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PHY 1214 PHY 1214 General Physics II General Physics II

Lecture 11 Resistors in Circuits June 21, 2005


Weldon J. Wilson Professor of Physics & Engineering Howell Hall 221H wwilson@ucok.edu

Lecture Schedule (Weeks 1-3)

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June 20, 2005

PHY 1214 - Lecture 11

Resistors in Series

Vab = V1 + V2 = IR1 + IR2 = I ( R1 + R2 )

Vab I ( R1 + R2 ) Rab = = = R1 + R2 I I

Req = R1 + R2 + + RN (series resistors)


June 20, 2005 PHY 1214 - Lecture 11 4

Example: A Series Resistor Circuit

Req = 15 + 4 + 8 = 27

E (9 V) I= = = 0.333 A Req (27 )

VR1 = IR1 = (15 )(0.333 A) = 5.0 V VR2 = IR2 = (4 )(0.333 A) = 1.33 V VR3 = IR3 = (8 )(0.333 A) = 2.67 V
June 20, 2005 PHY 1214 - Lecture 11 5

Real Batteries (1)


An ideal battery provides a potential difference that is a constant, independent of current flow or duration of use. But real batteries sag under load and become weak or dead as their chemical energy is used up. How can we include such effects? A reasonable approximation is to include an internal resistance rint. The internal resistance may increase as the battery ages. And the rule is that the larger and more expensive the battery, the lower the rint.

June 20, 2005

PHY 1214 - Lecture 11

A Short Circuit
What happens if you short out a battery, i.e., connect an ideal resistanceless wire across its terminals, so that the potential difference across the terminals is zero? Then, Ishort=E/r. In other words, E all of the batterys potential is dropped across its internal resistance. Ishort is the maximum possible current that a battery can supply .

June 20, 2005

PHY 1214 - Lecture 11

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Resistors in Parallel
I = I1 + I 2 = V1 V2 + R1 R2 1 Vcd Vcd 1 = + = Vcd + R1 R2 R1 R2

Rcd =

Vcd = I

Vcd 1 1 Vcd + R1 R2
1

1 1 = + R1 R2

1 1 1 1 = + + + Req R1 R2 RN
June 20, 2005

(parallel resistors)
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PHY 1214 - Lecture 11

Example: Analyzing a Complex Circuit (1)


Four resistors are connected to a 2 V battery as shown. Find the current through the battery. Find the potential differences across and currents through each resistor.

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PHY 1214 - Lecture 11

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Example: Analyzing a Complex Circuit (2)

June 20, 2005

PHY 1214 - Lecture 11

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End of Lecture 11
Before the next lecture, read Sections 20.7 through 20.9.

June 20, 2005

PHY 1214 - Lecture 11

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