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16PAGES OFLANGUAGEPRACTICE Professional English A SERIES OF PODCASTS TO IMPROVE YOUR ENGLISH FOR YOUR CAREER IN THE WORKPLACE!

Exercises by Pamela Linwood 16PAGES OFLANGUAGEPRACTICE Professional English A SERIES OF PODCASTS TO IMPROVE YOUR ENGLISH FOR YOUR CAREER IN THE WORKPLACE! Exercises by Pamela Linwood

PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 1. Listen and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F). 1. Mike asks Gavin for his version of how the dispute started. 2. Gavin has been working on a special project for the past six months. 3. Gavin and Craig accuse each other of being unfriendly. 4. Gavin doesn t think his colleagues are dynamic enough. 5. Mike wants to hear Gavin s and Craig s opinions of each other. 6. Craig wanted to make some changes, but Gavin was opposed to them. 7. Mike says it s more a problem of job descriptions than of personalities. 8. He says they need to review everyone s roles and responsibilities. 2. Complete the second sentence with 2 to 4 words so that it means the same as t he first sentence. Example: I realise that you have had some problems recently. I realise that there have been some problems between you recently. 1. I d like to try and solve them right now. I d like to try and sort ____________________ right now. 2. Why has this problem arisen now? Can you tell me why ________________________________________ now? 3. I always feel as if I m unwelcome here. I ve ________________________________ as if I m welcome here. 4. All the other people here seem half asleep. ________________ ________________ seems half asleep. 5. I could see that we needed to make some changes here. I could see that ________________________________________________ making here. 6. Can we just avoid personal comments? Can we just keep ________________________________ personal comments? 3. Complete this summary of the conversation using the correct form of the follo wing reporting verbs. (Sometimes there is more than one answer.) accuse agree ask claim complain deny explain suggest Mike wanted to try and sort out the problems between Gavin and Craig. He started by 1__________________ how the dispute had arisen. Gavin 2__________________ that C raig had tried to block his progress on the special project but Craig strongly 3_________ _________ it. Gavin went on to 4__________________ Craig and the others of being unfriendly and not wanting to make any changes. Craig, in turn, 5__________________ that Gavin didn t respect the limits of his jo b description and that he had tried to change the way everyone else worked. Gavin tried to 6______ ____________ that this was unavoidable as his project involved everyone else and the way they work ed. At this point, Gavin and Craig both 7___________________________ with Mark that personality issues were crucial to the problem, so Mark 8___________________________ reviewi ng everyone s roles and responsibilities and trying to come to some agreement. TRACK 9 THE SPEAKERS B1/B2 INTERMEDIATE MANAGING CONFLICT Listen to some people trying to resolve a dispute at work with the help of Mike, a mediator.

ANSWERS 1. T 2. F H e has b e en wo rking o n it fo r a ye ar. 3. T 4. T 5. F H e wan t s them to s tick to fac t s rath er than opinio ns. 6. F Gavin wan te d to make som e change s. 7. F H e s a ys p e rso nalit y is sue s are mo re imp or tant . 8. T 2. 1. them ou t 2. this p roblem has aris en 3. n ever felt 4. Ever yone / Eve r y b ody else h ere 5. some c han ge s needed 6. aw ay f ro m 3. 1. asking 2. claim e d /c o m p lain e d /ex p lain e d 3. denie d 4. accuse 5. c o m p lain e d /claim e d 6. explain 7. a gre e d 8. sug ge s ted He came in here for a one-year project, but has then tried to change the way everyone else works as well Mike: Gavin? Can you respond to that? Gavin: Well, my project involved everyone else! It was impossible to do what I had to do without getting other people to rethink the way they work. Mike: OK, I think that personality issues are crucial here. Gavin/Craig: Right! Absolutely! Mike: Personality issues are the most difficult things to change. Perhaps we ll never be able resolve them. You are different people with different personalities and different ways of working. Gavin: And so? Mike: Well, that doesn t mean the problem can t be solved. We have to be flexible, accept change and be tolerant of difference. Craig: Easy to say!! Mike: Well, yes, it is easy to say but difficult to do! I don t deny that. However, what we need to do is review your project, and look at everyone s roles and responsibilities in the project and in this organisation as a whole. If everyone sticks to and respects other people s roles and responsibilities, then we can at least settle on a good, constructive working atmosphere. AUDIOSCRIPT Mike (Mild Northern English accent): OK, Craig and Gavin, I realise that there have been some problems between you recently, and I d like to try and sort them out right now. Gavin, can you tell me why you think this problem has arisen now? Gavin: You re asking me!? I really have no idea. I mean I came into this job a year ago with a special project to do I had a very positive attitude, I was excited about it, and Craig s just blocked me all along Craig (Welsh accent): Well, that s not fair at all, that s just not true! Mike: OK, OK, one second. Can everyone speak one at a time, please! Gavin, go on Gavin: Well, that s about it, really. I ve never felt as if I ve been welcomed here. I mean, when I walk in to the offi ce, the others don t even say hello to me Craig: That s just not true!!! It s you who doesn t say hello!! Mike: Craig, please! Gavin, can you tell me why you think this situation may have arisen? Gavin: Well, as I said, I ve really no idea. Perhaps it s just my style I m very positive, energetic and outgoing,

while everyone else here seems to be half-asleep Mike: Erm, listen, I don t think that personal, judgmental comments like that help. Can we just stick to facts, rather than opinions? Gavin: Ok, well, I could see right away that some changes needed making here, so I set about making those changes Mike: And was that part of your job description? Gavin: Job description! Job description! That s all I ever hear round here, that s the problem with this place, there s no initiative, no energy Mike: Hmm, OK, Craig, would you like to tell us what you feel the problem is? Craig: Well, I think it s quite clear, isn t it? Him! That s it! Mike: OK, as I said, can we keep away from personal comments here, and stick to talking about the workplace ? Craig: Well, I am talking about the workplace! He doesn t respect the limits of what he s supposed to do. FOR MORE EXERCISES ON THIS PODCAST, PLEASE VISIT http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts ANSWERS 1. T 2. F H e has b e en wo rking o n it fo r a ye ar. 3. T 4. T 5. F H e wan t s them to s tick to fac t s rath er than opinio ns. 6. F Gavin wan te d to make som e change s. 7. F H e s a ys p e rso nalit y is sue s are mo re imp or tant . 8. T 2. 1. them ou t 2. this p roblem has aris en 3. n ever felt 4. Ever yone / Eve r y b ody else h ere 5. some c han ge s needed 6. aw ay f ro m 3. 1. asking 2. claim e d /c o m p lain e d /ex p lain e d 3. denie d 4. accuse 5. c o m p lain e d /claim e d 6. explain 7. a gre e d 8. sug ge s ted He came in here for a one-year project, but has then tried to change the way everyone else works as well Mike: Gavin? Can you respond to that? Gavin: Well, my project involved everyone else! It was impossible to do what I had to do without getting other people to rethink the way they work. Mike: OK, I think that personality issues are crucial here. Gavin/Craig: Right! Absolutely! Mike: Personality issues are the most difficult things to change. Perhaps we ll never be able resolve them. You are different people with different personalities and different ways of working. Gavin: And so? Mike: Well, that doesn t mean the problem can t be solved. We have to be flexible, accept change and be tolerant of difference. Craig: Easy to say!! Mike: Well, yes, it is easy to say but difficult to do! I don t deny that. However, what we need to do is review your project, and look at everyone s roles and responsibilities in the project and in this organisation as a whole. If everyone sticks to and respects other people s roles and responsibilities, then we can at least settle on a good, constructive working atmosphere. AUDIOSCRIPT Mike (Mild Northern English accent): OK, Craig and Gavin, I realise that there have been some problems

between you recently, and I d like to try and sort them out right now. Gavin, can you tell me why you think this problem has arisen now? Gavin: You re asking me!? I really have no idea. I mean I came into this job a year ago with a special project to do I had a very positive attitude, I was excited about it, and Craig s just blocked me all along Craig (Welsh accent): Well, that s not fair at all, that s just not true! Mike: OK, OK, one second. Can everyone speak one at a time, please! Gavin, go on Gavin: Well, that s about it, really. I ve never felt as if I ve been welcomed here. I mean, when I walk in to the offi ce, the others don t even say hello to me Craig: That s just not true!!! It s you who doesn t say hello!! Mike: Craig, please! Gavin, can you tell me why you think this situation may have arisen? Gavin: Well, as I said, I ve really no idea. Perhaps it s just my style I m very positive, energetic and outgoing, while everyone else here seems to be half-asleep Mike: Erm, listen, I don t think that personal, judgmental comments like that help. Can we just stick to facts, rather than opinions? Gavin: Ok, well, I could see right away that some changes needed making here, so I set about making those changes Mike: And was that part of your job description? Gavin: Job description! Job description! That s all I ever hear round here, that s the problem with this place, there s no initiative, no energy Mike: Hmm, OK, Craig, would you like to tell us what you feel the problem is? Craig: Well, I think it s quite clear, isn t it? Him! That s it! Mike: OK, as I said, can we keep away from personal comments here, and stick to talking about the workplace ? Craig: Well, I am talking about the workplace! He doesn t respect the limits of what he s supposed to do. FOR MORE EXERCISES ON THIS PODCAST, PLEASE VISIT http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts

PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 1. As you listen, number the topics in the order in which you hear them. a. The importance of the support of family and friends. b. Steve s attitude to medication. c. How Steve realised his problem was serious. d. The benefits of meditation. e. Pam s new book. f. The difference between stress and burnout. 2. Listen again and choose the correct answer: A, B or C. 1. Pam s book is about A. stress. B. burnout. C. these and other work-related health problems. 2. Steve got better by A. going to Pam s clinic. B. reading Pam s book. C. attending lessons. 3. Pam says that A. burnout and stress are a bit different. B. stress can lead to burnout. C. bur nout is like drowning. 4. Steve describes his usual character as A. optimistic. B. a bit cynical. C. subject to depression. 5. Pam says anti-depressants A. aren t effective. B. aren t as good as they used to be C. weren t necessary in Stev e s case. 6. Meditation can help patients to recover because A. it has a calming effect. B. it takes you away from the outside world. C. it d oes both of these things. 3. Complete the second sentence with 2 to 4 words so that it means the same as t he first sentence. Example: I was a case study for Pam. Pam used me as a case study. 1. Steve was suffering from burnout in a serious way. Steve had a ________________________________ of burnout. 2. Could you define burnout for us? Could you tell us what ________________________________ ? 3. Anti-depressants used to be different. Anti-depressants aren t the same ________________________________ be. 4. Steve felt quite strongly about it. It was something Steve ________________________________ . 5. I don t even take aspirin if I don t have to. I don t even take aspirin unless ________________________________ . 6. It s years since I felt so good. I ________________________________ so good for years. TRACK 10 THE SPEAKERS B1/B2 INTERMEDIATE WORK BURNOUT Listen to the guests on a radio chat show talking about work-related stress and burnout.

ANSWERS 1. 1. e 2. f 3. c 4. a 5. b 6. d 2. 1. C 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. C 6. C 3. 1. serious c ase 2. burn ou t (a c tually) is 3. as they used to 4. felt quit e s tro ngly ab ou t 5. I have to 6. I haven t felt with the doctor. He was helpful and referred me to Pam. Pam: But Steve was lucky to have the support of his family and friends. It s difficult to get better on your own. It s important to do normal things, exercise, socialise, go for a walk, meet a friend for a coffee Host: And did Steve need medication? Steve: No. Pam: We decided to try with everything else fi rst medication can be effective, anti-depressants aren t the same these days as they used to be, but Steve got better without any. In fact it was something he felt quite strongly about. Steve: I don t even like taking an aspirin, unless I really have to so I think I made a real effort to listen to Pam and do the things she suggested. I even started meditating! Host: Meditating? Pam: Yes, it can really help. It calms the mind and helps to shut out the world s distractions. Host: And how are you now, Steve? Steve: I feel great. Better than I have for years! Host: Well, I m glad to hear it .. now let s talk a bit about the more general picture (fade out) AUDOSCRIPT Host: I d like to thank you both for coming along today. Pam, this is your new book, Taking the Blues out of Work - How to Deal with Work-related Health Problems. Pam: Yes. Host: And Steve, you ve just recovered from work burnout one of the most serious and common work related problems yes? Steve: Yes, that s right. I m in the book! Pam used me as a case study. Pam: Yes, Steve came along to my clinic for help. He had a serious case of burnout. He followed a course of therapy and Steve: and she helped me to get my health back again. Host: Well, that s great. It s good to hear there s a happy ending. Pam, could you tell us what work burnout actually is? Aren t we just talking about stress here? Is there a difference? Pam: Yes! There is a difference. A very big difference. But that s a good question because most people make the mistake of thinking that burnout is just another word for stress so I ll start with that. Everyone understands stress. We live in a world where stress is part of our everyday lives. Burnout can be the result of too much stress, but it isn t the same thing. I once heard somebody say that if stress is like drowning in an overload of work, burnout is more like being all dried up. With stress we lose our energy, with burnout we lose much more our motivation,

our hope and one very important difference between stress and burnout is that we know when we are stressed, but we don t usually realise we are suffering from burnout Host until it s too late. Pam: Exactly. Host: Steve, how did you know that your problem was more serious than just being stressed? Steve: Well, I didn t realise myself. Other people realised first. I changed my behaviour and started feeling really negative and cynical about everything. That wasn t me at all. I ve always been a happy-go-lucky sort of bloke. It got to the point where I felt so hopeless and depressed that I couldn t even face getting up in the morning. My wife made me an appointment FOR MORE EXERCISES ON THIS PODCAST, PLEASE VISIT http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts ANSWERS 1. 1. e 2. f 3. c 4. a 5. b 6. d 2. 1. C 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. C 6. C 3. 1. serious c ase 2. burn ou t (a c tually) is 3. as they used to 4. felt quit e s tro ngly ab ou t 5. I have to 6. I haven t felt with the doctor. He was helpful and referred me to Pam. Pam: But Steve was lucky to have the support of his family and friends. It s difficult to get better on your own. It s important to do normal things, exercise, socialise, go for a walk, meet a friend for a coffee Host: And did Steve need medication? Steve: No. Pam: We decided to try with everything else fi rst medication can be effective, anti-depressants aren t the same these days as they used to be, but Steve got better without any. In fact it was something he felt quite strongly about. Steve: I don t even like taking an aspirin, unless I really have to so I think I made a real effort to listen to Pam and do the things she suggested. I even started meditating! Host: Meditating? Pam: Yes, it can really help. It calms the mind and helps to shut out the world s distractions. Host: And how are you now, Steve? Steve: I feel great. Better than I have for years! Host: Well, I m glad to hear it .. now let s talk a bit about the more general picture (fade out) AUDOSCRIPT Host: I d like to thank you both for coming along today. Pam, this is your new book, Taking the Blues out of Work - How to Deal with Work-related Health Problems. Pam: Yes. Host: And Steve, you ve just recovered from work burnout one of the most serious and common work related problems yes? Steve: Yes, that s right. I m in the book! Pam used me as a case study. Pam: Yes, Steve came along to my clinic for help. He had a serious case of burnout. He followed a course of therapy and Steve: and she helped me to get my health back

again. Host: Well, that s great. It s good to hear there s a happy ending. Pam, could you tell us what work burnout actually is? Aren t we just talking about stress here? Is there a difference? Pam: Yes! There is a difference. A very big difference. But that s a good question because most people make the mistake of thinking that burnout is just another word for stress so I ll start with that. Everyone understands stress. We live in a world where stress is part of our everyday lives. Burnout can be the result of too much stress, but it isn t the same thing. I once heard somebody say that if stress is like drowning in an overload of work, burnout is more like being all dried up. With stress we lose our energy, with burnout we lose much more our motivation, our hope and one very important difference between stress and burnout is that we know when we are stressed, but we don t usually realise we are suffering from burnout Host until it s too late. Pam: Exactly. Host: Steve, how did you know that your problem was more serious than just being stressed? Steve: Well, I didn t realise myself. Other people realised first. I changed my behaviour and started feeling really negative and cynical about everything. That wasn t me at all. I ve always been a happy-go-lucky sort of bloke. It got to the point where I felt so hopeless and depressed that I couldn t even face getting up in the morning. My wife made me an appointment FOR MORE EXERCISES ON THIS PODCAST, PLEASE VISIT http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts

PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 1. As you listen, number the parts of the conversation in the correct order. a. Jenny describes some of the negative aspects of line management. b. The presenter asks Jenny how she gets on with her staff. c. Jenny describes what she likes about her job. d. The presenter introduces the second part of the programme. e. The presenter asks Jenny how she came to be in her present position. 2. Listen again and choose the correct answer: A, B or C. 1. How many people does Jenny have working under her? A. 5 B. 15 C. 50 2. How long has Jenny worked for the firm? A. Since she left university. B. for a year or so. C. She doesn t say. 3. What does Jenny say you have to do when managing people? A. Make people respect you. B. Be prepared to be unpopular at times. C. Avoid be ing the one to bring bad news. 4. What, according to Jenny, is the hardest aspect of the job? A. Making sure people understand their responsibilities. B. Getting people to ag ree to the rules. C. Dealing with matters of discipline. 5. What does Jenny like about her work? A. Encouraging people to develop new skills and further their careers. B. Involv ing staff in the development of new products. C. Helping to find alternative jobs for dissatisfie d employees. 6. What does she say about the role of planning in her job? A. She avoids making plans because every day brings a different challenge. B. Ev ery possible situation has to be foreseen and planned for. C. Plans have to be made but she has to be r eady to face different problems every day. 3. Fill the gaps in the sentences by choosing one of the words in brackets. 1. I don t like my job very much but I ve decided to stick ________________ (to/on/a t) it because the salary s very good. 2. Starting a different job usually presents you with a whole new ______________ __ (pack/set/group) of challenges. 3. Sandra prides herself ________________ (at/of/on ) her organising skills. 4. In his new management position, Richard is responsible ________________ (for/ of/with) a staff of 35 people. 5. The standard of Tom s work isn t high enough. If he doesn t shape ________________ (off/over/up), we ll have to replace him. 6. In this talk, I d like to focus ________________ (to/on/at) the positive aspect s of the present situation. 7. Before allowing us to start work in the factory, the safety officer _________ _______ (took/brought/ sent) us through all the safety procedures. 8. If we say someone has a ________________ (deep/thick/strong) skin , we mean they don t care if other people criticise them. TRACK 11 THE SPEAKERS B1/B2 INTERMEDIATE LINE MANAGEMENT Listen to part of a radio programme in which a manager, Jenny Buxton, is being interviewed about her job.

ANSWERS 1. 1. d 2. e 3. b 4. a 5. c 2. 1. B 2. C 3. B 4. C 5. A 6. C 3. 1. at 2. set 3. on 4. fo r 5. up 6. on 7. to o k 8. thick they don t like what you had to say on a particular subject, or the way you acted. Presenter: Are there other aspects of line managing that you fi nd diffi cult? JB: One of the hardest, most awkward things is the issue of disciplinary action. The company should have a system in place for dealing with this kind of area and you have to make sure the system is understood and agreed by everyone. But, ultimately, if you ve taken the employee through all the procedures and he or she still doesn t shape up, some hard decisions have got to be made. Presenter: We seem to be focusing a lot on the negative side here! What about some of the positive things? JB: Oh, the chance to help people reflect on things, how they re developing with the company. I like seeing people develop, change and perhaps go off on a completely new path, something that may never have occurred to them, if you hadn t pointed them in that direction. Presenter: I imagine it can be quite satisfying. JB: Yes, and then there s the sheer variety. You plan your work, you have to get yourself well-organised, but ultimately no two days are ever the same. There s always a new challenge, and I like that more than anything. AUDIOSCRIPT Presenter: Welcome back to the second part of our programme How Do You Manage? I have with me Jenny Buxton, who works in Ipswich. Welcome Jenny. JB: Hi. Presenter: You work for a well-known firm of retailers, but it s not the products I wanted to talk to you about today, it s the people involved. You ve been responsible for a staff of 15 for a year or so now. Tell me how you got there. JB: Well, I did the standard round of applications from university and this is my second employer. I enjoy the area of retailing, but, as far as managing staff, that s more recent and so it s quite a new area for me, with a whole new set of challenges. Presenter: You pride yourself on being good with people. You ve got quite a sociable, outgoing personality. I imagine you d be a good person to work under. JB: Well, that s what I like to think! But managing people isn t all about sitting down with a cup of tea and talking over issues. Being in a position of responsibility means you can be the bringer of bad news, as well as good. You have to develop a thick skin, to be unpopular, not to be liked for a decision you make. Presenter: And I guess that can be hard at fi rst. JB: Yes, but the thing you learn, if you stick at it long enough, is that people will still respect you, even if FOR MORE EXERCISES ON THIS PODCAST, PLEASE VISIT http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts

ANSWERS 1. 1. d 2. e 3. b 4. a 5. c 2. 1. B 2. C 3. B 4. C 5. A 6. C 3. 1. at 2. set 3. on 4. fo r 5. up 6. on 7. to o k 8. thick they don t like what you had to say on a particular subject, or the way you acted. Presenter: Are there other aspects of line managing that you fi nd diffi cult? JB: One of the hardest, most awkward things is the issue of disciplinary action. The company should have a system in place for dealing with this kind of area and you have to make sure the system is understood and agreed by everyone. But, ultimately, if you ve taken the employee through all the procedures and he or she still doesn t shape up, some hard decisions have got to be made. Presenter: We seem to be focusing a lot on the negative side here! What about some of the positive things? JB: Oh, the chance to help people reflect on things, how they re developing with the company. I like seeing people develop, change and perhaps go off on a completely new path, something that may never have occurred to them, if you hadn t pointed them in that direction. Presenter: I imagine it can be quite satisfying. JB: Yes, and then there s the sheer variety. You plan your work, you have to get yourself well-organised, but ultimately no two days are ever the same. There s always a new challenge, and I like that more than anything. AUDIOSCRIPT Presenter: Welcome back to the second part of our programme How Do You Manage? I have with me Jenny Buxton, who works in Ipswich. Welcome Jenny. JB: Hi. Presenter: You work for a well-known firm of retailers, but it s not the products I wanted to talk to you about today, it s the people involved. You ve been responsible for a staff of 15 for a year or so now. Tell me how you got there. JB: Well, I did the standard round of applications from university and this is my second employer. I enjoy the area of retailing, but, as far as managing staff, that s more recent and so it s quite a new area for me, with a whole new set of challenges. Presenter: You pride yourself on being good with people. You ve got quite a sociable, outgoing personality. I imagine you d be a good person to work under. JB: Well, that s what I like to think! But managing people isn t all about sitting down with a cup of tea and talking over issues. Being in a position of responsibility means you can be the bringer of bad news, as well as good. You have to develop a thick skin, to be unpopular, not to be liked for a decision you make. Presenter: And I guess that can be hard at fi rst. JB: Yes, but the thing you learn, if you stick at it long enough, is that people will still respect you, even if FOR MORE EXERCISES ON THIS PODCAST, PLEASE VISIT http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts

PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 1. Listen and tick the topics the journalist talks about. 1. The importance of preparing for the interview. 2. How to dress for the interview. 3. The best time of day for conducting an interview. 4. The order of the questions. 5. Where to have the interview. 6. How to start the interview. 7. The interviewer s manner. 8. How to interrupt an interviewee politely. 9. Summing up what has been said. 10. What to do after the interview. 2. Listen again and write in the missing words. 1. ______________ ______________ as much as you can about the person you re going to interview, and the ______________ ______________ of the interview. 2. Most people find questions about ______________ much easier to answer, so the y start to feel more ______________ ______________. 3. Be ______________ and courteous. Start by ______________ ______________ and s tating the reason for the interview. 4. During the interview, you should be ______________ but ______________. 5. Ask ____________ questions. Ask for evidence to _________ any claims made by the interviewee. 6. But never ask _______________ questions. _____________ the person say what th ey want to say. 7. When ending the interview, you should ______________ ______________ _________ _____ the main things that have been said. This gives you a _____________ to _____________ _ your notes. 8. You should then ask the ______________ if they want to ______________ anythin g else. And finally, ask if you can ______________ them again, should you need to. 3. Complete these definitions with words or phrases from the audioscript. 1. The ________________ rules for something are the fundamental principles on wh ich it will be based. 2. A rule of ________________ is a practical rule based on experience. 3. Another word for polite is ________________. 4. If you say something off the ____________, you don t want it to be reported or attributed to you. 5. If you are ________________, you are sure of your abilities and qualities. 6. A ______________ ________________ is a question that suggests what the answer should be. 7. If you make a ________________, you say something is true without giving any proof. 8. If you do something in ________________, you do it before a particular event or date. TRACK 12 THE SPEAKER B1/B2 INTERMEDIATE INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUES Listen to a journalist giving advice on interviewing techniques.

ANSWERS 1. T h e to pic s m entio n e d by the journalis t are: 1 , 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10. 2. 1. Fin d out subje c t mat ter 2. f a c t s at e ase 3. confi dent intro du c ing yourself 4. p olite - fi r m 5. follow-u p suppo r t 6. le ading Let 7. go back over chance review 8. inter v iewee add contact 3. 1. ground 2. thumb 3. co ur te o us 4. re co rd 5. confi dent 6. leadin g qu e s tio n 7. claim 8. advance During the interview, you should be polite but fi rm. Ask your questions in a confident manner, and listen carefully to the answers. Very often an inexperienced interviewer will simply go through their list of questions, not realising that some of them have already been answered. Use your list of questions as a base for the interview, not a rigid script. Ask follow-up questions. Ask for evidence to support any claims made by the interviewee. Don t be afraid to ask How do you know that? But never ask leading questions. Let the person say what they want to say, not what you want them to say. When ending the interview, you should go back over the main things that have been said. This gives you a chance to review your notes. You should then ask the interviewee if they want to add anything else. And finally, ask if you can contact them again, should you need to. OK, so the interview is over, but you have one last task. As soon as possible, sit down and look at your notes. Are they clear? Is there anything else you can add to them? Do this while you can still remember what was said. And write down all the colour you can remember about the person and the place. AUDIOSCRIPT I know it sounds obvious, but you really must prepare before the interview. Find out as much as you can about the person you re going to interview, and the subject matter of the interview. Prepare your questions in advance. Think about the order you will ask them. A rule of thumb is to ask questions about facts first, leaving opinion questions until later. Most people find questions about facts much easier to answer, so they start to feel more at ease. Spend a little time imagining how you hope the interview will go. Visualise yourself in the situation, introducing yourself, asking the fi rst question. Think about where the interview will take place. Try to interview the person in a place which is appropriate to the interview their place of work, for example. Interviewing a person on their territory can put them at ease, and also provide you with colour for your story. How you start the interview can influence how successful it will be. Be confident and courteous. Start by introducing yourself and stating the reason for the interview. Set your ground rules. For example, you may want to insist that the interviewee says in advance if they want what they say to be off the record. FOR MORE EXERCISES ON THIS PODCAST, PLEASE VISIT

http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts ANSWERS 1. T h e to pic s m entio n e d by the journalis t are: 1 , 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10. 2. 1. Fin d out subje c t mat ter 2. f a c t s at e ase 3. confi dent intro du c ing yourself 4. p olite - fi r m 5. follow-u p suppo r t 6. le ading Let 7. go back over chance review 8. inter v iewee add contact 3. 1. ground 2. thumb 3. co ur te o us 4. re co rd 5. confi dent 6. leadin g qu e s tio n 7. claim 8. advance During the interview, you should be polite but fi rm. Ask your questions in a confident manner, and listen carefully to the answers. Very often an inexperienced interviewer will simply go through their list of questions, not realising that some of them have already been answered. Use your list of questions as a base for the interview, not a rigid script. Ask follow-up questions. Ask for evidence to support any claims made by the interviewee. Don t be afraid to ask How do you know that? But never ask leading questions. Let the person say what they want to say, not what you want them to say. When ending the interview, you should go back over the main things that have been said. This gives you a chance to review your notes. You should then ask the interviewee if they want to add anything else. And finally, ask if you can contact them again, should you need to. OK, so the interview is over, but you have one last task. As soon as possible, sit down and look at your notes. Are they clear? Is there anything else you can add to them? Do this while you can still remember what was said. And write down all the colour you can remember about the person and the place. AUDIOSCRIPT I know it sounds obvious, but you really must prepare before the interview. Find out as much as you can about the person you re going to interview, and the subject matter of the interview. Prepare your questions in advance. Think about the order you will ask them. A rule of thumb is to ask questions about facts first, leaving opinion questions until later. Most people find questions about facts much easier to answer, so they start to feel more at ease. Spend a little time imagining how you hope the interview will go. Visualise yourself in the situation, introducing yourself, asking the fi rst question. Think about where the interview will take place. Try to interview the person in a place which is appropriate to the interview their place of work, for example. Interviewing a person on their territory can put them at ease, and also provide you with colour for your story. How you start the interview can influence how successful it will be. Be confident and courteous. Start by introducing yourself and stating the reason for the interview. Set your ground rules. For example, you may want to insist that the interviewee says in advance if they want what they say to be off the record. FOR MORE EXERCISES ON THIS PODCAST, PLEASE VISIT

http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts

PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 1. As you listen, number the topics in the order in which you hear them. a. Some less-known forms of discrimination. b. How companies can protect themselves against the risks of complaints. c. The widening concept of diversity and discrimination. d. The example of security firms. e. The cost of insurance. f. The number of complaints received by the Equal Opportunities Commission. g. The law regarding a job applicant with a criminal record. h. The increase in complaints of ageism. 2. Match a verb in column A with a word or phrase in column B to form some commo n collocations used in the recording. A B 1. to deal 2. to discriminate 3. to fi le 4. to take out 5. to turn away 6. to bear 7. to serve 8. to address 9. to build up 10. to invest a. insurance b. a direct relation to something c. a complaint d. an applicant e. with a problem f. a sentence g. a reputation h. time and effort in doing something i. an issue j. against a person 3. Complete the second sentence with 2 to 4 words so that it means the same as t he first sentence. Example: They are a matter of great importance. They are very much an issue. 1. Companies don t only have a person s skin colour or gender to consider. Companies have a lot more __________________________ a person s skin colour or gen der 2. They should think carefully about how they recruit people. They should think carefully about their ____________________________________. 3. Insurance is cheaper than you might think. Insurance isn t _______________________________ you might think. 4. The cost of insurance is lower than it was some years ago. The cost of insurance ______________________________ over the years. 5. How many people actually carry out their threats to sue a company? How many people actually ________________________ with their threats to sue a co mpany? 6. There s a much higher probability that you ll be sued by an employee. You re much more _____________________________________ by an employee. TRACK 13 THE SPEAKERS B1/B2 INTERMEDIATE MANAGING DIVERSITY Listen to part of an interview in which business management expert Alan Griffin talks about the

diversity-related risks some companies face.

ANSWERS 1. 1. c 2. h 3. b 4. e 5. a 6. d 7. g 8. f 2. 1 . e 2. j 3. c 4. a 5. d 6. b 7. f 8 . i 9. g 10. h 3. 1. to co nsider than 2. re cruitmen t p olicie s 3. as ex p e nsive as 4. has f allen 5. go through /ahe ad 6. likely to b e su e d Interviewer: And won? AG: Sometimes, yes. Then there are people with a criminal background. Employers used to feel justifi ed in turning away job applicants just because they d been in trouble with the law. Interviewer: Isn t that still the case? AG: No, not exactly. The law states that employers can only reject a job applicant with a criminal record if the crime bears a direct relation to the job in question. So somebody who has served a sentence for let s say stealing cars, would be all right in a job as a kitchen porter. Interviewer: And Mr. Griffin, tell me, how many people actually go through with their threats to sue a company for discrimination? AG: Well, I... haven t got the latest figures for the UK but in the United States the Equal Opportunities Commission receive around 85,000 complaints every year and that figure is rising. Race and sex account for most of the complaints that are filed, but age discrimination is on the increase, too. Interviewer: So, any words of advice for risk managers? AG: Well, first of all, make sure that you have adequate insurance. Then address the issues of diversity from within the organisation. Get the employees involved. Celebrate the differences and try to build up a reputation as a fair employer. And remember, it is worth investing time and effort in addressing these issues because statistics have shown that you re much more likely to be sued by an employee than a third party. AUDIOSCRIPT Interviewer: Tell me, Mr. Griffin, are diversity risks really still an issue? Aren t companies these days dealing with diversity? AG (Welsh accent): Oh yes, they are very much an issue. We have come a long way since those days when employers were allowed to discriminate against job candidates just because of their race or their sex. The trouble is, the boundaries of diversity and discrimination are widening. Companies have a lot more to consider than a person s skin colour or a person s gender. Interviewer: So can you give listeners an example of what kind of things you are referring to here? AG: OK, let s see. Well, one growing area of discrimination is ageism. In 1998, companies in the United States had to pay out more than 55 million dollars to employers who had fi led age-related discrimination complaints against their companies. That s a lot of money. Interviewer: Phew! So how should companies protect themselves from this kind of thing? AG: Well, first of all, they should think carefully about

their recruitment policies and then they should take out insurance to cover themselves. Interviewer: Well, isn t that expensive? For the companies, I mean. AG: No, not as expensive as you might think. These days most small- and medium-sized organisations take out EPLI, that s Employment Practices Liability Insurance. The cost of the insurance has fallen over the years and, if a company isn t covered and loses a discrimination case, well, let s just say this is the cheaper option! Interviewer: You ve mentioned ageism as a growing concern, but what other kinds of diversity should managers be aware of? AG: Well, you d probably be surprised to hear about some: discrimination against single people, against married parents, against people who are too tall, too short, too heavy! Interviewer: Really? AG: Oh, yes! Security firms are a good example here. They typically state that their employees need to be over or under a certain height or weight. They claim it s necessary for the job, but there have been cases where people have claimed discrimination. FOR MORE EXERCISES ON THIS PODCAST, PLEASE VISIT http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts ANSWERS 1. 1. c 2. h 3. b 4. e 5. a 6. d 7. g 8. f 2. 1 . e 2. j 3. c 4. a 5. d 6. b 7. f 8 . i 9. g 10. h 3. 1. to co nsider than 2. re cruitmen t p olicie s 3. as ex p e nsive as 4. has f allen 5. go through /ahe ad 6. likely to b e su e d Interviewer: And won? AG: Sometimes, yes. Then there are people with a criminal background. Employers used to feel justifi ed in turning away job applicants just because they d been in trouble with the law. Interviewer: Isn t that still the case? AG: No, not exactly. The law states that employers can only reject a job applicant with a criminal record if the crime bears a direct relation to the job in question. So somebody who has served a sentence for let s say stealing cars, would be all right in a job as a kitchen porter. Interviewer: And Mr. Griffin, tell me, how many people actually go through with their threats to sue a company for discrimination? AG: Well, I... haven t got the latest figures for the UK but in the United States the Equal Opportunities Commission receive around 85,000 complaints every year and that figure is rising. Race and sex account for most of the complaints that are filed, but age discrimination is on the increase, too. Interviewer: So, any words of advice for risk managers? AG: Well, first of all, make sure that you have adequate insurance. Then address the issues of diversity from within the organisation. Get the employees involved. Celebrate the differences and try to build up a reputation as a fair employer. And remember, it is worth

investing time and effort in addressing these issues because statistics have shown that you re much more likely to be sued by an employee than a third party. AUDIOSCRIPT Interviewer: Tell me, Mr. Griffin, are diversity risks really still an issue? Aren t companies these days dealing with diversity? AG (Welsh accent): Oh yes, they are very much an issue. We have come a long way since those days when employers were allowed to discriminate against job candidates just because of their race or their sex. The trouble is, the boundaries of diversity and discrimination are widening. Companies have a lot more to consider than a person s skin colour or a person s gender. Interviewer: So can you give listeners an example of what kind of things you are referring to here? AG: OK, let s see. Well, one growing area of discrimination is ageism. In 1998, companies in the United States had to pay out more than 55 million dollars to employers who had fi led age-related discrimination complaints against their companies. That s a lot of money. Interviewer: Phew! So how should companies protect themselves from this kind of thing? AG: Well, first of all, they should think carefully about their recruitment policies and then they should take out insurance to cover themselves. Interviewer: Well, isn t that expensive? For the companies, I mean. AG: No, not as expensive as you might think. These days most small- and medium-sized organisations take out EPLI, that s Employment Practices Liability Insurance. The cost of the insurance has fallen over the years and, if a company isn t covered and loses a discrimination case, well, let s just say this is the cheaper option! Interviewer: You ve mentioned ageism as a growing concern, but what other kinds of diversity should managers be aware of? AG: Well, you d probably be surprised to hear about some: discrimination against single people, against married parents, against people who are too tall, too short, too heavy! Interviewer: Really? AG: Oh, yes! Security firms are a good example here. They typically state that their employees need to be over or under a certain height or weight. They claim it s necessary for the job, but there have been cases where people have claimed discrimination. FOR MORE EXERCISES ON THIS PODCAST, PLEASE VISIT http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts

PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 1. As you listen, number the topics in the order in which Nicola Bailey talks ab out them. a. The number of women in full-time work. b. The need to put some trends into perspective. c. The proportion of permanent job contracts today compared to the past. d. The number of people with flexible working hours. e. The percentage of temporary jobs. f. The working week in the UK compared to that in the rest of Europe. 2. Listen again and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F). 1. The interviewer thinks working patterns are considerably different from those of previous generations. 2. Nicola Bailey doesn t entirely agree with the interviewer. 3. Bailey says the media are creating an accurate picture of the present situati on. 4. The number of British people with permanent jobs has fallen dramatically. 5. The number of working women with dependent children is the same as before. 6. In the rest of Europe there is less part-time work than in the UK. 7. Two thirds of British workers do over 46 hours a week. 8. Only one worker in five has a contract that foresees flexible working or job sharing. 3. Complete the sentences using some of the following words from the interview. account for agreement borne out clerical compared employment engaged job patterns permanent perspective redundancy research work 1. In order to find a solution to this problem, we need to look at it from a dif ferent ______________________. 2. The prime minister s claim that unemployment in this country is falling is not _________ _________ by the latest statistics. 3. At present, women ____________________________ 60 per cent of our company s wor kforce. 4. The changes in working _________ _________ aren t as great as the media often m ake out. 5. Hundreds of employees will face __________________ if the merger of the two l arge banks goes ahead. 6. It was predicted that most of us would soon be __________________ in flexible working instead of 9 to 5 jobs. 7. When I was a student, I used to do a temporary __________________ during the summer. 8. The proportion of women in __________________, secretarial and sales jobs has changed little. TRACK 14 THE SPEAKERS B1/B2 INTERMEDIATE TREND ANALYSIS Listen to an interview with Nicola Bailey, a social affairs commentator, on changes in patterns of working.

ANSWERS 1. 1. b 2. c 3. e 4. a 5. f 6. d 2. 1. T 2. T 3. F She s ays th ey give th e imp re s sion that a so cial revolu tio n is t aking place. 4. F It s n ot much dif ferent from 20 year s a go. 5. F There are m ore to day. 6. T 7. F A third wo rk more than 4 6 h o ur s . 8. T 3. 1. p e rsp e c tive 2. b o rne ou t 3. account for 4. pat terns 5. re dun dan cy 6. enga ged 7. job 8. cle rical pendent children in the workforce than before, but the overall proportion of women in full-time work hasn t really changed in 25 years, especially in the more traditional sectors: clerical, secretarial and sales jobs. Interviewer: And what about specifi c patterns of working? Is it true there s more part-time work in the UK, compared to the rest of Europe? And aren t we working longer hours than before? NB: Well, yes, both of these are unfortunately true. A third of us work more than 46 hours a week, while for other European countries it s not much more than 10 per cent. Interviewer: So much for new technology liberating us to do other things! And how about the golden future, where we re all engaged in flexible working ? Is this a reality today? NB: Again, if you look at how many people have some formal agreement, for example, to annualise their hours or job share, it s only about 20 per cent of us. The old working patterns persist AUDIOSCRIPT Interviewer: We have with us in the studio Nicola Bailey, our social affairs commentator, to give us some perspective on the changes that have taken place in our working lives over the last 20 years or so. Good morning, Nicola. NB: Good morning. Interviewer: Now, we hear an awful lot these days about the end to a job for life, the rise of fl exible working, the numbers of women now engaged in employment and so on. It s very different from our parents day, isn t it? NB: Well, it s true there s a lot more terminology around these days. Anyone would think from listening to the media that some kind of social revolution was going on. Interviewer: And are you saying that these are not real trends for the future? NB: I m not saying these phenomena are not present today, but I just think we need to put them into some kind of perspective. Traditional 9 to 5 working is not going to disappear quite as fast as some analysts would like to believe. Interviewer: I think you have some interesting fi gures from recent research on the subject. NB: That s right, if you look at the proportion of working people in Britain today who have a permanent contract of employment, for example, you ll fi nd it s not very much different from 20 years ago. It s still

around 80 per cent. And around 30 per cent of us have had the same job for more than 10 years, which is also little changed from the past. Interviewer: That doesn t mean that people necessarily feel more secure, though NB: Oh no, employers still retain the right to use redundancy as a way of reducing their labour force, for example, but the idea that most of us are moving from one temporary job to another is not borne out by the figures. Temporary employment only accounts for about 6 per cent of all jobs. Interviewer: Well, let s talk about women s employment. Isn t it true that there are far more women in the workplace today? NB: Oh yes, there are certainly more women with deFOR MORE EXERCISES ON THIS PODCAST, PLEASE VISIT http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts ANSWERS 1. 1. b 2. c 3. e 4. a 5. f 6. d 2. 1. T 2. T 3. F She s ays th ey give th e imp re s sion that a so cial revolu tio n is t aking place. 4. F It s n ot much dif ferent from 20 year s a go. 5. F There are m ore to day. 6. T 7. F A third wo rk more than 4 6 h o ur s . 8. T 3. 1. p e rsp e c tive 2. b o rne ou t 3. account for 4. pat terns 5. re dun dan cy 6. enga ged 7. job 8. cle rical pendent children in the workforce than before, but the overall proportion of women in full-time work hasn t really changed in 25 years, especially in the more traditional sectors: clerical, secretarial and sales jobs. Interviewer: And what about specifi c patterns of working? Is it true there s more part-time work in the UK, compared to the rest of Europe? And aren t we working longer hours than before? NB: Well, yes, both of these are unfortunately true. A third of us work more than 46 hours a week, while for other European countries it s not much more than 10 per cent. Interviewer: So much for new technology liberating us to do other things! And how about the golden future, where we re all engaged in flexible working ? Is this a reality today? NB: Again, if you look at how many people have some formal agreement, for example, to annualise their hours or job share, it s only about 20 per cent of us. The old working patterns persist AUDIOSCRIPT Interviewer: We have with us in the studio Nicola Bailey, our social affairs commentator, to give us some perspective on the changes that have taken place in our working lives over the last 20 years or so. Good morning, Nicola. NB: Good morning. Interviewer: Now, we hear an awful lot these days about the end to a job for life, the rise of fl exible working, the numbers of women now engaged in employment and so on. It s very different from our parents day, isn t it? NB: Well, it s true there s a lot more terminology

around these days. Anyone would think from listening to the media that some kind of social revolution was going on. Interviewer: And are you saying that these are not real trends for the future? NB: I m not saying these phenomena are not present today, but I just think we need to put them into some kind of perspective. Traditional 9 to 5 working is not going to disappear quite as fast as some analysts would like to believe. Interviewer: I think you have some interesting fi gures from recent research on the subject. NB: That s right, if you look at the proportion of working people in Britain today who have a permanent contract of employment, for example, you ll fi nd it s not very much different from 20 years ago. It s still around 80 per cent. And around 30 per cent of us have had the same job for more than 10 years, which is also little changed from the past. Interviewer: That doesn t mean that people necessarily feel more secure, though NB: Oh no, employers still retain the right to use redundancy as a way of reducing their labour force, for example, but the idea that most of us are moving from one temporary job to another is not borne out by the figures. Temporary employment only accounts for about 6 per cent of all jobs. Interviewer: Well, let s talk about women s employment. Isn t it true that there are far more women in the workplace today? NB: Oh yes, there are certainly more women with deFOR MORE EXERCISES ON THIS PODCAST, PLEASE VISIT http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts XIII

PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 1. As you listen, number the topics in the order in which you hear them. a. A definition of viral marketing b. The difference between viral marketing and spam c. A presentation of today s guest d. Examples of companies using viral marketing e. Some recent negative developments in viral marketing. f. The initial advantage of viral marketing for companies 2. Listen again and mark these statements true (T) or false (F). 1. The buzz.com website keeps an eye on what s happening on the internet. 2. Some internet email providers are well-known for their use of viral marketing . 3. Michael MacAulay thinks less money is being spent on this form of marketing n owadays. 4. This kind of marketing is called viral because the games and animations that ar e received often contain hidden viruses. 5. Tony says many of his listeners are worried about computer viruses. 6. He wonders whether there is much difference between viral marketing and spam. 7. Michael admits that in some cases the dividing line between the two is unclea r. 8. He cites the case of a UK firm that effectively encouraged people to send unw anted emails. 3. Complete these definitions with words or phrases from the radio programme. 1. If something is worrying you, you are __________________ about it 2. A __________________ is a change or development in a situation or in people s b ehaviour. 3. If something is very inexpensive, you can say it costs ______________________ ____ to __________________. 4. A __________________ is a fashionable word or expression that is used a lot, especially by the media. 5. If an image is __________________, you can t see it clearly because its outline isn t distinct. 6. A __________________ is a new project or enterprise that involves an element of risk. 7. Your __________________ is the amount of money that you have available for a particular project or for your day-to-day expenses. 8. If something happens at __________________, it takes place without a definite plan or method and can happen to anybody. TRACK 15 THE SPEAKERS B1/B2 INTERMEDIATE VIRAL MARKETING Listen to part of a radio programme in which people are talking about viral marketing.

ANSWERS 1. 1. c 2. a 3. d 4. f 5. b 6. e 2. 1. T 2. T 3. F It use d to cos t ve r y lit tle b u t n ow h e susp e c t s t h ere s quite a lot of m oney sp ent on it. 4. F It s c alled viral bec ause it sp re ads by pas sing from one p er s on to an oth er, like a virus. 5. F H e s ays th ey re wo rrie d abo u t th e amoun t of spam th ey get . 6. T 7. T 8 . F H e cite s th e c ase of a US company. 3. 1. co n cer n e d 2. trend 3. n ex t to nothing 4. buz z word 5. blurre d 6. venture 7. budget 8. ranlot of money spent on this sort of thing now. Presenter: And presumably the idea is that people like the game, or animation, or whatever and send it on to their friends... Michael: Exactly. It spreads like a virus. Presenter: So far so good, but the word virus is quite a negative one. I know from the emails we receive on the programme that a lot of our listeners are very concerned about the amount of unwanted emails spam, as it s known they already receive. Isn t viral marketing just another form of spam? Michael: It s a good point, Tony. The vital difference between viral marketing and spam is that one is providing a service and the other isn t. Viral marketing relies on people sending things on to their friends and family. Spam is sent to thousands of people at random. (Interviewer: Right) So they re very different. Having said that, the line does begin to get a bit blurred in places. There s the example of the company in the US that paid people (50 cents an hour, I think) to let the company s viewbar display advertisements on their screens. However, the company also paid people 10 cents an hour if they sent the viewbar to another person who allowed the ads onto their screen. Now that can be seen as encouraging people to send unwanted emails. AUDIOSCRIPT Presenter: Now, one of the latest buzzwords in e-commerce is viral marketing using the power of the internet to advertise a product or service. I m joined in the studio today by Michael MacAulay of the buzz.com website, which monitors internet trends. Michael, what exactly is viral marketing ? Michael (Northern English accent): Hi, Tony. The idea of viral marketing is basically that the internet does your advertising for you. A good example is internet email providers like Hotmail or Yahoo. Every time someone sends you an email using a Yahoo address you get that little Do you Yahoo? message at the end, basically advertising what Yahoo does, while still providing you with the service the message you ve received. Presenter: But it s not limited to internet email providers, is it? Michael: Not at all. Hotmail is perhaps the most famous example, but there s lots and lots of stuff on the web that can be seen as viral marketing. You might get sent, for example, a little game to play on your PC or a funny animation, something like that. More often than not, they re advertising a product or

an event. The initial idea of viral marketing was that it cost next to nothing great for ventures without a huge start-up budget but I suspect there s quite a FOR MORE EXERCISES ON THIS PODCAST, PLEASE VISIT http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts ANSWERS 1. 1. c 2. a 3. d 4. f 5. b 6. e 2. 1. T 2. T 3. F It use d to cos t ve r y lit tle b u t n ow h e susp e c t s t h ere s quite a lot of m oney sp ent on it. 4. F It s c alled viral bec ause it sp re ads by pas sing from one p er s on to an oth er, like a virus. 5. F H e s ays th ey re wo rrie d abo u t th e amoun t of spam th ey get . 6. T 7. T 8 . F H e cite s th e c ase of a US company. 3. 1. co n cer n e d 2. trend 3. n ex t to nothing 4. buz z word 5. blurre d 6. venture 7. budget 8. ranlot of money spent on this sort of thing now. Presenter: And presumably the idea is that people like the game, or animation, or whatever and send it on to their friends... Michael: Exactly. It spreads like a virus. Presenter: So far so good, but the word virus is quite a negative one. I know from the emails we receive on the programme that a lot of our listeners are very concerned about the amount of unwanted emails spam, as it s known they already receive. Isn t viral marketing just another form of spam? Michael: It s a good point, Tony. The vital difference between viral marketing and spam is that one is providing a service and the other isn t. Viral marketing relies on people sending things on to their friends and family. Spam is sent to thousands of people at random. (Interviewer: Right) So they re very different. Having said that, the line does begin to get a bit blurred in places. There s the example of the company in the US that paid people (50 cents an hour, I think) to let the company s viewbar display advertisements on their screens. However, the company also paid people 10 cents an hour if they sent the viewbar to another person who allowed the ads onto their screen. Now that can be seen as encouraging people to send unwanted emails. AUDIOSCRIPT Presenter: Now, one of the latest buzzwords in e-commerce is viral marketing using the power of the internet to advertise a product or service. I m joined in the studio today by Michael MacAulay of the buzz.com website, which monitors internet trends. Michael, what exactly is viral marketing ? Michael (Northern English accent): Hi, Tony. The idea of viral marketing is basically that the internet does your advertising for you. A good example is internet email providers like Hotmail or Yahoo. Every time someone sends you an email using a Yahoo address you get that little Do you Yahoo? message at the end, basically advertising what Yahoo does, while still providing you with the service the message you ve received. Presenter: But it s not limited to internet email providers, is it? Michael: Not at all. Hotmail is perhaps the most famous example, but there s lots and lots of stuff on

the web that can be seen as viral marketing. You might get sent, for example, a little game to play on your PC or a funny animation, something like that. More often than not, they re advertising a product or an event. The initial idea of viral marketing was that it cost next to nothing great for ventures without a huge start-up budget but I suspect there s quite a FOR MORE EXERCISES ON THIS PODCAST, PLEASE VISIT http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts