5
vltg=120

!
!

rectng,0,bl,gap,bh+gap
!
rectng,glc-gl/2,glc+gl/2,-gh,0
rectng,-10,170,-20,30
aovlap,all
asel,s,area,,1
aatt,1,,1

asel,s,area,,4
cm,air,area
aatt,2,,2

!
!

allsel,all
smrtsiz,2
amesh,1
mshape,1
amesh,4

!
!

asel,s,area,,1
lsla,s
dl,all,,volt,vltg

asel,s,area,,2
lsla,s
dl,all,,volt,0

! ( )

allsel,all
et,1,0
physics,write,ELECTROS
physics,clear

!
!
!

379

et,1,82,,,2
et,2,0

!
!

mp,ex,1,170e3
mp,nuxy,1,0.34

dl,4,,ux,0
dl,4,,uy,0

allsel,all
finish
physics,write,STRUCTURE

N/(m)**2

ESSOLV,'ELECTROS','STRUCTURE',2,0,'air',,,,10

finish
physics,read,ELECTROS
/post1
set,last
esel,s,mat,,2
etable,fx,fmag,x
etable,fy,fmag,y
ssum
finish

!
!
!
!
!

2.12. - ,
FSSOLV
, - ,
FSSOLV.

2.12.1. .
.
.
, .

2.12.2. ( ).
.
/BATCH,list
/Title, , .

380

!!
!!!!! 0. .
!!
fact=1.0e-3
!
length=.75*fact
!
d0 =.005*fact
!
d1 =.04*fact
!
d2 =.02*fact
!
dcen=d1+0.5*d0
widt=d0+d1+d2
dl =widt
elsi=0.5*d0

!
!

modx=70.0e9
nust=0.3

!
!

denw=1.0e3
visw=1.0e-3
vin =8.85e-3

!
!
! (/)

/PREP7
!!
!!!!! 1.
!!
et,1,141
! Flotran
et,2,141
!
rect,,length+dl,,widt
rect,,length,d1,d1+d0
aovlap,all
numcmp,area
ASEL,S,loc,y,dcen
ASEL,INVERT
AATT,1,,1
type,1
ASEL,INVERT
aatt,2,,2
type,2
alls
esize,elsi
amesh,all
alls
fini
/prep7
!!
!!!!! 2.
!!
et,1,141
et,2,0
!
!!
CFD
flda,solu,flow,1
flda,solu,turb,1
flda,advm,mome,supg
flda,advm,turb,supg
flda,iter,exec,100
flda,outp,sumf,10
!!
CFD
flda,prot,dens,constant
flda,prot,visc,constant
flda,nomi,dens,denw
! 1000 kg/m3
flda,nomi,visc,visw
! 4.6E-4 kg-s/m ( )
flda,conv,pres,1.E-9
!
!!
CFD

381

lsel,s,loc,x,0
lsel,u,loc,y,dcen
dl,all,,vy,0.,1
dl,all,,vx,vin,1
lsel,s,loc,y,0
lsel,a,loc,y,widt
dl,all,,vx,0.,1
dl,all,,vy,0.,1
asel,s,type,,2
lsla,s
dl,all,,vx,0.,1
dl,all,,vy,0.,1

lsel,s,loc,x,length+dl
dl,all,,pres,0.,1
!
asel,s,type,,1
cm,area2,area
alls
fini

/title,
physics,write,fluid,fluid
physics,clear
/prep7
!!
!!!!! 3.
!!
et,1,0
et,2,42
!
mp,ex,2,modx
mp,nuxy,2,nust
LSEL,S,LOC,Y,dcen
LSEL,R,LOC,X,0
dl,all,,UX,0
! X=0
dl,all,,UY,0
alls
fini
/title,Structural Analysis
physics,write,struc,struc
physics,clear
!!
!!!!! 4. FSSOLV
!!!!!

!!
FSSOLV,'fluid','struc',2,'area2', ,,,,25,40,1,1
/exit,nosa

3. .
3.1.
, .

.
.
382

ANSYS/FLOTRAN
, .

:

, ,
.
, , .
, , .


. , ,
, .

, (
).
, .

3.2. .

, /

.
,
/ .
. ,
.

383


:
.
.

3.3. .

ANSYS/FLOTRAN: FLUID141 FLUID142.
FLOTRAN ANSYS Elements Reference ANSYS CFD Flotran
Analysis Guide.
,
.
, .

HYPER
PLANE2

SOLID45

BEAM3

SHELL63

HYPER56

PLANE42

SOLID92

BEAM23 SHELL93

HYPER84

PLANE82

SOLID95

BEAM188 SHELL181

HYPER86

PLANE182 SOLID185

BEAM189

PLANE183 SOLID186
SOLID187


PLANE35

SOLID70

PLANE55

SOLID87

SHELL57

SOLID90

384



PLANE13

SOLID5

PLANE67

SOLID62

SHELL157

SOLID69
SOLID98

3.4.
.

:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
.
.
.
.

3.4.1. .

.
,
.
/ .
, .
ANSYS CFD Flotran Analysis Guide.
ANSYS Structural Analysis
Guide ANSYS Thermal Analysis Guide.

3.4.2. .

. SF (SF,
SFA, SFE, SFL) FSIN.
: .
SF, SFA, SFE, SFL
, .
,
.

3.4.3. .
,
.
3.4.3.1. .
385


. ,
, ,
.
.
FSAN .
FSAN,OFF (
).
FSOR
. ,
FSOR,FLUID,SOLID.
. .
.
FSTR (, ).
. FSTR ,
ANTYPE FLDATA1.
FSIN
.
, ,
:
:

, ,
.

.

.

.

GUI :
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>FSI Set Up>Options
Main Menu>Solution>FSI Set Up>Options
3.4.3.2. .

.
FSTI.
386

.
.
.
:
:
FSTI
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>FSI Set Up>Time
Main Menu>Solution>FSI Set Up>Time
:
:
FSDT
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>FSI Set Up>Time
Main Menu>Solution>FSI Set Up>Time

DELTIM and FLDATA4,TIME,STEP,Value .

.
,
,
FSDT.
3.4.3.3. .

.
.
, .
, ,

.
:
:
FSIT
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>FSI Set Up>Iterations
387

Main Menu>Solution>FSI Set Up>Iterations


10 .
3.4.3.4. .
,
. (
) ,
.
:
:
FSCO
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>FSI Set Up>Convergence
Main Menu>Solution>FSI Set Up>Convergence
0.0001.
.
:
Conv = log (x/min)/(log max/min)
:
x = L2 , .
min = , FSCO
max = ( 100)

, . ,
:
x min, Conv 0 .
x max, Conv 1 .
3.4.3.5. .
N .
(Jobname.RFL)
(Jobname.RST Jobname.RTH).
388

:
:
FSOU
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>FSI Set Up>Convergence
Main Menu>Solution>FSI Set Up>Convergence
FLDATA2, FLDATA4, FLDATA4A, FLDATA5,
OUTRES ,
.
FSOU , .
3.4.3.6. .
, ,
, .

, 1.0.
:
:
FSRE
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>FSI Set Up>Relaxation
Main Menu>Solution>FSI Set Up>Relaxation
3.4.3.7. .
,
:
:
FSST
GUI:
Main Menu>Preprocessor>FSI Set Up>Status
Main Menu>Solution>FSI Set Up>Status

3.4.4. .
:
:
389

SOLVE
GUI:
Main Menu>Solution>Current LS

:
:
FSRS
GUI:
Main Menu>Solution>FSI Set Up>Restart

3.4.5. .

. , ANSYS
POST1 POST26.
.
Jobname.RFL
Jobname.RST Jobname.RTH. An Overview of
Postprocessing ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.

3.5. .
:

, ,

. ,
,
.

.
DDS .
, ,
, FLDATA16,BULK,BETA.

, ALPHAD and
BETAD.

390

3.6.
( ).
3.6.1. .

.
. /
. .
.

3.6.2. .
:
= 1.0
= 0.25
= 0.10
:
= 1.0e11
= 10
= 0.3
:
= 10000
= 1.0
= 0.001
= 1.0
= 1.0
0.85.

3.6.3. .

391

3.6.4. .
/BATCH
MAXDISP = 0.85
*DEL,_FNCNAME
*DEL,_FNCMTID
*DEL,_FNC_C1
*DEL,_FNC_C2
*SET,_FNCNAME,'uxdsp'
*DIM,_FNC_C1,,1
*DIM,_FNC_C2,,1
*SET,_FNC_C1(1),MAXDISP

392

*SET,_FNC_C2(1),2.5
! /INPUT,time.func
*DIM,%_FNCNAME%,TABLE,6,4,1
! : a*sin(omega*{TIME})
%_FNCNAME%(0,0,1)= 0.0, -999
%_FNCNAME%(2,0,1)= 0.0
%_FNCNAME%(3,0,1)= %_FNC_C1(1)%
%_FNCNAME%(4,0,1)= %_FNC_C2(1)%
%_FNCNAME%(5,0,1)= 0.0
%_FNCNAME%(6,0,1)= 0.0
%_FNCNAME%(0,1,1)= 1.0, -1, 0, 1, 18, 3,
%_FNCNAME%(0,2,1)= 0.0, -1, 9, 1, -1, 0,
%_FNCNAME%(0,3,1)=
0, -2, 0, 1, 17, 3,
%_FNCNAME%(0,4,1)= 0.0, 99, 0, 1, -2, 0,
! : a*sin(omega*{TIME})
!-->
/PREP7
ET,1,141
KEYOPT,1,4,1
ET,2,42
RECT,0.1,1.0,,0.25
TYPE,1
LESIZE,4,,,4
LESIZE,2,,,4
LESIZE,1,,,8
LESIZE,3,,,8
ALLSEL
AMESH,ALL
ALLSEL,BELOW,AREA
NSEL,R,LOC,X,0.1
SF,ALL,FSIN,1
ALLSEL,BELOW,AREA
NSEL,R,LOC,X,1
D,ALL,UX,0
D, ALL, UY,0
D, ALL, PRES,0
ALLSEL, BELOW, AREA
NSEL,R,LOC,Y,0
D, ALL, UY,0
D, ALL, VY,0
ALLSEL, BELOW, AREA
NSEL,R,LOC,Y,0.25
D,ALL,UY,0
D,ALL,VY,0
ALLSEL
RECT,,0.1,,0.25
LESIZE,5,,,2
LESIZE,7,,,2
LESIZE,8,,,4
LESIZE,6,,,4
TYPE,2
MAT,1
ALLSEL
ASEL,S,,,2
ALLSEL,BELOW,AREA
AMESH,ALL
ALLSEL,BELOW,AREA
NSEL,R,LOC,X,0.1
SF,ALL,FSIN,1
ALLSEL,BELOW,AREA
NSEL,R,EXT
D,ALL,UX,%uxdsp%
D,ALL,UY,0
ALLSEL

1
0
-1
0

393

!
MP,EX,1,2.0E11
MP,DENS,1,7800
MP,PRXY,1,0.3
FLDATA1,SOLU,FLOW,1
FLDATA1,SOLU,TEMP,0
FLDATA1,SOLU,TRAN,1
FLDATA1,SOLU,ALE,1
FLDATA2,TIME,GLOB,10,
!
FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,AIR-SI
FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,AIR-SI
FINISH
/SOLU
FSAN,ON
FSCO,ALL,1.0e-2
FSRE,ALL,1.0
FSOU,1
DELTIM,0.0125
FLDA, TIME, STEP, 0.0125
FSIT, 10
FSTI, 1.0
FSDT,0.0125
FSOR,SOLID
)
FSTR,SOLID,
FSTR,FLUID,
SAVE
SOLVE
SAVE
FINISH
/SOLU
FSRS,TIME,1.0
FSTI,1.25
FSDT,0.0125
SOLVE
SAVE
FINISH
/POST26
FILE,,rfl
NSOL,2,23,UX
NSOL,3,23,VX
PRVAR,2
PLVAR,2
PRVAR,3
PLVAR,3
FINISH

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

FSI



SOLID
FLUID



- (SOLID

! SOLID
! FLUID

!
!
!

3.7.
( )
3.7.1.
,
. .
.
.

3.7.2. .
394

:
= 2.0e9 N/m2
= 7800 Kg/m3
= 0.3
:
= Air-SI
= Air-SI

3.7.3.

395

3.7.4.
/batch
a=1.0
b=1.0
gap=0.8*a/2
thick=0.01*a
c=0.5*a
/PREP7
smrt,off
et,1,142
et,2,45
et,3,141
et,4,42
keyopt,1,4,1
keyopt,3,4,1
msha,0
mshk,1
rect,0,gap,0,b/2-thick
rect,0,gap,b/2-thick,b/2+thick
rect,0,gap,b/2+thick,b
rect,gap,a/2,0,b/2-thick
rect,gap,a/2,b/2-thick,b/2+thick
rect,gap,a/2,b/2+thick,b
nummrg,kp
numcmp,all
nx1=16-4
lesi,1,,,nx1,-1,1
lesi,3,,,nx1,-1,1
lesi,6,,,nx1,-1,1
lesi,9,,,nx1,-1,1
nx2=6-2
lesi,11,,,nx2,1,1
lesi,13,,,nx2,1/1,1
lesi,15,,,nx2,1/1,1
lesi,17,,,nx2,1/1,1
ny1=2

396

lesi,7,,,ny1,1,1
lesi,5,,,ny1,1,1
lesi,14,,,ny1,1,1
ny2=20-4
lesi,4,,,ny2,-2,1
lesi,2,,,ny2,-2,1
lesi,12,,,ny2,-2,1
lesi,10,,,ny2,-2,1
lesi,8,,,ny2,-2,1
lesi,16,,,ny2,-2,1
asel,s,,,2
aatt,,,4
asel,inve
aatt,,,3
alls
amesh,all
agen,2,2
aclear,2
adel,2,,,1
type,1
asel,s,type,,3
esiz,,6
vext,all,,,0,0,c
asel,s,type,,4
type,2
vext,all,,,0,0,c
alls
aclear,all
etdel,3
etdel,4
asel,s,,,11
asel,a,,,16,22,3
asel,a,,,26
nsla,s,1
d,all,vx,0
d,all,vy,0
d,all,vz,0
d,all,uz,0
d,all,ux,0
!***
!
asel,s,,,29,31
nsla,s,1
sf,all,fsin,1
!
asel,s,,,10,13,3
asel,a,,,24
nsla,s,1
sf,all,fsin,1
!***
asel,s,,,8,18,10
nsla,s,1
d,all,ux,0
d,all,uy,0
d,all,uz,0

397

d,all,vx,0
d,all,vy,1.0
d,all,vz,0
asel,s,,,15,27,12
nsla,s,1
d,all,pres,0
asel,s,,,32
nsla,s,1
d,all,ux,0
d,all,uy,0
d,all,uz,0
!
asel,s,,,1,6
asel,a,,,12,17,5
asel,a,,,25
nsla,s,1
d,all,vz,0
d,all,uz,0
alls
fini
/solu
flda,solu,flow,1
flda,solu,ale,1
flda,solu,turb,1
flda,solu,tran,1
flda,iter,exec,50
!Fluid Properties
flda,prot,dens,air-si
flda,prot,visc,air-si
!Solid Properties
mp,ex,1,2.1e11/1000
mp,nuxy,1,0.3
mp,dens,1,7800
fsan,on
fsco,all,1.0e-1
fsre,all,0.5
fsou,1
fsit,5
fsti,0.05
fsdt,0.01
fsor,fluid
fstr,solid,
fstr,fluid,
deltim,0.01
flda,time,step,0.01
save
solve
save
fini
/solu
!***
asel,s,,,8,18,10
nsla,s,1
d,all,ux,0
d,all,uy,0
d,all,uz,0
d,all,vx,0
d,all,vy,0
d,all,vz,0
allsel

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!


(FSI)
FSI
FSI

FSI
FSI delta time

analysis

398

fsrs,time,0.05
fsti,0.1
solve
save
fini
/post1
file,,rst
set,last
prnsol,u,sum
plnsol,u,sum
prnsol,v,sum
plnsol,v,sum
fini

399