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Solutions 6 Antenna arrays

Antennas and Propagation, Frhjahrssemester 2011

Antenna array (linear array, constant feed magnitude, isotropic radiators)

Problem 6.1 :
A three-element array of isotropic sources has the phase and magnitude relationships shown in the figure below. The spacing between the elements is d = l 2 . a) b) Find the array factor. Find the nulls.
z #2 -1 d #1 d #3 +1 -j y

Method I :

a) AF = -e + jkd cos q - j + e - jkd cos q = -2 j sin ( kd cos q ) - j To normalize the array factor so that its maximum equals unity, the normalization factor has to be -3j. AFn = 1 ( 1 + 2 sin ( kd cos q ) ) 3 = 1 ( 1 + 2 sin ( p cos q ) ) 3

b)

2 sin ( p cos qn ) = -1 p cos qn = sin-1 1 ( 2 ) = - p , - 56p , - 136p ,..., 76p , 11p , 196p = x 6 6
n

x qn = cos-1 n , p p q1 = 99.59 6 5p q2 = 146.44 x2 = 6 x1 = -

Solutions 6 Antenna arrays

Antennas and Propagation, Frhjahrssemester 2011

Method II :

a)

uniform array with x = -p / 2 :


Ny p 3 sin p cos q - 2 = 2 2 AF = p 1 y sin p cos q - sin 2 2 2 sin

Here, the phase centre is in the physical center of the array (element #1) Using the trigonometric identities:

sin(x + y ) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y


1 cos2 x = 2 ( 1 + cos 2x ) 1 sin2 x = 2 ( 1 - cos 2x )

the array factor can be written as

AF = =

3 1 1 sin 2 y sin y cos 2 y + cos y sin 2 y = 1 1 sin 2 y sin 2 y 1 1 1 1 1 1 ( 2 sin 2 y cos 2 y ) cos 2 y + ( cos2 2 y - sin2 2 y ) sin 2 y 1 sin 2 y

1 1 = 3 cos2 2 y - sin2 2 y 1 1 = 3 2 ( 1 + cos y ) - 2 ( 1 - cos y )

= 1 + 2 cos y = 1 + 2 cos ( kd cos q - p 2 ) = 1 + 2 sin(kd cos q) AFn = 1 ( 1 + 2 sin(kd cos q) ) 3


Same result as of Method I, where phase center was located at element #3.

b)

2n l -x qn = cos-1 p N 2pd n =1: n =2:

n = 1,2, 3... n N ,2N , 3N ,...

1 cos-1 - = 99.59 6 5 cos-1 - = 146.44 6

Solutions 6 Antenna arrays

Antennas and Propagation, Frhjahrssemester 2011

Antenna array (linear array, constant feed magnitude, isotropic radiators)

Problem 6.2 :
Design an ordinary end-fire uniform linear array with only one maximum so that its directivity is 20 dBi (above isotropic). The spacing between the elements is d = l 4 , and its length is much greater than the spacing. Determine the a) b) c) d) e) number of elements, overall length of the array (in wavelengths), approximate half-power beamwidth (in degrees), progressive phase between the elements (in degrees), amplitude level (compared to the maximum of the major lobe) of the first minor lobe (in dB). see slide 5.28 d D0 = 4N l D0 = 20 dB = 100

a)

( )

100 = 4N

( d ) = 4N ( 4ll ) = N l
l = 24.75l 4

N = 100

b)
L = ( N - 1 )d = 99

c)

see slide 5.18

qh = cos-1 1 -

1.391l = cos-1 ( 0.98228 ) = 10.799 Nd p HPBW = 2 qh = 21.6

d)

see slide 5.15 x = kd = 90 For small values of y the normalized array factor can be written as (Slide 5.12)

e)

sin AFn =

N y 2

( N y ) , since y = kd cos q kd @ kd (1 - cos q ) 2


N 3p ( kd cos qs kd ) 2 2

The maximum of the first minor lobe approximately occurs at

sin

( N y ) = 1 2
s

or when

Solutions 6 Antenna arrays

Antennas and Propagation, Frhjahrssemester 2011

qs = cos-1

{ 2ld -x 3Np } p
(N y ) = 2
s

At that point the magnitude of AFn reduces to

sin AFn =

N y 2 s

2 = 0.212 3p

which is in dB equal to

2 AFn = 20 log = -13.5 dB 3p

Solutions 6 Antenna arrays

Antennas and Propagation, Frhjahrssemester 2011

Antenna array (square array, constant feed magnitude, isotropic radiators)

Problem 6.3 :
Determine the azimuthal and elevation angles of the grating lobes for a 10 by 10 element uniform planar array when the spacing between the elements is . The maximum of the main beam is directed toward q0 = 60 , f0 = 90 and the array is located on the xy-plane.

The main radiation occurs in the following direction:


q0 = 60 ,

f0 = 90

3 sin q0 sin f0 = 2 sin q cos f = 0 0 0

Grating lobes occur if the following conditions are fulfilled: (Slide 5.46)
x = kd x sin cos + x = 2m y = kd y sin cos + y = 2n

in the directions given by (Slide 5.47):

3 n f = tan-1 2 m

for

0 f 360
(1)

3 n m q = sin-1 = sin-1 2 sin f cos f

for

0 q 180
(2)

With dx = dy = follows kdx = kdy = 2 and the limits of m and n are given as:

kdx ( sin q cos f - sin q0 cos f0 ) = 2p ( sin q cos f ) = 2m p m = -1, 0,1 since: - 1 sin q cos f 1 3 kdy ( sin q sin f - sin q0 sin f0 ) = 2p sin q sin f = 2n p 2 n = -1, 0 2+ 3 3 2- 3 -1.866 sin q sin f 0.1339 2 2 2
This means that the main radiation lobe and the grating lobes can occur in the directions given by (1) and (2) for m = -1,0,1 and n = -1,0 (i.e., six combinations).

Solutions 6 Antenna arrays

Antennas and Propagation, Frhjahrssemester 2011

Case I: n = 0 , m = -1 :

From (1):

From (2):

3 -40.8934 319.11 f = tan-1 = 2 139.1066 sin-1 ( -1.3228 ) -1 -1 q = sin cos f = -1 sin ( +1.3228 ) and -1 3 / 2 sin ( -1.3228 ) q = sin-1 = -1 sin f sin ( +1.3228 ) , respectively.

This means that there is no solution for case I. Case II: n = 0 , m = 0 ( main radiation) : 90 -1 ( ) = f = tan 270 From (1): 0 q = sin-1 0 , meaning that the term " 0 / 0 " can be anything, and From (2):

()

sin-1 ( 0.866 ) = 60 or 120 q = sin -1 sin ( -0.866 ) = -60 or - 120 q ( 0 q 180 ), the main radiation occurs Because of the limits of at f = 90 and q = 60 and (because of the symmetry) at f = 90 and q = 120 .
-1

3 /2 sin f =

Case III: n = 0 , m = 1 :

From (1):

3 40.8934 f = tan-1 = 2 220.89


1 q = sin-1 = cos f sin-1 ( 1.3228 ) -1 sin ( -1.3228 ) and -1 3 / 2 sin ( 1.3228 ) = sin f sin-1 ( -1.3228 ) , respectively.

From (2):
q = sin-1

This means that there is no solution in case III. Case IV: n = -1 , m = -1 :

From (1):

From (2):

3 / 2 - 1 7.63 f = tan-1 = -1 187.63 -1 sin ( -1.009 ) 270 -1 -1 q = sin cos f = -1 sin ( 1.009 ) 90 and

Solutions 6 Antenna arrays

Antennas and Propagation, Frhjahrssemester 2011


-1

q = sin

3 /2 - 1 sin f =

-1 ( ) sin -1.009 270 -1 sin ( 1.009 ) 90

The approximate solution of the arcsin-fuction means that there is no perfectly constructive interference of the waves originating from the respective array elements, but rather an almost constructive interference. As shown by the plots below, a large and significant almost grating lobe does exist.
Because of the limits of q ( 0 q 180 ), a grating lobe occurs at f = 187.63 and q = 90 .

90 ) = f = tan 270 From (1): 0 q = sin-1 0 , where the term " 0 / 0 " can be anything, and From (2): -7.69 or - 172.31 -1 3 / 2 - 1 q = sin sin f = 7.69 or 172.31 0 q 180 ), two grating lobes occur Because of the limits of q ( at f = 270 , q = 7.69 and at f = 270 , q = 172.31 .
-1 (

Case V: n = -1 , m = 0 :

()

Case VI: n = -1 , m = 1 :
-1

From (1):

From (2):

3 / 2 - 1 -7.63 352.37 f = tan = 1 172.37 -1 sin ( 1.009 ) 90 -1 -1 = q = sin cos f -1 sin ( -1.009 ) 270 and -1 sin ( 1.009 ) 90 -1 3 / 2 - 1 q = sin sin f = sin-1 ( -1.009 ) 270

The approximate solution of the arcsin-fuction means that there is no perfectly constructive interference of the waves originating from the respective array elements, but rather an almost constructive interference. As shown by the plots below, a large and significant almost grating lobe does exist.
Because of the limits of q ( 0 q 180 ), a grating lobe occurs at f = 357.37 and q = 90 .

Solutions 6 Antenna arrays

Antennas and Propagation, Frhjahrssemester 2011

The 3D array factor is shown in the figure below in linear and logarithmic scale.
linear z
grating lobe (case V) grating lobe (case IV)

main beam (case II)

grating lobe (case VI)

y x
symmetric main beam (case II) grating lobe (case V)

dB z

y x

Solutions 6 Antenna arrays

Antennas and Propagation, Frhjahrssemester 2011

Antenna array (non-linear array, constant feed magnitude, non-isotropic radiators)

Problem 6.4 :
A corner reflector consists of two semi-infinite perfectly conducting planes at angle of 90 to each other. A l / 2 dipole is placed parallel to the intersection line of the two planes and at the distance d from the same line. The minimum distance to each plane from the dipole is equal. a) b) Determine the far-field if the input current of the dipole is I 0 . Determine the nulls of the radiation pattern in the case d = l / 2 .

Feed

a) Thanks to image theory the corner reflector problem can be transformed into an array consisting of four elements:
r2 (a) (b) y Image #2 Plate #1 Image #2 r3 r r1

d d Feed #1

Image #3

d d d d

Feed #1

r2 x

Image #4

Plate #2

Solutions 6 Antenna arrays

Antennas and Propagation, Frhjahrssemester 2011

The distances from the four dipoles to the observation point r are

r1 = r - d cos f sin q r2 = r - d sin f sin q r3 = r + d cos f sin q r4 = r + d sin f sin q


and the total electric field of the configuration is given by:
E tot = E1 + E2 + E 3 + E 4
= E 0 e jkd sin q cos f - e jkd sin q sin f + e - jkd sin q cos f - e - jkd sin q sin f = AE AF

with the single element pattern being the one of a l / 2 dipole:

p j hI 0e - jkr cos 2 cos q , AE = E 0 = 2pr sin q

and the array factor:

AF = 2 [ cos ( kd sin q cos f ) - cos ( kd sin q sin f ) ] .


Thus, the total electric field is:

E tot

p j hI 0e - jkr cos 2 cos q = 2 [ cos ( kd sin q cos f ) - cos ( kd sin q sin f ) ] 2pr sin q

b) Here, the zeros of the single element pattern and of the array factor have to be determined. For the array factor AF , the nulls are occurring for:
cos ( kd sin q cos f ) - cos ( kd sin q sin f ) = 0 cos A - cos B = 2 sin

A+B A-B sin =0 2 2

where:

A = kd sin q cos f = p sin q cos f B = kd sin q sin f = p sin q sin f

Solutions 6 Antenna arrays

Antennas and Propagation, Frhjahrssemester 2011

This means that

sin
This gives

A+B =0 2

or

sin

A-B = 0. 2

A + B = 0 and therewith p sin q cos f + p sin q sin f = 0

Thus, sin q = 0 or cos f + sin f = 0 and thus f = 135 , 315 .

A - B = 0 and therewith p sin q cos f - p sin q sin f = 0


Thus, sin q = 0 or cos f - sin f = 0 and thus f = 45 ,225 . This result was to-be-expected given the geometry of the problem: the dipole polarized parallel to the corner mirror metal plates shall indeed give a radiation null in the direction of the plates (that is, =45 and =315). For the element AE , the nulls are occurring for:

cos

( p cos q ) = 0 . 2
sin q

0 , and thus the rule of l'Hospital has to be 0 applied to check if a null of the radiation pattern is occuring at q = 0

For q = 0 the expression has the form

p p sin cos q sin q f (q) f (0) 2 = lim = 2 lim q 0 g (q) q 0 g (0) cos q

= 0.
q =0

This result was to-be-expected given the geometry of the problem: the dipole has a null in the direction =0, so does a planar group of four parallel dipoles.

Solutions 6 Antenna arrays

Antennas and Propagation, Frhjahrssemester 2011

Antenna array (linear array, non-constant feed magnitude, dipole radiators)

Problem 6.5 :
Assume an antenna array composed of 3 infinitesimal horizontal dipoles positioned along the z -axis, as shown in figure below. The currents on the dipoles are constant along the wire and have the following time dependence: D1: D2: D3:

I 1 ( t ) = I 0 sin ( wt ) I 2 ( t ) = 2I 0 cos ( wt ) I 3 ( t ) = -I 0 sin ( wt )

a) b) c)

Calculate the array factor AF (q, d ) and the complete far field EFF (q, d, r ) of this antenna array in function of d , q and r . Which angle q maximizes the AF , having distance d of half a wavelength? Calculate distance d for which the array radiates in end-fire direction.

a)

The phase difference between D2 and D1 is 90 . As well the phase difference between D3 and D2 is 90 . So we have an array with uniform spacing d and progressive phase x ( = 90 ). The far field radiation of one single infinitesimal dipole is located in the origin and oriented like shown in figure is
Eq = j h I 0le - jkr cos q 4pr

The excitations can be written as

Solutions 6 Antenna arrays

Antennas and Propagation, Frhjahrssemester 2011

I 1 = I 0 cos ( wt - 90 ) I 2 = 2I 0 cos ( wt ) I 3 = -I 0 cos ( wt - 90 )

The sum of the far field contributions of the 3 dipoles can be written as
Eq = j h I 0l cos q 4pr
p - j (kr -kd cos q + p ) - j (kr +kd cos q + ) 2 + 2e - jkr - e 2 e p j (kd cos q - p ) - j (kd cos q + ) 2 + 2 -e 2 e

Il = j h 0 cos q e - jkr 4pr

AF = 2 + e

-j

p 2

e jkd cos q - e-jkd cos q

AF = 2 + 2 sin ( kd cos q )
The total field becomes
EFF = j h I 0l - jkr e cos q ( 2 + 2 sin ( kd cos q ) ) 4pr

b) The maximum of the AF (AFmax = 4) appears if the argument of the sine function is

kd cos q =

p + 2n p, 2

where

n = 0, 1, 2, ......

solving for q we get


2n p + p 2n p + p 2 = arccos 2 = arccos 2n + 1 = arccos kd p 2

qmax

A real solution occurs only for arguments of the arcos whose modulus is smaller or equal to one. Therefore the only possible n is n = 0 .

1 1 qmax = arccos 2n + = arccos + = 60 2 2


This array factor is shown in the following figure (note: direction for positive z / =0 pointing horizontally in the picture)

Solutions 6 Antenna arrays

Antennas and Propagation, Frhjahrssemester 2011


90 120 3 4 60

150

2 1

30

180

210

330

240 270

300

c)

The endfire direction of the given array is either q = 0 or q = 180 . In order to achieve radiation in the endfire direction the argument of the cosine function has to be maximized.
AF(d , q) = 2 + 2 sin ( kd cos q ) = 4 for p + 2n p 2 where n = 0,1, 2,.... q = 180 : p p + 2n p kd = -2n p 2 2 kd cos q = -kd = d = nl l , 4 q = 0 :

AF(d , q) = 2 + 2 sin ( kd cos q ) = 4 for kd cos q = kd = d = nl + l , 4

where n = 1, 2,....

The following picture shows the AF for d = / 4. (note: direction for positive z / =0 pointing horizontally in the picture)
90 120 3 150 2 1 30 4 60

180

210

330

240 270

300