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USE OF ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES BY STUDENTS IN BANGALORE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR MARKETING By RAHUL.

SANKOLLI IV Semester MBA Reg No: 10MB2003

Guide Prof. Murali.S Project Report submitted to the University of Mysore in partial fulfillment of the requirements of IV semester MBA degree examinations-2012

Ramaiah Institute Of Management Studies New BEL Road, M.S.Ramaiah Nagar, M.S.R.I.T Post Bangalore-560054

Use of online social networking sites by students in Bangalore and its implications for marketing
By RAHUL.SANKOLLI IV Semester MBA 2012 Reg.No:10MB2003

Guide Prof. Murali.S A Project Report submitted to the University of Mysore in partial fulfillment of the requirements of IV Semester MBA degree examinations-2012

Ramaiah Institute Of Management Studies New BEL Road , M.S.Ramaiah Nagar, M.S.R.I.T Post Bangalore-560054

Ramaiah Institute Of Management Studies


Bangalore-560054 Prof. Murali.S

CERTIFICATE
Certified that this dissertation USE OF ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES BY STUDENTS IN BANGALORE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR MARKETING is a bonafide record of work done by Rahul.Sankolli under my guidance and supervision

Place: Bangalore Date:

(Signature of faculty guide)

STUDENTS DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the report titled USE OF ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES BY STUDENTS IN BANGALORE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR MARKETING submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the internal assessment of IV semester MBA Degree Examination 2012 of University of Mysore through Ramaiah Institute of Management Studies is my original work and not submitted to any other university. This work has been done under the supervision of Prof. Murali.S in Ramaiah Institute of Management Studies, Bangalore.

PLACE: Bangalore

Rahul.Sankolli Roll: No:MA1005

DATE:

Registration No:10MB2003

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Acknowledgements are due to many persons without whose cooperation, support, encouragement and guidance, this dissertation would not have been carried out. I owe a great debt of gratitude to my guide Prof. Murali.S for his scholarly guidance, constant help and encouragement throughout the study. I also express my gratitude to the University of Mysore for providing me an opportunity to do this dissertation I also express my gratitude to the Chairman, Department of Management, University of Mysore, Mysore for Providing an opportunity to do this work for my MBA Degree. I also express my sincere thanks to Dr.M, R. Pattabiram, Director, Ramaiah Institute of Management Studies, for providing an opportunity to do MBA in the Institute. I also express my sincere thanks to Dr. Y. Rajaram, Dean, Ramaiah Institute of Management Studies, for providing an opportunity to do my MBA in the Institute. I also express my sincere thanks to all faculty members and non-teaching staff of Ramaiah Institute Of Management Studies who have supported me to do this dissertation work. I also express owe my gratitude to the librarian and the staff, Ramaiah Institute Of Management Studies for helping me to get relevant literature from time to time. I would like to express my grateful acknowledgement to those writes whose contributions are quoted in the study as well as in the bibliography.

Table of contents
Sl.No 1 2 Topic Executive summary Introduction 2.1.What is social networking sites 2.2. Features 2.3.Problem definition 2.4.Problem statement Review of literature 3.1. The state of play game 3.2. Marketers online challenges 3.3. Markets and big data 3.3.Adaptive marketing 3.5. Looking ahead 3.6. Internet usage 3.7.Telecommunication and broadband in Asia 3.8.Social networking sites 3.9. Development of social networking sites 3.10.Attributes and behavior towards social networking sites 4 Methodology and analysis of data 4.1.Research methodology 4.2 Limitation of the study 4.3.Hypothesis Testing 5 Summary, Finding and Suggestions 5.1. Major findings 5.2. Inference of hypothesis testing 5.3. conclusion 5.4 Suggestions 6 7 Bibliography Appendix Page.No 1 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 11 13 14 16 21 21 24 29 30 33 57 68 69 71 73 74 75 76

Sl.No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 `13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

List of figures Number of responses


How much time do you spend on the following media per day?

Page no
34 35 36 37 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

What among the following interest you a lot? Which all the following device you use the most to access internet? For what purpose among the following do you use internet? How do you come to know, whats happening around the world on internet? On a scale of 1 to 5, how much you believe on the information available on internet? Do you use social networking sites? If no, what is the reason for not using for social networking site? How often do you login to your favourite social networking sites? On average, how much time do you spend on social networking when you login? What problem do you face most when using social networking sites? Which among the following social networking sites do you have a profile? How many connections (Friends) do you have on social networking sites? Please rate the following, use of social networking sites? 15.1 Find some information 15.2. Get opinion 15.3.Share experience 15.4.Entertain yourself 15.5.Stay connected to friends Do you shop on internet? Which was the last product/ service you purchased and from which site? Which type of payment mode do you prefer the most? What if the product/ service you purchased on internet were faulty?

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Sl.No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 `13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

List of Table Number of responses


How much time do you spend on the following media per day?

Page no
34 35 36 37 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

What among the following interest you a lot? Which all the following device you use the most to access internet? For what purpose among the following do you use internet? How do you come to know, whats happening around the world on internet? On a scale of 1 to 5, how much you believe on the information available on internet? Do you use social networking sites? If no, what is the reason for not using for social networking site? How often do you login to your favourite social networking sites? On average, how much time do you spend on social networking when you login? What problem do you face most when using social networking sites? Which among the following social networking sites do you have a profile? How many connections (Friends) do you have on social networking sites? Please rate the following, use of social networking sites? 15.1 Find some information 15.2. Get opinion 15.3.Share experience 15.4.Entertain yourself 15.5.Stay connected to friends Do you shop on internet? Which was the last product/ service you purchased and from which site? Which type of payment mode do you prefer the most? What if the product/ service you purchased on internet were faulty?

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Chapter 1: Executive summary

1. Executive summary:
The research gives knowledge about college students spend on social networking site and their purpose of using a social networking site. Since online social networking is gradually becoming more and more popular among college students, they are key audience for online word of mouth marketing efforts. Therefore the purpose of this study is to explore the relevant factors applicable for online marketing by studying awareness, purpose of use and usage of social networking sites. This will be helpful for the enterprises to know about their effectiveness and they can take necessary steps before going online marketing. In India, very little research work has been done related to online social networking by college students. Further, these studies have, basically, focused on the usage and awareness. However, there are many factors and areas which are yet to be addressed. As online social networking sites are used by the students and they constitute a major portion of the total customer and there usage pattern to different social networking sites. The research also finds out most popular social networking site among the students. The finding will help the companies to advertise on social networking site as per the students interest. The necessary steps what should companies take before going online marketing on social networking sites.

1.1.Key findings 92% of students use social networking site and majority of students spend atleast 1 hr to 3 hrs on their social networking site. Students have membership of more than two social networking sites. With the help of these sites, mostly, contact their college and schools friends. Basically they share new ideas, make friends and to entertain themselves. The frequency of visit to social networking site is several times in a single day by around 45% of the students, but most students were found to visit these sites once a few days or once a week. Facebook remains the most popular social networking site among the students and Orkut remains the next most popular social networking site.

65% students do shopping online. Majority of the students prefer cash on delivery payment mode.

Majority of the students are going to back fire to company if the product or service what they purchase were faulty.

1.2. Conclusion and recommendation It was clearly observed from the analysis that the college students are well aware about different social networking site. Further, their use and popularity is increasing. Social networking sites are serving as a very good medium to connect students. Students view advertisements online. Therefore marketing will the help of these sites can play an important role for online marketing. However user groups are educated and their size and mutual participation is increasing day by day, it is necessary to ensure product quality.

Chapter 2: Introduction

2. Introduction
The modern world economy is characterized by fast changing consumerism on one hand, and competition among enterprises to have marketing opportunities in terms of better performance, on the other hand. The companies are leaving traditional commercial strategies and are looking for unique ways to compete more effectively on a global basis. In this context, the information technology is planning a great role for marketing of products. The internet, in particular, has created a global market by connecting the sellers and customers. It has been found that out of the 20 to 30 million internet subscribers, approximately 50 percent are 25 years of age or younger. This is due to large educational community using the internet, which constitutes a major portion of the total customers. This community uses the internet for education purposes, entertainment, social networking etc. There are number of social networking sites like Facebook, Linkedin, Orkut, Google+, Twitter etc that are widely used by the students. Facebook is the best social networking site at present and the second most visited site in the world after Google. In India it got the third Rank based on Alexa Ranking 2011 and this is on the top ranking list. Twitter, the micro-blogging site has been one of the most talked about social networking site in recent times. From becoming the word of the year to the first revenue from Google partnership, Twitter was in headlines all of 2009. Twitter started receiving a lot of attention in India with lot of Indian celebrities from Hollywood and Politics joined this bandwagon. In India, LinkedIn Got the second most used professional social networking site based on Alexa Ranking which is 11. LinkedIn is most popular in Netherlands with Alexa Ranking 10. Alexa Ranking of Orkut is 17 and the third most popular social networking site in India. Orkut is most popular in Paraguay and Brazil with Alexa Rank 7 & 12 respectively. Earlier Orkut was very popular in India but it is now at third place. These are grouped centered networking sites, which allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interest within their individual networks. The popular social networking services are those which contain category to connect with friends and a recommendation system linked trust. Social networking is an essential part of campus life for college students now a days. Therefore, since college students use social networking sites, these sites are a key audience for online word of mouth marketing efforts and thus, online social network services have become one of the best way of doing marketing of different products.

2.1.

What is a social networking site?

A social networking service is an online service, platform, or site that focuses on facilitating the building of social networks or social relations among people who, for example, share interests, activities, backgrounds, or real-life connections. A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety of additional services. Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging. Online community services are sometimes considered as a social network service, though in a broader sense, social network service usually means an individual-centered service whereas online community services are

group-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual networks.

2.2.

Features:

Typical features: According to Boyd and Ellison's (2007) article, "Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life", social networking sites (SNSs) share a variety of technical features that allows individuals to: construct a public/semi-public profile, articulate list of other users that they share a connection with, and view their list of connections within the system. The most basic of these are visible profiles with a list of "friends" who are also users of the site. In an article entitled "Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship," Boyd and Ellison adopt Sunden's (2003) description of profiles as unique pages where one can "type oneself into being." A profile is generated from answers to questions, such as age, location, interests, etc. Some sites allow users to upload pictures, add multimedia content or modify the look and feel of the profile. Others, e.g., Facebook, allow users to enhance their profile by adding modules or "Applications." Many sites allow users to post blog entries, search for others with similar interests and compile and share lists of contacts. User profiles often have a section dedicated to comments from friends and other users. To protect user privacy, social networks typically have controls that allow users to choose who can view their profile, contact them, add them to their list of contacts, and so on.

Additional features Some social networks have additional features, such as the ability to create groups that share common interests or affiliations, upload or stream live videos, and hold discussions in forums.Geosocial networking co-opts Internet mapping services to organize user participation around geographic features and their attributes. There is a trend towards more interoperability between social networks led by technologies such as OpenID and OpenSocial. In most mobile communities, mobile phone users can now create their own profiles, make friends, participate in chat rooms, create chat rooms, hold private conversations, share photos and videos, and share blogs by using their mobile phone. Some companies provide wireless services that allow their customers to build their own mobile community and brand it; one of the most popular wireless services for social networking in North America is Facebook Mobile.

2.3.

Problem definition:

Since online social networking is gradually becoming more and more popular among college students, they are key audience for online word of mouth marketing efforts. Therefore the purpose of this study is to explore the relevant factors applicable for online marketing by studying awareness, purpose of use and usage of social networking sites. This will be helpful for the enterprises to know about their effectiveness and they can take necessary steps before going online marketing. In India, very little research work has been done related to online social networking by college students. Further, these studies have, basically, focused on the usage and awareness. However, there are many factors and areas which are yet to be addressed. As online social networking sites are used by the students and they constitute a major portion of the total customer and there usage pattern to different social networking sites.

2.4. Problem statement:


It is necessary to know how the online advertisement coming on the social networking site is effective for students as a whole.

2.5. Objectives of the project:


To bring out the suggestions for marketing on social networking sites. To identify the most popular social networking site among students. To find students relation to other media like tv, radio, newspaper and magazine.

Chapter 3: Review of literature

3. Review of literature
According to Mckinsey Global survey-2007 on how companies are marketing online. A survey of marketers from around the world shows where online tools are most important, how theyre being used, and on which ones companies plan to spend more.

The report shows that digital media and online tools remain a largely untapped resource for companies, according to a recent survey of marketing executives. Most respondents agree that their online presence is important and that digital tools provide their companies with a major opportunity, but few are taking the structural steps required to benefit from selling online or engaging consumers through new technologies such as social media. Indeed, most respondents indicate that companies are still trying to figure out how digital media can meaningfully improve their bottom lines. The survey asked marketing executives from around the world about the digital tools and channels their companies use and expect to use, the challenges they face and actions they have taken in response, and the metrics available to assess performance online. The most pressing competitive challenge marketing executives identify is producing and using customer insights, and respondents hope to use data to drive sales and customer engagement. But they also say their companies often have only basic customer informationdespite the tremendous increase in data available to them in recent yearsand they report difficulties in measuring the impact of online tools and channels. Respondents also say they lack the internal leadership and resources to develop better analytical capabilities and, as a result, better information and insights about customers.

3.1.

The state of play online

Marketing executives overwhelmingly agree that an effective online presence is very or extremely important for staying competitive81 percent of them say so. And more than half of respondents say that over the past two years, the increasing prevalence of digital media and tools has changed their companies ability to interact with and serve new customers. Notably, about half as many cite either the ability to reach new customer segments or the emergence of new business models as one of the greatest effects of digital medias pervasiveness. Overall, these tools seem to be creating little competitive differentiation. Just over half of respondents, for example, say their companies and competitors earn about the same share of revenue from online sales, with almost equal numbers of other respondents estimating shares above and below. Strong majorities of executives say that to connect with consumers today, their companies most often use two digital channels: their company home pages and e-mail. Looking ahead, however, theres a clear shift in what respondents believe their companies should be using in two to four years a broader range of tools, especially mobile applications and social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook, while far fewer respondents say their companies should use their home pages and e-mail most often to communicate in the future. Though less than a majority say their companies use social media most often today, responses show that most are experimenting: nearly three-quarters of respondents say their companies currently use social media to achieve business objectives in some way. One-quarter of these

respondents say these platforms are important tools, and 46 percent say their companies use some social-media tools to complement other marketing efforts. Organizationally, a majority of executives (54 percent) say their companies have responded to the increasing prevalence of online tools and e-commerce by seeking to integrate them into existing business models. However, nearly one-third have established separate teams or departments to manage online opportunities. The finding that large shares are taking quite different approaches suggests that marketers are still struggling to figure out what will work best at their own companies. However, its notable that respondents also report few process problems (for example, insufficient coordination) between marketing and other departments that hurt their companies overall business. Only 18 percent, for example, report major problems in crossfunctional task forces at their companies, while another 18 percent say the same about strategy developmentthe highest share among all internal processes we asked about. Half say there are no cross-functional problems involving marketing in consumer communication.

3.2.

Marketers online challenges:

The most important digital-related challenge for marketers and business leadersranked first by the largest share of respondentsis generating and leveraging deep customer insights. The good news is that more respondents say their companies either are taking or plan to take action on some of the higher-ranked challenges compared with those they ranked lower. Notably, many companies seem to want to do it themselves: on many of these challenges, more respondents say the best approaches involve developing internal capabilities rather than relying on external resources. For example, of respondents who say managing brand health and reputation is an important challenge, 49 percent say creating content or services for customers on social-media sites and forums would help in addressing it, while just 14 percent cite the hiring of third-party service providers to manage online brand interactions. Though measuring the effect of online tools isnt the most-cited problem, other responses indicate that many marketers continue to struggle with developing the right metrics and translating insights into actions that influence consumer behavior. Nearly one-third of respondents say existing digital metrics dont quantify the financial impact of those tools or channels on the business, and of the executives whose companies are using social media, almost half say quantifying the impact adequately is difficult. In addition, there is little consensus about how price transparency affects annual revenues: 38 percent say the increased transparency associated with online tools and e-commerce has not reduced their companies revenues this year, 8 percent say it has, and 27 percent dont know.3 Even looking solely at revenues from online sales, which should be straightforward to measure, 18 percent of marketing executives say they dont know what share those sales were of total revenues last year; another two-thirds say such sales accounted for 10 percent or less of their companies annual revenues. Finally, few respondents say their companies most frequently try to reach customers aged 51 and older through online tools or channels. This is notable because other McKinsey research has shown that older consumers are wealthier than younger ones and quite active online.4 This likely indicates a growth area for many companies.

3.3.

Marketers and big data:

Congruent with the importance respondents place on leveraging customer insights, 71 percent say data-driven customer insights will be very or extremely important to their companies competitiveness during the next two to four yearsbut just 4 percent say their companies now have the required analytical capabilities to manage their businesses more effectively. Marketers most frequently say they hope to improve sales or customer engagement through analyzing data: 43 percent and 42 percent, respectively. (We know from other work that companies hope to use technology to help consumers throughout their decision journey: triggering the impulse to buy, raising awareness of brands to ensure they are considered for purchase, and providing information as consumers evaluate product options. Right now, though, executives report a fairly unsophisticated use of data: 38 percent say their companies have basic demographic information on each customer, while only 18 percent say their customer data include detailed information such as interests or attitudes. Respondents also report that typical marketing decisions are most likely to rely on internal sales data, information that has long been available to marketing departments and likely what managers are most comfortable working with. Fewer than 20 percent say typical department decisions use either quantitative or qualitative consumer insights.

3.4.

Adaptive marketing:

Targeting consumers at the most miniscule-segment level is the game. At a time when marketers are hard at work crafting hundreds of fancy messages for every single profile conceivable and riding every possible channel to get to them, the moment of truth actually happens only when the brand makes that elusive "connection" with the consumer. Why is this connection so hard to make? We have the brightest of brains at work to 'decode' the clever consumer psyche. We have media that tracks and follows you like your shadow almost everywhere. We are swimming in oceans of personal data. So, how should it all come together to do the trick? At Mindshare, we have cracked this code with Adaptive Marketing, a sharply focused data-driven approach that studies consumer exposure to media in-depth and adapts its advertising and marketing mix to intervene at all the right points across hundreds of profiles. At a time when consumers are feeling overwhelmed by media assault at every turn and corner of their day-to-day lives, adaptive marketing ensures accurate and relevant targeting. Marketers today have a mind-boggling range of offline and online media to play with - TV, print, social, hoardings - the list is long. At Mindshare we use tools such as Live, a real-time dashboard to assess consumer exposure to both analogue and digital data, to ascertain exactly where consumers prefer to engage with specific brands and their advertising. It's interesting how online and offline advertising complement and sometimes even props and drive the other. A consumer's first point of contact with an ad for one product could well be his last for another. Disparate patterns emerge for each consumer profile and brand. The analytics team at Mindshare has measured the interplay between different forms of communication (Ref fig-1) in improving response. For examples, it's interesting to see how a viral message on social media drives responses from other mediums significantly. With all the opportunities Adaptive Marketing throws up, it's important to determine which product segments and brands will benefit most from

it. By definition, adaption implies a fairly large number of variables that could potentially turn decisions this way or that - product complexity, brand positioning, consumer mindset, and so on. Automotive, financial services, ecommerce, telecom and CPG are spaces that can unravel extremely volatile patterns of ad consumption for communication planners. The scope for maximizing impact is immense here. Instituting Adaptive Marketing into your marketing strategy can require serious structural changes. For example, the entire media process budgeting, planning, buying, and optimizing - needs to become more fluid and "always-on" (Ref to fig-2) rather than static and sporadic. Brands need to develop a library of creative assets images, calls-to-action, and applications - that can instantly be deployed into advertising units when required. While all of these components are important, none is more critical than data, which is why real-time data dashboards are gaining popularity amongst marketers and the CSuite community. Half the battle is won if you have a robust consumer knowledgebase on shopping and surfing behavior, media response at each stage of the purchase lifecycle, preference for specific media channels, etc. What differentiates Adaptive Marketing is the way you toss and turn this data to maximize your hits and minimize your misses.

3.5.

Looking ahead:

Most companies are struggling to define an online business model to drive competitive advantage, despite being well aware of the importance of digital media and its potential to foster customer engagement and loyalty. Thats partly because theres no single solution: companies need to consider factors such as the extent to which digital operations should be integrated within existing commercial functions, whether it should be centralized or regionally based, and how much online activity should be standardized rather than tailored by geography, product, or service.6 Yet even though one size does not fit all, companies need to begin searching for what works for them.

Few companies are taking full advantage of the opportunity presented by exponentially increasing volumes of customer data. Insights derived from how consumers behave and interact online can inform everything from product development and innovation to sales processes, but it requires a commitment to gathering, analyzing, and deploying data much more effectively than most companies currently do.

The race is far from over. While companies recognize the potential of digital tools to drive customer engagement and sales, few have seized the opportunity: only 14 percent of respondents say the effects of digital tools in marketing have included the entry of new competitors. Yet its only a matter of time before disruptive competitors that skillfully use digital tools quickly emerge, and incumbents need to take aggressive action before a lot of current value is destroyed.

3.6.

Internet usage

WORLD INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION STATISTICS December 31, 2011 World Regions Africa Asia Europe Middle East North America Latin America / Carib. Oceania / Australia Population ( 2011 Est.) 1,037,524,058 Internet Users Dec. 31, 2000 4,514,400 Internet Penetration Growth Users (% 2000Latest Data Population) 2011 139,875,242 13.5 % Users % of Table

2,988.4 6.2 % % 44.8 % 22.1 %

3,879,740,877 114,304,000 1,016,799,076 816,426,346 105,096,093 216,258,843 3,284,800 500,723,686 77,020,995 273,067,546 235,819,740

26.2 % 789.6 % 61.3 % 376.4 % 35.6 %

2,244.8 3.4 % % 12.0 % 10.4 %

347,394,870 108,096,800 597,283,165 18,068,919

78.6 % 152.6 % 39.5 % 1,205.1 %

35,426,995

7,620,480

23,927,457

67.5 % 214.0 % 1.1 % 32.7 % 528.1 100.0 % %

WORLD 6,930,055,154 360,985,492 2,267,233,742 TOTAL

TOP 20 COUNTRIES WITH HIGHEST NUMBER OF INTERNET USERS # Country or Region Population, 2011 Est 1,336,718,015 313,232,044 1,189,172,906 126,475,664 203,429,773 81,471,834 138,739,892 62,698,362 65,102,719 155,215,573 245,613,043 48,754,657 77,891,220 78,785,548 113,724,226 61,016,804 101,833,938 46,754,784 90,549,390 41,769,726 4,578,950,118 2,351,105,036 6,930,055,154 Internet Users Year 2000 22,500,000 95,354,000 5,000,000 47,080,000 5,000,000 24,000,000 3,100,000 15,400,000 8,500,000 200,000 2,000,000 19,040,000 250,000 2,000,000 2,712,400 13,200,000 2,000,000 5,387,800 200,000 2,500,000 Internet Users Latest Data 485,000,000 245,000,000 100,000,000 99,182,000 75,982,000 65,125,000 59,700,000 51,442,100 45,262,000 43,982,200 39,600,000 39,440,000 36,500,000 35,000,000 34,900,000 30,026,400 29,700,000 29,093,984 29,268,606 27,568,000 Penetration (% Population) 36.3 % 78.2 % 8.4 % 78.4 % 37.4 % 79.9 % 43.0 % 82.0 % 69.5 % 28.3 % 16.1 % 80.9 % 46.9 % 44.4 % 30.7 % 49.2 % 29.2 % 62.2 % 32.3 % 66.0 % 35.0 % 21.6 % World % Users 23.0 % 11.6 % 4.7 % 4.7 % 3.6 % 3.1 % 2.8 % 2.4 % 2.1 % 2.1 % 1.9 % 1.9 % 1.7 % 1.7 % 1.7 % 1.4 % 1.4 % 1.4 % 1.4 % 1.3 % 75.9 % 24.1 %

1 China 2 United States 3 India 4 Japan 5 Brazil 6 Germany 7 Russia 8 United Kingdom

9 France 10 Nigeria 11 Indonesia 12 Korea 13 Iran 14 Turkey 15 Mexico 16 Italy 17 Philippines 18 Spain 19 Vietnam 20 Argentina TOP 20 Countries Rest of the World Total World Users

275,424,200 1,601,772,290 85,561,292 508,993,520

360,985,492 2,110,765,810

30.5 % 100.0 %

3.7. Telecommunications and Broadband in Asia

ASIA INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION

ASIA

Population ( 2011 Est.) 29,835,392 2,967,975 8,372,373 158,570,535 708,427 401,890 14,701,717 1,336,718,015 4,585,874 7,122,508 1,189,172,906 245,613,043 126,475,664 15,522,373

Internet Users, (Year 2000) 1,000 30,000 12,000 100,000 500 30,000 6,000 22,500,000 20,000 2,283,000 5,000,000 2,000,000 47,080,000 70,000

Internet Penetration Users Users (% % 31-Dec-2011 Population) Asia 1,256,470 1,396,550 3,689,000 5,501,609 98,728 318,900 491,480 513,100,000 1,300,000 4,894,913 121,000,000 55,000,000 101,228,736 5,448,965 4.2 % 0.1 % 47.1 % 0.1 % 44.1 % 0.4 % 3.5 % 0.5 % 13.9 % 0.0 % 79.4 % 0.0 % 3.1 % 0.0 % 38.4 % 50.5 %

Facebook 31-Mar2012 257,440 282,700 782,000 2,520,680 65,660 234,060 449,160 447,460 907,620 3,752,160 45,048,100 43,523,740 7,684,120 452,200

Afganistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Darussalem Cambodia China * Georgia Hong Kong * India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan

28.3 % 0.1 % 68.7 % 0.5 % 10.2 % 11.9 %

22.4 % 5.4 % 80.0 % 10.0 %

35.1 % 0.5 %

Korea, North Korea, South Kyrgystan Laos Macao * Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka

24,457,492 48,754,657 5,587,443 6,477,211 573,003 28,728,607 394,999 3,133,318 53,999,804 29,391,883 187,342,721 101,833,938 4,740,737 21,283,913

-19,040,000 51,600 6,000 60,000 3,700,000 6,000 30,000 1,000 50,000 133,900 2,000,000 1,200,000 121,500

-40,329,660 2,194,400 527,400 308,797 17,723,000 114,100 355,524 110,000 2,031,245 29,128,970 29,700,000 3,658,400 2,503,194

--

--

n/a 6,376,160 75,380 156,160 204,920 12,365,780 120,020 458,700 n/a 1,396,800 6,412,960 27,724,040 2,602,880 1,235,080

82.7 % 4.0 % 39.3 % 0.2 % 8.1 % 0.1 % 53.9 % 0.0 % 61.7 % 1.7 % 28.9 % 0.0 % 11.3 % 0.0 % 0.2 % 0.0 % 6.9 % 0.2 % 15.5 % 2.9 % 29.2 % 2.9 % 77.2 % 0.4 % 11.8 % 0.2 %

Taiwan

23,071,779

6,260,000

16,147,000

70.0 % 1.6 %

11,877,620

Tajikistan

7,627,200

2,000

794,483

10.4 % 0.1 %

34,640

Thailand

66,720,153

2,300,000

18,310,000

27.4 % 1.8 %

14,235,700

Timor-Leste

1,177,834

2,361

0.2 % 0.0 %

n/a

Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Vietnam TOTAL ASIA

4,997,503 28,128,600 90,549,390

2,000 7,500 200,000

110,924 7,550,000 30,516,587

2.2 % 0.0 % 26.8 % 0.7 % 33.7 % 3.0 % 26.2 %

5,860 128,780 3,173,480

3,879,740,877 114,304,000 1,016,799,076

100.0 195,034,380 %

Inside India, things do seem to be improving. Five years ago there was limited Internet access but only in a few major cities, all in the hands of the government. VSNL, the agency responsible for Internet activities, and the DOT (Department of Telecommunications) provided an agonizingly erratic connectivity, with miserly bandwidth and far too few phone lines. Connection rates ran as low as 5% (for every 20 dialups you might get connected once) and users were frequently cut off. And the rates for this pathetic level of service were among the highest in the world. Domestic users paid about $2 per hour, and lease lines, for the few companies that could afford them, ranged over $2000 per month for a 64 Kpbs line. By the end of 1998, after three years of government monopoly, there were barely 150,000 Internet connections in India. Today (midyear 2000) the government monopoly is largely over. Dozens of small to large Internet Service Providers have set up shop, triggering a price war and an improvement of service. Users are now estimated at over 2 million, with a growth predicted to reach 50 million in the next five years. Small Internet kiosks have set up even in small towns, and the governments, both State and Central are pushing for growth in the Internet sector. Internet is the new buzzword. The many small tutorial colleges that pushed computer software courses of variable quality are now in a hardsell scramble to push Net related content. The Internet represents the new wealth frontier for the middle classes - a good salary and a clean job, and for a few, the chance to go abroad. There has been a great increase in Indian content on the Internet. Many net entrepreneurs have been quick to realize the huge potential of the global market. Initially, most sites targeted the global Diaspora of Overseas Indians who had more access to the Internet, not to mention the credit cards that drive Net commerce. But there is a growing realization that the Net can reach the large and wealthy Indian Middle class. This group is rapidly plugging into the Net (still out of range for most people here) and there is increased use of credit cards. Additionally, Business to Business (B2B) transactions are on the increase though there is no accurate estimate of the current or projected volumes. For Indian businesses interested in an overseas market the Net provides an efficient medium of communications - a factor that has retarded a great deal of trade in the past. Email and web sites are available 24 hours a day. And for the large and growing software industry, the Internet offers the ability to reach a client, respond to problems on a real time basis, and transfer products instantly with the click of a mouse. India exports billions of dollars of software annually, and the industry is growing rapidly. The Internet represents so much potential for India, and the demand for efficient Internet infrastructure is growing rapidly. This is where India has been failing. The demand has

not yet been met efficiently and this represents an enormous barrier to business and societal development. Even the government, which has monopolized infrastructure development until recently, has recognized it must not hold back this development. They have opened the industry to private entrants and promised support. In practice, though, the vast bureaucracies that implement (theoretically) the government programs have moved sluggishly and ineffectively. For instance, the private ISPs that were allowed were initially required to acquire their bandwidth from VSNL which wanted a country wide monopoly on this lucrative sector. The result, new users signing up competed for increasingly limited bandwidth. Now the ISPs have been allowed to establish their own gateways but the effect has not yet been felt extensively. The DOT, responsible for providing phone lines to ISPs lagged way behind and the new providers are often left with far too few lines to service the increased demand. Lease lines are reduced, though still very expensive - approximately $1000 per month for a 64 Kpbs line. Some cities in India have developed more efficiently than others. Reports suggest that Bangalore and Madras currently offer better bandwidth. Of course, this is all relative to the pathetic service people were forced to put up with in the past. Hyderabad, where the INDAX offices are located, is trying to promote a cyber savvy image, but the reality is still very poor. We cannot justify a lease line (though reports are that prices are due to drop significantly soon), but rely on a dial up connection that only really works well in the early hours of the morning or late at night. It is not unusual to be unable to get a productive connection for hours at a time during the day, even though we use four or more ISPs. And this poor connectivity still costs us hundreds of dollars a month. Needless today, the frustration is acute. Not to mention loss of productivity. Our experience, multiplied by that of millions of other small business across the country, amounts to billions of dollars of lost potential business each year. This is a horrific waste. Looking at India from a global perspective, it is difficult to see how India can actually catch up. Advances in technology, connectivity, and usage of the net are increasing so rapidly that even in developed countries it is hard to keep up. At present, the percentage of Indians connected to the Net is less than a fraction of one percent. Even if it soars to 50 million over the next five years, as predicted, that represents at most 5% of the population. And how can this amount of growth occur over the next five years when the infrastructure of both the Internet and the telephone network is already far behind current demand? In developed countries, telephone networks had basically reached saturation when the Internet arrived. The problem was primarily to provide the increased bandwidth and line usage the Net demands. In India the telephone network is antiquated, overextended and only reaches a fraction of the population which is interested in getting a phone. Internet demand is straining the telephone system further. Private ISPs have entered the arena, and though they were initially stymied by both uncooperative government agencies and by lack of existing infrastructure, there is some promise here. There are also experiments with wireless and cable connections, but even here an antiquated infrastructure and government obstructionism are problems. Businesses are relying more and more on aspects of the Internet. Email, for instance, is a huge asset to companies. And more and more companies are entering into web related business activities, like web site creation, software development, and various service oriented businesses that utilize the Net, like medical transcription or data processing for overseas companies. In any event, it seems likely that in the future those that can pay for it will have adequate access to the great global community. As in even developed countries, those that can't pay for it, or lack the skills to use it, will be left behind. Unfortunately in India, this disadvantaged group will still be the majority

well into the current century. Until the country can mobilize the resources, the education, and the infrastructure to provide a much larger section of its population both the means and the reason to access the Internet, India will not truly join the global community.

Indians surf the web 8 hours a day: Survey


According to the Norton antivirus company India done a research in 2012 report shows internet users in India spend an average of 58 hours a week online, some eight hours a day, or more than half the time they are awake. More interesting is that half the netizens interviewed for a survey admitted to suffering from internet withdrawal within the first three hours of being cut off from the web. Indians are spending 12.9 hours browsing, 9.7 hours socializing and 6.1 hours on email every week. Of all activities, the respondents said they would miss doing work-related tasks the most if left without an internet connection. Social networking was the second most important task; convenience-of-life activities like paying bills and shopping online came third. In fact, 83% of users said they couldnt live without the internet for more than 24 hours. According to Norton, the need to stay constantly connected is a new trend among Indian net surfers. In an equally fantastic finding, three out of four respondents said they wouldnt mind handing in $1 million than granting a stranger full access to their computers. Indian netizens clearly place a high value on their personal information. 40% of Indias online community had declared they value their financial information the most, followed by 35% who place a premium on their online accounts, including email and social networks. The survey conducted using a sample size of 500 respondents in the 18-64 age grown. Indian users own an average of 2.8 devices connected to the internet. While the people interviewed used multiple devices to be online, half of them had little or no understanding of online security solutions.

3.8.

Social networking sites:

At the most basic level social networking sites are sites which allow users to set up online profiles or personal homepages, and develop an online social network. The profile page functions as the users own webpage and includes profile information ranging from their date of birth, gender, religion, politics and hometown, to their favourite films, books quotes and what they like doing in their spare time. In addition to profile information, users can design the appearance of their page, and add content such as photos, video clips and music files. Users are able to build a network of connections that they can display as a list of friends. These friends may be offline actual friends or acquaintances, or people they only know or have met online, and with whom they have no other link. It is important to note that the term friend, as used on a social networking site, is different from the traditional meaning given to the term in the offline world. In this report we will use the term as it is used on a social networking site: anyone who has invited, or been invited by, another user, to be their friend. According to the research done by the Office on Communication UK on social networking a quantitative and qualitative research report into attitude, behaviours and use, gives full detailed description given below.

3.9.

Development of social networking sites

In many ways the ideas behind social networking sites are not new. It has been possible since the early days of the internet to do many of the things which social networking site users do now, such as creating personal web pages and communicating with others through interfaces such as chat rooms, internet forums, message boards, web communities and blogs. Several sites combining functions of todays social networking sites appeared in the late 1990s. In worldwide terms many people see Friendster as the first to make a serious impact. It launched in 2002 before falling back relative to other sites in 2004.8 In the UK many people first heard about social networking sites through the media coverage of Friends Reunited (launched in 2000), and especially ITVs decision to buy the site for 120m in 2005.A wave of other sites soon followed, and this has continued up to the present, as Table 1 shows

Table 1: Simplified timeline of select social networking sites (2000-2007) 2000 Friends Reunited 2002 Friendster 2003 2004 2005 Linkedin, Flicr,Piczo, Bebo,Facebook myspace,Hi5 Orkut, (School Facebook networks) (Harvard only) 2006 Facebook (everyone) 2007 Sagazone

As the number of sites grew, so they have diversified in terms of focus. Alongside more general sites such as MySpace, Bebo and Facebook, other niche sites have sprung up. Examples include LinkedIn, which was founded in 2003 and is based on developing business and employment

networks, and Flickr, which is based on photo-sharing. New sites continue to emerge. In October 2007 Saga announced that it was launching Sagazone, a social networking site aimed exclusively at the over-50s. There are several factors that help to explain the recent growth of todays social networking sites and the mainstream use of similar technologies. The following is a brief outline of some of the biggest changes; it is by no means an exhaustive list. Home internet penetration has increased as have connection speeds: It is likely that increasing home internet access facilitates the use of social networking sites. Although potential users often have alternative points of internet access (for example at school or at work), they are less likely to be subject to restrictions on using social networking sites at home. Furthermore, increased connection speeds and the wider availability of broadband enable richer use of the internet, including uploading as well as viewing content. Whereas social networking site profiles were previously simple and text-based, they can now support images, site customization, audio and even video content. Increasing ICT confidence: There are an increasing number of people who have basic computer and internet skills and the confidence to use them. These people are much more likely to take to new online communication technology such as social networking sites. User-friendly programs : In the past, setting up ones own blog or webpage involved a relatively sophisticated knowledge of computer programming. While this has changed over the years, social networking sites have developed a system that, at its most basic, simply involves filling in the gaps or using drop-down boxes. Even on MySpace, where users can design their own sites using html or java, knowledge of programming is not essential. Other users have set up help sites where people can copy and paste script to design their site. Communication based around social relationships: An important difference between social networking sites and earlier forms of many-to-many conversations such as chat rooms and blogs is that social networking sites are predominantly based on social relationships and connections with people, rather than a shared interest. Online communication has changed from being merely task-based or for sharing information and is increasingly an end in itself. Social networking sites are part of the wider Web 2.0 context: The specific technology that has enabled this growth in the number and popularity of social networking sites is part of a wider online phenomenon, enabling self-expression, communication and user interaction online, known as Web 2.0. This technology is not unique to social networking sites and has helped the development of other interactive applications such as user-generated content (UGC) sites (like YouTube), file-sharing

sites and Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs) such as Second Life, World of Warcraft and Runescape, all sites typical of Web 2.0. Applications have increased the versatility of social networking sites: Social networking sites are not limited to messaging, communicating and displaying networks. Nearly all sites allow users to post photos, video and often music on their profiles and share them with others. Started by Facebook, sites have increasingly opened their interfaces to third-party applications. This has led to an expansion in what users can do on social networking sites, from taking part in film trivia quizzes to playing mini games. Established applications and functions have also found their way onto social networking sites in recent years. It is now possible to make voice calls through certain sites using Skype,while Bebo has led the way in incorporating video drama with its KateModern series.Bebo has also signed a deal with the BBC and Channel 4, among others, to provide some of their broadcast content to Bebo users. The rapid growth of social networking that has been observed over the last two to three years is indicative of its entry into mainstream culture and its integration into the daily lives of many people. In parallel with this, there has also been considerable media coverage of the growth of social networking, its potential positive outcomes and concerns about the way that some people are engaging with it. Social networking sites offer people new and varied ways to communicate via the internet, whether through their PC or their mobile phone. They allow people to easily and simply create their own online page or profile and to construct and display an online network of contacts, often called friends. Users of these sites can communicate via their profile both with their friends and with people outside their list of contacts. This can be on a one-to-one basis (much like an email), or in a more public way such as a comment posted for all to see. Like other communications tools, social networking sites have certain rules, conventions and practices which users have to navigate to make themselves understood and avoid difficulties. These range from the etiquette of commenting on other peoples profiles to understanding who one does and doesnt add as a friend. Social networking sites also have some potential pitfalls to negotiate, such as the unintended consequences of publicly posting sensitive personal information, confusion over privacy settings, and contact with people one doesnt know. Several of the issues around the use of social networking sites are important from a media literacy standpoint. Section 11 of the Communications Act 2003 requires to promote media literacy. We define media literacy as the ability to access, understand and create communications in a variety of contexts. In practice, this means that we are seeking to bring about and encourage better public understanding and awareness of the digital media in use today.

Social networking sites offer people new and varied ways to communicate via the internet, whether through their PC or their mobile phone. Examples include Orkut, Facebook, Linkedin etc. They allow people to easily and simply create their own online page or profile and to construct and display an online network of contacts, often called friends. Users of these sites can communicate via their profile both with their friends and with people outside their list of contacts.The rapid growth of social networking sites in recent years indicates that they are now a

mainstream communications technology for many people. Social networking sites are most popular with teenagers and young adults Ofcom research shows that just over one fifth (22%) of adult internet users aged 16+ and almost half (49%) of children aged 8-17 who use the internet have set up their own profile on a social networking site.4 For adults, the likelihood of setting up a profile is highest among16-24 year olds (54%) and decreases with age.Some under-13s are bypassing the age restrictions on social networking sites Despite the fact that the minimum age for most major social networking sites is usually 13 , 27% of 8-11 year olds who are aware of social networking sites say that they have a profile on a site. While some of these younger users are on sites intended for younger children, the presence of underage users on social networking sites intended for those aged 13 or over was also confirmed by qualitative research conducted by Ofcom. The average adult social networker has profiles on 1.6 sites, and most users check their profile at least every other day Adult social networkers use a variety of sites, with the main ones being Facebook and MySpace. It is common for adults to have a profile on more than one site on average each adult with a social networking page or profile has profiles on 1.6 sites, and 39% of adults have profiles on two or more sites. Half of all current adult social networkers say that they access their profiles at least every other day.The site people choose to use varies depending on the user. Children are more likely to use orkut(63% of those who have a social networking site profile), and the most popular site for adults is Facebook (62% of those who have a social networking profile). There is also a difference between socio-economic groups: ABC1s with a social networking profile were more likely to use Facebook.

3.10.

Attitudes and behavior towards social networking sites:

Social networkers fall into distinct groups: Social networkers differ in their attitudes to social networking sites and in their behavior while using them. Ofcoms qualitative research indicates that site users tend to fall into five distinct groups based on their behaviors and attitudes. These are as follows: Alpha Socialites (a minority) people who used sites in intense short bursts to flirt, meet new people, and be entertained. Attention Seekers (some) people who craved attention and comments from others often by posting photos and customising their profiles. Followers (many) people who joined sites to keep up with what their peers were doing. Faithful (many) people who typically used social networking sites to rekindle old friendships, often from school or university. Functional (a minority) people who tended to be single-minded in using sites for a particular purpose.

Non-users of social networking sites also fall into distinct groups Non-users also appear to fall into distinct groups; these groups are based on their reasons for not using social networking sites: Concerned about safety people concerned about safety online, in particular making personal details available online. Technically inexperienced people who lack confidence in using the internet and computers. Intellectual rejecters people who have no interest in social networking sites and see them as a waste of time.

Privacy and safety The people who use social networking sites see them as a fun and easy leisure activity. Although the subject of much discussion in the media, in Ofcoms qualitative research privacy and safety issues on social networking sites did not emerge as top of mind for most users. In discussion, and after prompting, some users in the qualitative study did think of some privacy and safety issues, although on the whole they were unconcerned about them. In addition, our qualitative study found that all users, even those who were confident with ICT found the settings on most of the major social networking sites difficult to understand and manipulate. Several areas of potentially risky behaviour are suggested by the qualitative and/or quantitative research. These include: leaving privacy settings as default open 41% of children aged 8-17 who had a visible profile had their profile set so that it was visible to anyone (Children, young people and online content quantitative research) and 44% of adults who had a current profile said their profile could be seen by anyone. giving out sensitive personal information, photographs and other content -Ofcom qualitative research found that some users willingly gave out sensitive personal information. This was supported by the Get Safe Online research which found that 25% of registered social networking users had posted sensitive personal data about themselves on their profiles. This included details such as their phone number, home address or email address. Younger adults are even more likely to do this, with 34% of 16-24 year olds willingly posting this information. posting content (especially photos) that could be reputationally damaging - (Ofcom Social Networking qualitative research). Examples ranged from posting provocative photos to photographs of teachers drinking and smoking being seen by their pupils and pupils parents.

contacting people they didnt know (and/or didnt know well) online/accepting people they didnt know as friends (Ofcom Social Networking qualitativeresearch) 17% of adult users said they talked to people on social networking sites that they didnt know and 35% spoke to people who were friends of friends. Ofcom qualitative research indicates that some people are more likely than others to engage in potentially risky behaviour. This suggests that communications about the implications of potentially risky behaviour may need to be looked at in different ways for different groups of people. Discussions with children and adults using social networking sites highlighted an important point. This was that there is a clear overlap between the benefits and risks of some online social networking activities. For example, the underlying point of social networking is to share information. However the risk is that leaving privacy settings open means that the user cannot control who sees their information or how they use it. Forty-four per cent of adults with current social networking profiles said that their profile was visible to anyone, while 41% of 8-17 year olds with visible profiles said their profile could be seen by anyone. The potential risks that we have highlighted raise a number of issues for industry and policy makers. These include how best to enforce the minimum age limits, how to ensure accessible and easy-to-understand privacy and safety policies, educating children, parents and adults about the privacy and safety implications of social networking sites, and the issue of privacy settings being set to default open.

3.11. Social Media in Your Pocket:


When Mumbais suburban rail network was thrown out of kilter last week, it was a rash of twitter messages, or tweets, that kept a section of commuters updated. With trains delayed or cancelled or abruptly terminated, there were users who kept their eyes glued to the mumbailocal hashtag on their mobiles to stay abreast of developments. As the rail network ground to a halt, people were quick to stream where they were stuck, for how long and the hours they spent desperately trying to scramble aboard packed trains, buses or flag down random private vehicles to get to work or school. The rise of networking on mobile phones has made the earlier phase during which people relied on creaking broadband connections to connect socially via Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and the like seem almost prehistoric. With nearly 700 million mobile subscribers in India, and 200,000-300,000 being added every day, the opportunity is obvious and social networking firms are cashing in. Facebook had about 38 million members from India, as of December 2011, according to We Are Social, a social media agency in Singapore; over 40% of these users log in from their phones. LinkedIn, the worlds-largest professional network, says India is its second-largest market globally; and 20-33% of its members sign in on their mobiles. Twitter has some 14 million users from India and, according to industry estimates, half of them sign up on the go, on their handsets. Even RockeTalk, a startup based in the US, which purely focuses on mobile-based social networking, claims to have 15 million Indian subscribers. For social networking companies, the opportunity to increase their user base in India via the desktop is limited. Growth in PC sales has slowed to 20% in 2011, from 30% a year ago; and broadband usage is limited, with only 13.54 million connections as of February, according to telecom regulator TRAI, making it hard for these firms to make inroads into the Indian market. Most social networking in India has been taking place in cyber cafes, but the

rapid ascent of mobile phones is quickly changing that The mobile phone is a massive opportunity in India.

3.12. MULTIPLE SIGNALS Facebook, as been increasingly focusing on mobile, as mobile Internet will be used by a large part of the audience in India. The firm is making a big mobile push already. Globally, it has 425 million monthly active mobile users, and is also working with more than 475 operators to deploy and promote mobile products. Social networking firms are not making this push alone. Several other factors, including a sharp reduction in handset prices, the improvement and proliferation of mobile networks and, perhaps most significantly, robust consumer demand are contributing to the frenzied bustle in social media. According to estimates from analysts tracking telecom, the cheapest Smartphone is today available for under Rs 5,000; and mobile services operators are offering users Facebook and Twitter on a pay-per day basis, adding to the attraction of mobile phonebased social networking. The acceleration of social networking, especially on mobiles, has happened as the handset has moved from a means of voice and text message communication to something more. Today, people in transit update their status, upload pictures and videos, and check themselves into the hippest clubs in town on Facebook and Foursquare, a location-based social networking site catering to mobile users. Once a user gets hooked on to their favourite networking sites via the mobile, they dont want to go back to the desktop. Such always-on users are changing the rules of the game. They are demanding more updates on applications, smart software that can load quickly and update a users status almost instantaneously, and yet be robust enough to load critical pieces such as the contact list on LinkedIn. Users on a traditional computer will use LinkedIn to discover jobs, and hunt for job profiles if they are a recruiter; they will spend more time browsing the site, on the mobile, theyre focused on four key areas: user profiles, status updates, groups and the inbox.

3.13. MOBILE IN THEIR DNA Micro-blogging site Twitter has the mobile phone in its DNA, says a spokesperson, given its 140character limit. Around half of its global audience of 140 million users accesses Twitter on mobile devices to stay connected in real time. Mobile continues to be an integral part of product development . It doesnt officially break up its India data, but industry trackers estimate it at 13-14 million users. Twitter upgraded several mobile products in February this year to add new services to users owning Android and Apple devices. Facebook has seen its user base in India grow 60% in the past six months. As its members opt increasingly for the mobile, it is stepping on the gas on multiple fronts. A year ago, it tied up with Indias largest telecom company to provide access to its services on low-end phones, which have limited or no Internet access. Then, the worlds number one social networking firm is expanding the availability of its mobile application, traditionally available in English, to Hindi, Vietnamese and Malay, before extending it to seven languagesGujarati, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Punjabi, Bengali and Marathi. Facebook have also launched our Timeline application for mobile users to enable users to view their posts, photos and life events as they happened since the time they registered on Facebook.

3.14. NEXT WAVE OF SERVICES

Away from the arc lights, RockeTalk, a much smaller firm, claims to have more users on its mobileonly social network in India than both Facebook and Twitter combined (on mobile).We have over 15 million users, 1.5 billion page views, are adding 18,000-20,000 new users a day and plan to have 50 million users in two years. RockeTalk allows users to send each other pictures and videos overlaid with a voice message; and it is considering integrating Facebook and Twitter APIs into its own system. API stands for application program interface, and is basically software used to link two software programmes. As the mobile phone increasingly becomes the default (and often first) choice of Internet access, social networking companies and operators are targeting both ends of the value chain. Airtels believes the programme to target feature phone users is just the beginning of the learning curve for companies. The odds are the next guy who accesses the web from a phone will be doing it for the first time need to show how the Internet can change his life for the better. The next money-spinner for telecom operators and social networking firms may come from next-generation services on the mobile phone.The next wave of services will be around context search (example: which of your friends on Facebook are in the same city youre visiting and will they be free from 8-9 pm on Friday?), and identifying friends and people on networks who share your hobby and live nearby. As the mobile phone becomes the preferred Internet access device, users, he believes, will start demanding these services. With Indias mobile subscriber base expected to edge closer to a billion in the next couple of years, this may be only the beginning of a mobile social media revolution. More users will go mobile because their friends are on mobile internet. As instant chat and instant responses become common, more people will gravitate towards mobile because thats where their friends circle .Of course, much of this is in line with global expectations and mobile internet is expected to overtake desktop internet usage as early as in 2014. With its sheer size of population, it wont be too surprising to see India(and China) power much of this growth. One reason why PC and laptop internet in India didnt grow as much as it was expected to(web penetration went from 1% of population in 1998 to 4-5% in 2008) was that laptops/PCs are expensive.They cost at least 4-5 times an average internet users monthly salary which was one reason adoption was slow.Thats not the case with mobile internet at all. With good handsets coming for 4-5k and internet usage costing a couple of hundred rupees per month mobile devices are far more accessible to lay Indians.

Chapter 4: Methodology and analysis of data

4.1. Research methodology:


4.1. 1.Research type: Primary research
Quantitative research: Quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques Descriptive method: Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when, "why" and how.

4.1.2 Secondary research:


Online source: Information gathered from the different website about social networking sites. Information gathered from the newspaper, articles available on the net. Information gathered from the journals and also project done on the social networking site by different people from different areas.

4.1.3..Target segment: The target segment consists of students who are currently pursuing their education (non externals) and who use internet basically for different activities. The students were selected from the colleges where the infrastructure was built such that they had provided the facility of Wi-Fi or any other means of internet connection, and have an access to social networking sites.

4.1.4.Information area:
What is that students use internet for, and how much time do they spend on internet? What are the areas of interest among the students? What is the main purpose to use the social networking site? How much time do they spend on social networking site? What problems do students face when access to the social networking site?

4.1.5. Geographical coverage:


Students of Ramaiah Institute of management studies and M.S.Ramaiah Institute of management studies. Other colleges students through online questionnaire

4.1.6. Sampling technique:


Sampling is the selection of some part of an aggregate or totality on the basis of which a judgment about the aggregate or totality is made. Simple random sampling method was used in this project.

4.1.7. Sampling design:


Survey Ramaiah Institute of Management studies M.S.Ramaiah Institution of Management studies Other colleges Total Pen and paper 25 Online Total students 25

25

25

50

50 50

50 100

Total sample size =100 students

4.1.8. Questionnaire design:


The questionnaire was carefully developed tested and debugged before they were administered on a large scale. Each questions contributed to the research objective here questionnaire is structured types means they are concrete, definite and predetermined questions. The questions are presented exactly same wording and in the same order to all respondents. The questionnaire had a mix type of open ended, closed ended and multiple choice questions. The questions were limited in numbers simple direct and unbiased technology was adopted.

4.1.9. Techniques of data analysis:


The below statistical tools were used for data analysis: Frequency distribution Mean Hypothesis testing of means when the population standard deviation is known Mode Percentage Standard deviation Chi-square test/ test of independence T-test

4.2.

Limitation of the project study:

The analysis has been done taking into consideration the college students in Bangalore only, thus, it may not reveal the same conclusion universally.

The samples were collected only from those colleges were Wifi or any other means of internet access facility was available.

The study was conducted with only students who are pursuing their masters and who are within the age limit of 21 to 26 years old.

Number of respondents for questionnaire on Use of social networking sites by students in Bangalore and its implication for marketing is totally 100 students. Out of which 68 respondents are male and 32 are female. The respondents are all currently pursuing post graduation. The age group of the respondents is between 21 to 26 years age. The respondents are the students who use internet. Table 1:
Male Total Female Total 62 38 100

Figure 1:

Total
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 male female Total

1. How much time do you spend on the following media per day? (enter number only) Media Hrs/day TV Radio Newspaper Magazine Internet

The average time spend by each student on each media per day is given below

Table 2:
Media TV Internet Newspaper Magazine Radio Average 2.14 3.61 1.01 0.62 0.39

Figure 2:
4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

Average

Average

Interpretation: From the above graph we found that each student on an average spends 3.6 hrs on internet per day. Other media such as on TV 2.1 hrs, newspaper 1hr, magazine 0.6hr and on radio 0.39hr per day by each student. This shows that student spend maximum time on internet rather than TV.

2. What among the following interest you a lot? (Check all that applies) Politics Fashion Education Technology Movies Books Sports Travel Table 3 Politics Fashion Education Technology Movies 18 42 40 57 68
Figure 3:

Total

Books 32

Sports 39

Travel 43

Interest
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Interest

Interpretation: The above graph indicates that students are more interested towards movies and technology. Politics remains the least interest among the students category. This shows that advertizing related to movies and technology can be very much effective rather than other topics. Fashion, travel and education can be considered next to movies and technology.

3. Which all the following device you use the most to access internet?(check all that applies) Personal computer/laptops Mobile phone Tablet pc Table 4 personal computer/laptop 91 mobile phone 43 Tablet pc 3

Device

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 personal computer/laptop

Device

Device

mobile phone

Tablet pc

Figure 4

Table 5
Computer/laptop 55 Mobile only 9 Tablet pc only 0 All 3 Computer and mobile 33

Device

Device
60 50

40

30 Device 20

10

0 Computer/laptop Mobile phone only Tablet pc only All Computer and mobile phone

Figure 5 Interpretation: The above graph shows about the devices used to access internet. 55 students use only computer or laptop to access internet, 9 students use only mobile phone to access internet , only 3 students use all the devices to access internet.33 students use both computer or laptop and mobile phone to access internet. This shows maximum students just use computer or laptop. The reason for using computer or laptop might be because of wide screen. So the company when advertising on laptop or computer can take the benefit of wide screen for advertising with nice design and contents.

4. For what purpose among the following do you use internet? (check all that applies) E-Mail Blog writing Instant messaging Study/research Playing games Entertainment Social networking Table 6 Blog Instant Playing Social Email writing messaging Study/research games Entertainment networking Internet use for 77 5 19 72 24 61 92

Use for
100 80 60 40 20 0 Use for

Figure 6 Interpretation: The above graph shows the purpose of students use internet. Among 100 students, 92 students use internet for social networking, 77 students use internet for email, 72 students for study purpose , 61 students for entertainment, 19 students for instant messaging and only 5 students do use for blog writing. This means that social networking is the important purpose to use internet

5. How do you come to know, whats happening around the world on internet? (check all that applies) Through social networking sites Through companies official websites Through news web sites Through Emails Table 7 Through Through Social companies networking site official website Informatio n 68 19

Through news web site 65

Through email 23

Information
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Throught Social networking site Throught companies Through news web offcial website site Through email Information

Figure 7

Interpretation: Students do come to know whats happening around the world on internet through multiple channels. The above graph shows 68 students comes know through social networking that is equivalent to 39% of information. Rest 61% is distributed among others such as 37% of information through news web site, 13% from email and 12% is from companies official websites.

6. On a scale of 1 to 5, how much you believe on the information available on internet? (1being very low believe and 5 being very high believe) Table 8 very very low low average high high Belief 1 8 30 43 16

Belief
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 very low low average high very high Belief

Table 8

Interpretation: The above graph shows about the information belief on internet by the students. The graphs shows out of 100 samples collected 43 students do believe high about the information on the internet, 16 students are very high believer, 30 students are average believer, 8 students low believer and only 1 student for very low believe. Considering the average it means each student has an average belief of 3.59. This shows that students do believe on the information available on a high scale.

7. Do you use social networking sites? Yes 92 No 8

User

Yes No Total

Table 9 male Female total 57 35 92 5 3 8 62 38 100

User
8

Yes No

92

Figure 9 Interpretation: Out of 100 students 92 students do use social networking site and only 8 students dont use social networking site. The above pie chart shows the share of students who use social networking site. This shows that students are well aware social networking sites. Out of 92 students 57 are male and 35 are female.

8. If no, what is the reason for not using for social networking site? I dont have time I dont know how to use it I dont want publicity I am not interested Table 10 I dont I dont know I dont want I am not have time how to use it publicity interested Reason for not using 3 0 1

Reason for not using


5 4 3 2 1 0 I dont have I dont know I dont want time how to use it publicity I am not interested Reason for not using

Figure 10 Interpretation: The above graph shows the reason why students dont use social networking site. Out of 8 students who dont use social networking site 4 students says they are not interested in social networking site, 3 students dont have time to use the social networking site and only 1 student says dont want publicity. This shows that students do know how to use a social networking site but they different reasons for not using.

9. How often do you login to your favourite social networking sites? I am constantly logged in Several times a day Once in a few day Once a week Occasionally
Table 11 I am a constantly logged in Total 21 several times a day once in a few once a days week occasionally 45 17 4

Total
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 I am a several times once in a few once a week occasionally constantly a day days logged in

Total

Figure 11

Interpretation: The above graph shows that 45 students login to social networking site several times in a day. 21 students are constant login to social networking sites. Very few that is 9 students login to social networking site in a week or occasionally. This indicates that out of 92 students who use social networking sites, 66 students regularly login to their social networking site.

10. On average, how much time do you spend on social networking when you login? (Please enter only number) Table 12 1hr Time spend on social networking site 45 2hr 15 3hr 20 4hr 3 5hr 6 more then 5 3

Time spend on social networking site


50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1hr 2hr 3hr 4hr 5hr more then 5 Time spend on social networking site

Figure 12 Interpretation: Maximum students spend 1hr to 3hrs on social networking site when they login.45 students say they spend atleast 1hr on social networking site when they login. 30 students say they spend 3 hrs on social networking site when they login to it. Only 3 students say they spend more than 5 hours on social networking site. In 1 to 3hrs the students can get expose to many advertisements on social networking site.

11. What problem do you face most when using social networking sites?(check all that applies) Site takes too much time to load. Site shows errors. Ad suddenly pops in Threat of virus attack Table 13 Sites takes too much time to load 47 Site shows errors 32 Ad suddenly pops in 21 Threat of virus attack 19

Problem

Problem
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Sites takes too much time to load Site shows errors Ad suddenly pops in Threat of virus attack

Problem

Figure 13 Interpretation: Students face multiple problems when they are using social networking sites such as 47 students face the problem of site taking too much time to load, 32 students says they find site sometimes shows error, 21 students says they find ad sometimes suddenly pops in when they are using social networking site and 19 students says they get sometimes threat of virus also.

12. Which among the following social networking sites do you have a profile? (Check all that applies) Facebook Linkedin Google+ Orkut Twitter others, specify ____________

Profile

Table 14 Facebook Linkedin Google+ Orkut Twitter Others 89 22 36 49 24 5

Profile
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Facebook Linkedin Google+ Orkut Twitter Others Profile

Figure 14 Interpretation: Students are well aware of all the different social networking sites and students do hold multiple profiles. 89 students do have facebook account along with other social networking site such as 49 students do have orkut account also, also 22 students along with facebook and orkut they also hold linkedin, 36 students have account in google+ and 24 students in twitter. This shows that facebook is the most popular social networking sites among the students.

13. How many connections (Friends) do you have on social networking sites? Less than 10 10-49 50-99 100-199 200+
Table 15 less than 10 4

Friends

10 to 49 3

50 to 99 6

100 to 199 24

200+ 55

Friends
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 less then 10 10 to 49 50 to 99 100 to 199 200+ Friends

Figure 15

Interpretation: Out of 98 students who use social networking site, 55 students have friends more than 200 in their social networking site which is 56% of 98 students who use social networking site. Rest 24 students do have friends between 100 to 199, 6 students have 50 to 99 friends and remaining 7 students have less than 49 friends in their network.

14.1. Please rate the following, use of social networking sites? (1 very low, 5-very high) Table 16 very low Find some information 7 Very high 25 19

low 17

Average High 24

Find some information


30 25 20 15 10 5 0 very low low Average High Very high Find some information

Figure 16 Interpretation: 19 students have very high use of social networking site to find information. 25 students have high use of social networking to find information. Only 7 students have very low use of social networking site to find information.

14.2. Please rate the following, use of social networking sites? (1 very low, 5-very high) Table 17 very low Get opinions 14

Low 20

Average 20

High 28

Very high 10

Get opinions
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 very low low Average High Very high Get opinions

Figure 17

Interpretation: 10 students have very high use of social networking site to get opinions from others. 28 students have rated high use of getting opinion. Only 14 students have rated very low for getting opinions on social networking site. The average is 2.74

14.3.

Please rate the following, use of social networking sites? (1 very low, 5-very high) Table 18 very low low Average High Very high share your experience 10 13 21 30 18

share your experience


35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 very low low Average High Very high share your experience

Figure 18

Interpretation: 30 students out of 92 students, who use social networking site, found that they rate high use of social networking site for sharing their experience with others and 18 students have rated very high use of social networking site for sharing their experience. 10 students have rated very low and 13 students for low use of social networking site to share experience. The average is 3.09

14.4. Please rate the following, use of social networking sites? (1 very low, 5-very high) Table 19 very low low Average High Very high Entertain yourself 4 11 24 24 29

Entertain yourself
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 very low low Average High Very high Entertain yourself

Figure 19

Interpretation: 29 students rate very high use of social networking site for entertainment purpose. The entertainment such as playing games, watching videos etc. 24 student rate high and 24 students rate average use of social networking site for entertainment. The average is 3.39

14.5. Please rate the following, use of social networking sites? (1 very low, 5-very high) Table 20 low 4

very low stay connected to friends 0

Average 11

High 23

Very high 54

stay connected to friends


60 50 40 30 20 10 0 very low low Average High Very high stay connected to friends

Figure 20

Interpretation: The above graph shows that students use social networking site to stay connected with friends. 54 students use social networking site very high to stay connected to friends and 23 students use high to stay connected with friends. The average is 4.07

15. Do you shop on internet? Yes No Table 21 Yes No 65 35

Total

Total
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No Total

Figure 21

Interpretation: Out of 100 students who use internet 65 students do online shopping and 35 students dont do shopping online but might use internet for other purpose.

16. Which was the last product/ service you purchased and from which site? Table 22 product 42

Type

service 23

Type
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 product service Type

Figure 22

Interpretation: Students who do shop online most of the time shop for product. 42 students have purchased products online. 23 students have purchase only services just as movie tickets, train tickets, recharge etc.

17. Which type of payment mode do you prefer the most? Cash on delivery Debit or credit card Internet banking Pay-pal Table 23 Cash on delivery 30

Payment type

Debit and credit card 28

Internet banking 7

Paypal 0

Payment type
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Cash on delivery Debit and credit card internet banking Paypal Payment type

Figure 23

Interpretation: 65 students who do online shopping out of which 30 student prefer cash on delivery type of payment and 28 students use debit and credit card, 7 students for internet banking. Zero for pay-pal.

18. What if the product/ service you purchased on internet were faulty? Complaint to company Update your status on social networking site Never purchase from that site again You tell your friends not to purchase from site Table 24 update your status on complain social to networking never purchase from company site that site again Total 45 3 10

you will tell your friends not to purchase from that site 7

Total
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 complain to company update your never purchase you will tell your status on social from that site friends not to networking site again purchase from that site

Total

Figure 24

Interpretation: The above graph shows that maximum students will complain to company that is 45 students out of 65 students who do online shopping.

HYPOTHESIS AND TESTING

HYPOTHESIS TESTING USING THE CHI SQUARE (2) DISTRIBUTION A chi-squared test, also referred to as chi-square test or test, is

any statistical hypothesis test in which the sampling distribution of the test statistic is a chi-squared distribution when the null hypothesis is true, or any in which this is asymptotically true, meaning that the sampling distribution (if the null hypothesis is true) can be made to approximate a chi-squared distribution as closely as desired by making the sample size large enough. Chi Square is a test of significance based on bivariate tables. We are looking for significant differences between the actual cell frequencies in a table (fo) and those that would be expected by random chance (fe).The data are often presented in a table format. If starting with raw data on two variables, a bivariate table must be created first. Calculating the test-statistic The value of the test-statistic is

Where = Pearson's cumulative test statistic, which asymptotically approaches a distribution. = an observed frequency; = an expected (theoretical) frequency, asserted by the null hypothesis; n = the number of cells in the table.

Chi-squared distribution, showing X2 on the x-axis and P-value on the y-axis. The chisquared statistic can then be used to calculate a p-value by comparing the value of the statistic to a chi-squared distribution. The number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of cells , minus the reduction in degrees of freedom, The result about the

number of degrees of freedom is valid when the original data was multinomial and hence the estimated parameters are efficient for minimizing the chi-squared statistic. More generally however, when maximum likelihood estimation does not coincide with minimum chi-squared estimation, the distribution will lie somewhere between a chisquared distribution with edition 1985) We have tested the hypothesis in the research using Chi square test. and degrees of freedom. (C. R. Kothari, 2nd

Question 6: On a scale of 1 to 5, how much you believe on the information available on internet? (1-being very low believe and 5 being very high believe) Null hypothesis H0:The average belief on information is 3.59 among the students Alternate hypothesis H1: The average belief on information is not 3.59 among the students X 1 2 3 4 5 F 3 8 30 43 16 N=100 X*F 3 16 90 172 80 361 mean=3.61 Var=0.9004 SD=0.948894 Population mean =3.59 Confidence level 95% Level of significance 5% Sample mean=3.61 Sample standard deviation=0.94 N=100 Population standard deviation = 0.09 X-M -2.66 -1.66 -0.66 0.34 1.34 X-M^2 7.0756 2.7556 0.4356 0.1156 1.7956 X-M^2*F 21.2268 22.0448 13.068 4.9708 28.7296 90.04

Population mean= sample mean Z* population S.D =3.61 1.96*0.09=3.43 and 3.78 Since 3.59 lies between the range 3.43 and 3.78 the Null hypothesis is accepted. Null hypothesis H0:The average belief on information is 3.59 among the students

Question 7: Do you use social networking sites? Yes No Null hypothesis: There is no significant difference in male and female use of social networking site. Alternate hypothesis: There is a significant difference in male and female use of social networking site. Observed value male Female total 57 35 92 5 3 8 62 38 100

Yes No Total

Expected value Male female Total Yes 57.04 34.96 92 No 4.96 3.04 8 Total 62 38 100 Chi square test observed Expectation 57 57.04 35 34.96 5 4.96 3 3.04 O-E -0.04 0.04 0.04 -0.04 O-E^2 0.0016 0.0016 0.0016 0.0016 cal value of chi square= O-E^2/E 0 0 0.00032 0.00052

0.00084

DOF=1 Level of significance=5% Table value of chi-square=3.814 Since the calculated value of chi-square, 0.00084 is less than the table value, 3.814. we accept the Null hypothesis. Null hypothesis: There is no significant difference in male and female use of social networking site.

Question 14.1.Please rate the following, use of social networking sites? (1 very low, 5-very high) very low Find some information 7 Very high 25 19

low 17

Average High 24

Null hypothesis:H0: Students use social networking site to find information is 3.08 among students. Average =3.08 Alternate hypothesis:H1: Students use social networking site to find information is not 3.08 among students. Average 3.08 X 1 2 3 4 5 F 7 17 24 25 19 N=92 X*F 7 34 72 100 95 308 mean=3.347826 Population mean =3.08 Confidence level 95% Level of significance 5% Sample mean=3.34 Sample standard deviation=1.21 N=92 Population standard deviation = 0.12 X-M -2.34 -1.34 -0.34 0.66 1.66 X-M^2 5.4756 1.7956 0.1156 0.4356 2.7556 X-M^2*f 38.3292 30.5252 2.7744 10.89 52.3564 134.8752 Var=1.466035 SD=1.210799

Population mean= sample mean Z* population S.D =3.34 1.96*0.12=2.0 and 3.09 Since 3.08 lies between the range 2 and 3.09 the Null hypothesis is accepted. Null hypothesis:H0: Students use social networking site to find information is 3.08 among students. Average =3.08

14.2. Please rate the following, use of social networking sites? (1 very low, 5-very high) very low Get opinions 14

Low 20

Average 20

High 28

Very high 10

Null hypothesis:H0: Students use social networking sites to get opinion is2.74 among the students. Average =2.74 Alternate hypothesis:H1: Students use social networking sites to get opinion is not 2.74 among the students. Average 2.74 X 1 2 3 4 5 F 14 20 20 28 10 N=92 X*F 14 40 60 112 50 276 mean=3 Population mean =2.74 X-M -2.34 -1.34 -0.34 0.66 1.66 X-M^2 5.4756 1.7956 0.1156 0.4356 2.7556 X-M^2*F 76.6584 35.912 2.312 12.1968 27.556 154.6352 Var=1.680817 SD=1.296463

Confidence level 95% Level of significance 5% Sample mean=3 Sample standard deviation=1.29 N=92 Population standard deviation = 0..13

Population mean= sample mean Z* population S.D =3.34 1.96*0.12=2.74 and 3.25 Since 2.74 lies between the range 2.74 and 3.25 the Null hypothesis is accepted. Null hypothesis:H0: Students use social networking sites to get opinion is2.74 among the students. Average =2.74

14.3. Please rate the following, use of social networking sites? (1 very low, 5-very high)
very low share your experience 10

low 13

Average 21

High 30

Very high 18

Null hypothesis:H0: Students use of social networking sites for sharing experience is 3.09 among students. Average =3.09 Alternate hypothesis:H1: Students use of social networking sites for sharing experience is not 3.09 among students. Average 3.09
X 1 2 3 4 5 F 10 13 21 30 18 N=92 X*F 10 26 63 120 90 309 Mean=3.358696 X-M -2.34 -1.34 -0.34 0.66 1.66 X-M^2 5.4756 1.7956 0.1156 0.4356 2.7556 X-M^2*F 54.756 23.3428 2.4276 13.068 49.6008 143.1952 Var=1.55647 SD=1.247585

Population mean =3.09

Confidence level 95% Level of significance 5% Sample mean=3.35 Sample standard deviation=1.24 N=92 Population standard deviation = 0..13

Population mean= sample mean Z* population S.D =3.35 1.96*0.13=3.09 and 3.60 Since 3.09 lies between the range 3.09 and 3.60 the Null hypothesis is accepted Null hypothesis:H0: Students use of social networking sites for sharing experience is 3.09 among students. Average =3.09

14.4. Please rate the following, use of social networking sites? (1 very low, 5-very high) very low Entertain yourself 4

low 11

Average 24

High 24

Very high 29

Null hypothesis:H0: Students use of social networking sites for sharing experience is 3.39 among students. Average =3.39 Alternate hypothesis:H1: Students use of social networking sites for sharing experience is 3.39 among students. Average 3..39 X 1 2 3 4 5 F 4 11 24 24 29 N=92 X*F 4 22 72 96 145 339 Mean=3.684783 Population mean =3.39 Confidence level 95% Level of significance 5% Sample mean=3.68 Sample standard deviation=1.21 N=92 Population standard deviation = 0..12 X-M -2.34 -1.34 -0.34 0.66 1.66 X-M^2 5.4756 1.7956 0.1156 0.4356 2.7556 X-M^2*F 21.9024 19.7516 2.7744 10.4544 79.9124 134.7952 Var=1.465165 SD=1.21044

Population mean= sample mean Z* population S.D =3.39 1.96*0.12=3.15 and 3.62 Since 3.39 lies between the range 3.15 and 3.62 the Null hypothesis is accepted. Null hypothesis:H0: Students use of social networking sites for sharing experience is 3.39 among students. Average =3.39

14.5. Please rate the following, use of social networking sites? (1 very low, 5-very high)

very low stay connected to friends 0

low 4

Average 11

High 23

Very high 54

Null hypothesis:H0: Students use of social networking sites for sharing experience is 4.07 among students. Average =4.07 Alternate hypothesis:H1: Students use of social networking sites for sharing experience is not 4.07 among students. Average 4.07 X 1 2 3 4 5 F 0 4 11 23 54 92 X*F 0 8 33 92 270 403 Mean=4.380435 Population mean =4.07 X-M -2.34 -1.34 -0.34 0.66 1.66 X-M^2 5.4756 1.7956 0.1156 0.4356 2.7556 X-M^2*F 0 7.1824 1.2716 10.0188 148.8024 167.2752 Var=1.818209 SD=1.34841

Confidence level 95% Level of significance 5% Sample mean=4.38 Sample standard deviation=1.34 N=92 Population standard deviation = 0..13

Population mean= sample mean Z* population S.D =4.38 1.96*0.13=4.12 and 4.63 Since 4.07 does not lies between the range 4.12 and 4.63 the Alternate hypothesis is accepted. Null hypothesis:H0: Students use of social networking sites for sharing experience is 4.07 among students. Average =4.07

Question 15: Do you shop on internet? Yes No Null hypothesis: There is no significant difference in male and female towards online shopping. Alternate hypothesis: There is a significant difference in male and female towards online shopping. Observed value Male Female Total shopping 41 24 65 Non Shopping 21 14 35
62 38 100

Expected value Male Female Shopping 40.3 24.7 NonShopping 21.7 13.3 Total 62 38 Observed Expected 41 40.3 24 24.7 21 21.7 14 13.3 O-E 0.7 -0.7 -0.7 0.7

Total 65 35 100 O-E^2 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 Calculate value of chisquare= O-E^2/E 0.012159 0.019838 0.022581 0.036842

0.09142

DOF=1 Level of significance=5% Table value of chi-square=3.841 Since the calculated value of chi-square, 0.091 is less than the table value, 3.814. We accept the Null hypothesis. Null hypothesis: There is no significant difference in male and female towards online shopping.

Chapter 5: Summary, Finding and Suggestions

5.1. Major findings


On average each student spends 3 hrs on internet daily. This shows that companies to communicate with students internet is the best media Movies remain the major interest among the students next to it, technology which is very interest among the students. Politics remains the least importance among the students. Indicating advertising regarding movies and technology will be very effective. Majority of the students use computer or laptop to access the internet. Since computer and laptop has wide screen. Students purpose of using internet is for social networking which is highest and then email remains the next best purpose of using the internet. So social networking and email are the best effective tools for advertising. Students get information around the world through social networking sites and news websites so this shows that social networking is an effective tool for word of mouth advertising. Students perception of students belief on the information available of internet is high on an average of 3.59 92% of students use social networking sites. Only 8 students out of 100 students dont use social networking sites as they not interested in using the social networking site. Majority of students do login to their social networking sites, several times in a day. Students when login spend between 1 to 3hrs daily on social networking sites. Major problem faced by the students when using social networking sites is the time the website takes to load.

Students do have multiple accounts to different social networking sites. Among the students facebook is the most common social networking site.

Students have more then 200+ contacts in their social networking sites.55 students out of 100 students have 200+ friends in their social networking account.

Students are having an average of 3.08 to use social networking sites to find some information. 19 students have a scale of very high use of social networking site for finding information on social networking site.

To get opinions from others 10 students have very high scale and 28 students have high scale to use social networking sites to get opinions from others. The average of students is 2.74

Students use social networking sites to share experience was very high among 18 students and high among 30 students.

Most of the students use social networking sites for entertainment among which 29 students use very high and 24 students are for just high.

A very high use of social networking is to stay connected to friends. 59 students use social networking sites to stay connected with friends.

Students do online shopping, out of 100 students 65 students do online shopping. Students use online shopping to buy products like pendrive, cellphone, harddrive etc from various shopping sites and buy service such as movie tickets, cellphone recharge, bus booking, flight booking etc.

Students prefer cash on delivery as the best mode of paying on internet online shopping. Students are going to back fire to the company if the product they purchase online is faulty. 45 students respondent that they are going to complain to the company.

5.2. Inference of hypothesis testing:


As question 6 shows about the belief of information available on internet by students. The average belief is 3.59 which lies between the range of 3.43 and 3.78 hence considered is correct Question 7 about use of social networking site, the null hypothesis is accepted as there no significant difference between male and female use of social networking site. For question 14.1 about the purpose of use of social networking site for finding some information, the population means is 3.08 which lies between the range of 2 and 3.09 so the null hypothesis i.e =3.08 was accepted. For question 14.2 about the purpose of use of social networking site for getting opinion, the population mean is 2.47 which lies between the range of 2.47 and 3.25 hence we accepted the null hypothesis i.e =2.47. For question 14.2 about the purpose of use of social networking site for sharing experience, the population mean is 3.09 which lies between the range of 3.09 and 3.60 hence we accepted the null hypothesis i.e =3.09 For question 14.2 about the purpose of use of social networking site for entertainment with the population mean of 3.39 which lies between the range of 3.15 and 3.62 hence we accepted the null hypothesis i.e =3.39 For question 14.2 about the purpose of use of social networking site for staying in connection with friends the population mean is 4.07 which does not lies between the range 4.12 and 4.63 hence we rejected the null hypothesis i.e 4.07

For question 15 about shopping online the null hypothesis is accepted that there is no significant difference between the male and female towards online shopping.

5.3. Conclusion: It was clearly observed from the analysis that the college students are well aware about different social networking site. Further, their use and popularity is increasing. Social networking sites are serving as a very good medium to connect students. Students view advertisements online. Therefore marketing will the help of these sites can play an important role for online marketing. However user groups are educated and their size and mutual participation is increasing day by day, it is necessary to ensure product quality.

5.4. Suggestions and recommendation: Marketers need to concentrate more on the online social networking sites rather than traditional media like television, radio, magazines and newspapers. Marketers should ensure that the product quality is good before placing online advertisements otherwise, it may backfire. Since, loading of website was a major problem faced by the students, the advertisers should upload content that can be viewed easily. Since facebook is mostly used by the students, marketers can concentrate more on facebook whenever college students become the target customer. Also students do online shopping it is better if the company attaches the link for buying, with the payment as cash on delivery which the students prefer most.

Bibliography: Books:
C.M.Maran(2009) Parallel life on social networking. Dave Evan and Susan Bratton (2009) Social media marketing. Jeanniey Mullen and David Daniels Email marketing, An hour a day.

Journals:
Mckinsey Global Survey(2010):How companies are marketing online: A Mckinsey global survey. Indian journal of marketing oct 2011 by Ajit Kumar Dash

Websites:
https://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/How_companies_are_marketing_online_A_McKinsey_Global_Sur vey_2048. http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats3.htm#asia http://www.internetworldstats.com/top20.htm http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/research/media-literacy/report1.pdf

Apendix-1
Name:_______________________ Age:_________________________ Gender:______________________ Education:____________________ Thank you for taking the time to participate in my research program. I am student of Ramaiah Institute of Management Studies, Bangalore. I am conducting a research on Implication of marketing of social networking sites. My research will help companies to know the relevant factors applicable for online marketing on social networking sites. Please note that this is an academic research study and none of your responses will be displayed. Questions Response 1. On an average how much time do you spend on the following media per day? (please enter number only) Television (T.V) Hrs/day Radio Hrs/day Newspaper Hrs/day Magazine Hrs/day Internet Hrs/day 2. What among the following interest you a lot? (Check all that applies) Politics Fashion Education Technology Movies Books Sports Travel

3. Which all the following device you use the most to access internet?(check all that applies) Personal computer/laptops Mobile phone Tablet pc

4. For what purpose among the following do you use internet? (check all that applies) E-Mail Blog writing Instant messaging Study/research Playing games Entertainment Social networking 5. How do you come to know, whats happening around the world on internet? (check all that applies) Through social networking sites Through companies official websites Through news web sites Through Emails 6. On a scale of 1 to 5, how much you believe on the information available on internet? 1-2-3-4-5 (1- being very low believe and 5 being very high believe) Yes/No 7. Do you use social networking sites? 8. If no, what is the reason for not using for social networking site? I dont have time I dont know how to use it I dont want publicity I am not interested 9. On average, how much time do you spend on social networking when you login? (Please enter only number) 10. How often do you login to your favourite social networking sites? I am constantly logged in Several times a day Once in a few day Once a week Occasionally 11. What problem do you face most when using social networking sites?(check all that applies) Site takes too much time to load. Site shows errors. Ad suddenly pops in Threat of virus attack

_______Hrs/day

12. Which among the following social networking sites do you have a profile? (check all that applies) Facebook Linkedin Google+ Orkut Twitter others, specify ____________

13. How many connections (Friends) do you have on social networking sites? Less than 10 10-49 50-99 100-199 200+ 14. Please rate the following, use of social networking sites? (1 very low, 5-very high) 1 Find some information Get opinions 2 3 4 5

Share your experience Entertain yourself Stay connect with friends 15. Do you shop on internet? Yes No 16. Which was the last product/ service you purchased and from which site? Product:_________________________ Site:____________________________ 17. Which type of payment mode do you prefer the most? Cash on delivery Debit or credit card Internet banking Pay-pal

18. What if the product/ service you purchased on internet were faulty? Complaint to company Update your status on social networking site Never purchase from that site again You tell your friends not to purchase from site 19. What suggestion you want to give to social networking sites and shopping sites? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ______