Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 64

Vol. No.

No. 4

QUARTERLY

APRIL - JUNE 2009

Sil v

ubilee rJ Y e

19

BULLETIN
of Association of Consulting Civil Engineers (India)

ea

r
09

84

20

Winner of the ACCE SARVAMANGALA AWARD 2009 for Excellence in Construction of Civil Engineering Projects

# 2, U. V. C. E. Alumni Association Building, K. R. Circle, Bangalore - 560 001 Phone : 91-80-22247466 E-mail : admin@accehq.net Tel/Fax : 91-80-22219012 Website : www.accehq.net

ACCE BULLETIN
Vol. 8
ABOUT COVER PAGE
Winner of the ACCE SARVAMANGALA AWARD 2009 for Excellence in Construction of Civil Engineering Projects awarded to B.G. Shirke Construction Technology Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore for Excellence in Construction of
VIDHANA SOUDHA SOUTH BLOCK (Vikasa Soudha)
The magnificent Vidhana Soudha is the largest legislature cum secretariat building in the countr with around 6.4 lakh sq. ft. of area. This building could not house all the elected MLAs in this one building. It was Shri S.M. Krishna, Ex-Chief Minister, who decided and finalized the Vidhana Soudha South Block to be constructed with a built up area of around 6.00 lakh sq.ft. VSSB was later rechristened as Vikasa Soudha. The Vikasa Soudha was planned and executed by the Karnataka Public Works Department. The building was planned to match the existing building in total. The Vikasa Soudha is situated just adjacent to the Vidhana Soudha in the heart of the city; the state secretariat building is essentially Indian in style. It is built mainly ont he union of Dravidian, Rajasthani, Chola and Kannada Style of architecture, which evolved in India. The ornamental motifs, floral patterns and chiselled geometric designs are all distinct and not a single design has been repeated. All the door and windows are with teak wood. The floral motifs of the stone-carvings are Dravidian in style and are drawn entirel from the temple - craft of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Thus the Vidhana soudha and Vikasa soudha showcase the best of South Indias Indegeneous architectural styles.
The stone structure is built entirely with the granite executed from the vicinity of Hesaraghatta, Mallasandra, Avalahalli, Koira Quarries. The grand entrance of the Vikasa Soudha faces the Attara Kacheri (now called the High Court) another imposing structure and the cubbon park. Around 3000 labourers and 1,500 sculptors were deployed for the proejct under a team of dynamic engineers from B.G. Shirke Construction Technology Pvt. Ltd. and the Karnataka Government PWD. The Total sone used for this project is about 4.00 lakhs c.ft. The entire building of Vikasa Soudha covers an area of 638068.00 sq. ft. of built up area. The building consists of three basements for car parking (each of 7958 sq. mt.) a around floor and 4 floors above with 6880 sq.mt. in each floor. On the eastern side a porch with 8 tall decorated cylindrical granite columns of 40 ft. in height. Granite stones of different colours found in and around Bangalore were used for the building. The buildings four corners have four towers, supporting domes topped by metallic Kalashas. This is the only Government building having the following features : Sub surface drainage system. The excess water from the sub surface flows to the Cubbon park.

April - June 2009

No. 4 CONTENTS

Presidents Message ...................................... 4 From Secretary Generals Desk ........................ 5 From the Editorial Desk .................................... 5 Slurry Infiltrated Fibrous Concrete (SIFCON) -an Experimental Study ..................................... 6 Rethinking Sustainability ................................. 11 The New Lightweight Structure Tensairity ........ 13 Review and Design of Flat Plate/ Slabs Construction in India ............................. 17 Tall SustainabilityAn Urban Imperative ......... 21 Events at Glance ............................................ 29 Infrastructure Health Monitoring for Management .............................................. 37 Role of Admixtures role Admixtures. ............... 44 When Structures Move .................................... 48 News From ACCE (I) Headquarters ................ 54 News From ACCE (I) Centres .......................... 54 Forthcoming Events ........................................ 56 ACCE (I) Membership Additions ...................... 56 Professional Directory ................................... 57 Thanks to Patrons ....................................... 58
Solar power of 100 KW. Fire fighting system Air Conditioning Two nos Capsule Lifts along with six passenger lifts. Pedestrian subway connecting south side of Vidhana Soudha and North side of Vikasa Soudha. Trenchless excavation to drain out excess water fromthe sub surface to Cubbon Park

ACCE (I) Office Bearers


Umesh B. Rao A. M. Shingarey Dr. A. R. Santhakumar B. V. Ravindranath B. N. Raghunath S. Pichaiya Dr. Manamohan R. Kalgal President Vice-President (West) Vice President (South) Secretary General Treasurer Imm. Past President Imm. Past Secretary General

Bulletin Committee
Chairman : Dr. M. N. Hegde National Advisors : D. Ranganth, Nir mal Prasad A, Dr. R. Jagadish, Dr. Manamohan R. Kalgal, Dr. V. Ramachandra, B.S.C. Rao, Ajit Sabnis, Avinash Shirode, Srinivasan S.P ., Moorthy K.G.K., S.N. Karnik, Jain L.K, N.R. Ashok, Ratnavel S. Technical Editors : Industry Prof. T. Senthilnayagam, R. Srinivasan, S. K. Jain, V. P. Ponnuswami, Tigadi N. S, H. V. Manjunathaswamy, Mukund Kamath, R. K. Desai Technical Editors : Academic Institutions Dr. Sharada Bai, Dr. R. V. Ranganath, Dr. M. C. Nataraja, Dr. D. S. Prakash, Dr. M. U. Aswath, Dr. R. N. Pranesh Secretaries of all Centres (Ex-Officio Members)

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

Printed and published by Dr. M.N. Hegde on behalf of the Association of Consulting Civil Engineers (India) and printed at Vijayanataraj Printart Industries, S.C. Road, Basavanagudi, Bangalore 560 004 and published at 2, UVCE Alumni Association Building, K R Circle, Bangalore 560 001. Editor: Dr. M.N. Hegde MAG(3)/NPP/166/2003-04, CMM/BNG/DELL/PP/156/21-2002

April - June 2009

PRESIDENTs MESSAGE

Dear Members, It has been pleasure being President of ACCE for the tenure year 2007-2009.It gave avery good opportunity of meeting members at various centers during Govrnning Council meetings, seminars, technical meets or associated functions. It was always very warm welcome,great hospitality and very homely but very meticulously planned and executed programmes along with appropriate topics and technical contents. I enjoyed this term and will be cherished all along. I am thankfull to all of you for the cortsey extended to me. Ensuing year is our silver jubilee year and we need to celebrate it in befitting manner.May be by holding technical meets,workshops,seminars,round table conference even places we do not have centers. These location can be in the proximity of existing centers or in that region. The topics can be of interest to suit considering requirments locally, regionally, nationally. I am of the opinion that one issue which is of national importance is trainnig of personal involved such as designers,software for analysis,engineering,design,detailing,quantity survey etc. We also need to interact, collabrate, cooperate with educational institutes, NGO, youngsters to upgrade knowledge as well generate interest to learn and train to perform better. Engineer Avinash Shirode, Nashik, is the President elect for the next term. He is a versitle person and has been very actively involved not just on engineering proffession but on matter of engineering societies. I am sure he will take ACCE (I) to much higher heights. This will be the last bulletin in which I will be addressing as President. Hope to see all of you at Davangere for the AGM and installation of New Team. Wishing you good bye and all the best in your profession. UMESH B RAO
President- ACCE(I)

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

April - June 2009

From the Editorial Desk


Dear fellow members, I tried my best to retain the standards of the bulletin. Unfortunately, I could not fulfil my own expectations for the bulletin. I wish that the bulletin will soon be converted into a Journal. I thank all members for their criticism, suggestions and support / encouragement during last two years of publication of the bulletin. I also thank the members of Advisory and Editorial Committee for their valuable contribution and involvement. I thank Mr. S. D. Anne Gowda, who always takes personal interest in the publication of the bulletin. I take this opportunity to thank Mr. Ekambaram and Mr. Harish for their co-operation and assistance. I sincerely thank Mr. Sathishchandra for wonderful DTP work and timely completion of the work. I am grateful to President and Secretary General for their constant support & encouragement. I wish next team all the success and wish that the bulletin will be taken to a new height. I congratulate the new team under the leadership of Mr. Avinash Shirode and Dr. M. U. Aswath, and wish them all the best. With warm regards, Dr. M. N. HEGDE
Chairman, Bulletin Committee Email: mmmhegde@yahoo.com

From Secretary Generals Desk


Dear Members, It is to inform you all that my term as Secretary General for last two years has come to an end making way for the new team and new Secretary General to take over for 2009-2011. It is time to pay my tributes with thanks to the President, Governing Council Members and Staff at Head Quarters for extending their fullest support in conducting my term smoothly and successfully. I wish to express my sincere thanks to all members for extending their support during my term. It was indeed a great time of my career to meet many senior members of ACCE(I), get their advice and guidance apart from visiting various places to further the activities of association. It was indeed an eye opener for me to know about the excellent brotherhood existing among our fraternity members. The opportunity to meet and hear lectures from doyens in our field and share platform with them was unforgettable one. The term also showed how an individual can be part of an association for the greater causes of both. With the new team set to take over at the AGM at Davangere, I wish them success in their endeavors. I am hopeful to interact with you all in a different capacity under new team. Looking forward to meet you all to thank you in person at AGM at Davangere. B. V. RAVINDRANATH
Secretary General

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

April - June 2009

SLURRY INFILTRATED FIBROUS CONCRETE (SIFCON)


-An Experimental Study
Dr. Aswath M.U., Professor in Civil Engineering, BIT, Bangalore-4 Sreenivas S.R., Consulting Engineer (Former PG Student BIT) ABSTRACT Slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete SIFCON is a relatively new high-performance and advanced material and can be considered as a special type of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC). SIFCON is a unique construction material possessing high strength as well as large ductility and far excellent potential for structural applications, when accidental or abnormal loads are encountered during service. SIFCON also exhibit a new behavioral phenomenon, that of fibre interlock which is believed to be responsible for its outstanding stress-strain properties. In this view an attempt has been made to study the behavior of SIFCON in compression and tension. Total 87 specimens were cast and tested. 57 cylinders and 30 cubes with fibre length of 40mm, 50mm and60mm and with fibre percentages of 6, 8, and 12 were investigated using super plasticizer to improve water cement ratio. In the present investigation the study of tensile and compressive behavior of SIFCON is done for different variation in fibre percentage and fibre length. Keywords: SIFCON, steel fibre, cylinders, cubes, compression testing, tensile strength, water cement ratio. of its high tensile strength and ductility. In the present investigation compressive strength, Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio of SIFCON are studied. The tests were conducted on specimen caste by SIFCON matrix with different fibre volume contents.

2.0 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION


From the literature study conducted, it appears that a number of researchers were concentrated their attention on the study of various strength properties with constant l/d ratio and varying percentage of volume of fibre. In the present investigation an effort has been made to study the properties of SIFCON keeping both 1/d ratio and percentage of volume of fibre as variables. The experimental investigation is related to compression split tensile and modulus of elasticity of slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete. The cubes and cylinders of standard dimensions were cast and tested as per I.S. specifications after curing 7 & 28 days. In this investigation the parameters adopted as constants are the water cement ratio, diameter of steel fibre and compaction (table compaction) period. The varied parameters are: 1.The aspect ratio (1/d) of the fibres (40, 50 and 60) 2.Percentage of fibre (6, 8 and 12)

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The technique of infiltrating layers of steel fibres with Portland cement based materials was first reported by Haynes [1968]. Lankard [1979] modified the method used by Haynes and proved that if the percentage of steel fibres in a cement matrix could be increased, one could get a material with very high strength properties which he named as SIFCON. Later he extended the application of SIFCON to refractories [1982]. The engineering properties of SIFCON along with a number of successful applications were again investigated by Lankard and Newell [1984]. Homrich and Naaman [1987] studied its stress strain properties in compression. Naaman [1987] also investigated the use of SIFCON in connection with seismic resistance frames. Parameswaran et al [1990] investigated the behaviour of SIFCON under impact, abrasion on flexural loads. They also studied the feasibility of different ways of making SIFCON and measured their relative toughness characteristics [1991]. SIFCON has already been successfully used abroad for the construction of structures subjected to impact, blast & dynamic loading and also for refractive applications, overlays and repairs of structural components because

3.0 TEST PROGRAMME


The present experimental investigation focuses attention on the compression and split behavior of slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete. Coarse aggregate has been replaced by the fibre in percentage of 6, 8 and 12 by total volume of specimen. In all the mixes the water cement ratio was kept constant (0.5) using super plasticizer (SP 337) at 7 ml/kg. The aspect ratios of fibre are 40, 50 and 60. Ordinary Portland cement is used in the experimental work. The test program consists of carrying out compressive tests on cubes and cylinders, split tensile tests and modulus of elasticity tests on cylinder. The total number of specimens for all mix proportions is 87, which consists of 30 cubes, and 57 cylinders. Each cube of size 150 x 150 x 150 mm, cylinder of diameter 150 mm and length 300 mm. Each mix consists of 3 cubes and 6 cylinders for each percentage of fibre and for each aspect ratio of fibres.The details of constant, variable parameters and specimen details are as shown in below table.

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

April - June 2009

Varied parameters Constant parameters Length of fibre % ge of volume of fibre 6 8 12 6 8 12 6 8 12 0

Type of specimens Cubes 15x15x15 cm 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Cylinders 15x30 cm 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3

W/c ratio = 0.5

40 mm

Compaction period 2 minutes (Table Vibrator) Dia. of fibre = 1 mm

50 mm

60 mm

Plain mix (1:1.5:3)

4.0 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND PRESENTATION OF TEST RESULTS


4.1. General An experimental study is conducted on slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete (SIFCON). The design mix consists of high strength slurry with various percentage of fibre by replacing coarse aggregate. Cubes and cylindrical specimens cast and tested for compressive strength, split tensile strength. Experimental study is carried out to investigate the strength variation in concrete by replacing coarse aggregate by fibre and to find out the strength properties of SIFCON. 4.2 Materials: Cement: Ordinary Portland cement of 43 grade conforming to ISI standards. The cement is tested for its various properties as per IS 8112-1989. The results are Normal consistency is 30%, Initial setting time is 45 minutes, Final setting time is 7 hours and Specific gravity is 3.08. Fine Aggregate (Sand): River sand from the local source. The specific gravity of the sand is 2.65 where as its fineness modulus is found to be 2.99 confirming to zone II. Water: The potable fresh water, which is free from concentration of acid and organic substances, is used for mixing the slurry. Super Plasticizer: SP 337 super plasticizer at 7 ml/kg is used to improve water cement ratio. Fibres: Black wire fibre of 1.0 mm diameter with ultimate tensile strength of 390 N/mm2 is used. The fibres are cut to required lengths using shear cutter. The fibre length of 40, 50 and 60 mm are used. 4.3. Fabrication and Casting The cylinders were cast in steel moulds of diameter 150 Bulletin of ACCE (I) 7

mm and 300 height and the cubes are cast in steel moulds of inner dimensions of 150 x 150 x 150 mm. For all test specimen moulds are kept on table vibrator the moulds are filled with fibre in random manner of calculated volume. For each percentage of fibre and for each aspect ratio of fibres 3 cubes and 3 cylinders were cast. After placing the fibres in the moulds the slurry was poured into the fibre bed and vibrations were effected by table vibrator. The vibration was effected for 2 minutes, for each mould and it is maintained constant for all the specimens. 4.4 Testing of specimens After curing the specimens in water for a period of 7 and 28 days they were allowed to dry under shade and then white washed. The specimens were tested for compression and split tensile strength. Compression Test: The test results are tabulated for 7 and 28 days in table 4.2.and 4.3. The variations of the cube compressive strength for the three types of aspect ratios versus volume percentage of fibres are shown in figures 4.2.and 4.3. Split tensile strength test: The tensile strength of concrete is calculated using the formula 2P/ (3.14 D x L) where P=maximum load, L=length of cylinder and = diameter of cylinder. Split tensile strengths for all cylinders tested were furnished in the table no: 4.4. The variations of the split tensile strengths for the aspect ratio of fibres (40, 50, and 60) versus volume percentage of fibres are shown in fig.4.4 Modulus of elasticity test: The typical stress stain relations are shown in figures: 4.5 to 5.3. The modulus of elasticity was determined at 30% of ultimate strength of cylindrical specimen. It was observed that the linearity between stress and strain exhibits up to 30% ultimate April - June 2009

strength. The modulus of elasticity values determined in this investigation is furnished in table no: 4.5. The failure load was taken as cylindrical strength of the specimen. The modulus of elasticity is determined by taking initial tangent modulus for each percentage of fibre and for each aspect ratio of the fibre. 4.5. General observations: It was observed in compression tests that the plain concrete cubes failed suddenly in a brittle manner where as the SIFCON cubes produced significant cracks with increase in the post cracking strength. In the case of cylinders it was observed the top and bottom surfaces of plain concrete cylinders were crushed where as in the SIFCON no such crushing was observed which is an indication of the ductility of slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete.

pertain to the use of straight steel fibres. The higher compressive strength may be obtained using higher volume of fibre and 1/d ratio, provided with good bond between matrixes. SIFCON exhibits extremely high ductility An increase in fibre length leads to an increase in both compressive strength and tensile strength. At constant fibre length compressive strength is directly proportional to the volume fraction of fibres. It may be noted that after a certain fibre loading the bond strength goes down because of lack of matrix presence in between the fibres. The relation between compressive strength and tensile strength for different aspect ratios is linear.

5.0 DISCUSSION OF TEST RESULTS


5.1. Compression Test Cylinders: Typical stress strain curves in compression are presented in table 4.4. The SIFCON specimens behave in a very ductile manner compared with plane concrete (1:1.5:3) specimens. It may be observed that the energy absorption is more in SIFCON specimens. The energy absorption effect can be achieved in two ways. One is increasing the fibre length by keeping volume of fibre constant. The other one is by keeping the fibre length constant and varying the percentage of fibre. From table 4.4 it may be observed that as the percentage of fibre increases the E value increases. The E value for SIFCON specimens is more compared with plain concrete specimens. This may be due to difference in matrix. The stress distribution is more effective in SIFCON specimens. Cubes: It was observed that the compressive strength effect is more with increasing the percentage of fibre for particular l/d ratio. The compressive strength was is increases by increasing the length of fibre by keeping volume of fibre constant. 5.2. Split Tensile Test: From table 4.4 and figs4.4, it is evident that higher value of tensile strength is obtained by increasing the fibre volume with 1/d ratio as constant variable. The higher split tensile strength may also be obtained by increasing the fibre length with constant percentage of volume of fibre. But the increment rate is less in later case.

Table 4.2 Cube compressive strength of tested specimens: 7 Days For plain concrete (1:1.5:3) mix Compressive strength = 46.67 N/mm2
Sy Percentage No of Fibre Fibre Length 40mm Fibre Length 50mm Fibre Lengths 60mm

Average Ultimate Compressive Load Stress Tonnes N/mm2 1 2 3 6 8 12 92.5 95 99 40.5 42 43.5 Load Stress Tonnes N/mm2 100 102 111 44.3 45 48.3 Load Stress Tonnes N/mm2 111 113 119 49.8 50.3 54

Table 4.3 Cube compressive strength of tested specimens: 28 Days For plain concrete (1:1.5:3) mix Compressive strength = 46.67 N/mm2
Sy Percentage No of Fibre Fibre Length 40mm Fibre Length 50mm Fibre Lengths 60mm

Average Ultimate Compressive Load Stress Tonnes N/mm2 1. 2. 3. 6 8 12 104 106 112 46 47 49.5 Load Stress Tonnes N/mm2 108.5 110 114.5 48.5 49 51.5 Load Stress Tonnes N/mm2 116 51.5 118 52.5 125.5 55.5

Chart Compressive strength v/s % Fibre


Compressive stress N/m m 40 mm 54 50 46 42 38 34 30 2 4 6 8 % Fibre 10 12 14 50 mm 60 mm

6.0 CONCLUSIONS
Conclusions: From the limited tests conducted, the following tentative conclusions can be drawn based on the results presented. It should be noted that the results Bulletin of ACCE (I) 8

Fig: 4.2 Cube compressive strength of tested specimens: 7 Days

April - June 2009

PRESIDENTs MESSAGE

Dear Members, It has been pleasure being President of ACCE for the tenure year 2007-2009.It gave avery good opportunity of meeting members at various centers during Govrnning Council meetings, seminars, technical meets or associated functions. It was always very warm welcome,great hospitality and very homely but very meticulously planned and executed programmes along with appropriate topics and technical contents. I enjoyed this term and will be cherished all along. I am thankfull to all of you for the cortsey extended to me. Ensuing year is our silver jubilee year and we need to celebrate it in befitting manner.May be by holding technical meets,workshops,seminars,round table conference even places we do not have centers. These location can be in the proximity of existing centers or in that region. The topics can be of interest to suit considering requirments locally, regionally, nationally. I am of the opinion that one issue which is of national importance is trainnig of personal involved such as designers,software for analysis,engineering,design,detailing,quantity survey etc. We also need to interact, collabrate, cooperate with educational institutes, NGO, youngsters to upgrade knowledge as well generate interest to learn and train to perform better. Engineer Avinash Shirode, Nashik, is the President elect for the next term. He is a versitle person and has been very actively involved not just on engineering proffession but on matter of engineering societies. I am sure he will take ACCE (I) to much higher heights. This will be the last bulletin in which I will be addressing as President. Hope to see all of you at Davangere for the AGM and installation of New Team. Wishing you good bye and all the best in your profession. UMESH B RAO
President- ACCE(I)

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

April - June 2009

From the Editorial Desk


Dear fellow members, I tried my best to retain the standards of the bulletin. Unfortunately, I could not fulfil my own expectations for the bulletin. I wish that the bulletin will soon be converted into a Journal. I thank all members for their criticism, suggestions and support / encouragement during last two years of publication of the bulletin. I also thank the members of Advisory and Editorial Committee for their valuable contribution and involvement. I thank Mr. S. D. Anne Gowda, who always takes personal interest in the publication of the bulletin. I take this opportunity to thank Mr. Ekambaram and Mr. Harish for their co-operation and assistance. I sincerely thank Mr. Sathishchandra for wonderful DTP work and timely completion of the work. I am grateful to President and Secretary General for their constant support & encouragement. I wish next team all the success and wish that the bulletin will be taken to a new height. I congratulate the new team under the leadership of Mr. Avinash Shirode and Dr. M. U. Aswath, and wish them all the best. With warm regards, Dr. M. N. HEGDE
Chairman, Bulletin Committee Email: mmmhegde@yahoo.com

From Secretary Generals Desk


Dear Members, It is to inform you all that my term as Secretary General for last two years has come to an end making way for the new team and new Secretary General to take over for 2009-2011. It is time to pay my tributes with thanks to the President, Governing Council Members and Staff at Head Quarters for extending their fullest support in conducting my term smoothly and successfully. I wish to express my sincere thanks to all members for extending their support during my term. It was indeed a great time of my career to meet many senior members of ACCE(I), get their advice and guidance apart from visiting various places to further the activities of association. It was indeed an eye opener for me to know about the excellent brotherhood existing among our fraternity members. The opportunity to meet and hear lectures from doyens in our field and share platform with them was unforgettable one. The term also showed how an individual can be part of an association for the greater causes of both. With the new team set to take over at the AGM at Davangere, I wish them success in their endeavors. I am hopeful to interact with you all in a different capacity under new team. Looking forward to meet you all to thank you in person at AGM at Davangere. B. V. RAVINDRANATH
Secretary General

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

April - June 2009

SLURRY INFILTRATED FIBROUS CONCRETE (SIFCON)


-An Experimental Study
Dr. Aswath M.U., Professor in Civil Engineering, BIT, Bangalore-4 Sreenivas S.R., Consulting Engineer (Former PG Student BIT) ABSTRACT Slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete SIFCON is a relatively new high-performance and advanced material and can be considered as a special type of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC). SIFCON is a unique construction material possessing high strength as well as large ductility and far excellent potential for structural applications, when accidental or abnormal loads are encountered during service. SIFCON also exhibit a new behavioral phenomenon, that of fibre interlock which is believed to be responsible for its outstanding stress-strain properties. In this view an attempt has been made to study the behavior of SIFCON in compression and tension. Total 87 specimens were cast and tested. 57 cylinders and 30 cubes with fibre length of 40mm, 50mm and60mm and with fibre percentages of 6, 8, and 12 were investigated using super plasticizer to improve water cement ratio. In the present investigation the study of tensile and compressive behavior of SIFCON is done for different variation in fibre percentage and fibre length. Keywords: SIFCON, steel fibre, cylinders, cubes, compression testing, tensile strength, water cement ratio. of its high tensile strength and ductility. In the present investigation compressive strength, Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio of SIFCON are studied. The tests were conducted on specimen caste by SIFCON matrix with different fibre volume contents.

2.0 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION


From the literature study conducted, it appears that a number of researchers were concentrated their attention on the study of various strength properties with constant l/d ratio and varying percentage of volume of fibre. In the present investigation an effort has been made to study the properties of SIFCON keeping both 1/d ratio and percentage of volume of fibre as variables. The experimental investigation is related to compression split tensile and modulus of elasticity of slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete. The cubes and cylinders of standard dimensions were cast and tested as per I.S. specifications after curing 7 & 28 days. In this investigation the parameters adopted as constants are the water cement ratio, diameter of steel fibre and compaction (table compaction) period. The varied parameters are: 1.The aspect ratio (1/d) of the fibres (40, 50 and 60) 2.Percentage of fibre (6, 8 and 12)

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The technique of infiltrating layers of steel fibres with Portland cement based materials was first reported by Haynes [1968]. Lankard [1979] modified the method used by Haynes and proved that if the percentage of steel fibres in a cement matrix could be increased, one could get a material with very high strength properties which he named as SIFCON. Later he extended the application of SIFCON to refractories [1982]. The engineering properties of SIFCON along with a number of successful applications were again investigated by Lankard and Newell [1984]. Homrich and Naaman [1987] studied its stress strain properties in compression. Naaman [1987] also investigated the use of SIFCON in connection with seismic resistance frames. Parameswaran et al [1990] investigated the behaviour of SIFCON under impact, abrasion on flexural loads. They also studied the feasibility of different ways of making SIFCON and measured their relative toughness characteristics [1991]. SIFCON has already been successfully used abroad for the construction of structures subjected to impact, blast & dynamic loading and also for refractive applications, overlays and repairs of structural components because

3.0 TEST PROGRAMME


The present experimental investigation focuses attention on the compression and split behavior of slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete. Coarse aggregate has been replaced by the fibre in percentage of 6, 8 and 12 by total volume of specimen. In all the mixes the water cement ratio was kept constant (0.5) using super plasticizer (SP 337) at 7 ml/kg. The aspect ratios of fibre are 40, 50 and 60. Ordinary Portland cement is used in the experimental work. The test program consists of carrying out compressive tests on cubes and cylinders, split tensile tests and modulus of elasticity tests on cylinder. The total number of specimens for all mix proportions is 87, which consists of 30 cubes, and 57 cylinders. Each cube of size 150 x 150 x 150 mm, cylinder of diameter 150 mm and length 300 mm. Each mix consists of 3 cubes and 6 cylinders for each percentage of fibre and for each aspect ratio of fibres.The details of constant, variable parameters and specimen details are as shown in below table.

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

April - June 2009

Varied parameters Constant parameters Length of fibre % ge of volume of fibre 6 8 12 6 8 12 6 8 12 0

Type of specimens Cubes 15x15x15 cm 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Cylinders 15x30 cm 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3

W/c ratio = 0.5

40 mm

Compaction period 2 minutes (Table Vibrator) Dia. of fibre = 1 mm

50 mm

60 mm

Plain mix (1:1.5:3)

4.0 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND PRESENTATION OF TEST RESULTS


4.1. General An experimental study is conducted on slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete (SIFCON). The design mix consists of high strength slurry with various percentage of fibre by replacing coarse aggregate. Cubes and cylindrical specimens cast and tested for compressive strength, split tensile strength. Experimental study is carried out to investigate the strength variation in concrete by replacing coarse aggregate by fibre and to find out the strength properties of SIFCON. 4.2 Materials: Cement: Ordinary Portland cement of 43 grade conforming to ISI standards. The cement is tested for its various properties as per IS 8112-1989. The results are Normal consistency is 30%, Initial setting time is 45 minutes, Final setting time is 7 hours and Specific gravity is 3.08. Fine Aggregate (Sand): River sand from the local source. The specific gravity of the sand is 2.65 where as its fineness modulus is found to be 2.99 confirming to zone II. Water: The potable fresh water, which is free from concentration of acid and organic substances, is used for mixing the slurry. Super Plasticizer: SP 337 super plasticizer at 7 ml/kg is used to improve water cement ratio. Fibres: Black wire fibre of 1.0 mm diameter with ultimate tensile strength of 390 N/mm2 is used. The fibres are cut to required lengths using shear cutter. The fibre length of 40, 50 and 60 mm are used. 4.3. Fabrication and Casting The cylinders were cast in steel moulds of diameter 150 Bulletin of ACCE (I) 7

mm and 300 height and the cubes are cast in steel moulds of inner dimensions of 150 x 150 x 150 mm. For all test specimen moulds are kept on table vibrator the moulds are filled with fibre in random manner of calculated volume. For each percentage of fibre and for each aspect ratio of fibres 3 cubes and 3 cylinders were cast. After placing the fibres in the moulds the slurry was poured into the fibre bed and vibrations were effected by table vibrator. The vibration was effected for 2 minutes, for each mould and it is maintained constant for all the specimens. 4.4 Testing of specimens After curing the specimens in water for a period of 7 and 28 days they were allowed to dry under shade and then white washed. The specimens were tested for compression and split tensile strength. Compression Test: The test results are tabulated for 7 and 28 days in table 4.2.and 4.3. The variations of the cube compressive strength for the three types of aspect ratios versus volume percentage of fibres are shown in figures 4.2.and 4.3. Split tensile strength test: The tensile strength of concrete is calculated using the formula 2P/ (3.14 D x L) where P=maximum load, L=length of cylinder and = diameter of cylinder. Split tensile strengths for all cylinders tested were furnished in the table no: 4.4. The variations of the split tensile strengths for the aspect ratio of fibres (40, 50, and 60) versus volume percentage of fibres are shown in fig.4.4 Modulus of elasticity test: The typical stress stain relations are shown in figures: 4.5 to 5.3. The modulus of elasticity was determined at 30% of ultimate strength of cylindrical specimen. It was observed that the linearity between stress and strain exhibits up to 30% ultimate April - June 2009

strength. The modulus of elasticity values determined in this investigation is furnished in table no: 4.5. The failure load was taken as cylindrical strength of the specimen. The modulus of elasticity is determined by taking initial tangent modulus for each percentage of fibre and for each aspect ratio of the fibre. 4.5. General observations: It was observed in compression tests that the plain concrete cubes failed suddenly in a brittle manner where as the SIFCON cubes produced significant cracks with increase in the post cracking strength. In the case of cylinders it was observed the top and bottom surfaces of plain concrete cylinders were crushed where as in the SIFCON no such crushing was observed which is an indication of the ductility of slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete.

pertain to the use of straight steel fibres. The higher compressive strength may be obtained using higher volume of fibre and 1/d ratio, provided with good bond between matrixes. SIFCON exhibits extremely high ductility An increase in fibre length leads to an increase in both compressive strength and tensile strength. At constant fibre length compressive strength is directly proportional to the volume fraction of fibres. It may be noted that after a certain fibre loading the bond strength goes down because of lack of matrix presence in between the fibres. The relation between compressive strength and tensile strength for different aspect ratios is linear.

5.0 DISCUSSION OF TEST RESULTS


5.1. Compression Test Cylinders: Typical stress strain curves in compression are presented in table 4.4. The SIFCON specimens behave in a very ductile manner compared with plane concrete (1:1.5:3) specimens. It may be observed that the energy absorption is more in SIFCON specimens. The energy absorption effect can be achieved in two ways. One is increasing the fibre length by keeping volume of fibre constant. The other one is by keeping the fibre length constant and varying the percentage of fibre. From table 4.4 it may be observed that as the percentage of fibre increases the E value increases. The E value for SIFCON specimens is more compared with plain concrete specimens. This may be due to difference in matrix. The stress distribution is more effective in SIFCON specimens. Cubes: It was observed that the compressive strength effect is more with increasing the percentage of fibre for particular l/d ratio. The compressive strength was is increases by increasing the length of fibre by keeping volume of fibre constant. 5.2. Split Tensile Test: From table 4.4 and figs4.4, it is evident that higher value of tensile strength is obtained by increasing the fibre volume with 1/d ratio as constant variable. The higher split tensile strength may also be obtained by increasing the fibre length with constant percentage of volume of fibre. But the increment rate is less in later case.

Table 4.2 Cube compressive strength of tested specimens: 7 Days For plain concrete (1:1.5:3) mix Compressive strength = 46.67 N/mm2
Sy Percentage No of Fibre Fibre Length 40mm Fibre Length 50mm Fibre Lengths 60mm

Average Ultimate Compressive Load Stress Tonnes N/mm2 1 2 3 6 8 12 92.5 95 99 40.5 42 43.5 Load Stress Tonnes N/mm2 100 102 111 44.3 45 48.3 Load Stress Tonnes N/mm2 111 113 119 49.8 50.3 54

Table 4.3 Cube compressive strength of tested specimens: 28 Days For plain concrete (1:1.5:3) mix Compressive strength = 46.67 N/mm2
Sy Percentage No of Fibre Fibre Length 40mm Fibre Length 50mm Fibre Lengths 60mm

Average Ultimate Compressive Load Stress Tonnes N/mm2 1. 2. 3. 6 8 12 104 106 112 46 47 49.5 Load Stress Tonnes N/mm2 108.5 110 114.5 48.5 49 51.5 Load Stress Tonnes N/mm2 116 51.5 118 52.5 125.5 55.5

Chart Compressive strength v/s % Fibre


Compressive stress N/m m 40 mm 54 50 46 42 38 34 30 2 4 6 8 % Fibre 10 12 14 50 mm 60 mm

6.0 CONCLUSIONS
Conclusions: From the limited tests conducted, the following tentative conclusions can be drawn based on the results presented. It should be noted that the results Bulletin of ACCE (I) 8

Fig: 4.2 Cube compressive strength of tested specimens: 7 Days

April - June 2009

RETHINKING SUSTAINABILITY
M.S. Srinivasan,
Research Associate at Sri Aurobindo Society, Puduchery. Email: srinivasan@aurobindosociety.org.in

In our earlier articles we have made a brief review of the institutional and technological solutions to the present ecological crisis and also their limitations. We have also indicated a third, evolutionary remedy as a more lasting solution to the problem. This article presents a perspective, which can lead humanity safely and surely towards its sustainable future. Rethinking Nature The evolutionary agenda we will be presenting here requires two basic cultural changes: rethinking Nature and rethinking Development. The first step has to be a rethinking of our cultural attitudes to Nature. Ecological awareness is an inherent and inbuilt instinct in the ancient mind. It is a religious instinct based on reverence and worship of the sustaining source of their life. In some of the more mentally and spiritually advanced cultures like India and China, this ecological instinct developed further into an aspiration to understand and live in conscious attunement with the laws and rhythms of universal Nature. Modern ecology is only a partial recovery of this ancient wisdom at the physical level. Partial because, in the ancient Indian and Chinese thought, Nature is not only physical, but also psychological and spiritual. Man is a part of Nature not only physically but also psychologically and spiritually. Nature is not only our material Mother from who we draw all the physical energies needed for our material and economic development but also our eternal divine Mother of the world who is the source of all energies in Man and Universe, in all levels of existence-physical, psychological and spiritual. Each part or level of our human organism-physical, vital, mental and spiritual-derives its energy from the corresponding levels or planes of the Cosmic Nature and is governed by its own unique set of laws. Thus, there is a greater and a more integral ecology beyond the ecology of the physical Nature which remains yet to be explored. The aim of this integral ecology is to arrive at a holistic understanding of the laws of human and universal Nature in all the dimensions-material, psychological and spiritual-and explore their mutual interactions, similarities, differences and correspondences and their practical implications for human wellbeing and progress. This cannot be done entirely by the scientific and rational mind. We must have the spiritual intuition of the seer, sage and the mystic. If we dont have it, we must have to draw upon the spiritual wisdom of the past and present and based on it, use our rational, scientific and pragmatic mind to arrive at a flexible framework of thought and practice, action and application. So neither a superstitious reverence and worship nor an arrogant and heartless exploitation can be the right attitude to Nature. The divine Teacher in the Indian scripture Bhagvat Gita gives the highest value to the Knowing Lover. So in our attitude to Nature we have to combine knowledge and devotion, which means a synthesis of an aesthetic,

emotional and spiritual devotion to the divinity and beauty in Nature and an understanding attunement and obedience to the laws and purpose of Nature. So the attitude of modern ecology, which is that of understanding and attunement, is part of the spiritual attitude to Nature. But this understanding has to be widened and deepened to embrace all the dimensions of Nature and it has to be synthesized with the attitude of the deeper heart of the artist, lover and devotee. One of the main causes of the present environment crisis facing our modern civilization is the loss or lack of the sense of reverence and sacredness of Nature: As the Brazilian environmentalist Josi A. Lutzenberger states: Most important and certainly most difficult of all is the necessary rethinking of our cosmology. The anthropocentric world-view westerners inherited from our remote Judeo-Christian past has allowed our technocrats and bureaucrats and most simple people, too, to look at Planet Earth as if it were no more than a free storehouse of unlimited resource to be used, consumed and wasted for even our most absurd or stupid whims. We have no respect for creation. Nothing in nature is, nothing except us, humans, has sufficient inherent value. Mountains can be razed, rivers turned around, forest flooded or annihilated, unique life forms or whole living systems eliminated without qualms or patented for personal or institutional power.(1) But mere thinking, understanding or love without corresponding actions is ineffective for sustainable development. One of the positive features of the modern environmental movement is that it not only insists on awareness and understanding of the laws of Nature but also emphasies that this awareness has to be translated into appropriate decisions and actions which help in preserving the purity of the environment or in other words, I must do whatever I can within my capacity to preserve the environment. For example if I say I am a lover of Nature and travel in a car which causes the highest pollution, then my love for nature is only an ignorant sentiment. If I am a true lover of Nature, I will buy a car only when it becomes a real need. Before buying I will make an extensive research and enquiry to know which of the available car models or brands are the most environment-friendly in terms of petrol consumption and emission, and I will buy this model or brand even if it costs a little more than other models. I will use the car only for long-distance journey and for shorter sojourns I will either walk or use a cycle. Similarly, as far as possible, I will not use products which cause maximum damage to the environment and I will not buy goods or services of companies which are insensitive to their ecological responsibility. As the environmental activist Alan Sasha Lithman points out: What good is it, after all, to attend conferences or workshops on global warming, the control of CO2 emissions on renewable energy systems, grasping the conceptual level of the problem, if we drive to those meetings in gasguzzling dinosaurs?(2)

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

11

April - June 2009

Rethinking Development The second step is a rethinking of the aims and values of development. This rethinking is already happening in economics and in the environmental movement. One of the most forceful exponent of this new thinking in economics is the Swedish economists E. F. Schumacher. In his well-known and influential book Small is Beautiful Schumacher presents a powerful critique of the traditional paradigms of development based on endless material growth and consumption. He calls modern humanity to return to the eternal values of truth, beauty and goodness and to Buddhist economics which aims at maximum well-being with minimum consumption and a work-culture where there is less toil for acquiring more and more material wealth and as a result more time and strength is left for artistic creativity.(3) Commenting on the biblical passage seek first the kingdom of God, all else will be added on to you, Schumacher argues that the modern humanity, afflicted with maladies like terrorism, genocide, breakdown, pollution, exhaustion, is in such a condition that unless you seek first the kingdom of God, these other thinks which you need will cease to be available to you. In the concluding para of his book, Schumacher delivers the following message to modern humanity: The type of realism which behaves as if the good, the true, beautiful were too vague and subjective to be adapted as the highest aims of social and individual life or the automatic spin-offs of the successful pursuit of wealth and power, has been aptly called crak-pot realismPeople ask What can I actually do. The answer is as simple as it is disconcerting; we can each of us, work to put our own inner house in order. The guidance we need for this work cannot be found in science or technologybut it can be found in the traditional wisdom of mankind.(4) In the field of Environment also some thinkers have come to a more or less same conclusion as Schumacher. One of them is Dr. Maurice Strong, a former chief of the UN Environmental Agency, who states: We desperately need a new body of ideas, a new synthesis. This must centre on the need for a new attitude towards growth. It will require a major transition to a less physical kind of growth, relatively less demanding of energy and raw materials. It will be one, which is based on an increasing degree on the satisfaction of peoples intellectual, moral and spiritual needs and aspirations in such fields as culture, music, art, literature and other forms of individual selfdevelopment and fulfillment. These are the areas in which man can achieve his highest level of growth in human terms (5) Interestingly Sri Aurobindo, looking at human evolution from a deeper and broader spiritual perspective had come to a similar conclusion when he wrote in one of his early writings: In the next great stage of human progress, it is not a material, but a spiritual, moral and psychic advance that has to be made (6) or in other words Development of Consciousness. If this view is accepted,

then the future of sustainable development lies not in economics, technology or even in ecology but in applied psychology and spirituality, which will lead to the moral psychological and spiritual development of humanity. This means priorities of sustainable development has to shift from material, economic and ecological sustainability to psychological and spiritual sustainability. This will not be difficult because there is a much greater affinity between ecology and spirituality than between ecology and economics. Ecology and inner development can be a mutually reinforcing combination. Inner development in the psychological and spiritual domain can lead to a deeper and inner communion with Nature, which in turn can bring a deeper suprascientific insight into the physical as well as the supraphysical dimensions of Nature. Similarly, a disinterested pursuit of the study of ecology or the ecological paradigm in thought, feeling and action can lead to an inner contact with the universal intelligence or consciousness behind physical Nature, which can open the doors to spiritual consciousness. And the modern science of ecology have discovered two great spiritual principles at the physical level. First is the unity of Man and Nature, and second is the connectedness and the interdependence of human life. If the outer life of humanity is organised according to these principles, with a clear understanding of the moral and practical implications of these principles, then it will create a favourable outer environment for the inner, moral and spiritual development of humanity. Let us now briefly summarise the positive consequences of this inner development for arriving at an enduring solution to the ecological and economic problems confronting our planet. Benefits of the Evolutionary Paradigm: As the human consciousness grows inwardly and feels more and more the deeper and purer joy of inner fulfillment it will act against the desire for a gross external fulfillment through an increasing material consumption. When I am inwardly fulfilled I dont buy whatever I can afford nor do I crave for what I dont have. I buy only what I need and the rest of my earning I spend either for my inner growth or give it for the realisation of a higher ideal which I believe will lead to a greater well-being of the community or humanity as a whole. Similarly as we grow in our mental, moral, aesthetic consciousness we will feel an enlightened and spontaneous sense of ecological and social responsibility based not only on the scientific understanding of the ecology of Nature but flowing from an emotional empathy and aesthetic feeling for Nature, life and people around us. As we grow into the deeper and inner layers of our psychological and spiritual being it will activate in us intuitive faculties of consciousness beyond the scientific and rational mind. This will reveal to us the deeper and higher psychological and spiritual dimensions of Nature and their laws and process, which the scientific and rational mind cannot perceive. In fact, even in the domain of material nature, can the modern scientific mind say it knows fully the totality of physical Nature? For example
Continued on page 16

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

12

April - June 2009

The New Lightweight Structure Tensairity


Luchsinger, Dr. Rolf H.; Crettol, Ren and Plagianakos Dr. Theofanis S.

INTRODUCTION
Fabrics structures have gained a lot of interest in architecture during the last decades. This interest is mainly based on the consequent light-weight approach of these structures, where the loads are solely carried by forces in the plane of the membrane. As a consequence, form follows functions in fabric structures and the typical anticlastic shape of tensioned membrane structures results. Typical applications of fabrics in architecture are roof structures ranging from small canopies to coverings of huge stadiums. A special class of fabric structures are pneumatic structures, where the fabric is pre- tensioned by an internal overpressure of the air. Airhouses used e.g. as seasonal coverings of tennis courts are examples for these synclastic structures. In airhouses, the whole covered volume is under an air overpressure in the order of a few millibar. While airhouses can hardly be beaten in terms of light-weight, the basically spherical or cylindrical shape leads to huge covered volumes which often cannot be used in an efficient way. Special entrances are a must in order to maintain the over pressure. The often tremendous power supply for air circulation, pressure sustainability and heating and probably also the psychological barrier of being imprisoned in an airtight structure have limited the application of airhouses to niches. However, pneumatic structures can also be used as beam elements. While such airbeams are applied in small tents e.g. for emergency situations, these interesting lightweight structures have with a few exceptions not been used for larger structures in architecture and civil engineering. One of the main reasons is the very restricted load bearing capacity of such airbeams. The new structural concept Tensairity combines an airbeam with cables and struts to yield a girder with a load bearing capacity comparable to conventional structures.

of this center. The fundamental Tensairity beam consists of a cylindrical airbeam, a compression strut tightly connected with the airbeam and two cables spiraled around the airbeam and attached at each end with the compression strut (Fig. 1). While the cables are pretensioned by the airbeam, the buckling problem in the compression strut is avoided due to the stabilization by the airbeam. As for a beam on an elastic foundation, the buckling load in the compression strut of the Tensairity girder is independent of its length but relies on the pressure in the airbeam (1,3). Since there is buckling free compression in Tensairity, the cross section of the compression strut can have minimal dimensions leading to the light weight property of the new structural concept. Furthermore, the pressure in the airbeam is solely determined by the load per area on the structure and independent of the span and slenderness of the beam (1). Therefore, the synergetic combination of an airbeam with cables and struts has a great potential for wide span structures.

APPLICATIONS OF TENSAIRITY
In recent years, various first applications of Tensairity have been realized. Probably the most impressive one is the roof for a parking garage in Montreux, Switzerland. While the cylindrical shape was the first Tensairity form investigated (Fig. 1), further studies have revealed, that spindle shaped Tensairity girders are more efficient (2, 3) and applications such as the roof over the parking garage in Montreux (Fig. 2) rely on the spindle shape. This membrane roof is supported by 12 Tensairity girders with a span up to 28 m. Steel has been used for the upper and lower chord of the Tensairity girder. The same silicon coated glass fiber fabric is used for the covering as well as for the Tensairity girders. The air pressure in the beams is about 100 mbar. Intensive use of the intriguing lightning possibilities of Tensairity was made by the architects in the roof in Montreux. Spotlights with color changing capabilities are mounted on each end of the Tensairity beams. The light shines through glassy end plates into the pneumatic structure and illuminates the Tensairity girders from inside in a surprisingly homogeneous way. The color of each Tensairity beam can be dynamically changed and controlled by software enabling interesting light patterns over the whole roof structure. Two years ago, a skier bridge in the French Alps with a span of 52 m supported by two asymmetric spindle shaped Tensairity girders was completed (Fig. 3). The compression element of this structure is made of wood, while the tension element is made of steel. During the 13 April - June 2009

THE NEW LIGHTWEIGHT STRUCTURE TENSAIRITY


The Tensairity technology was developed by the company Airlight Ltd. in close collaboration with prospective concepts ag (1-4). Recently, the Tensairity activities of prospective concepts were transferred to the new Center for Synergetic Structures, a public private partnership between Empa and Festo. Empa is a transdisciplinary research institution within the ETH Domain with a major focus on materials science and technology development. Festo is a leading company in automation pneumatics. To strengthen the R&D of synergetic structures especially of Tensairity structures is the main objective Bulletin of ACCE (I)

winter season, a ski slope runs over the bridge. The deck is covered with a thick layer of snow leading to high loads. This bridge is an impressive demonstration of the potential of Tensairity for wide span structures with heavy loads. While the structures of the foregoing examples rely on Tensairity-beams, the Tensairity concept can also be used for shell-like structures. An example for this approach is a canopy in Pieterlen, Switzerland (Fig. 4, left). Two grids of steel profiles form the upper and lower layer of the structure. The grids of the two layers are connected by tension elements in order to preserve the thickness of the structure under inflation. An upper and lower fabric layer maintains the structure airtight. The air-pressure pretensions the fabric and stabilizes the two metal grids. As there is essentially only air inside the structure, light is used to enhance the optical appearance of the canopy during night. It is possible to look through a glass window inside the structure from the stairs of the building. A special landscape showing the tension connections between the upper and lower layer as well as the fabric bulging between the steel grid can be seen (Fig. 4, right). Another realized application of Tensairity is an advertisement pillar. Next to the load bearing capacity, the most important properties of this structural concept are small transport and storage volume as well as fast set up and dismantling. Setting up a Tensairity beam can be as simple as connecting the compression element with the fabric and cables followed by blowing up the structure. This feature was used in a Tensairity advertisement pillar prototype which had a height of 20 m and could withstand wind speeds up to 100 km/h without any bracing. These advertisement pillars can be used for mobile marketing, e.g. at fairs, open-air festivals or sport events. A further application of Tensairity is an exhibition stand for a Swiss watch manufacturer which was partly built by cylindrical Tensairity-girders. The structure supported a hanging platform for visitors where a sports wagon was exhibited. The advertisement pillar and the exhibition stand show, that Tensairity is an interesting concept for temporary structures. These realized applications are the best demonstration of the potential and reliability of Tensairity. The technology can support heavy loads at wide span as shown with the skier bridge. Tensairity implies a new formal language. It has intriguing lighting options and is well suited for temporary structures. On top of that, Tensairity structures float on water. Filled with helium they can under certain conditions be even lighter than air. And Tensairity structures are adaptive (5). So the most outstanding feature of Tensairity is probably not any of this property but the sum of all: Tensairity is a highly multifunctional structure. Thus for applications where not only a single Bulletin of ACCE (I) 14

aspect as e.g. the weight matters, but weight plus design plus being temporary, for these applications Tensairity can offer a new and unique solution.

TENSAIRITY RESEARCH
Research and development of the Tensairity-concept is the main task of the Center for Synergetic Structures. The interactions between the compressed air, the fabric, the tension element and the compression element need to be very well understood. At the moment, the focus of the research is on spindle shaped Tensairity-girders since they are stiffer compared to cylindrical girders (2). In a recent paper, the deformation behavior of Tensairitygirders under local bending load was investigated experimentally and compared to numerical studies (6). The qualitative behavior of the Tensairity spindle can be reproduced with FEM calculations, where the membrane is treated as a linear isotropic material. The forces at the center of the tension and compression chord of the Tensairity spindle are shown to be a linear function of the applied load. They are to a very good approximation independent of the air pressure and reasonably approximated by the FEM calculations and by a simple analytical model. The work further reveals the interesting load-displacement response under a local central bending load. However, while the comparison of the loaddisplacement response between FEM calculation and experiment is good at the compression side, the numerical study predicts a significantly lower deflection at the tension side compared to the measurement. This might be addressed to the crude membrane material model in the FEM calculation. An important result of this work was that the behavior of a Tensairity girder is much more complicated than e.g. the behavior of a truss. The deflection is not only determined by the structural set-up and the load but also by the variable air pressure. The displacements of the upper and lower chord are considerably different. Therefore, one has to be specific when talking about deformation of Tensairity girders. Due to the fabric part, the Tensairity girder shows an initial hysteretic behavior which is different from later load cycles. The fabric is a non-linear, orthotropic material with history dependent properties. These properties have an influence on the whole Tensairity structure. The in-depth investigation of the characteristics of the fabric including the shear modulus is one focus of the current research of the Center for Synergetic Structures. For the study of the deformation behavior of Tensairity girders, two test rigs have been set up at Empa. In one test rig the deformation behavior of spindle shaped Tensairity girders under homogeneously distributed load is experimentally investigated in collaboration with ETH Zrich. In this test rig, girders with up to 10 m span can be investigated. In the second test rig, the first

April - June 2009

experimental studies of the behavior of spindle shaped Tensairity girders under axial compressive loads are in progress. The test girder has a length of 5 m and a maximal diameter of 0.5m. It consists of an inflated textile membrane hull and three struts placed at respective angles of .=120 along the section. The struts are connected at both ends with cylindrical end fittings. Each strut is made of Aluminum, has a rectangular cross section (30x10 mm2) and is placed in pockets sewed upon the hull. The material of the membrane is a polyamide based fabric (Dynatec/Schoeller) with an embedded PU foil to keep the structure air tight. An experimental load-displacement diagram at the point of load application for air pressure values of 150 mbar and 300 mbar is shown in Figure 5 (7). A load up to 10 kN was applied. After an initial deformation of about 1 mm, the deformation increases as an almost linear function of the applied load. Obviously, the structure with the higher pressure is stiffer, although the difference is only in the order of a quarter millimeter. This means that the three struts of the Tensairity spindle are very well stabilized and positioned by the pretensioned fabric at these pressure values. For very low pressure values the structure becomes very soft. The stabilization trough air pressure is therefore very important in these columns. Further investigations are in progress to scrutinize this promising behavior of Tensairity columns.

Structures, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dbendorf, Switzerland, theofanis.plagianakos@empa.ch

REFERENCES
1. Rolf H. Luchsinger, A. Pedretti, P. Steingruber and M. Pedretti, The new structural concept Tensairity: Basic Principles, in: A. Zingoni, (ed.), Progress in Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, A.A. Balkema Publishers, London, 2004, p. 65 Andrea Pedretti, P. Steingruber, M. Pedretti and R.H. Luchsinger, The new structural concept Tensairity: FE-modeling and applications, in: A. Zingoni, (ed.), Progress in Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, A.A. Balkema Publishers, London, 2004, p. 66 Rolf H. Luchsinger, A. Pedretti, P. Steingruber and M. Pedretti, Light weight structures with Tensairity, in: R. Motro, (ed.), Shell and Spacial Structures from Models to Realization, Editions de lEsprou, Montpellier, 2004, pp. 80-81 Rolf H. Luchsinger, R. Crettol, P. Steingruber, A. Pedretti and M. Pedretti, Going strong: From inflatable structures to Tensairity, in: E. Onate and B. Krplin, (eds.), Textile Composites and Inflatable Structures II, CIMNE, Barcelona, 2005, pp. 414420 Rolf H. Luchsinger and R. Crettol, Adaptable Tensairity, in F. Scheublin, A. Pronk, A. Borgard and R. Houtman (eds.), Adaptables06, Proceedings of the joint CIB, Tensinet and AISS international conference on adaptability in design and construction, Eindhoven, 2006, pp. 5.3-5.7 Rolf H. Luchsinger and R. Crettol, Experimental and numerical study of spindle shaped Tensairity girders, International Journal of Space Structures, Vol. 21/3, 2006, pp. 119-130 Theofanis S. Plagianakos, R. H. Luchsinger and R. Crettol, Deformation of spindle shaped Tensairity columns under compression, Proceedings of COMP_07: 6th International Symposium on Advanced Composite Technologies, Corfu, GR, 2007

2.

3.

4.

5.

CONCLUSIONS
The new structural concept Tensairity is a synergetic combination of an air beam with cables and struts. The loads are carried by the cables and struts. The role of the air beam is to stabilize the structure. This light-weight structure has a range of interesting properties and can be ideally used for temporary structures. First applications as roof structures, a bridge, an advertisement pillar or an exhibition stand demonstrate the potential and reliability of the structural concept. In parallel to these applications, the basic concepts of Tensairity need to be better understand. Experimental and numerical studies of the Center for Synergetic Structures enlighten the role of the fabric in Tensairitygirders and reveal the potential for Tensairity columns. All these efforts will allow to develop the full potential of this interesting technology. 6.

7.

AFFILIATION
Luchsinger, Dr. R. H.: Empa, Center for Synergetic Structures, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dbendorf, Switzerland, rolf.luchsinger@empa.ch Crettol, R.: Empa, Center for Synergetic Structures, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dbendorf, Switzerland, rene.crettol@empa.ch Plagianakos, Dr. T. S.: Empa, Center for Synergetic

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

15

April - June 2009

Courtesy : SEWC 2007

Continued from page 12

does it know fully what are the ecological consequences of splitting an atom or slicing or altering a gene? No true scientific mind will be so arrogant to make such a statement. As we ascend into the deeper and higher levels and acquire new intuitive faculties we will get a more total and holistic insight into unity, harmony and interdependence of life and Nature and as a result, better understanding of the consequences of our decisions and action. When the scientific, technological, professional and managerial mind of humanity acquires these higher intuitive faculties beyond the scientific and the rational mind, many of the problems related to environment, energy, economics or development, will find a quicker and better solution. And finally when the human consciousness grows more and more into the unity-consciousness of the spirit, in which we can feel our oneness with all existence, it will lead to an unprecedented levels of cooperation and harmony among humanity. And no problem, in whatever domain it may be, can stand against the harmonious and focused assault of the creative energy of the human spirit. The spiritual intuition will also reveal the deepest and highest spiritual truths of Man, Nature and God in their perfect unity and harmony. This will lead to a rediscovery of the ancient wisdom which saw and adored Nature as a living Goddess and the divine Mother of us all and an altogether new paradigm of spiritual ecology.

The Path to Sustainable Evolution This brings us to the pragmatic question: how to achieve this higher evolution? The path involves three steps. First of all we have to evolve a synthesis of the spiritual wisdom of humanity with the modern secular values of liberal humanism, science, ecology and environmentalism. Second is to build an outer economic, social and political organisation based on this synthesis. Third, and the most important, is a system of education, which can internalise the values of this synthesis in the consciousness of the people. This cannot be done entirely by the present system of mental education. We have to evolve a new systems of education by which higher values like Unity of Man and Nature are not merely thought and felt as an idea or sentiment but become concrete experiential realities of consciousness, felt as concretely as we feel our body. There is a system of knowledge or science, which can provide the basis for such an experiential education. It is the ancient Indian science of Yoga. References:
1. Josi A. Lutzenberg, NGO as a Driving Force, ed. Fritjof Capra and Guntur Pauli, Steering Business Towards sustainability, p.32 Alan Sasha Lithman, Evolutionary Agenda for the Third Millenium, pp.125 E.F. Schumaker, Small is Beautiful, pp.44-52 ibid, pp.250 Maurice Strong, New Growth Model, Future of a Troubled World, Ed, Richie Caulder. pp.141

2. 3. 4. 5.

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

16

April - June 2009

Review and Design of Flat Plate/Slabs Construction in India


Gowda N Bharath; Gowda S. B. Ravishankar; A.V Chandrashekar

ABSTRACT
The objective of this paper is to present the use of flat plate/slab construction in India. The paper begins with an introduction to flat plate/slab structures and their applications in buildings followed by a comparative description of flat plate/slab structure designs based on Indian Standard IS 456:2000 and American Concrete Institute ACI-318 codes. The paper also describes seismic design provisions per Indian Standard IS 1893 and Uniform Building Code UBC 2000 for the lateral force design of flat plate/ slabs. We conclude the paper by presenting two real world construction projects designed by us in Bangalore. The discussion of the two construction projects will include a cost and structural efficiency review of the original Post-Tensioned (PT) slab proposed for those projects. Our review indicated a 15-20% higher cost for post-tensioned system when compared to conventional Reinforce Cement Concrete (RCC) and hence, conventional RCC structure was proposed for those projects. Further, we have generally observed that that there is no reduction in thickness of the slab with post tensioned flat plate construction in Bangalore (built by post tensioned concrete contractors) when compared to conventional RCC. Also, we have observed that many of the usual advantages of using PT systems over conventional RCC including a nearly crack free slab at service load leading to smaller deflection and watertight structures are absent.

India, has been limited in terms of both Indian standards and Indian research papers. Indian engineers often have to resort to other standards to design flat plate/slab. The following is a discussion of the process of designing flat plate/slabs to meet Indian codes. Limitations in the Indian codes IS 456:2000 are overcome by utilizing ACI-318. The design of flat slab structures involves three steps: 1) Framing system 2) Engineering analysis 3) Reinforcement design and detailing Framing System: Initial framing system formulation provides a detailed geometric description of the column spacing and overhang. Even though the architect provides this part of the design, the engineer should emphasize on the following: 1) Three continuous spans in each direction or have an overhang at least one-forth times adjacent span length in case of only two continuous spans. Typical panel must be rectangular The spans must be similar in length i.e. adjacent span in each direction must not differ in length by one-third.

2) 3)

INTRODUCTION
Flat plate/slabs are economical since they have no beams and hence can reduce the floor height by 1015%. Further the formwork is simpler and structure is elegant. Hence flat plate/slab construction has been in practice in the west for a long time. However, the technology has seen large-scale use only in the last decade and is one of the rapidly developing technologies in the Indian building industry today. Material advances in concrete quality available for construction, improvement in quality of construction; easier design and numerical techniques has contributed to the rapid growth of the technology in India.

Engineering Analysis: Flat plate/slab may be analyzed and designed by any method as long as they satisfy the strength, stiffness and stability requirements of the IS 456:2000 or ACI318 codes. A typical flat plate/slab can be analyzed by direct design method or equivalent frame method as prescribed by the code. However, if the flat plate/ slab is atypical with unusual geometry, with irregular column spacing, or with big opening then the designer may have to use finite element method model analysis using computers. The design of flat plate/slabs irrespective of the methodology used must first assume a minimum slab and drop thickness and a minimum column dimension to ensure adequate stiffness of the system to control deflection. The IS 456:2000 code is not clear on these minimums. However ACI specifies empirical formulas to arrive at these minimums. Refer to Table 1 for minimum slab thickness. Once the slab thickness and column dimensions with boundary conditions are selected, the structure is loaded for different load cases and combinations prescribed by the code. The computed forces and 17 April - June 2009

DESIGN OF THE FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES


Despite the rapid growth of flat plate/slab construction, literature and tools available for designers to design and engineer flat plate/slabs in Bulletin of ACCE (I)

moments in the members should be used for reinforcement design. Critical reactions for the load combinations are used for the design of the supporting columns and foundations.

Computers
Due to availability of software and high speed and cost efficient computers, analysis-using computers is the most commonly used method to analyze flat plate/ slab today. However the designer should be well versed with all the theoretical methods to verify computer results. To verify computer results like shear force and bending moment, the designer could compute shear at the vicinity of column by multiplying the total vertical weight times the tributary area supported by the column plus additional vertical shear produced by unbalanced moment at plane punching shear at column. To compute moments, the designer could use the direct design method. Even though this method has limitations, it is a reliable method to verify computer results. Direct design method is essentially a three step procedure: 1) determine the total moment for each span, 2) divide the total moment between negative and positive moment within each span, and 3) distribute the negative and positive moment to the column strip (half of span under consideration) and middle strip (half of the span under consideration) within each span. For convenience, the designer can use moment coefficient in Table 2.

strips can be per IS 456:2000 or ACI-318, both being similar. However design for punching shear force (including additional shear due to unbalanced moment) per IS 456:2000 is 32% conservative compared to ACI-318, because Indian code underestimates the concrete two-way shear strength by 32% compared to ACI.

Seismic Design of Flat plate/slab


Seismic design lateral force is based on the provisions of Indian Standard IS 1893 (Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structure), however due to nonclarity of IS1893 designer, in addition may have to use, other codes like UBC-2000 (Uniform Building Code) to design an effective lateral system. Based on these codes a common practice is to determine lateral force by either using static or a dynamic procedure. Once the lateral forces are found, Flat plat/slab structures in areas of low seismicity (Zone1& 2) can be designed as permitted by code to resist both vertical and lateral loads. However for areas of high seismicity (Zone3, 4 & 5) code does not permit flat slab construction to resist earthquake lateral load, hence lateral load resisting system has to de designed separately in addition to flat plat/slab gravity system. The ability of flat plat/slab gravity system to support vertical load when subjected to lateral load should be checked (deformation compatibility check). Flat Plate/slab floor slabs are typically considered as a rigidity diaphragm to distribute in plane lateral loads to the lateral load resisting system. In case of flat plat/slab resisting lateral loads, floor slab will transfer lateral loads at each column and therefore all slab column connections should be checked for additional force resulting from lateral loads. In addition, all columns should be checked for additional bending resulting from lateral shear. When flat slab is used in combination with shear walls for lateral load resistance, the columns can be designed for only 25% of the design force.

Deflection
Computing deflection of flat plate/slab is complicated due to many parameters involved in the evaluation, such as aspect ratio of panels, stiffness effect of drop and column capital, lateral deflection of end columns, cracking and long term loading effects etc. IS 456:2000 prescribes allowable deflection for slabs but is unclear about the actual computation of deflection for flat plate/slabs. Hence the designer has to refer to the ACI-318 equivalent frame method to compute deflection or use computer analysis. The maximum elastic displacement of the structure results including the long-term effects due to creep and shrinkage is used to compare against the allowable deflection per the appropriate code. Long-term deflection can be computed per IS 456:2000 or ACI-319, but a simpler estimation is to use two times the elastic deflection.

Post-Tensioned Flat Plate/slab


Post-tensioned flat plat/slabs are a common variation of the conventional plate structure where most of the reinforcement is replaced by post-tensioned strands of very high strength steel. The structural advantage of post tensioning over conventional RCC is that the slab is nearly crack-free at full service load. This leads to a smaller deflection compared to conventional RCC because of the higher rigidity of the un-cracked section. Hence reduction in thickness of the slab compared to conventional RCC is the rationale for using post-tensioning system for spans over 10m and above. Further the lack of cracking leads to a watertight structure. Flat plat/slab design and build 18 April - June 2009

Reinforcement Design and Detailing


Reinforcement design is one of the critical parts of flat plate/slab design; maximum forces from the analysis shall be used in the design of the reinforcement. Reinforcement required for flexure by using minimum slab thickness per table 1 typically will not require compression reinforcement. The tension steel area required and detailing for appropriate Bulletin of ACCE (I)

contractors in India claim a 20% cost reduction compared to conventional RCC. However, our observation of post-tensioned flat plat/ slab constructions used in two construction projects (see figure 1) in Bangalore built by post tensioned concrete contractors utilizing PT system has been that there is no reduction in thickness of the slab compared to conventional RCC and the slabs are not crack free at service loads. Hence, the actual deflection in these structures is similar to that of theoretically computed RCC deflection. In addition, water tightness was not achieved in one of the projects. And with respect to costs involved, there is an escalation in cost by 15-20% rather than reduction as claimed by PT design & build contractor. And another disadvantage in using post tensioned system in commercial buildings in India, is its lack of flexibility to create openings or drill into slabs to anchor services system when the slab is completed with post tensioning. Invariable the owner in India is not sure of the occupant when he starts the building and may have to change or create opening in slabs after construction to satisfied occupants requirement, which is not possible with a PT system.

mentioned above and our conventional RCC design yielding a cost reduction of 20%, prompted us to decide the use of conventional RCC flat slab as our final design choice (figure 3). Project- RPS commercial The building is a rectangle in plan with approximate dimension of 50m length, 25m width, and with same floors and height as the previous project, but the floor plan has only two bays hence appropriate 2.4m overhang was proposed on either side of the bay to make it structurally efficient (figure 4&5).

FINAL REMARKS
Flat plate/slab construction is a developing technology in India. Flat plate/slab can be designed and built either by conventional RCC or Post-tensioning. However, due to issues mentioned above with PT construction in India and its higher cost, conventional RCC should be the preferred choice for spans up to 10 meters. Design of conventional RCC flat plate/slab in India, utilizing Indian codes, has many shortcomings, which have to be addressed and revised soon. Until then Indian engineers will continue to use Indian codes in combination with other standards like the ACI, BS or Euro Code to design and analyze Flat slabs/plates.

PROJECT APPLICATION
We have successfully used the above briefed method in design of two projects namely Maas-3 and RPS. The Maas-3 project has been completed successfully and is ready for occupation. The RPS project is currently under construction.

Reference:
1. Indian Standard IS 456:2000, Plain and Reinforced Concrete Code of Practice. 2. Purushothaman P., Reinforced Concrete Structural Elements, Tata McGraw-Hill Publication Company Ltd. New Delhi. 1984 3. Verghese P.C., Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design, Prentice-Hall of (India Private Ltd. New Delhi. 2003 4. Notes on ACI 318-2000, Building Code Requirement For Reinforced Concrete, Portland cement association. USA 2000 5. Structural Design Guide to the ACI Building code, Third edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. New York. 1985 6. Kenneth Leet and Dionisio Bernal, Reinforced Concrete Design, Third edition, McGraw-Hill, USA. 1997 7. Structural Engineering Handbook, Forth Edition, McGraw-Hill, USA1997 8. Alaa G. S. and Walter H.D., Analysis and Deflection of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 25. 1998 9. Branson, D.E, Deformation of Concrete Structures, McGraw-Hill Company, New York.1977 10. Nilson A.H. and Walter D.B., Deflection of Twoway Floor Systems by the Equivalent Frame Method, ACI Journal, Vol. 72, No.5 1975 19 April - June 2009

Project- Maas-3
The building is a trapezoid in plan with an approximate dimension of 90 m length, 30M width and 15meter height. The structure consists of basement car parking floor plus 4 upper office floors and terrace (figure 2). The structural system is a flat plate supported by regularly spaced vertical concrete columns, and foundation for columns are typical concrete spread footing. Since the project is located in Bangalore (Zone-2), framing system would resist both lateral and vertical loads. The design criteria are based on IS 456-2000 IS 1893 Part 1 and IS 875 Part 3. The vertical loading is comprised of the estimated self-weight, miscellaneous dead loads, and live load. The lateral loading is comprised of wind and seismic loads. Due to irregular nature of the floor plan, the analysis of the structure was carried out using computer and results were verified by direct design methods and equivalent frame method. Our hand calculations were very similar to the computer-generated results. Originally we had proposed post-tensioned PT slab for this project. However, due to observations of PT systems

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

TALL SUSTAINABILITYAN URBAN IMPERATIVE


Dr. M. N. Hegde, Faculty - Civil Engineering, Dr. AIT, Bangalore-560 056 Ancient tall buildings such as the Egyptian pyramids and Mayan temples were primarily solid structures serving as monuments rather than space enclosures. The modern tall buildings are conceived to serve as space enclosures providing required structural stability with a change in method of achieving the required structural action. They usually have freeform shape that fulfills the dual function of creating an exciting exterior and at the same time provides interior spaces that are highly desirable to lessees. The high rise building technology can be thought of as a progressive reduction of materials used within the space occupied by the building. For a tall building to be successful, it has to satisfy concurrently the requirements of site, building program, and above all make economic sense. From structural design considerations, a building can be considered tall when the effects of lateral loads are some way reflected in its design. Lateral deflections of tall buildings due to wind and earthquake loads should be limited to prevent damage to both structural and nonstructural elements. The accelerations at the top floors during frequent wind storms should be kept within acceptable limits to minimise discomfort to the building occupants. Definition of Tall building: It is difficult to distinguish the characteristics of a building which categorise it as tall. The outward appearance of tallness is a relative matter. The definition of the worlds tallest building or the worlds tallest tower is not very clear. The disputes generally centre on what should be counted as a building or a tower, and what is being measured. In a typical single storey area, a five storey building will appear tall. Tall building can not be defined in specific terms related to height or number of floors. There is no consensus on what constitutes a tall building or at what magic height, number of stories, or proportion a building can be called tall. The bottom line is where the design of the structure moves from the field of statics into the field of structural dynamics. The structure can be considered as tall when the sway or drift caused by lateral loads affects the structural analysis and design. Here sway or drift is the magnitude of the lateral displacement at the top of the building relative to its base (Ref: Taranath, 1988). As the building heights increase, the forces of nature begin to dominate the structural system and take on increasing importance in the overall building system. Structural systems have to be developed around the concepts associated entirely with resistance to turbulent wind. In contrast to vertical load, lateral load effects on buildings are quite variable and increase rapidly with increase in height. Other things being equal, overturning moment at the base of a building varies in proportion to the square Bulletin of ACCE (I) 21 of the height of the building under wind load, and lateral deflection varies as the fourth power of the height of the building. In the design of tall building, the structural system must meet strength, rigidity and stability factors. In the design of low-height structures strength is the important criteria, whereas as for high-rise structures rigidity and stability requirements become more important and dominant factors in the design. Increasing the size of the members above strength requirements, to meet these two requirements leads to uneconomical design or may become impractical. The other important approach is to change in form of the structure into more rigid and stable to confine the deformation and increase stability. Under the action of wind, a tall building will reach a state of collapse by the so-called P-D effect, in which the eccentricity of the gravity load increases to such a magnitude that it brings about the collapse of the columns as a result of axial loads. In tall, slender, and flexible buildings, dynamic loads are induced by the buffeting action of atmospheric turbulence. Important stability criteria: Assure that predicted wind loads will be below the load corresponding to the stability limit. Limit the lateral deflection to a level that will ensure that architectural finishes and partitions are not damaged. The interstorey drift (the floor-to-floor deflection) has to be limited to minimise the damage. Slender high-rise buildings should be designed to resist the dynamic effects of vortex shedding by adjusting the stiffness and other properties of the structure such that the frequency of vortex shedding does not equal the natural frequency of the structure. Lateral deflections of the buildings should be considered from the stand points of serviceability and comfort. The peak accelaerations at the top floors of the building resulting from frequent wind storms should be limited to minimise possible perception of motion by the occupants. In earthquake resistant design, it is necessary to prevent outright collapse of buildings under severe earthquakes. Limit the nonstructural damage to a minimum. Designed to have a reserve ductility to undergo large deformations during severe earthquakes. If the structure needs to be designed for gravity loads only, the stresses caused by lateral loads will automatically be limited to the 33 percent overstress allowed in most codes. April - June 2009

The material quantities needed with reinforced concrete buildings also increase as the number of stories increases. The increase in material for gravity load is more than for steel buildings, whereas the additional material required for lateral load is not high for steel buildings, since weight of additional gravity loads helps to resist the lateral deflection and overturning moment. The additional gravity load, on the other hand, can aggravate the problem of designing for earthquake forces. The graph shown in Figure 1 illustrates how unit weight of a structural material such as steel increases as the number of floors increases.

and television broadcasting towers which measure over 600 metres (about 2,000 feet) in height. There is, however, some debate about: Whether structures under construction should be included in the list. Whether structures rising out of water should have their below-water height included. For towers, there is debate over: whether guy-wiresupported structures should be counted? For buildings, there is debate over: Whether communication towers with observation galleries should be considered habitable buildings. Whether only habitable height is considered. Whether roof-top antennas should be considered towards height of buildings; with particular interest in whether components that look like spires can be either classified as antennas or architectural detail.

The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, the organization that determines the title of the Worlds Tallest Building, recognizes a building only if at least fifty percent of its height is made up of floor plates containing habitable floor area. Structures that do not meet this criterion, such as the CN Tower, are defined as towers. The conservation and creation of energy in all buildings, not just in tall buildings, is accepted as a key to counteracting the effects of climate change.
Figure 1. Structural Steel quantities for Gravity Load and Wind Load systems (Source: Taranath, 1988)

The unit weight of structural framing members may be reduced with the application of Innovative and state-of-the-art design concepts Use of high-strength low-alloy steels, Use of welding instead of bolting, Increased use of composite construction, and light weight aggregates Application of computers for analysis and design, gradual increase in the allowable stresses in the material based on the research and past performance Reduction in other construction materials and equipments The cost of structure usually accounts for 20-30% of the cost of a tall building. The cost of wind bracing system may work out to one-third of the structural cost (or almost 7-10% of total cost). Each building, of course, is a response to a unique set of circumstances brought about by the real estate market, zoning laws, client priorities, and architects tastes and fantasies. It is this singularity of tall buildings that has given impetus to the innovations in the art of structural engineering. In terms of absolute height, the tallest structure is currently the Burj Dubai, followed by dozens of radio Bulletin of ACCE (I) 22

Structural schemes: Braced tube scheme: Cross-bracing systemsExterior braced tube and Interior braced tube, braced and framed tube combination- steel or composite Framed tube systems: single tube or twin tubessteel or composite Nontubular schemes: Shear wall and frame, shear links, outrigger and belt truss, jumbo column scheme- steel or composite.

Tallest structures
The worlds tallest man-made structure is Burj Dubai, a skyscraper under construction in Dubai that reached 707 m (2,320 ft) in height on September 26, 2008. When completed, it is expected to rise over 818 m (2,684 ft). By 7 April 2008 it had been built higher than the KVLYTV mast in North Dakota, USA, which is still the tallest completed structure at 628.8 m (2,063 ft). It officially surpassed Polands 646.38 m (2,121 ft) Warsaw radio mast, which stood from 1974 to 1991, to become the tallest structure ever built. Guyed lattice towers such as these masts had held the world height record since 1954. The CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, standing at 553.3 m (1,815 ft) is the worlds tallest completed freestanding structure on land. Opened in 1976, it was

April - June 2009

surpassed in height by the rising Burj Dubai on September 12, 2007. It has the worlds second highest public observation deck at 446.5 m (1,465 ft). The Petronius Platform stands 610 m (2,001 ft) off the sea floor leading some, including Guinness World Records 2007, to claim it as the tallest freestanding structure in the world. However, it is debated if belowwater height should not be counted, in the same manner as underground height is not taken into account in buildings. The Troll A platform is 472 m (1,549 ft), without any part of that height being supported by wires. The tension-leg type of oil platform has even greater belowwater heights with several examples more than 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) deep. However, these platforms are not considered constant structures as the vast majority of their height is made up of the length of the tendons attaching the floating platforms to the sea floor. Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan is currently the worlds tallest inhabited building in only one of the four main categories that are commonly measured: at 509.2 m (1,671 ft) as measured to its architectural height (spire). Its roof height 449.2 m (1,474 ft) and highest occupied floor 439.2 m (1,441 ft) have recently been overtaken by the Shanghai World Financial Center (roof height 487 m (1,598 ft); highest occupied floor 474 m (1,555 ft)). The Sears Tower is highest in the final category: the greatest height to top of antenna of any building in the world at 527.3 m (1,730 ft).

On its completion, projected for 2009, Burj Dubai will break the height record in all four categories for completed buildings by a wide margin. While the final height has not been released to the public, Greg Sang, the construction manager, says that the building will rise to a minimum of 700 m (2,297 ft). The developer, Emaar, is keeping structural details secret due to competition for the worlds tallest with other structures, including the nearby Al Burj. The Shanghai World Financial Center has the worlds highest roof, highest occupied floor, and the worlds highest public observation deck at 474.2 m (1,556 ft). It will retain the latter record after the completion of Burj Dubai, as Burj Dubais observation deck will be at 442 m (1,450 ft).

Tallest structure by category


Due to the disagreements over how to measure height and classify structures, engineers have created various definitions for categories of buildings and other structures. One measure includes the absolute height of a building; another includes only spires and other permanent architectural features, but not antennas. The tradition of including the spire on top of a building and not including the antenna dates back to the rivalry between the Chrysler Building and 40 Wall Street. A modern-day example is that the antenna on top of the Sears tower is not considered part of its architectural height, while the spires on top of the Petronas towers are counted.

CALL FOR NOMINATIONS FOR


ICI (KBC) - UltraTech Endowment Award for Outstanding Concrete Engineer of Karnataka - 2009 ICI (KBC) - Birla Super Endowment Award for Outstanding Concrete Structure of Karnataka 2009
Indian Concrete Institute - Karnataka Bangalore Center, thought about the need to identify and honour an individual who has worked for the cause of concrete and rendered significant contributions to the Research, Development and/or Application of Concrete and also about the need for recognising outstanding and innovative structures built using concrete. This idea has led to instituting of above two awards. M/s. Grasim Industries Limited (Cement Division), Bangalore has instituted these awards. A committee of experts reviews the nominations received for the awards and selects the awardees for the year 2009. The decision of the committee is final. You/your organisation being one among those involved in the field of Concrete, ICI-KBC has decided to request you to nominate a person and a Concrete Structure, you think suitable for the awards. The award giving ceremony is an important agenda in the Concrete Day celebrations on 7th September every year. Every year nominations are invited for the awards. The information to be furnished in respect of the nominations can be obtained by email. We request you to kindly send your nominations on or before August 10, 2009. For details, please contact : Dr. M. N. Hegde Secretary, ICI - KBC Mobile : 9741006095 E-mail : icikbc@gmail.com 23 April - June 2009

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

Table 1 shows the tallest structure by category


Category Skyscraper (under construction) aall categories Guyed Mast Concrete Tower Skyscraper - to top of antenna Skyscraper - to top of spire Skyscraper - to top of roof Tower for scientific research Mast radiator, insulated against ground Twin towers Chimney Radar Guyed tubular steel mast Lattice tower Partially guyed tower Electricity pylon Bridge pillar Iron tower Five-sided building Dam Concrete dam Electricity pylon built of concrete Clock tower Electricity pylon of HVDC-powerline Minaret Wind turbine Cooling tower Monument 90 twisted building Masonry tower Inclined Structure, Stadium Obelisk Church building Masonry building Masonry building Ferris wheel Church tower Industrial hall Memorial cross Philadelphia City Hall Singapore Flyer Ulm Minster Vehicle Assembly Building Santa Cruz del Valle de los Cados Structure Burj Dubai KVLY-TV mast CN Tower Sears Tower Taipei 101 Shanghai World Financial Center BREN Tower VLF transmitter Lualualei Petronas Twin Towers GRES-2 Power Station Dimona Radar Facility Belmont transmitting station Kiev TV Tower Gerbrandy Tower Yangtze River Crossing, Jiangyin Millau Viaduct Tokyo Tower JPMorgan Chase Tower Nurek Dam Grande Dixence Dam Yangtze River Crossing, Nanjing NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building Yangtze River Crossing, Wuhu Hassan II Mosque Niederaussem Power Station Gateway Arch Turning Torso Anaconda Smelter Stack Le Stade Olympique San Jacinto Monument Chicago Temple Building Country United Arab Emirates United States Canada United States Taiwan Peoples Republic of China United States United States Malaysia Kazakhstan Israel United Kingdom Ukraine Netherlands China France Japan United States Tajikistan Switzerland China Japan China Morocco Germany United States Sweden United States Canada United States United States Italy United States Singapore Germany United States Spain City Dubai Blanchard, N.D. Toronto Chicago Taipei Shanghai Nevada Test Site Lualualei, Hawaii Kuala Lumpur Ekibastusz Dimona Donington on Bain Kiev IJsselstein Jiangyin Millau Tokyo Houston Nurek Val dHrens Nanjing Tokyo Wuhu Casablanca Laasow, Brandenburg Niederaussem St. Louis, Missouri Malm Anaconda, Montana Montreal Houston Chicago Torino Philadelphia Singapore Ulm Kennedy Space Center El Escorial Height (m) 707 628.8 553.3 527.3 509.2 492 462 458.11 452 419.7 400 387.7 385 366.8 346.5 342 333 305 300 285 257 240 229 210 205 200 192 190 178.3 175 173.7 173 167 167 165 162 160 152.4

Fuhrlnder Wind Turbine Laasow Germany

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

24

April - June 2009

Roller coaster Tomb Dome Air traffic control tower Flagpole, free-standing Equilateral Pentagon Statue (including pedestal) Storage silo Sculpture Light advertisement Wooden structure Aerial tramway support tower Electricity pylon of powerline for single phase AC Lighthouse Sphere Pre-modern Chinese pagoda Lantern Tower Statue (not including pedestal) Brick lighthouse Brick minaret Electricity pylon (concrete, prefabricated) Monolithic obelisk

Kingda Ka Great Pyramid of Giza St Peters Basilica dome Suvarnabhumi Airport Ashgabat Flagpole Baltimore World Trade Center Ushiku Daibutsu Bronze Buddha Statue Henninger Turm Spire of Dublin Bayer Cross Leverkusen Gliwice Radio Tower Pillar of third section of Gletscherbahn Kaprun Bremen-Industriehafen Weser Powerline Crossing Yokohama Marine Tower Stockholm Globe Arena Liaodi Pagoda Boston Stump Mamayev Kurgan Torre della Lanterna Qutub Minar Pylon 310 of powerline Innertkirchen-Littau-Mettlen Tuthmosis II Obelisk

United States Egypt Vatican City Thailand Turkmenistan United States Japan Germany Ireland Germany Poland Austria Germany Japan Sweden China United Kingdom Russia Italy India Switzerland Italy

Jackson, New Jersey Giza, Cairo Vatican City, Rome Bangkok Ashgabat Baltimore Ushiku Frankfurt Dublin Leverkusen Gliwice Kaprun Bremen Yokohama Stockholm Ding County, Hebei Boston, Lincolnshire Volgograd Genoa Delhi Littau San Giovanni in Laterano

138.98 138.8 136.57 132.2 133 123.5 120 120 120 118 118 113.6 111 106 85 84 83.05 82 77 72.5 59.5 36

Table 2. Tallest building by function


Category Mixed Use* Office Mixed Use* (completed only) Hotel Residential Hotel (in use only) Educational Hospital Library Structure Burj Dubai** Taipei 101 John Hancock Center Rose Tower*** Q1 Burj Al Arab Moscow State University Guys Hospital W. E. B. DuBois Library Country United Arab Emirates Taiwan United States United Arab Emirates Australia United Arab Emirates Russia United Kingdom United States City Dubai Taipei Chicago Dubai Gold Coast, Queensland Dubai Moscow London Amherst, Massachusetts Architectural top, m 707 (of est. 818) 509 344 333 322.5 321 240 143 116

* Mixed Use is defined as having both residential and office space. ** As Burj Dubai is still under construction and not yet inhabitable, it currently does not serve a specific function. Upon completion, it will serve as a mixed use building. *** Although the Rose Tower is complete, it is not currently inhabited. Once the buildings hotel opens (target date of April 2008 was not met), the tower will become the worlds tallest building used exclusively as a hotel.

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

25

April - June 2009

Up until 1998 the tallest building status was essentially uncontested. Counting buildings as structures with floors throughout, and with antenna masts excluded, the Sears Tower in Chicago was considered the tallest. When the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were built, controversy arose because the spire extended nine metres higher than the roof of the Sears Tower. Excluding the spire, the Petronas Towers are not taller than the Sears Tower. At their convention in Chicago, the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) reduced the Sears Tower from worlds tallest and pronounced it not second tallest, but third, and pronounced Petronas as worlds tallest. This action caused a considerable amount of controversy, so CTBUH defined four categories in which the worlds tallest building can be measured: 1. Height to the architectural top (including spires and pinnacles, but not antennas, masts or flagpoles). This measurement is the most widely utilized and is used to define the rankings of the 100 Tallest Buildings in the World. 2. Highest Occupied Floor 3. Height to Top of Roof 4. Height to Tip The height is measured from the pavement level of the main entrance. At the time, the Sears Tower held first place in the second and third categories. Petronas held the first category, and the original World Trade Towers held the fourth. Within months, however, a new antenna mast was placed on the Sears Tower, giving it hold of the fourth category. On April 20, 2004, the Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, was completed. Its completion gave it
Date (Event) 2008 2003: 2000: 1998 1996 Architectural top Shanghai World Financial Center completed Taipei 101 completed Sears Tower antenna extension Petronas Towers completed CTBUH defines categories

the world record for the first three categories. On July 21, 2007 it was announced that Burj Dubai had surpassed Taipei 101 in height, reaching 512 m (1,680 feet) tall. However Burj Dubai is still under construction. Today, Taipei 101 leads in the first category with 509 m (1,671 feet), but has been surpassed in the second two categories by the Shanghai World Financial Center whose roof height is 492 m (1,614 feet) and whose highest occupied floor is at 474 m (1,555 feet). Before either of these buildings were completed, the first category was held by the Petronas Twin Towers with 452 m (1,483 feet), and before that by Sears Tower with 442 m (1,451 feet). The second and third categories were held by the Sears Tower, with 412 m (1,351 feet) and 442 m (1,451 feet) respectively. The Sears Tower still leads in the fourth category with 527 m (1,729 feet), previously held by the World Trade Center until the extension of the Chicago towers western broadcast antenna in 2000, over a year prior to the Trade Centers destruction in 2001. Its antenna mast included, 1 World Trade Center measured 526 m (1,727 feet). The World Trade Center became the worlds tallest buildings to be destroyed or demolished; indeed, its site entered the record books twice on September 11, 2001, in that category, replacing the Singer Building, which once stood a block from the WTC site. Structures such as the CN Tower, the Ostankino Tower and the Oriental Pearl Tower are excluded from these categories because they are not habitable buildings, which are defined as frame structures made with floors and walls throughout.

Table 3. History of record holders in each CTBUH category


Highest occupied floor Taipei 101 Taipei 101 Petronas Towers Petronas Towers Sears Tower Rooftop Shanghai World Financial Center Taipei 101 Sears Tower Sears Tower Sears Tower Antenna Shanghai World Financial Center Taipei 101 Sears Tower Sears Tower Sears Tower Sears Tower Sears Tower Sears Tower World Trade Center World Trade Center

Worlds tallest freestanding structure on land


Freestanding structures include observation towers, monuments and other structures not generally considered to be Habitable buildings, but exclude supported structures such as guyed masts and ocean drilling platforms. The worlds tallest freestanding structure on land is defined as the tallest self-supporting man-made structure that stands above ground. This definition is different from that of worlds tallest building or worlds tallest structure based on the percent of the structure that is occupied and whether or not it is self-supporting or supported by exterior cables. Likewise, this definition does not count Bulletin of ACCE (I) 26

structures that are built underground or on the seabed, such as the Petronius Platform in the Gulf of Mexico. As of 12 May 2008, the tallest freestanding structure on land is the still under construction Burj Dubai in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The building, which now stands at 636 m (2,090 ft), surpassed the height of the previous record holder, the 553.3 m (1,815 ft) CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, on September 12, 2007. It is scheduled to be completed in 2009, and is planned to rise to a height of over 818 m (2,680 ft). The following is a list of structures that have held the title as the tallest freestanding structure on land.

April - June 2009

Table 4 Tallest historical structures


Record from Record to c. 2600 BC c. 2570 BC 1311 c. 2570 BC c. AD 1311 1549 Name and Location Red Pyramid of Sneferu, Egypt Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt Lincoln Cathedral in England Constructed c. 2600 BC c. 2570 BC 10921311 Height (m) 105 146 160 Notes By AD 1439, the Great Pyramid had eroded to a height of approximately 139 m (455 ft). The central spire was destroyed in a storm in 1549. While the reputed height of 525 ft is doubted by A.F. Kendrick, other sources agree on this height. The spire burnt down after a lightning strike in 1625 and was rebuilt several times. The current height is 123 m. The spire burnt down after a lightning strike in 1647. The current height is 104 m.

1549

1625

St. Olafs Church in Tallinn, Estonia

14381519

159

1625 1647 1874 1876 1880 1884 1889

1647 1874 1876 1880 1884 1889 1930

St. Marys Church in Stralsund, Germany Strasbourg Cathedral in France St. Nikolai in Hamburg, Germany Cathdrale Notre Dame in Rouen, France Cologne Cathedral in Germany Washington Monument in Washington D.C., United States Eiffel Tower in Paris, France

13841478 1439 18461874 12021876 12481880 1884 1889

151 142 147 151 157 169 300

First structure to exceed 300 metres in height. The addition of a telecommunications tower in the 1950s brought the overall height to 324 m. First building with 100+ stories. The addition of a pinnacle and antennas later increased its overall height to 1,472 ft/448.7 m. Remains the tallest in Europe. Fire in 2000 led to extensive renovation. Remains the tallest in the Americas Current holder of worlds tallest freestanding structure. Estimated to rise higher than 2,625 ft when completed in 2009.

1930 1931

1931 1967

Chrysler Building New York, US Empire State Building, New York, US

19281930 19301931

319 381

1967 1975 2007

1975 2007 present

Ostankino Tower in Moscow, Russia CN Tower in Toronto, Canada Burj Dubai in Dubai, UAE

19631967 19731976 20042008

537 553 707.3

Figure 2 Tallest buildings and structures in the world

The CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario was the worlds tallest freestanding structure on land from 1975

KVLY-TV mast, the height record holder from 19631974 and 19912008

Burj Dubai in Dubai, United Arab Emirates is currently the worlds tallest man-made structure.

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

27

April - June 2009

Notable mentions include the Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria, built in the third century BC, and estimated between 115 to 135 m (383440 ft). It was the worlds tallest nonpyramidal building for many centuries. Another notable mention includes the Jetavanaramaya stupa in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, which was built in the third century, and was similarly tall at 122 m (400 ft). These were both the worlds tallest or second tallest non-pyramidal buildings for over a thousand years. The tallest secular building between the collapse of the Pharos and the erection of the Washington Monument may have been the Torre del Mangia in Siena, which is 102 m tall, and was constructed in the first half of the fourteenth century, and the 97 m tall Torre degli Asinelli in Bologna, also Italy, built between 1109 and 1119. * This is the current height of Burj Dubai, as of 26 September 2008. When completed, it is expected to rise over 800 m (2,625 ft). Figure 3. Diagram of the Principal High Buildings of the Old World, 1884

Worlds highest observation deck


Table 5. Timeline of development of worlds highest observation deck since inauguration of Eiffel Tower. Held record From 1889 1931 To 1931 1973 Eiffel Tower, Paris, France Empire State Building, New York City, USA World Trade Center, New York City, USA CN Tower, Toronto, Canada Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China 1889 1931 Name and Location Constructed Height of highest observation deck (m) 275 369 Two further observation decks 57 and 115 metres above ground. A second observation deck is located on the 86th floor at 320 metres above ground. Destroyed during the September 11, 2001 attacks Two further observation decks 342 and 346 metres above ground. Other observation decks are 423 and 439 metres above ground. Notes

1973 1976 2008

1976 2008 present

1973 1976 2008

420 446.5 474

Higher observation decks have existed on mountain peaks or cliffs, rather than on tall structures. For example, the Royal Gorge Bridge in Caon City, Colorado, USA, was constructed in 1929 spanning the Royal Gorge at a height of 321 m (1095 ft.) above the Arkansas River.

Timeline of guyed structures on land


As most of the tallest structures are guyed masts and the absolute height record of architectural structures on land is since 1954 kept by them, here is a timeline of worlds tallest guyed masts, since the beginning of radio technology. As many large guyed masts were destroyed at the end of World War II, the dates for the years between 1945 and 1950 may be incorrect. If Wusung Radio Tower survived World War II, it was the tallest guyed structure shortly after World War II. Bulletin of ACCE (I) 28 April - June 2009

ACCE (I) - Events at Glance

3rd Governing Council Meeting held on 9th May 2009 at Mysore

Special Governing Council Meeting held on 20th June 2009 at Bangalore

ACCE (I) Mysore Centre - Resource Meet on Water & Water Treatment held on 9th May 2009

ACCE (I) Bangalore Centre - Technical Lectures

29

One software many stories of

SUCCESS!
Tekla Structures - the leading 3D BIM solution for building & construction industry

Structures that

Stand Out

tures Struc s Tekla il U Learn Or E-ma To all C

Tekla Structures can share model and drawing information with all the major architectural modeling programs. Tekla Structures allows an effective, two-way link for architects and engineers to share and coordinate project information.Tekla Structures is comprehensive and accurate BIM (building information modeling) solution for design and construction.

Tekla Structures Software Modules


Structural Design Steel Detailing
12 5 6 7 8 9 11 13

Precast Detailing R.C.C. Detailing Project Management


16 15

10

BIM (Building Information Modeling)


(All In One Software )
17

1 3

14

1. Swan Bell Tower, Australia 2. Torre Agbar, Spain 3. Airport Hotel Hilton, Finland 4. Hearst Tower, USA 5. The Tower, United Arab Emirates 6. Panorama Tower, Finland

7. World Financial Center, China 8. Khalifa Sports City Tower, Qatar 9. Burj Dubai, United Arab Emirates 10. 30 St Mary Axe, United Kingdom 11. Menara Telekom, Malaysia

12. Rose Rotana Suites, United Arab Emirates 13. Willis Building, United Kingdom 14. Finnforest Modular Offce, Finland 15. CCTV Towers, China 16. Padua NET Center, Italy 17. Denver Art Museum, USA

Contact Tekla India Pvt Ltd. Unit No -106, Building No - 3, Sector No -III, Millennium Business Park, Mahape, Navi Mumbai - 400710 Tel. : +91 22 67120892 / 93 Fax : +91 22 67214568 e-mail : teklastructures.sales.in@tekla.com

Table 6. Timeline of guyed structures on land


Held record From To
1913 1920 1923 1933 1920 1923 1933 1939

Name and Location


Central mast of Eilvese transmitter, Eilvese, Germany

Constructed Height of highest observation deck (m)


1913 250

Notes
Mast was divided in 145 m by an insulator, demolished in 1931 2 masts, demolished in 1946 8 masts, destroyed in 1940 Blaw-Knox Tower, insulated against ground, destroyed in 1945, afterwards rebuilt Insulated against ground, dismantled in 1945 Demolished on October 17, 1972 by explosives. Replaced in 1976 by 2 355 masts. Blaw-Knox Tower, Insulated against ground, rebuilt after destruction in 1945

Central masts of Nauen Transmitter Station, Nauen, Germany 1920 Masts of Ruiselede transmitter, Ruiselede, Belgium 1923

260 287 314

Lakihegy Tower, Lakihegy, Hungary 1933

1939 1945

1945 1946

Deutschlandsender Herzberg/Elster, 1939 Herzberg (Elster), Germany Blaw-Knox Tower Liblice, Liblice, Czech Republic Lakihegy Tower, Lakihegy, Hungary WIVB-TV Tower, Colden, New York, USA Longwave transmitter Raszyn, Raszyn, Poland Forestport Tower, Forestport, New York, USA Griffin Television Tower Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA KOBR-TV Tower, Caprock, New Mexico, USA WGME TV Tower, Raymond, Maine, USA KFVS TV Mast, Cape Girardeau County, Missouri, USA WTVM/WRBL-TV & WVRK-FM Tower, Cusseta, Georgia, USA WIMZ-FM-Tower, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA Warsaw Radio Mast, Gbin, Poland KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA 1936

335 280.4

1946 1948 1949 1950 1954 1956 1959 1960 1962 1963 1963 1974 1991

1948 1949 1950 1954 1959 1959 1960 1962 1963 1963 1974 1991

1946

314

1948 1949 1950 1954 1956 1959 1960 1962 1963 1963 1974 1963

321.9 335 371.25 480.5 490.7 495 511.1 533 534.01 628.8 646.4 628.8 Mast radiator insulated against ground, collapsed in 1991 Located in Cusseta, Georgia Collapsed in 1960 Insulated against ground Insulated against ground

Tallest structures, freestanding structures, and buildings


The list categories are: The structures (supported) list uses pinnacle height and includes architectural structures of any type that might use some external support constructions like cables and are fully built in air. Only the three tallest are listed, as more than fifty US TV masts have stated heights of 600-610m (1969-2000 ft). 33 April - June 2009

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

The structures (media supported) list uses pinnacle height and includes architectural structures of any type that are not totally built in the air but are using support from other, denser media like salt water. All structures greater than 500 m (1,640 ft) are listed. The freestanding structures list uses pinnacle height and includes structures over 400 m (1,312 ft) that do not use guy-wires or other external supports. This means truly free standing on its own or, in similar sense, nonsupported structures. The building list uses architectural height (excluding antennas) and includes only buildings, defined as consisting of habitable floors. Both of these follow CTBUH guidelines.

Table 7 - All supertall buildings (300 m and higher) are listed.


Rank 1 2 3 Name and location Structures (supported) KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, United States KXJB-TV mast, Galesburg, North Dakota, United States KXTV/KOVR Tower, Walnut Grove, California, United States Structures (media supported) 1 2 3 Petronius Platform, Gulf of Mexico Baldpate Platform, Gulf of Mexico Bullwinkle Platform, Gulf of Mexico Freestanding structures 1 Burj Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (under construction) 2009 707.3 m (2,321 ft) 818 m (2,684 ft) (predicted) 553 m (1,814 ft) 540 m (1,772 ft) 527 m (1,729 ft) 509 m (1,670 ft) 492 m (1,614 ft) 468 m (1,535 ft) 457 m (1,500 ft) 452 m (1,483 ft) 452 m (1,483 ft) 450 m (1,476 ft) 449 (1,472 ft) 435 m (1,427 ft) 421 m (1,381 ft) 421 m (1,381 ft) 420 m (1,378 ft) 415 m (1,362 ft) 415 m (1,362 ft) 405 m (1,329 ft) 162 (predicted) 2000 1998 1989 610 m (2,001 ft) 580 m (1,902.9 ft) 529 m (1,736 ft) 1963 1998 2000 629 m (2,064 ft) 628 m (2,060 ft) 625 m (2,051 ft) Year completed Architectural top Floors

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

CN Tower, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Ostankino Tower, Moscow, Russia Sears Tower, , United States Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan Oriental Pearl Tower, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China John Hancock Center, Chicago, United States Petronas Tower I, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Petronas Tower II, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Greenland Square Zifeng Tower, Nanjing, Peoples Republic of China Empire State Building, New York City, United States Milad Tower, Tehran, Iran Kuala Lumpur Tower, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China Chimney of GRES-2 Power Station, Ekibastuz, Kazakhstan Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong Tianjin Radio and Television Tower, Tianjin, Peoples Republic of China Central TV Tower, Beijing, Peoples Republic of China

1976 1967 1974 2003 1996 1969 1998 1998 2009 1936 2007 1995 1998 1987 2003 1991 1992

108 101 101 100 88 88 89 102 88 88

Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China 2008

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

34

April - June 2009

Buildings 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan Petronas Tower I, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Petronas Tower II, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Greenland Square Zifeng Tower, Nanjing, Peoples Republic of China Sears Tower, Chicago, United States Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong CITIC Plaza, Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China Shun Hing Square, Shenzhen, Peoples Republic of China Empire State Building, New York, United States Central Plaza, Hong Kong Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong Bank of America Tower, New York, United States Almas Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Emirates Office Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Tuntex Sky Tower, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Aon Center, Chicago, United States The Center, Hong Kong John Hancock Center, Chicago, United States Rose Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Shimao International Plaza, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China Minsheng Bank Building, Wuhan, Peoples Republic of China Ryugyong Hotel, Pyongyang, North Korea (topped out) China World Trade Center Tower 3, Beijing, Peoples Republic of China Q1 Tower, Gold Coast City, Australia Burj Al Arab, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Chrysler Building, New York, United States Nina Tower I, Hong Kong New York Times Building, New York, United States Bank of America Plaza, Atlanta, United States U.S. Bank Tower, Los Angeles, United States Menara Telekom, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Jumeirah Emirates Towers Hotel, Dubai, United Arab Emirates One Island East, Hong Kong AT&T Corporate Center, Chicago, United States The Address Downtown Burj Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates JPMorgan Chase Tower, Houston, United States Baiyoke Tower II, Bangkok, Thailand Two Prudential Plaza, Chicago, United States 2003 1998 1998 2009 1974 1998 2003 1997 1996 1931 1992 1990 2008 2008 2000 1997 1973 1998 1969 2007 2006 2007 1992 2008 2005 1999 1930 2007 2007 1992 1989 2001 2000 2008 1989 2008 1982 1997 1990 509 m (1,670 ft) 492 m (1,614 ft) 452 m (1,483 ft) 452 m (1,483 ft) 450 m (1,476 ft) 442 m (1,450 ft) 421 m (1,381 ft) 415 m (1,362 ft) 391 m (1,283 ft) 384 m (1,260 ft) 381 m (1,250 ft) 374 m (1,227 ft) 367 m (1,204 ft) 366 m (1,201 ft) 360 m (1,181 ft) 355 m (1,165 ft) 348 m (1,142 ft) 346 m (1,135 ft) 346 m (1,135 ft) 344 m (1,129 ft) 333 m (1,093 ft) 333 m (1,093 ft) 331 m (1,086 ft) 330 m (1,083 ft) 330 m (1,083 ft) 323 m (1,060 ft) 321 m (1,053 ft) 319 m (1,047 ft) 319 m (1,047 ft) 319 m (1,047 ft) 312 m (1,024 ft) 310 m (1,017 ft) 310 m (1,017 ft) 309 m (1,014 ft) 308 m (1,010 ft) 307 m (1,007 ft) 306 m (1,004 ft) 305 m (1,001 ft) 304 m (997 ft) 303 m (994 ft) 101 101 88 88 89 108 88 88 80 69 102 78 70 54 74 54 85 83 73 100 72 60 68 105 74 78 60 77 80 52 55 73 55 56 70 60 63 75 85 64 Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China 2008

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

35

April - June 2009

Under construction
Numerous supertall skyscrapers are in various stages of proposal, planning, or construction. Each of the following are under construction and, depending on the order of completion, could become the worlds tallest building or structure in at least one category: Burj Dubai , under construction in Dubai, UAE, is expected to be 818 m (2,684 ft) tall. It is currently under construction, and as of 26 September 2008, it is 707 m (2,319.6 ft) tall, with 160 completed floors. It is currently taller than the CN Tower, the tallest completed freestanding structure. If completed, it will be the tallest manmade structure of any kind in history. Construction began in September 2004 and completion is expected in September 2009. The Pentominium, under construction in Dubai, is expected to be 618 m (2,028 ft) tall and have 120 floors. If completed, it will be the tallest all-residential building in the world. Construction began in 2007 and completion is expected in 2011. The Russia Tower, under construction in Moscows International Business Centre, is expected to be 612.2 m (2,009 ft.) tall and have 118 floors. If completed, it will surpass the belowmentioned Federation Tower East as the tallest building in Europe. Construction began in September 2007 and completion is expected in 2012. Incheon Tower is a 151-floor, 610 metres (2,000 ft) tower in Incheon, South Korea. It is estimated to be completed in 2012. The Guangzhou TV & Sightseeing Tower, under construction in Guangzhou, China, is expected to be 610.0 m (2,001 ft) tall. If completed, it will be tallest concrete tower, as well as the tallest structure in Asia. Construction began in November 2005 and completion is expected in 2009. The Chicago Spire (formerly Fordham Spire), under construction in Chicago, is expected to be 609.6 m (2,000 ft) and have 150 floors. If completed, it would surpass the CN Tower as the tallest freestanding building in North America[16], and would be the second tallest all-residential building in the world (behind the aforementionned Pentominium). Construction began in June 2007 and completion is expected in early 2012.[17] The Jakarta Tower (Menara Jakarta) is currently onhold in Jakarta, Indonesia. It is expected to be 558 m (1,831 ft.) tall up to the antenna, thus may be tallest concrete tower. It is expected to be completed in 2011. The Federation Tower East, under construction in Moscows International Business Centre, is expected to be 506 m (1,660 ft.) tall (to the tip of the spire) and have 93 floors. If completed, it will surpass the aforementionned Mercury City Tower as the

tallest building in Europe. Construction began in 2003 and completion is expected in 2009.

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Bryan Stafford Smith Alex Coull. (1991). Tall Buildings: Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons. Inc, New York. Bungale S. Taranath. (1988). Structural Analysis and Design of Tall Buildings, McGraw Hill Book Company. New York. Bungale S. Taranath. (1998). Steel, Concrete, and Composite Design of Tall Buildings, McGraw Hill Book Company. New York. CTBUH Criteria for Defining and Measuring Tall Buildings. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved on 2008-08-19. Burj Dubai now a record 707m tall and continues to rise. Emaar. Retrieved on 2008-09-26. Emaar. Burj Dubai surpasses KVLY-TV mast to become the worlds tallest man-made structure. Press release. Retrieved on 28 May 2008. CN Tower dethroned by Dubai building, CBC News (2007-09-12). 2 September 2008. Emaar Properties PJSC (2007-09-13). Burj Dubai scales 150 storeys and is the worlds tallest freestanding structure. Press release. Retrieved on 2 September 2008. Dubai building surpasses CN Tower in height, CTV.ca, CTVglobemedia (2007-09-13). On Top of the World, Time (2007-07-18). Retrieved on 24 February 2008. BBC News, Dubai skyscraper worlds tallest Highest Dams (World and U.S.) (chart). 1998 ICOLD World Register of Dams. Retrieved. 2007-08-11. Guinness World Records - Science & TechnologyStructures 2008.- Worlds Highest Concrete Dam. Flag of Turkmenistan. Official Homepage of the Republic of Turkmenistan (July 03, 2008). CTBUH Criteria for Defining and Measuring Tall Buildings The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Cathedral Church Of LINCOLN, by A.F. KENDRICK, B.A The Empire State Building. Wired New York. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. Height for inhabited buildings with floors; does not include TV towers and antennas. Chicago Business News, Analysis & Articles | Calatrava tower to drop spire | Crains Shelbourne Development. (2008, April 06). The Chicago Spire Achieves 30 Percent Sales. Retrieved June 14, 2008 from http:// w w w. s h e l b o u r n e d e v e l o p m e n t . c o m / press_release.php?id=96

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

RENEW YOUR MEMBERSHIP NOW


Members are requested to pay the Annual Subscription fee for the year 2009-2010 on or before 10.08.2009 Members Subscription Fee Rs: 500.00 Associate Members Subscription Fee Rs: 500.00 Payment: DD to be drawn in the name of Association of Consulting Civil Engineers (India) payable at Bangalore. 36 April - June 2009

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

Infrastructure Health Monitoring For Management


Ramesh Babu.K.H; Bhalla, Dr. Suresh; Neeraj, Vyom Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (INDIA) ABSTRACT Civil infrastructure plays a very important role in the development of any country. However, due to several reasons, such as adverse environmental conditions, increased vehicular load etc., structures often fail to perform satisfactorily even before the stipulated design life. Therefore, to prevent sudden failures before the service life, a new concept called health monitoring is gaining importance. Health monitoring is performed by means of sensors, such as accelerometers, strain gauges and piezo-sensors, through which changes in structural static/ dynamic behaviour caused by damage are detected. This paper has two parts; the first part covers damage location and severity assessment using the changes in natural frequencies taking aid of the mode shapes of the undamaged structure using finite element method. The second part deals with how financial savings can be achieved by structural inspection/ maintenance by using proper health monitoring approach. A case study is taken up for practical demonstration. This study concludes that by adopting a monitoring technique, the initial cost might be marginally higher, but in the long term, it reduces the overall cost drastically (through less maintenance cost and repair cost). Key words: Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), Damage detection INTRODUCTION Sustained economic growth and social development of any country is intimately linked to the reliability and durability of its civil infrastructures such as highways and related structures. Bridges are the most critical yet vulnerable elements in highway transportation networks. These structures are constantly exposed to aggressive environment and face ever-increasing traffic volumes and heavier truck loads. This may exert serious, wide spread and prolonged adverse impacts on various societal sectors. Failure of a bridge can cause enormous adverse impacts locally to the bridge site and also globally to the network. Bridge failures disrupt normal traffic flows, lead to reduced network accessibility and increased user costs in terms of travel delay, detour and extra vehicle fuel consumption as well as higher probability of accidents. In order to ensure satisfactory long-term safety and performance of highway networks, proactive/reactive maintenance, rehabilitation and/or replacement must be carried out in a timely and adequate manner for mitigating progressive deterioration and for correcting major structural defects. In a significant number of cases, the Bulletin of ACCE (I) 37 time span between successive inspections is long enough for minor structural damage to initiate, evolve into major damage, and eventually cause collapse of the structure (1). Health Monitoring of structure is gaining great importance in the field of civil engineering over the periodic (regular) maintenance, due to the fact that monitoring system can detect damages as they occur in the structure. By implementing a health monitoring technique on a structure there are several benefits such as service life of the structure can be enhanced, cost for maintaining the structure can be reduced. The objective of this paper can be divided into two main parts: Firstly, to detect damage location and also severity of damage by the naidu and soh method. Secondly, cost benefit analysis of a structure with the use of health monitoring system and with out any monitoring system (i.e. periodical maintenance) for different cases (i.e. by changing the severity of damage and the damage location). HEALTH MONITORING OF STRUCTURE Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is defined as the measurement of the operating and loading environment and the critical responses of a structure to track and evaluate the symptoms of operational incidents, anomalies and/or deterioration or damage indicators that may affect operation, serviceability or safety reliability (2). The main principle of health monitoring is based on finding the change in the natural frequencies from the undamaged state. This change in natural frequencies depends upon the severity of the damage and location of the damage. For example, as the severity of damage increases, the change of natural frequencies between will also be increasing. In the same way, the location of the damage also affects the change in natural frequencies, like the damage at the central part of the bridge will have more adverse affect than the damage at the supports. WHY AND WHERE TO IMPLEMENT HEALTH MONITORING The most important questions answered by this paper would be, by using a health monitoring technique, how it is beneficial to the structure (may be to that the user) and other one will be where this health monitoring should be taken up. As far the former question is concerned the answer is that SHM is definitely beneficial. In a significant number of cases, the time span between successive inspections is long enough for minor structural damage to initiate, evolve into major damage, and eventually cause collapse April - June 2009

of the structure (3). On the other hand in case of structure which uses monitoring technique, the damages are detected as they and when are formed. But this involves extra cost at the initial stage of construction. However, this cost will be negligible when compared to the cost it will be saving in the future/later date (long run). How much we can save in long run has been studied using a real life case study. The case study is of a steel bridge of 20.3m span. The some of the advantages we derive from monitoring of the structure are: SHM facilitates management decisions depending on the severity of damage and the locations of damage (retrofit or demolish the structure). Minimization of the maintenance cost and also the cost to be incurred for retrofitting or repairing if the structure is damaged. Predict the life of the structure.

(FE) model as a means for damage location identification using higher modes. Damage location is identified by correlating the changes in natural frequencies (for higher modes) with the corresponding mode shapes of the undamaged structure. The natural frequency shifts of the structure are obtained from the shifts in the peaks if the E/M admittance signatures of smart piezo-transducers bonded on to the host structure. The mode shapes are obtained from the equivalent FE model of the undamaged structure. The advantages of this method are: 1) A single or a pair of piezo-transducer is sufficient to locate the damages in small structures (with homogeneous materials). This method can be exploited for economical health monitoring of structures such as trusses. 2) The knowledge of mode shape changes for the damaged structure is not required. 3) Piezo-transducers being light-weight and nonintrusive to the structure do not significantly affect the natural frequencies of the system. 4) The sensitivity of the technique to incipient damages is high. The governing equation for calculating the DI values for each element of the beam is as follows (5):

The health monitoring technique can be used almost all structures such as bridges, buildings, tunnels, power plants and nuclear reactors. The accessories needed for monitoring the structure are accelerometer, multimeter, strain gauges, piezoelectric patches (PZT patches) and computer.

DAMAGE DETECTION IN STEEL BEAM


Introduction Global damage or fault detection, as determined by changes in the dynamic properties (i.e. modal parameters, notably resonant frequencies, mode shapes and modal damping) or response of structures. Changes in physical properties of the structure, such as its stiffness or flexibility due to damage will cause changes in the modal properties. Based on the amount of information provided regarding the damage state, these methods can be classified into four categories (4): 1) 2) 3) 4) Identify that damage has occurred; Identify that damage has occurred and determine location of damage; Identify that damage has occurred, locate damage and estimate its severity and Identify that damage has occurred, locate damage, estimate its severity and determine the remaining useful life of the structure.

As we can see from this equation, 2 sets of data are required. 1. The shifts in fundamental frequency for each stage of damage (comparing predamage and post-damage modal analysis) The values for the curvatures.

2.

Current damage detection methods are either visual or localized experimental methods such as acoustic or ultrasonic methods, magnetic field methods, radiography, eddy-current methods and thermal field methods. In this paper, a method has been discussed which provides information about level 4. The method is low frequency vibration technique based on piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) patches. Naidu and Soh (5) described the electromechanical (E/ M) impedance method integrated with a finite element Bulletin of ACCE (I) 38

The advantage of this method is that it eliminates the need to obtain the mode shapes by experimental modal analysis, which requires lots of transducers and is also not very accurate. The damage indicator for an element is nothing but the weighted average of the element deformation parameters, E, over the chosen m modes, which have the largest frequency changes. The damage location is then identified as the element that has the maximum DI value. The above mentioned method can be demonstrated experimentally on a 2m long structural stainless steel beam and the sectional details are shown in Fig.1. The boundary condition of the beams used for computational and theoretical analysis is simply April - June 2009

supported pin-pin end supports. To simulate this, 2 angles (ISA) were welded onto the beam at its two ends. The length of the beam between supports was 1.9m. A cut of width 3 mm was created in the top flange of the beam at distance of 625 mm from the left support using a mechanical saw as shown in Fig. 2. The cut was made in two stages. In the first stage, the cut was made up to 7.6 mm depth. It was extended to a depth of 80mm in the second stage. Modal analysis is done for this beam both theoretically and FEM analysis (using ANSYS 9.0). A 1-D analysis was also done using ANSYS 9.0 to obtain the values of the element displacements from mode shapes and to hence calculate the Damage Index for each element. This was not done to get the frequencies, but to rather obtain the displacements for each element of the FE mesh. Youngs modulus was considered as 2 x 1011pa, density as 7700 kg/m3 and Poissons ratio as 0.3. Since the 2m beam can only have 2 modes less than 1000Hz, hence only the 1st 2 modes were taken into account. It is clear from the displacement values that at higher modes, the displacements increase. Also, these displacements are in concordance with the general view of the 1st and 2nd modes. Fig. 3 shows the DI values of the elements corresponding to the two stages of damages. From this figure, the 6th element, whose mid point is located 522.5 mm from the left end, is identified as the damaged element, which is very close to the actual damage location. It is also found that as severity of damage increases, DI values increase correspondingly.

includes direct and indirect costs. The direct cost, often called the agency cost in bridge management systems, consists of costs of material, labour and scaffold, among others. The major component of indirect costs is the user cost obtained by quantifying service losses such as traffic delay. In this analysis, we have taken only direct cost into consideration and see how cost can be reduced with monitoring technique. The maintenance can also be divided into two types - general inspection (i.e. visual inspection) and detailed inspections. General inspection done without any priority to damage is done visually by checking the structure. This is done at an interval of around 2-3 yrs or till the first detailed inspection, depending on the importance of the structure and the budget to be invested on that structure. Detailed inspection or maintenance is done when some damage in the structure is identified and this is done to check that it does not turn to severe damage. Generally, this type of maintenance is done for an interval of 8 to 10yrs. In this study the interval for detailed maintenance is taken as 8yrs. As infrastructure plays very important role in the progress of the country, it is very important the necessary maintenance interventions should be taken into account such that the structure remains functional. So, there should be a monitoring technique for structure to take care of this. The instruments used for monitoring a structure give the signals (data or frequencies) which can be used as input for the methods used for detecting the location and the severity of damage. The continuous monitoring of the structure is done and if there is any problem in the system (or structure) it is detected immediately and necessary measures is taken to make sure, that the damage is not extended any more. So in this way, we will be saving lots of lots of money to be spent unnecessarily on the maintenance of the structure. This monitoring technique is like the famous proverb prevention is better than curing the disease. To show how the cost can be saved with the implementation of monitoring technique, we will go through a steel bridge (Railway Bridge). Case Study: Steel Bridge This bridge is serving the Northern Railways, the Bridge Number is 170 under Gaziabad section and it is situated at 126.630 km Dasna. In Fig.4 shows the section of the steel bridge and the elements dimensions are given below Overall Span of the Bridge = 19.65m Clear Span b/w bearings = 19.4 m Depth of the Channel Section (girder) = 1788 mm Distance between two girders = 1830mm

BENEFIT COST ANALYSIS: CASE STUDY


Introduction After finding the damage location and severity of damage, now it is very important to take necessary preventive measures (i.e. maintenance). If damages are not taken care in the early ages, these can become more severe at the later stage. These damages may be due to environmental affects, increased traffic loading and due to the end of service life of the elements of the structure. In general, structures in better condition need smaller maintenance costs than structures in poor condition to reach the same reliability level by using the same type of maintenance intervention. By implementing health monitoring technique for a structure, not only the service life of the structure will improve but also resources can be saved drastically when compare to the structure with regular maintenance. Real life case study is presented in this section to quantitatively estimate the benefits. Methodology In general construction, inspection, maintenance and failure costs are essential for the life cycle costing (LCC) analysis of deteriorating structures. This analysis

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

39

April - June 2009

1st Top Flange Plate = 360 x 25 x 9825 mm 2nd Top Flange Plate = 360 x 12 x 8983 mm Main Angle Section = 150 x 150 x 16 x 9825 mm Vertical Stiffeners = 125 x 75 x 8 mm Gusset Plate = 330 x 10 x 345 mm All holes are 21.5 mm diameter for 20 mm dia. Shop Rivets and All holes are 23.5 mm dia. for 22 mm dia. Field Rivets. Total steel per span (inclusive of wastage) = 29 tonnes In this analysis, the main concern is to use the direct cost (initial cost) involved in the construction of the structure and see how much saving can be achieved by varying the damage locations and also varying the severity of damages, as the life of structure increases. The maintenance for the structure also varies depending on the location of the damage and the severity. In this steel bridge, the analysis is carried out in three different cases and each case is explained in detail below. As the bridge is symmetrical, half of the span is taken for analysis and which will hold good for the other half span. Case 1: the damage at 3.5m from support Case 2: the damage at 6.5m from support Case 3: the damage at the centre (at joint between both the spans) which will be most severe damage for this bridge. The above three cases are use to show how cost can be reduced by using health monitoring technique over normal periodic maintenance depending upon the severity and location of damage. The initial cost for the construction of the superstructure is approximately Rs. 32,50,000. In this cost of steel, cost of labour, cost of machinery, cost of riveting, cost of painting and miscellaneous cost all are included. The additional cost to be incurred due to implementation of health monitoring for the structure is equal to Rs. 2,30,000. The additional cost due to use of health monitoring technique comes to be 7% of the initial cost. Already, we have seen that there are two types of maintenance, first General inspection (Normal Maintenance) and the second one is detailed inspection. The net present value (NPV) to be incurred in the first 10 yrs for normal maintenance is equal to Rs. 1,77,000. Detailed Maintenance This type of maintenance is carried out whenever it is required i.e. when the damage in the structure should be restricted and when the damage is more severe. But here it is assumed that the detailed maintenance is done for every 8yrs as the damages occurs during this period (8yrs) due to the increased traffic load and other environmental factors. The detailed inspection is carried out in the 14th yr, 22nd yr, 30th yr, 38th yr, 46th yr, 54th yr and 64th yr which are considered for analysis. Bulletin of ACCE (I) 40

There will be comparison between costs for detailed inspection and for health monitoring technique. The accessories used for monitoring the structure are very sensitive and if any damages occur in the system they can be easily detected and necessary measures can be taken to control the damages detected in the structure. So by this, the cost to be invested for repairing the damages detected at the early stage of the damage will be less when compared to the period maintenance (which is done over a regular interval of time, during which a small damage can become more severe demolition necessitating of the structure could be done). Let us assume that damage has occurred in the structure in the 12th yr. Due to the monitoring technique, the damage is detected in the 12th yr itself where as in case of periodic maintenance (normal maintenance) this will be detected and repaired in the 14th yr. In these two years the small damage would have been more severe. Case 1: the Damage at 3.5m from end support Table 1 shows the year in which detailed maintenance and monitoring are conducted, actual cost and NPV in those years for damage at 3.5m. Fig. 5 shows the plot between cost in Rupees and number of years for detailed maintenance and with monitoring for damage at 3.5m from the end support. Fig. 6 shows the plot between NPV (in Rupees) and number of years for detailed maintenance and with monitoring for damage at 3.5m from the end support. From these plots, Net Saving for Damage at 3.5m = Total cost due to Maintenance Total cost for Monitoring = Total cost for Normal Maintenance + Total cost for Detailed Maintenance Total cost for Monitoring Initial Cost for Monitoring = 300000 + 15290000 9145000 230000 = Rs. 62,15,000 Case 2: Damage at 6.5m from end support Table 2 shows the year in which detailed maintenance and monitoring is taken up, actual cost and NPV in those years for damage at 6.5m. In Fig.7 show the plot between cost in rupees and number of years for detailed maintenance and with monitoring for damage at 6.5m from the end support and the Fig.8 show the plot between NPV in rupees and number of years for detailed maintenance and with monitoring for damage at 6.5m from the end support. From these plots, Net Saving for Damage at 6.5m = Total cost due to Maintenance Total cost for Monitoring

April - June 2009

= Total cost for Normal Maintenance + Total cost for Detailed Maintenance Total cost for Monitoring Initial Cost for Monitoring = 300000 + 14885000 9190000 230000 = Rs. 57,65,000 Case 3: Damage at centre of the span In Table 3 show the year in which detailed maintenance and monitoring is taken up, actual cost and NPV in those years for damage at 6.5m. In Fig.9 show the plot between Cost in Rupees and Number of years for Detailed Maintenance and with monitoring for damage at 9.5m from the end support and the Fig.10 show the plot between Net Present Value (NPV) in Rupees and Number of Years for Detailed Maintenance and with monitoring for damage at 9.5m from the end support (Centre of the Span). From these plots, Net Saving for Damage at Centre (or Joint) of Span = Total cost due to Maintenance Total cost for Monitoring = Total cost for Normal Maintenance + Total cost for Detailed Maintenance Total cost for Monitoring Initial Cost for Monitoring = 300000 + 17365000 9195000 230000 = Rs. 79,70,000

also more importantly the time and the user cost (user convenience) can be saved greatly due to little or less repairs works. The net savings which are showed are on conservative side (because the damage can be detected at much early stage than what is taken for analysis by using monitoring system).

AUTHOR AFFILIATION (S)


Ramesh Babu K H, Former postgraduate student (Corresponding author), Email: khrameshbabu@gmail.com Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Assistant Professor, Email: sbhalla@civil.iitd.ac.in Vyom Neeraj, Former undergraduate.

REFERENCES
1) Liu.M, Frangopol.D.M (2006). Optimizing Bridge Network Maintenance Management under Uncertainty with Conflicting Criteria: Life-Cycle Maintenance, Failure, and User Costs. Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.132, No.11 (November), pp.1835-1845. Aktan.A.E, Catbas.F.N, Grimmelsman.K.A and Tsikos.C.J (2000). Issues in Infrastructure Health Monitoring for Management. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol.126, No. 7 (July), pp.711-724. Elkordy MF, Chang KC, Lee GC (1994). A Structural Damage Neural Network Monitoring System. Microcomputers in Civil Engineering, Vol.9, No.2, pp.83-96. Rytter.A (1993) Vibration based inspection of Civil Engineering Structures, Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Building Technology and Structural Engineering, University of Aalborg. Naidu A.S.K and Soh C.K (2004). Identify Damage Location with Admittance Signatures of Smart Piezo-transducres, Journal of Intelligent Material System and Structures, Vol.15, pp 627-642

2)

3)

4)

Summary Results
Table 4 shows the net savings for the damage at different locations of the span. As the damage approaches the centre of the span, more savings occurs and also as the severity of damages increases, the net savings will be more. The Fig.11 shows the data in the graph form.
5)

CONCLUSIONS
This paper has performed a benefit cost analysis for structural health monitoring. Following conclusions can be derived: 1) For detecting the damage location and the severity of the damage, Naidu and Sohs (2004) method can be effectively used. This method gives more accurate results when compared to any other method. By utilizing health monitoring technique for a structure, initially it may cost more (5% to 15 % of the initial cost). But the cost it saves in the later years is significant which is very well proven from the results of the case study. Directly we may not be able to predict the service life of the structure but if we go through the analysis part of steel bridge, we can see that due to damage at the centre of the span the service life of bridge is restricted. Due to use of this health monitoring technique on the infrastructures (bridges), not only there is considerable saving in the cost of maintenance but 41 April - June 2009

2)

3)

4)

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

42

April - June 2009

Courtesy : SEWC 2007

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

43

April - June 2009

Role of AdmixturesRole Admixtures.


Shivram B Bagade, Conrete Technologist History of Chemical Admixtures: The first superplasticizers were introduced in 1930s. They were syenthetically prepared water soluble organic polymers.An important class of these polymers is PolyNapthalyene Sulphonates (PNS),which since 1938 have been known as Cement dispersing agents.These superplasticizers were effective in improving the workability of concrerte.However,very little interest was shown to these compounds, since concrete design strengths were low and water content could be easily adjusted to achieve the desired workability. What are Chemical Admixtures? By defination,admixtures are substances, organic or inorganic, in soild or liquid state, which when added to concrete, at the time of mixing or before placing of concrete,interact with thehydrating cementitious system by physical, chemical or physico-chemical action and thereby modifing the one or more properties of concrete in its fresh, hardening or hardened state. According to IS:9103-1999, admixture are defined as: A material other than water, aggregates and cement and additives like pozzolana or slag and fiber reinforcement, used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar and added to the batch immediately before or during its mixing to modifing oneor more properties of concrete in the plastic or hardened state. However, until early 1930, the composition of concrete consisted primarly of cement, aggregates and water. The accidental discovery of the benefits of air entrainment in concrete by chemical admixtures in the 1940s was the first major breakthrough in concrete technology. This finding rapidly led to the development of several chemical products and admixtures that enhanced various properties of concrete such as workability, setting time and early strength. Although admixtures generally used to be byproducts of particular primary material production, that eventually found an application as concrete admixtures, they are now being manufactured as main products as the construction industry stared looking for admixtures in large quantities. Chemical admixtuers have become one of the essential components of concrete in concrete technology in recent years. Various chemical admixtures, in most cases organic compounds, differing in composistion, have been offere to the users today, in response to the needs of the construction market. The most commonly used of these admixtuers are the plasticizer and superplasticizers which have the abiliy of increasing the workability of concrete considerably. Why Admixtures are needed? The construction industry has always been faced with the problem of concrete, arsing from the basic conflict betweeen the design engineer and the site engineer. The design engineer invariably concentrates mainly on the means of achieving high strenght at low cement content and low water to cement ratio. On the other hand, the construction engineer places greater emphasis on quick and easy methods of placing the concrete. His ideal concrete therefore, is the one having high workability and hence the temptation to add a little more water which is detrimental to the strength and durability of concrete. The long felt necessity of having a concrete with high workability without compromising on strength and durability criteria or reducing the water requirement of the mix and thereby obtaining higher strenght, can be achieved by using chemical admixtures, specifically superplasticizers. From concrete technology point of veiw,a water to cement ratio of 0.2475 approximately 0.25 is sufficient for hydration of cement in concrete.However,in practice such concrete is failed with workability point of view.water to cement ratio of 0.6 to 0.7 is required when no admixtures are used.Depending on sand and filler content the workability of these mixes is not necessarily good. Loss of strength, durability,segregation and bleeding are the problems faced in relation to high water content.Good concrete without the use of Admixtures is difficult to place and requires intensive and time consuming vibration for full compaction,which may in turn disturb the process of hydration.In order to improve workability or reduce the water requirement,water reducing admixtures are must. An essential benefit of adding admixtures,on the properties of fresh or hardened concrete is notably its durability enhancing ability.This is one of the reasons that admixtures have become a mandatory ingredient in modern concrete. It is no more an avoidable luxury.Good concrete is possible only with the admixtures and proper concrete mix designs.

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

44

April - June 2009

What is the purpose of admixture? They are used for various purposes,such as: 1. Pumpability/Flowablity of fresh concrete. 2. High strength through reduced water to cement ratio. 3. Durable and non permiable concrete. 4. Self compaction. 5. Freze-Thaw resistance. 6. Corrosion Inhibition. 7. Expansion or shrinkage compensation. 8. To make High early strength concrete/High performance concrete. 9. Retardation and Acceralation of time of setting. Concreting of deep piles and poorly accessible foundations using SCC has been enabled. Admixtures have facilitated many new technologies in Transportation,placement and compaction of concrete because of which it is now possible to place very large pours without construction joints,transportation of concrete for longer distances,placing under congested reinforcement is possible today.

Superplasticizers: They are also known as high-range water reducers,are a group of admixtures,which possess,as their primary function,the ability to produce concrete of given workability,at a lower water to cement ratio than that of control concrete containing no superplasticizers. Superplasticizers are usually water-soluble long chained organic polymers. Superplasticizers based on different types of chemicals are available.some are syenthetic and others are derived from natural products. ASTM C494-92 refers to superplasticizers as water reducing,high range admixtures. According to IS 9103-1999,

Superplasticizer is an admixture for mortar or concrete,which imparts very high workability or allows a large decrease in water content for a given workability. Role of superplasticizers (Admixtures): The three different roles of admixtures are as follows:

Classification/Types of Admixtures as per ASTM C494 and BASF Products:

Based on there usages the Admixtures are classified as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Air entraining agents. Accelerators. Water reducers. Gas-Forming agents. Alkali-aggregate expansion inihibitors. Water reducing and workability agents. High range water reducers.(Superplasticizers). Grouting agents. Bonding agents. Colouring agents. Anti-Freeze additives. Fungicidal admixtures. Corrosion Inhibiting admixtures. Shrinkage reducing or shrinkage compensation admixtures. 15. Damp proofing and surface hardeners,Etc.

1.

2.

3.

To increase workability of the mix without changing the mix composition in order to enhance placing charecterstics of concrete. To reduce the mixing water (or water demand) and the water to cement ratio in order to increase strength and improve durability,for a given workability. To reduce both water and cement at a given workability in order to save cement and hence to reduce the problems associated with heat of cement hydration.

The changes in the Proprties of Concrete because of Adixture and the savings for the user: Primary properties affected Workability Water cement ratio (hence other properties) Stiffening / setting Air content Cohesion Strength / strength development

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

45

April - June 2009

Admixture Benefits: Direct savings - Materials cost Indirect savings - Construction time or method Long term savings - Improved concrete quality and durability. Direct Savings: Lower cement content Improved performance of cement replacements Cheaper aggregate source Indirect savings: Increased workability without loss of strength Savings in plant and labour High early strength Quicker access to or use of the structure Energy savings - precast with thermal curing Special properties - new or improved method of construction Quicker turn around on moulds or shuttering Workability retention Delayed stiffening Improved durability Lower permeability Increased freeze thaw / salt scaling resistance Less remedial repair work Improved surface finish Classification of Admixture : They are broadly classified into the following four groups: 1. Modified Lignosulphonates.(MLS). 2. Poly-Napthalene Sulphonates (PNS) or Sulphonated Napthalene formaldehyde Condensates (SNF) or Beta Napthalene formaldehyde Condensates (BNS). 3. Poly-Melamine Sulphonates (PMS) or Sulphonated Melamine-Formaldehyde Condensates.(SMF). 4. Acrylate Polymer Based (AP) Copolymer of carboxylic Acrylic with Acrylic Ester (CAE). Cross Linked Acrylic Polymer (CLAP). Poly-Carboxylate Ethers (PCE) Multi-Carboxylate Ethers (MCE) Poy-Acrylates. Modified Lignosulphonates (MLS): Lignosulphonates are obtained as a by-product of pulp and paper industry.The modified lignousulphonates are lignousulphonates from which sugars,which cause excessive retardation,have been removed. The water reduction capacity of these type admixture is 8-10%. Poly-Napthalene Sulphonates (PNS): The most widely accepted compounds of this group are the Poly Beta Napthalene Sulphonates (PNS).The synthesis of PNS superplasticizers involves several steps. It begins with sulphonation of molten napthalene with concentrated sulphuric acid at high tempreture and pressure for several hours,followed by condensation of the Beta Napthalene Sulphonate with formaldhyede.It is then neutralized with a suitable alkali and subjected to filtration to eliminate any undesirable by-products.This

Superplasticizer is also Known as SNF. The water reduction capacity of these type admixture is 18-22%. Poly-Melamine Sulphonates (PMS): The synthesis of PMS superplasticizers also involves several steps.First,formaldhyede reacts with the amino groups of melamine in alkaline conditions,yeilding an additional product containing one or more Methyol (CH2OH) groups,depending on the Formaldehyde / Melamine ratio.Sulphonation of one of the Methylol groups Is then performed using sodium bisulphates under the same alkaline conditions. polymerization of the sulphonated monomeric units is than initiated by mild heating under slightly acidic conditions.finally when the desired degree of polymerization has been obtained,the reaction is stopped by increasing the pH values and the final product is filtered to eliminate any undesireable by products.this superplasticizer is also known as SMF. The water reduction capacity of these type admixture is 15-20%. Poly-Carboxylate Ethers (PCE): Poly-Carboxylate is a common term used for substance which are specially used as poly acrylate and multi carboxylate ethers.these are organic polymers bearing carboxylic groups.several poly carboxylate polymers and in particular poly acrylates have been proposed as Superplasticizers for concrete since the early 1980s.ply acrylate polymers are prepared by free radical addition polymerization of acrylic monomers.The water reduction capacity of these type admixture is 35-40%. Mechanism of admixtures: General: Cement particles have a strong tendency to flocculate when they come in contact with water.even atmospheric moisture is sufficient to result in flocculation of cement. This tendency is a result of several type of interactionsVander waals interactions between particles,electrostatic interactions between particles bearing opposite charges,and strong interactions involving water molecules. The flocculation of cement results in the formation of a network of cement particles which trap part of mix water in the network voids.The water which is held by cement

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

46

April - June 2009

particles at molecular level is not available for the hydration of the cement particles and for the improvement of workability of the mix.These effects result in the stiffening of the cementitious system. Following the adsorption of superplasticizers,several physico-chemical effects may take place in the cement paste.Different authors have proposed a variety of effects o r
Polycarboxylates (PCE)

7.

Inhibition of the surface hydration reaction of the cement particles,leaving more water to improve the workability of the mix.

It is likely that more than one of these phenomena contribute to the fludifying effect of superplasticizers. However there is a broad agreement that following are the three main mechanisms or actions that explain the action of superplasticizers:Adsorption: Superplasticizers act as powerful dispersing agents.As with most dispersing agents in aqeous solutions, they first act by being adsorbed onto the surface of cement particles.A significant portion of the superplasticizers is adsorbed strongly onto cement particles at concentrations normally used in concrete.Adsorption of the negatively charged superplasticizers onto the negetively charged cement particles is made possible by the presence of calcium ions that have been solubilized from cement. De-Flocculation: De-Flocculation takes place in two ways: A) Electrostatic Repulsion: The adsorption of superplasticizer molecule on to the surface of cement grains conveys high negetative surface charges (potential) to all the cement particles.These charges generate electrostatic repulsion between neibouring cement particles.The electrostatic repulsive forces overcome the attractive forces between the cement particles and most certainly play a role in deflocculating and dispersing cement particles.This type of action is predominant in Melamine (SMF) and Napthalene (SNF) based superplasticizers. B) Steric Hindrance Effects:In addition to the electrostatic effect, the dispersion of cement praticles is further assisted by repulsive forces orginating from Steric Effects The adsorbed superplasticizer constitutes a physical barrier to particle- particle contact, that is, the dangling chains of polymer adsorbed on two adjacent surfaces entangle forming a physical barrier preventing particle particle contact. This helps in preventing flocculation and results in the dispersion of cement particles. This type of action is predominant in acrylate polymer based superplasticizers. C) Chemical Interaction: The physical effects uderlying the mode of action of superplasticizers, as described above, are complemented by chemical effects. The chemical action of the superplasticizers is first manifested in the adsorption process-for example,sulphonate based polymers interact preferntially with aluminate phases of the cement,that is,by analogy with sulphonate ions.In addition,several types of superplastcizers molecules are known to inhibit and the growth of hydration products. References:
1. 2. 3. 4. CBD-203.Superplasticizers in concrete- V S Ramachandran. Construction Chemicals- Dr.R V Ranganath Concrete Technology-M S Shetty. Hand book on Admixtures-V S Ramachandran.

mechanisims,to explain the mode of action of Superplasticizers. They are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lubricating film between cement particles,reducing inter-particle friction. Dispersion of cement particles,releasing the water trapped within the cement flocs. Change in the morophology of the hydration products which contributes to increased workability of the mix. selective blocking of reactive surface sites by superplasticizer molecule. Induced electrostatic repulsion between particles. Induced steric hinderance preventing particle-particle contact.

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

47

April - June 2009

WHEN STRUCTURES MOVE


Kawaguchi, Prof. Mamoru ABSTRACT In the present paper moving aspects of structures are taken up. In our daily structural design the structures are assumed to be immovable, and most of structural calculations are carried out on the basis of static principles. Although we know that a structure always produces such a movement due to loading that is referred to as deformation or displacement, its magnitude is normally too small to be significant in comparison with the dimensions of the structure, and its effect on the structural behaviors is neglected, the whole phenomenon being treated as static. There are cases, however, where large movements are actually experienced by our structures due to different reasons. Many of them are due to excessive loading and unexpected instability, often leading to collapse of the structures. Some other cases are related to vibration where resonance of structures with external agencies such as earthquakes and wind is a key question. Self-excited oscillation sometimes produces catastrophic and very spectacular motion of structures. Controlled motions can be obtained by adopting isolators to cope with the effects of earthquakes. Dampers which are often incorporated in seismic isolation systems are normally rather still, but motion of tuned mass dampers is sometimes very significant. Structures can be designed to be assembled on the ground and then hoisted to the position. In erection of such structures a big movement is observed as in Pantadome System. Finally those structures which are originally intended to move are described with examples of rocking stones and a flying carp. Keywords: moving structures, collapse, excessive deformation, controlled motion, earthquake isolation, selfexcited oscillation, Pantadome system, tuned-mass dampers, pendulum system and 2). The dome had a spherical shape to cover a plan of 93.5m in diameter. The dome experienced a huge snap-through deformation, or a deformation from convex to concave geometries under the snow load of 2,000 kN which was less than 30% of the design snow load. Another example of this kind is a collapse of the hanging roof of Palasport in Milan which occurred in January 1985 (Figures 3 and 4). It had a circular plan of 128m in diameter. The presumed snow load on the roof at the time of collapse was 1.4 kN/m2 while the standard snow load was 0.9kN/m2 . The roof of this velodrome was a saddle-shaped hanging roof that should have more sufficient potential strength, but the collapse was caused by the buckling of the ring beam the section of which had been a box section of thin steel plates. In the above examples the structures must have experienced very large movements during the collapse, but no such movements were visually recorded. There are many other examples of structural collapse due to snow loads, but observation records of the collapsing movements are scarce. In general the visual records of collapsing movements of large-span roofs due to snow are difficult to make, since firstly it is not easy to anticipate the time of collapse which often occurs at a lower loading level than in design, and secondly weather and shooting condition are bad because of snow falling and snow drift. Destructive Movements due to Earthquakes Earthquakes make structures produce significant movements which are often destructive. Different from the effects of snow, earthquakes are not loading on the structures but vibrational motion of the grounds on which the structures stand. Therefore the motion induced in the structures by earthquakes is closely related to the vibrational characteristics of the structures, and when the natural periods of the structure are close to those of the prevailing ground motion, the motion of the structures can be destructive. On the other hand this type of motion can often be controlled by means of vibration technology. The ideal case of such a control is seismic isolation, as will be described later.There have been so many destructive motions of structures due to earthquakes, and some of them have been recorded numerically in the form of acceleration data, but visual records of such motions are again very scarce because of the facts that prediction of destructive earthquakes is again very difficult and that photographers are also in danger of their lives during the severe earthquakes. Uncontrolled Movements due to Wind In design of comparatively rigid structures we treat the effects of wind as static loads. When a structure is soft, 48 April - June 2009

UNDESIRABLE MOVEMENTS
There are unfavorable movements which poor structures have to experience under some undesirable conditions. They are movements due to excessive snow loads, earthquakes, wind, structural deterioration and so on, and those movements have different characteristics due to the natures of the causes. Collapsing Movements due to Snow Loads Structures standing on the principle of arches and domes are sometimes in danger of yielding collapsing movements due to unstable deformation of the compressive members. One of such examples is the dome for a trade center in Bucharest which collapsed in January 1963 (Fig.ures.1 Bulletin of ACCE (I)

however, we have to take into account dynamic effect of wind, and motions of the structure due to this effect. Dynamic effect of wind due to disturbance in the wind flow itself is sometimes referred to as buffeting or gusty effect, and resonance of the structure with this effect is often discussed. Another and more important effect of wind is vortexinduced vibration, and still more important is self-excited oscillation or flutter starting from the vortex-induced vibration. In such a motion the structure takes in energy from constant air flow around it to grow the motion until it becomes catastrophic. The collapse of Tacoma Narrows Bridge is explained as the result of such phenomena (Figures. 5 and 6). In general the magnitude as well as the mode of self-excited motion is very big and exceeds our imagination, often being even spectacular. Such motions are comparatively easy to record visually, since the time of strong wind can be predicted, the motion of this kind lasts for relatively long time and the photographer is not always in a dangerous situation.

in which the natural period is determined by the mass and rigidity of isolation structure. The natural period is slightly elongated if the amplitude is made larger. The elongation, however, is minute. Thus, the above equation (1) can be considered valid for all practical cases. This is another advantage of the pendulum seismic isolator compared to the laminated rubber system, of which the deformability is limited. Wide selection of materials is available for the hanger. For example, technology for fireproofing has already reached a mature state if steel is to be used. As discussed above, seismic isolators using pendulum principle possess considerable merit. Considering that seismic isolators must also function as a part of structural support, simple pendulum shown in (a) of Figure7 is obviously difficult to use. Natural period of physical pendulum shown in (b), on the other hand, fluctuates along with the location of center of mass as well as the moment of inertia of the system. Thus, translational pendulum shown in (c), whose natural period is only affected by the hanger length as in the simple pendulum, would be appropriate for use as a seismic isolation device. One possible application of the translational pendulum seismic isolator is for individual floors. A floor suspended from a girder of a building frame as shown in Figure 8 was adopted for the exhibition rooms of an actual museum for pottery and porcelain wares (in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, completed in 2001). The area of the suspended floor is about 1,000 m2, and its mass is about 1,000 tons. Hinges having universal joints are used for the upper and lower ends of the hanger. If the hanger is made to be 4.5 m long, Equation (1) yields a natural period of more than 4 seconds, which is considered sufficiently long for seismic isolation. A series of seismic isolation tests showed that the system was effective to minimize the seismic effects on the floor. Rocking Pendulum Isolators A paddle isolator is based on a rocking pendulum principle, the concept of which has a long history. The first example of isolated foundations in Japan was designed by Ryuichi Oka in 1932, as a column having a spherical end at the bottom and connected to the superstructure via a spherical hinge at the top. Due to rocking motion of the column, the superstructure moves in a trochoidal curve. This concept, however, was impractical as production of spherical elements required considerable skill and manhours, and column design sometimes interfered with overall architectural planning. In the present design rocking motion of the sphere was resolved into the orthogonal components along the X- and Y-axes on a 49 April - June 2009

CONTROLLED MOVEMENTS
Seismic Isolation Seismic isolation is a technology to control the response of structures due to earthquake ground motion. The isolation technology is normally applied in combination with energy-absorbing damping systems. The most popular seismic isolation system is the laminated rubber shoes that support the structures. However, there are other isolation systems effective to control seismic motions in more rational manners than laminated rubber system, which will be described in this section. Pendulum Isolators A pendulum system is one of the basic methods of seismic isolation, having the same fundamental principle in common with seismographs. As shown in Figure 7, pendulums used in engineering include (a) simple pendulum, (b) physical pendulum, and (c) translational pendulum. It is well known that the natural period T of a simple pendulum is given as follows with the length of the hanger L, and the gravitational acceleration g.

One advantage of a pendulum seismic isolator is that the length of the hanger L is the only parameter governing its natural period, and the mass of the object to be isolated exerts no effect on it at all. Thus, desired periods can be obtained by simply changing the hanger length. This is the greatest advantage of pendulum seismic isolators compared to laminated rubber seismic isolators Bulletin of ACCE (I)

plane coordinate. Then, a mechanism was designed which assigns the components of the rocking motion in the directions of X- and Y-axes to the upper and lower ends of a column. Paddle isolator was named after a kayak paddle, as the form of the present column resembles it. As shown in Figure 9, a paddle isolator consists of a column provided with blades on the top and bottom ends whose curvatures are designed to be orthogonal to each other. This column allows resolution of any horizontal motion in an arbitrary direction into two directions, and the isolated part of the building is free to move in the horizontal direction. Referring to Figure 10, the natural period of a rocking pendulum is determined by the length of the isolation column L and the radius of curvature of a blade R, and can be obtained by Equation (2).

of their mother systems into the motion of themselves. So the effect of tuned-mass dampers can be visually confirmed by means of scaled model tests, where the transfer of motion from the structure to the dampers is clearly observed. HUMAN-INDUCED VIBRATION Soft footbridges often produce significant vibrational motion that is induced by the movement of pedestrians crossing the bridges. It is interesting to note that when the movement of the bridge, especially the transverse horizontal component of which is big enough to be felt by the pedestrians, they are apt to try to secure themselves by tuning their steps to the period of the motion of the bridge, resulting in amplification of the bridge motion. Vibration of Millennium Bridge in London was a typical example, which was solved by incorporating a passive damping system in the bridge. DESIGNED MOVEMENTS Pantadome System Structures are sometimes designed to move during construction for safe, efficient and economical erection. A patented structural system called Pantadome System was developed by the author with such an idea for a rational construction of spatial structures, and it was successfully applied to the structure of World Memorial Hall completed in Kobe in 1984. Pantadome System has since been applied to the Sant Jordi Sports Palace in Barcelona, the National Indoor Stadium of Singapore and some important structures of wide spans realized in Japan. The principle of Pantadome System is to make a dome or a domical structure geometrically unstable for a period in construction so that it is foldable during its erection. This can be done by temporarily taking out the members which lie on a hoop circle. Then the dome is given a kinematic mechanism, that is, a controlled movement, like a 3-D version of a parallel crank or a pantagraph which is popularly applied to drawing instruments or a power collector of an electric car (hence the name, Pantadome). By folding the dome in this way, the constituent members of the dome can be assembled on a lower level. The assembly work is thus done safely, quickly and economically, since it can be carried out near the ground level. Since the movement of a Pantadome during erection is a controlled one with only one freedom of movement in the vertical direction, guying cables or bracing members which are indispensable in conventional structures to assure their lateral stability against wind or seismic forces are not necessary in erection of a Pantadome structure. The movement and deformation of the whole shape of the Pantadome during erection are three dimensional and may look spectacular and rather complicated, but they are all kinematically determinate and easily controlled. Three kinds of hinges are incorporated in the

One of the features of the rocking pendulum isolator is that its natural period is not governed by the mass of structure to be supported or any mechanical properties of the materials used in the isolator, similar to the translational pendulum isolator. On the other hand, the paddle isolation column may be designed with any length, unlike the translational pendulum isolator. As such, isolating layer may either be placed just underneath the foundation, or the entire ground floor may be designed as an isolating layer. This enables design of seismic isolators having longer periods, which were conventionally deemed impossible. In order to confirm the effect of the paddle isolators, acrylic specimens (shown in Figure 12, the floor panel being 40 cm by 40 cm) were manufactured and tested. The test results indicated fairly constant natural periods for paddle isolators, regardless of the amplitude of the given motion or the mass of superstructure. Furthermore, the torsion movement was hardly observed even when the mass supported by the isolation layer was largely shifted off the center. Figure 11 shows the rates of the observed acceleration responses when the seismic motion based on the records of the actual earthquakes were applied to the vibration table. As shown, response in the upper part of the isolating layer was reduced sufficiently. It was also confirmed that the effect is not influenced by the direction of input seismic motion. Damping Systems Damping systems are often used in combination with seismic isolators, but they are of course used by themselves as well for the purpose of energy absorption. Most commonly used in vibration control are viscous, frictional, hysteretic and tuned-mass dampers. The first three of the above dampers control the vibrational motion of the structures by dissipating the energy in the form of heat, while the tuned-mass dampers transform the energy Bulletin of ACCE (I) 50

April - June 2009

Pantadome System which rotate during the erection. Their rotations are all uni-axial ones, and of the most simple kind. Therefore, all these hinges are fabricated in the same way as normal hinges for usual steel frames. Rocking Stones Rocking stones are stones originally created by Nature that are movable by human power, or at least looking to be movable. Here is an example of artificial rocking stone of 36 tons that can be moved by a little child. Repetitive push of the child in tune with the period of the rocking stone brings the stone into a motion of slow but significant amplitude. Flying Carp The KOINOBORI is a Japanese traditional carp made of fabric which people fly in the breeze in early days of May every year to celebrate the growth of children. The normal size of a KOINOBORI is 2 to 5 meters in length. KAZO is a town in the suburb of Tokyo that has been famous for its production of KOINOBORI since more than one hundred years ago. We can still see excellent craftsmen who hand-paint beautiful KOINOBORIS in factories of KAZO City. In 1988 volunteers of KAZO City, who were members of Junior Chamber International, got an idea of fabricating and flying a gigantic KOINOBORI of 100m to advertise their city to the world. However, they did not know how to produce such a huge carp properly. They did not even know if such a monstrous feature might fly in the air at all. The author had an opportunity to assist them by establishing the technical basis for the possibility of flying this gigantic fabric fish in the air. He showed by theory as well as experiments that a huge KOINOBORI could be designed to fly in the breeze of the same wind speed at which normal carps fly. By this design theory and structural details a huge KOINOBORI was designed, it was fabricated by the voluntary members of KAZO City, and finally it succeeded to fly elegantly in the sky. Since then flying of the Jumbo KOINOBORI became an annual event of KAZO City, being celebrated in the beginning of May every year. CONCLUSIVE REMARKS Moving aspects of structures have been described. Although structures are normally regarded stationary, there are many cases where structures move significantly. The most undesirable motion of a structure is the one due to collapsing effects of external agencies such as snow, earthquake, terrorism and deterioration of materials. Structures sometimes produce uncontrolled motion due to wind effects The most dramatic motion is observed when structures show self-excited vibration often started by Krmn Vorticies as in the catastrophic example of Tacoma Narrows Bridge. Since the task of structural Bulletin of ACCE (I) 51

engineers is to create strong and safe structures, we should be aware of those undesirable movements and should always try to find the means to cope with those phenomena. Sometimes we can make the motion of structures controlled one. This can be achieved by means of seismic isolation to cope with earthquakes, and general dampers to cope with other vibrational effects. We can also design the structures so that they experience significant movements in the process of construction for the sake of safety, efficiency and economy of construction, as in the example of Pantadome System. Movement is sometimes the intended function to be performed by a structure. One of such cases is an artificial rocking stone of 36tons which the author designed to be moved by a little child. Another example is a huge fabric carp of 100m in length that can fly in the breeze, fabricated by volunteers of a small town in the suburb of Tokyo under the technical guidance of the author. Although it is impossible for those volunteers of the small town to make a jumbo jet aircraft, they could fabricate a carp which is much bigger than Boeing 747, and fly it in the breeze of Kasiserslautern in Germany as well as of their hometown where they have been playing with it for eighteen years. Author Affiliation : Mamoru Kawaguchi, KAWAGUCHI & ENGINEERS, mk@kawa-struc.com REFERENCE 1. A. Beles et al (1966), Some Observation on the Failure of a Dome of Great Span, 1st International Conference of Spade Structures, University of Surrey 2. 3. S. Montague (1985), Milan Roof is Total Write Off, New Civil Engineer, April 25 E.B.Farquharson, et al., Aerodynamic Stability of Suspension Bridges with Special Reference to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge Bul. Of Univ. Washington Eng. Exp. Station, No.116, 1949-1954. M. Kawaguchi, I. Tatemichi (2000), Seismic Isolation Systems and Their Application in Space Structures, IASS Symposium on Bridging Large Spans; From Antiquity to the Present, Istanbul

4.

5. M. Kawaguchi, I. Tatemichi (2000), Characteristics of A Space Structure Seismically Isolated by Rocking Pendulums, IASS-IACM 2000, Fourth International Colloquium on Computation of Shell & Spatial Structures, June 2000, Chania, Greece 6. M. Kawaguchi (2003), Physical Models as Powerful Weapons in Structural Design, IASS Symposium on Shell and Spatial Structures from Models to Realization, Montpellier, September, 2003

April - June 2009

COST EFFECTIVE SOFTWARES IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


QTYENHANCE PRODUCTIVITY : REDUCE MAN-HOURS : SAVE COSTS
SUPER CIVIL CD R C F
Analysis, Design, Costing & Drawing of Multi-Storey RC Buildings Cost : Rs 3000 /-

80 nos. of Design Programs + 400 MB of Power Packed Info + Productivity Tools Cost : Rs 1500 /-

S S F

Analysis, Design, Costing & Drawing of Structural Steel Floors Cost : Rs 3000 /Quantity, Cost Estimation and Project Planning of Buildings Cost : Rs 1800 /-

2D FRAME ANALYSIS

Q T Y

Discover the Joy of Structural Analysis of Multi-Storey Portals / Frames Cost : Rs 1500 /-

SUPER RATE ANALYSIS

ROADS
52 # of Design Programs & Rate Analysis of 498 # of Road Items as per IRC Cost : Rs 1500 /54 # of Programs for Valuation of Immovable Properties Cost : Rs 2000 /-

Rate Analysis of 1294 Building Items and CPWD Specs Cost : Rs 2000 /-

ROAD ESTIMATE

SUPER REAL VALUATION

Quantity, Costing, Project Planning & Area Volume Calc. of Roads, L & X Sec. in ACAD Cost : Rs 2200 /A Database Software for General Billing Creates Clients & Products Database Cost : Rs 700 /-

BILLING JI

Demand Draft favoring Mr. Y. A. Agboatwala may be sent to : 1802, Jamuna Amrut, 219, Patel Estate, S. V. Road, Jogeshwari (W), Mumbai 400102. URL: www.supercivilcd.com Email: yaa@supercivilcd.com Tel : 022 - 26783525, Cell : 9820792254

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

52

April - June 2009

Courtesy : SEWC 2007

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

53

April - June 2009

NEWS FROM ACCE(I) HEADQUARTERS


1. ACCE(I) HQ conduct the election and elect the following office Bearers for the year 2009-2011. Mr. Avinash Dhondu Shirode President Mr. Hemant Hari Dhatrak Vice President (West) Mr. T. Senthil Nayagam Vice President (South) Dr. M. U. Aswath Secretary General Mr. Badarinaath Singri Treasurer The 3rd G C Meeting held on 09.05.2009 hosted by ACCE(I) Mysore Centre. Centre also organise the ACCE National Resource Meet on WATER AND WASTE TREATMENT at 09.30 am at Hotel Pai Vista, Mysore. The Award Committee & Special Governing Council Meeting held on 20th June 2009 at Bangalore and finalise the awardees for year 2009 as below:
ACCE SIMPLEX AWARD 2009 for Innovative Design of Structures other than industrial structure to Junghare Designers & Consultants, Nagpur for Innovative Design of Structures for Junipers Software Pvt. Ltd., Nagpur. ACCE L&T ENDOWMENT AWARD 2009 for Excellence in Construction of Industrial Structure to Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd., Bangalore for Indian Machine Tools Manufacturer's Association's Bangalore International Exhibition Centre on Tumkur Road, Bangalore. ACCE BILLIMORIA AWARD 2009 for Excellence in Construction of High Rise Building to L & T, ECC Construction Group, Chennai for Construction of UB City at Vittal Mallya Road Bangalore. ACCE SOM DATT AWARD 2009 for Excellence in Construction of Transportation Project to L & T, ECC Construction Group, Chennai for Construction of Panipat Elevated Expressway Project in Haryana. ACCE SARVAMANGALA AWARD 2009 for excellence in construction of Civil Engineering projects other than Industrial Plant and Transportation Projects to B G Shirke Construction Technology Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore for Excellence in Construction of Vidhana Soudha South Block (Vikasa Soudha) at Dr. B R Ambedkar Veedhi, Bangalore for Karnataka Public Works Department. ACCE NAGADI AWARD 2009 for Best Publication (Book) in Civil Engineering to Dr. Nainan P Kurian, Coimbatore for Shell Foundations Geometry, Analysis, Design and Construction ACCE CDC AWARD 2009 for Best Software Package in Civil Engineering AEC Logic Pvt. Ltd, Hyderabad for Software Package for ProEST+ Building 2009 ACCE L&T FORMWORK AWARD 2009 for Best Use of Formwork In Civil Engineering to Gammon India Ltd., Mumbai for Construction of Kaiga Domes at Karwar, Karnataka ACCE GAMMON AWARD 2009 for Effective Use of Construction Materials/ Systems in Construction Resulting In National Savings to L & T, ECC Construction Group, Chennai for Excellence in Construction of Bangalore International Airport at Devanahalli, Banglaore (Greenfield Project) ACCE GOURAV AWARD 2009 for Significant Contributions to Civil Engineering Consultancy to Dr. V V S Rao, Delhi. Report by Secretary General

2.

3.

NEWS FROM ACCE(I) CENTRES


BANGALORE CENTRE
AGM & AWARDS PRESENTATION: Association of Consulting
Civil Engineers (India) Bangalore Centre AGM 2009 held on 22nd May 2009 at Century Club along with Awards Presentation Ceremony 2009. Mr. Ajit Sabnis Chairman Welcomed the members and give the welcome address, Dr, M U Aswath, Secretary Present the Annual Report for the year 2008-2009 and Mr. P S Deshpande, Treasurer Presented the Audited Statement of Accounts for the year 2008-209 and Proposed Budget for the year 2009-2010. Dr. M U Aswath, Chairman Awards Committee announced the ACCE BLC Awards for the year 2009. ACCE-SUNDARAM MERIT AWARD 2009 for Best Dissertation by a M.E/M.Tech (Structures) Student from the Engineering Colleges of Karnataka). The awards committee evaluated and recommended for the award to Mr. Ashoka K C, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore Experimental Studies on Effect of Metakaolin and Rice Husk ash on Strength and urability of Self-compacting High Volume Fly Ash Concrete. ACCEM.R.SRINIVASA IYENGAR MEMORIAL MERIT AWARD 2009 for Best Academic performance in the 4th Semester of the Diploma Course in Civil Engineering Draughtmanship from the Government Polytechnic for Women, Bangalore Awarded to Kum. MAHALAKSHMI S. ACCE-NIRMANA NIRVAHANE PURASKARA 2009 for Best Dissertation in M.E./M.Tech Construction Technology & Management from the Engineering Colleges of Karnataka. This award has been Instituted by: A N Prakash Construction Project Management Consultants Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore. ). The awards committee evaluated and recommended for the award to Mr. KIRAN L BMS College of Engineering, Bangalore Scheduling of a Construction Project Using Lineof-Balance (LOB) Technique. The awards committee unanimously decided to give Jury Appreciation Certificate for the good work done by Mr. PRAMOD M D, B M S College of Engineering Bangalore for his dissertation on Assessment of Fine Aggregate Obtained from Concrete Debris for Functional Mortars. Mr. A N Prakash, A N Prakash Construction Project Management Consultants Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore Present the Citation and Cash Prize to Mr. Kiran L, & Mr. Pramod M D, B M S College of Engineering, Bangalore.

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

54

April - June 2009

ACCE BLC conducts the Election and elects the following office bearers for the year 2009-2011. Mr. M S Sudarshan Mr. P Nagesh Mr. P S Deshpande Mr. Madhukar B A Mr. C H Prakash Mr. R K Sunil Chairman Secretary Treasurer Managing Committee Member Managing Committee Member Managing Committee Member

ACCE(I) Bangalore Centre organising the 1st Technical Evening Lecture on INNOVATIVE PLASTIC FORM WORK on 2nd June 2009 at the Karnataka Sate Club Cricket Association (Club House), M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, M G Road, Bangalore 560 001. Mr. M S Sudarshan, Chairman, ACCE(I) BLC Welcomed the members and delivering the address, Mr. Nagesh P, Secretary, ACCE(I) BLC. Introduce the Speaker, Mr. Victor Warden Vice President- Formuvation Engineers India & Mr. Jigesh Desai President, Formuvation Engineers India delivering the technical talk. Mr. Umesh B Rao, President, ACCE(I) give Presidential Address, Dr. M N Hegde, Secretary ICI-KB giving the vote of thanks. The above programme was sponsored by G M V R Form Work Engineers Bangalore & Formuvation Engineers India. ACCE(I) Bangalore Centre organising the Technical Evening Lecture on New Road Building Technology on 15th June 2009 at the Karnataka Sate Club Cricket Association (Club House), M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, M G Road, Bangalore 560 001. Mr. John Winters, President, Romix Holdings Ltd, Australia delivered the lecture. Introduction of Soilfix into India: Romix Holdings Ltd was established in 1996. Today it has its Corporate Offices in Hong Kong and Mauritius. Romix produces a Polymer based product SOILFIX, for stabilizing the Base layer for all Roads - Village, City and Highways. Over the past 13 years SOILFIX has been used in over 20 countries including South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya, The Middle East, Australia, China and Europe. In 2007 Romix entered the Indian market where we now have worked with AFCONS, Prestige, Patel Engineering, Bellary Iron Ore Mines, PWD and Rural Roads. Mr. Winters oversees the operations of Romix in more than 30 countries. Mr. John Winters is committed together with our Indian Distributor, Rockwell Road Solutions to "Build Better Roads for India. This will include the establishment of our First Manufacturing Plant in India in 2009. The above programme was sponsored by RockWell Road Solutions, Bangalore

explained with the help of several slides. The reasons for the difference between colours shown on shade cards and actual application were explained. Hence the need for trial and error method for choosing the most appropriate colour scheme was expressed. Mr. Raghu of Nippon paints talked about the various paints available with them which includes odourless emulsion and anti-bacterial emulsion. These are the only paints to have obtained the approval of IGBC. The technical evening was sponsored by M/s Nippon paints.

MYSORE CENTER
AGM was held on 21.05.2009 at 5.00 PM in the department of Civil Engineering, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore. The centre conducts the Election and elects the following office bearers for the year 2009-2011. Chairman: Secretary: Treasurer: Prof. C. N. Yadunandan Dr. M. C. Nataraja Mr. H. N. Vijayavittal

Executive committee members 1.Dr. Syed Shakeeb-Ur Rahman 2. Dr. V. S. Gajarajan 3. Dr. S. N. Karnik

REPORT ON THE ONE DAY RESOURCE MEET ON WATER AND WASTE TREATMENT CONDUCTED AT HOTEL PAI VISTA ON 7TH MAY, 2009. In view of disseminating information regarding the current
trends in Water Treatments, Sewage Treatment and Solid Waste Disposal, ACCE, Mysore Center organized a novel meet where leading consulting firms in these fields presented their technologies. The meet was inaugurated by Dr. H.C. Shanth Chandra, Chairman, KPCB, Professor Jagannatha V., Professor (Hudco Chair) SIUD delivered the keynote address and deliberated on the main principles of current technologies and ideas in water and waste treatment. He stressed on the 3-Rs Reduce, Recycle and Reuse and gave details of developments in India and abroad in this field. The main participating firms Murali Shesh, Enviro Engineers, Brook Field Technologies, Leaving Water Fine Technologies and Dwatts presented their processes for sewage treatment like disk filtration and MBR technologies showing the advantages of economy, efficiency reduced area requirements, power saving etc. M/s Leaving Water Fine Technologies also dealt with latest developments in water treatment. Two firms dealing with solid waste treatment M/s Southern Cojen and M/s Renewgen Venture explained the concept of waste separation, reduction and pollution free burning for power generation and brought out the advantages and potentials of modern solid waste treatment. M/s Paul from ESHQ consultants explain the concept of evaluation treatment technologies on the basis of carbon trading. The seminar was well attended and consisted of delegates from KUWS&DB, BWSSB, KPCB, MCC, MUDA, Industries of Mysore Region, Mysore University, SKUD, SJCE, NIE, Environmental and Civil Engineering Students apart from ACCE delegates.

MADURAI CENTRE
The 10th Annual General-body Meeting of ACCE(I) Maduari Centre was held on 30th May 2009. The following office bearers, who had been elected unanimously, took charge. Chairman Prof.V. Muthu Secretary Er.R.Narendrakumar Treasurer Er.V.Maran Managing Committee Members : Prof.K.Arunachalam Er.L.Ganesh Khanna, Er.N.Essaki, Tirunelveli On June 16th Ar. P. R. S. Sivakumar gave a presentation on Colours. The three basic colour schemes namely, Monochromatic, Analagous, and Complementary were

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

55

April - June 2009

FORTHCOMING EVENTS
1. ACCE Annual Convention, Awards Presentation, AGM 2009 & National Seminar on Urban Architecture, Construction & Engineering Urban Renaissances (UrbanACE 2009) Date : 24th 25th July 2009 Venue : Bapuji MBA College of Auditorium, S. S. Layout, Davangere Organised by : ACCE(I) Davangere Centre Contact : Mr. G B Suresh Kumar Chairman Organising Committee ACCE(I) Davangere Centre 3121/3, First Floor, Bapuji High School Road, Davangere. Head Quarters : 2, UVCE Alumni Association Building, K R Circle, Bangalore 560 001. Tel: 91-80-22247466 , Fax: 91-80-22219012 Email: admin@accehq.net Website: www.accehq.net (for more details see page no..) 2. Workshop on Analysis of case studies (Forensic Geotechnical Engineering) Date : 12th September 2009 Venue : Golden Jubilee Seminar hall, Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 Contact : Prof. G L Sivakumar Babu Secretary, Karnataka Geotechnical Centre Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 Email: gls@civil.iisc.ernet.in Tel: 80-22933124. 3. National Seminar on Green Structures for Sustainability Date : 10th 11th October 2009 Venue : The Institution of Engineers (India) Building, Allahabad Local Centre Contact : Prof. Y P Gupta, Technical Advisor & Chairman, ICI-ALC A-148 Mehdauri Colony, Allahabad 211 004. UP Tel: 91- 94152 39737 (M) Tel/Fax: 91 5322545620 Email: yashpalg1@rediffmail.com 4. National Seminar & Exhibition on Recent Developments in Design and C o n s t r u c t i o n Technologies (REDECON 2009) Date : November / December 2009 Venue : Convention Centre, NIMHANS Campus, Hosur Road, Bangalore Contact : Chairman Organising Committee, REDECON 2009 Association of Consulting Civil Engineers (India), Bangalore Centre, No.2, UVCE Alumni Association Building, K R Circle, Bangalore 560 001. Tel: 080- 22247466, Tel/Fax: 22219012, Email: admin@accehq.net Website: www.accehq.net

ACCE (I) MEMBERSHIP ADDITIONS


ACCE (I) welcomes the following new fellow members, life members, members and associate members. ACCE also congratulates the members who have been upgraded to Life/Fellow Members and Senior Citizen Fellow Members. M. No.
M.No. 2165-F 2166-L 2167-L 2168-M 2169-M 2170-M 2171-A 2172-A 2173-OAM 2174-F 2175-M 2176-M 2177-M 2178-M 2179-M 2180-M 2181-L 2182-L 2183-L 2184-M 2185-A 2186-OAM 2187-F 2188-L 2189-L 2190-L 2191-L 2192-L 2193-L 2194-L 2195-F 2196-L 2197-M 2198-M 2199-A 2200-A 2201-M 2202-OAM 2203-F 2204-F 2205-F 2206-F 2207-F 2208-F 2209-F 2210-F 2211-F 2212-F 2213-L 2214-L 2215-L 2216-M 2217-M 2218-M 2219-M 2220-M 2221-L 2222-F 2223-F 2224-M

Name
Name BORAIAH CHAITANYA K K ANAND N RASHMI B NALANDA Y D G SHIVAKUMAR VECHA VARADARAJULU RAVINDRA V KHANDEKAR ECMAS CONSTRUCTION CHEMICALS PVT. LTD., A DEVENDIRAN PRADEEP P P SENTHIL KUMAR R PRAKASH M THANGAVEL C RATHNA SABAPATHI G SARAVANAKUMAR AFZAL HUSSAIN KHAN SUBHASH C YARAGAL SURESH PAI P K DAMODAR SHENOY JUGUL PAUL SALDANHA NITTE EDUCATION TRUST SHAILESH KUMAR JHA R KIRAN NIRMALA D B ROOPANJALI S SATISH R PRADEEP M P Dr. P S RAGHUPRASAD KAMATH GANESH MADHUKAR SONAWANE RAJENDRA SUDAMRAO KALE BHAGWAN MADHUKAR BOTHRA SIDDHARTH INDRANATH PRAKASH H V KATAMAREDDI UPPAIAH MANISHA SHARMA KIRKI ORI POST TENSION SERVICES INDIA PVT. LTD. SAYED BURHANUDDIN SHUTTARI C K RAVINDRANATHAN H N NIRANJAN R C RAJASHEKARAPPA C VIRUPAKSHAPPA ARAVIND H B S K SHIVAKUMAR M SHARANAPPA I P EKORAMARADHYA C CHANDRAPPA RAVIKUMAR S B S RAVI MANJUNATH S NAVEEN KUMAR K V SHIVAKUMAR B E SHANTHAMURTHY G B K A NAGAAJA SETTY A B RAVI K G SURESH ABY PAUL K PUTTAIAH PRAKASH S CHINIWAL

Place
Place Banglaore Bangalore Bangalore Bangalore Bangalore Bangalore Bangalore Bangalore Bangalore Chennai Chennai Coimbatore Coimbatore Coimbatore Avinashi Tirupur Avinashi Tirupur Hyderabad Srinivasnagar Mangalore Mangalore Mangalore Mangalore Mumbai Mysore Mysore Mysore Mysore Mysore Mysore Nagpur Nashik Nashik Dahanu-Nashik Chickaballapur Kakinada AP Udaipur (Raj) Arunachal Pradesh Vadodara Aurangabad MS Bangalore Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Bangalore Bangalore Bangalore

Continued on page 58

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

56

April - June 2009

PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY
DAT ENGINEERS INDIA PVT. LTD.
C2C in Civil Engineering 275/B/10, 19th Main, 10th Cross, Rajajinagar 1st N Block, Bangaiore-560 010. Tel/Fax : 080-23522610 E-mail : dat@bgl.vsnl.net.in

RANGANATH & ASSOCIATES


No. 533, 7th Main, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore-560 080, (India) Tel. : 98450 19807 E-mail: d_rangnath@yahoo.co.in

MACSEDES CONSULTANTS
Civil, Structural & Geotechnical Engineers, 7/6, II Cross, Palace Cross Road, Bangalore-560 020. Tel: 23366398 (M) 98455 11569 E-mail :macsedes@yahoo.com

DESIGN CONSULTANTS
Consultants for Shells, Space Structures, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting of Structures, Industrial Structures and Machine Foundations, 504, 10-B Main, First Block, Jayanagar, Bangalore-560 011, (India). Tel / Fax : 91-80-26561134 E-mail : designcon@yahoo.com

B.R. RAMESHA
SEACON - SERVE, Structural, Electrical & Allied Consultancy Services,
18, Ratnavilasa Road, Basavanagudi, Bangalore-4. Tel/fax: 41204459 E-mail : brramesha@rediffmail.com

JUNIPERS SOFTWARE PVT. LTD.


(Software Unit of Junghare Designers & Consultants) Project Management, Heavy Industrial Consultants, Architecture, Interiors, Rehabilitation, 2, I T Park, PARSODI, South Ambazari Road, Nagpur Maharashtra 440 010 Tel 91-712-2243751/6570252 Fax: 91-712-2248452 Email: Junipers@junipers.org

SPARTAN ASSOCIATES
K.N. NARAYANA IYENGAR, Chartered Engineer Regd Valuers, Consulting Engineers, 26, Jyothi Mansion, 5th Cross, Malleswaram Circle, Bangalore-560 003. Ph: 41280764/23446027 E-mail: spartanassociates@yahoo.co.in www.valuers.in

KAREKAR & ASSOCIATES


Architects, Interior Designers & Structural Engineering Consultants, 40, 1st Floor, New BEL Road, RMV 2nd Stage MSR Nagar, Bangalore - 54. Phone : 91-80-23600909 Fax:91-80-23607255 E-mail : karekar_associates@vsnl.com

SUNDARAM ARCHITECTS PVT. LTD.


Architecture, Engineering, Planning, Interiors, Services #19, Kumara Krupa Road, Bangaiorc-560 001. India Telephone : 22380701 / 22380702 / 22380703 Fax : 080-22252339 Email: rajag@giasbg01.vsnl.net.in

KESHAV & ASSOCIATES


Consultants, Structural Designers Project Managers, Valuers and Quality Managers No. 397, 1st & 3rd Block, 20th Cross, Jayanagar, Bangalore-11 Tel/Fax : 26631725 E-mail:lakshmikeshav@vsnl.net

SUPARNA ASSOCIATES
Consulting Engineers West of Chord Road, 633, 2nd Block, 3rd Stage, Basaveswaranagar, Bangalore-560 079. Phone: 23222238/23226576 E-mail: dhwajan@gmail.com / dhwajan@yahoo.com

InCiCon-AG
Innovative Civil Engineering Conclave 1400, 2nd Floor, 41st Main, Kanakapura Road, Sarakki Gate, J P Nagar 1st Phase, Bangalore 560 078. Tel: 91-80-22447700, Fax: 91-80-22446976 Email: inci_ag@rediffmail.com

S. RATNAVEL
SCEBA CONSULTANCY SERVICES Roads, Rehabilitation, Restoring Geotechnical, Turnkey Projects, Penthose, Bougainvillae 106, P. T. Rajan Road, Madurai - 625 014 Tel: 0452-2522555 / 2522455 E-mail: ratsiit@gmail.com

A. N. PRAKASH CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONSULTANTS PVT. LTD.


Vishwakarma, 491, 2nd Floor, East End Main Road, 9th Block, Jayanagar, Bangalore-560 069 Tel. : 26639780 4 Lines E-mail: prakash@anprakashpmc.com www.anprakashpmc.com

POTENTIAL SERVICE CONSULTANTS (P) LTD.


Suraj Ganga Soft Park, Ground Floor, 34, 1st Main, 3rd Phase J. P. Nagar, Bangalore - 560 078. Tel : 91-08-26493122/23/24 Fax: 91-08- 26493217 E-mail: potential@vsnl.com, potential_isdn@vsnl.com

UMESH B. RAO & CO.


Industrial Structures, Coal handling Structures, Power Plants, Process Piping and Equipment foundations Tiffanys Annexe, 2nd Floor, 23, Grant Road, Bangalore-560 001. Tel : 22240359/22240360 Fax:91-80-22213770 Tlx:845-8955 E-mail : ubrco@youtele.com, umeshrao@umeshraoco.com

M.S. RAMASWAMY
Chartered Engineer, Principal Consultant, M/s M.S.R.Consultants, Heavy Engineering, Design, Architecture in since 1980, Interiors, Project Management & Services Consultants, 15/1, Sir Krishna Rao Road, Basavanagudi, Bangalore- 560 004.. Tel: 91-08-26567675 Fax: :91-80-26569069 E-mail: msrconsultants@rediffmail.com

L BALAJI
B.E., M.I.E., F.I.V., M.I.S.E., M.I.C.A., M.I.C.I., P.G.D.G.S.V., M.B.A. Professional Engineer (India) , Registered Valuers C-1/433/99, Panel Valuer for Banks, Plot No. 11, SBI First Colony, 3rd Street, (Behind Reliance World), By-pass Road, Madurai-625010 Tel: 0452-4375336, 2383988, (F) 4373367/9842868351

S.P. SRINIVASAN
Madurai ES Consultancy Services Private Limited Industrial Structures, Bridges, Prestressed, Concrete, Chimneys, Silos 37/17, West Masi Street, Madurai-625 001. Tel/Fax : 0452-2348275 E-mail: madurai.es@gmail.com

S. PARAMESH BABU
CSN Engineers & Contractors, No. 37, 6th Cross Road, Azad Nagar, Bangalore - 560 018. Tel : 26748859, 9902957368 E-mail : paramesh_csn@rediffmail.com

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

57

April - June 2009

RNI No. KARENG/2002/9245 - Registrar of New Papers for India


Printed and published by Dr. M.N. Hegde on behalf of the Association of Consulting Civil Engineers (India) and printed at Vijayanataraj Printart Industries, S.C. Road, Basavanagudi, Bangalore 560 004 and published at 2, UVCE Alumni Association Building, K R Circle, Bangalore 560 001 Editor: Dr. M.N. Hegde

Continued from page 54


2225-M 2226-M 2227-F 2228-F 2229-M 2230-F 2231-F 2232-F 2233-F 2234-F 2235-F 2236-M 2237-M 0180-F 0898-F 1051-F 1245-F 1260-F 1766-F 1980-F HEMANTH PUTTAIAH LELIN DAS THANGIAH R Narendra D Patel MALLADA VEERACHARY ASHISH SRIVASTAVA JAYAPRAKASH J E VENKATARAMANAREDDY K A L S PRABHUDEV G N MANJUNATH LINGARAJ S CHAPPARADLLI K S MAHADEV KOTRESH U R V P PONNUSWAMI S P ANCHURI A LAWRENCE WALTER M S SUDARSHAN KALBAVI RAJENDRA RAO D S ANJANEYA MURTHY NAGESH P Bangalore Mysore Chennai Mumbai Vizag Ghaziabad Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Davangere Coimbatore Hyderabad Thirunavell Bangalore Mangalore Bangalore Bangalore

THANKS TO PATRONS
ACCE(I) thanks the following patrons for their generous contributions towards the creation of a Permanent Fund for publishing this Bulletin
ADARSH DEVELOPERS Builders of Aesthetically Designed and Quality, Luxury Apartments for Modern Living Standard, 10, Vittal Mallya Road, Bangalore-560 001. Tel : 080-41343400 Fax : 080-41343777 Web: www.adarshdevelopers.com E-Mail : adarsh@giasbgol.vsnl.net.in CHAMUNDESHWARI BUILD TECH PVT. LTD. No. 2438, Kumara Krupa, Opp. Bangalore Vihara Kendra, 9th Main, BSK 2nd Stage, Bangalore-560 070. Tel. : 26764974, 26764403/05 Fax : 26762978 E-mail: info@eagletonindia.com EON DESIGNERS Architects, Consulting Engineers & Interior Designers 35-B, Vasavi Colony, Behind Vikrampuri, Secunderabad-15. Tel/Fax : 040-27847847 E-mail : eondes@sify.com HYGRADE STEEL PVT. LTD. Manufacturers, Torkari, A/85, 31st Cross, 7th Main, Jayanagar,Bangalore-560 082. Tel : 26546384 , Fax : 080-26545952 E-mail : nsm456@yahoo.com MADHU INDUSTRIES Manufacturers of Steel Doors & Windows with ISI Mark & UPVC Doors & Windows No. 30, Pillagaganhalli, Gottigere, Bannerghatta Road, Bangalore 560 083, Tel : 28429778 / 779, Fax : 28429780 Email : madhuwindow@satyam.net.in MEGH STEELS PVT. LTD. Distributors TATA Structura and Dealer in Iron & Steel, A/85, 31st Cross, 7th Main,Jayanagar, Bangalore-560 082. Tel : 26546384 , Fax : 080-26545952 Mobile : 9845013513 E-mail : nsm456@yahoo.com M/s. NAGARJUNA CONSTRUCTION COMPANY LTD. Nagarjuna Hills, Hyderabad - 500 482 Andhra Pradesh, India. Tel : 22224328, 22226214, Telex : 0425-6914 Grams : Buildwell Nagarjuna-Where Quality is Trac NAGADI CONSULTANTS PVT. LTD. Committed to Reliable Accurate and Professional Service, Regd. Head Office : 1014, 1st Main, IV Block, Rajajinagar, Bangalore-560010. Tel :23303007, 23156076 E-mail : bangalore@nagadi.co.in SBS ASSOCIATES Engineers and Contractors, Class I Contractors in Karnataka PWD 795/E, 3rd Cross, A Main, Vijayanagar, Bangalore - 560 040. Tel. ; (R) 23356839 SHRI B. SUNDARAMURTHY 44/4, 4th Main Road, Malleswaram, Bangalore-560 055. Tel : 23348725 E-mail: moorthy_30@hotmil.com TECHNOART CONSTRUCTIONS PVT. LTD. Mayaventure (P) Ltd. Southend Road, Above Canara Bank, 3 rd Floor, Basavanagudi, Bangalore 560 004. THE DESIGNERS AND BUILDERS H.K. Nanjunda Swamy, Consulting Engineer and Partner 20/1, II Floor, III Cross, Chikkanna Gardens Road, Shankarapuram. Bangalore - 560 004. Tel : 41127098 Tel/Fax : 26521379 UNITED PRECISION ENGINEERS PVT. LTD. Engineers and Contractors 67, Lavina Cour ts, I Floor, 102, 8th Main, 7th Cross, RMV Extension, , Bangalore - 560 080 Tel/fax : 23612825/23618965 E-mail : cavhydro@yahoo.co.in

Up-gradation from Life Member to Fellow Member

Up-gradation from Member to Life Member


0813-L 1074-L 1428-L 1863-L 1873- L 1994-L 2117-L RAI PUNIT DINESH CHANDRA ARCHANA SANJAY KOLHE SANDEEP SHARAD SHIRKHEDKAR SAPNA DEVENDRA KARANAM S V PRASAD KOVVURI SRINIVASA SASTRY NITIN KUMAR TAYAL Nashik Nashik Nagpur Bangalore Srikakulam Vijayawada Ludhiana

BECOME A LIFE MEMBER OF ACCE(I)


It helps you and the association if you convert your membership into life Membership. The Life Membership fee is Rs: 5000/- only. This can be paid in two equal installments with the financial year (i.e. 1.4.2009 to 31.3.2010) - Secretary General

BULLETIN ADVERTISEMENT TARIFF


Full Page 4 Colour * Full Page 4 Colour * Full Page 4 Colour * Full Page 4 Colour Full Page B/W Half Page B/W All above Front Inner Page Back Inner Page Back Outer Page Inner Page Inner Page Inner Pager rates are for 4 Issues Rs. 25,000/Rs. 22,000/Rs. 25,000/Rs. 15,000/Rs. 12,000/Rs. 6,000/-

INSERTION IN PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY


For ACCE(I) Members 4 Issues For Non ACCE Members 4 Issues Patronship of Bulletin Fund Permanent One Year One Year Permanent Rs. 1000/Rs. 2,000/Rs. 25,000/-

NOTE: Positive Film of logos, Illustration, Picture, Photographs, etc. shall be supplied by the Adver tiser. If Film is supplied, the Size should be (175 mm x 250 mm). D. D. Should be drawn in favour of Association of Consulting Civil Engineers (India), Bangalore * One page B/W adver tisement space will be provided free of cost in any one of the 4 issues.

Bulletin of ACCE (I)

58

April - June 2009

CENTRAL MARKETING OFFICE


MUMBAI : A Wing, Ahura Centre, 1st Floor Mahakali Caves Road, Near M.I.D.C. Office Andheri (East), MUMBAI - 400 093 Tel : 022 - 66917800, 66928400, 66917274 Fax : 022-66928401, 66917250

ZONAL MARKETING OFFICE :


BANGALORE : Industry House, 5th Floor, Fair Field Layout 45, Race Course Road, Bangalore - 560 001 Tel : 080-22250748, 22250749 Fax : 080-22204839 CHENNAI : 23, Anna Salai, Little Mount (Above Swaraj Mazda Show Room) Saidapet, Chennai - 600 015 Tel : 044-42328003, 42328018 Fax : 044-42328017 DELHI : 12th Floor, Ambadeep Building K.G. Marg, Cannaught Place New Delhi - 110 001 Tel : 011-23315007-10 Fax : 011-23315000 KOLKATA : Constantia, 7th Floor, 11, Dr. U.N. Brahmachari Street Kolkata - 700 017 Tel : 033-30214100, 30214400 Fax : 033-30214490, 30214590 MUMBAI : A Wing, Ahura Centre, 1st Floor Mahakali Caves Road, Near M.I.D.C. Office Andheri (East), MUMBAI - 400 093 Tel : 022 - 66917800, 66928400, 66917274 Fax : 022-66928401, 66917250

Vol. No. 8

No. 4

QUARTERLY

APRIL - JUNE 2009

Sil v

ubilee rJ Y e

19

BULLETIN
of Association of Consulting Civil Engineers (India)

ea

r
09

84

20

Winner of the ACCE SARVAMANGALA AWARD 2009 for Excellence in Construction of Civil Engineering Projects

# 2, U. V. C. E. Alumni Association Building, K. R. Circle, Bangalore - 560 001 Phone : 91-80-22247466 E-mail : admin@accehq.net Tel/Fax : 91-80-22219012 Website : www.accehq.net

Оценить