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WORD ORDER In the English language there are no different forms for subjects and objects.

To keep subject and object apart, however, we have to stick to the word order. In linguistics, word order typology refers to the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders. Correlations between orders found in different syntactic subdomains are also of interest. The primary word orders that are of interest are the constituent order of a clausethe relative order of subject, object, and verb; the order of modifiers (adjectives, numerals, demonstratives, possessives, and adjuncts) in a noun phrase; and the order of adverbials. Some languages have relatively restrictive word orders, often relying on the order of constituents to convey important grammatical information. Others, often those that convey grammatical information through inflection, allow more flexibility which can be used to encode pragmatic information such as topicalisation or focus. Most languages however have some preferred word order which is used most frequently.[1] For most nominativeaccusative languages which have a major word class of nouns and clauses which include subject and object, constituent word order is commonly defined in terms of the finite verb (V) and its arguments, thesubject (S) and object (O).[2][3][4][5] There are six theoretically possible basic word orders for the transitive sentence: subjectverb object (SVO), subjectobjectverb (SOV), verbsubjectobject (VSO), verbobjectsubject (VOS), objectsubjectverb (OSV) and objectverbsubject (OVS). The overwhelming majority of the world's languages are either SVO or SOV, with a much smaller but still significant portion using VSO word order. The remaining three arrangements are exceptionally rare, with VOS being slightly more common than OSV, and OVS being significantly more rare than the two preceding orders.[6]

SOV is the order used by the largest number of distinct languages; languages using it include the prototypical Japanese, Mongolian, Basque, Turkish, Korean, the Indo-Aryan languages and the Dravidian languages. Some, like Persian,Latin and Quechua, have SOV normal word order but conform less to the general tendencies of other such languages. A sentence glossing as "I him see" would be grammatically correct in these languages. SVO languages include English, the Romance languages, Bulgarian, Chineseand Swahili, among others. "I see him." VSO languages include Classical Arabic, the Insular Celtic languages, andHawaiian. "See I him" is grammatically correct in these languages. VOS languages include Fijian and Malagasy. "See him I." OVS languages include Hixkaryana. "Him see I." OSV languages include Xavante and Warao. "Him I see."

REFERENCE: WWW.GOOGLE.COM

TRANSPOSE AND NATURAL WORD ORDER

Natural order : the subject comes before the predicate Example: The king's vast kingdom is over there. --Natural complete subject - complete predicate You have seen that movie. or I found an excellent restaurant in Pearl District. That would of been in natural word order. In an Inverted word order it would be like : Have you seen that movie? or There is a great new clothing store at the mall. In natural order the subject comes before the verb and the opposite is in effect when you use Inverted word order.

Transposed order : the subject goes after the predicate Over there is the king's vast kingdom. complete predicate - complete subject --Transposed REFERENCE: WWW.ANSWER.COM Word Order is tested in both types of structure items. Worder Order problems are easy to identify because the answer choices are exactly or almost exactly- the same length, so the answer choices form a rectangle. A so far away from B away so far from C from so far away D away from so far A special type of word order problem involves inversions. This type of sentence uses question word order ( auxiliary + main verb ), even though the sentence is not a question.

WHEN ARE INVERSIONS USED? *When the negative words listed below are placed at the beginning of a clause for emphasis Not only rarely never at no time not until scarcely seldom by no means

Nowhere no sooner Seldom have I heard such beautiful music. Not only did the company lose profits, but it also had to lay off workers. *When a clause begins with one of these expressions with the word only, an inversion in that clause. Only in ( on, at, by, etc. ) Only recently did she return from abroad Only by asking questions can you learn. *When sentences begin with these expressions with the word only, the subject and verb of the second clause are inverted. Only if only after only when only until only because Only if you have a serious problem should you call Mr. Franklin at home Only when you are satisfied is the sale considered final *When clauses begin with the word so + an adjective or participle So rare is this coin that it belongs in a museum So confusing was the map that we had to asks a police officer for directions *When clauses begin with expressions of place of order, the subject and verb are inverted ( but auxiliary verbs are not used as they would be in questions ) In fronf of the museum is a statue Off the coast of California lie the Channel Island First came a police car, then came an ambulance

NOTES FOR ENGLISH 3D ( 1 : 30 3 : 30 )

SUBMITTED TO: MRS. REMONDE

SUBMITTED BY : CHARINA MONROID L.