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5 2.6 3. Newtons Laws of Motion 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4. Impulse and Momentum 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5. Work and Energy 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 6. Rotational Motion 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Description of rotation (angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration) Rotational motion with constant angular acceleration Moment of inertia, Parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, rotational kinetic energy Torque and angular momentum Conservation of angular momentum Rolling motion Work done by a force Kinetic energy and work-energy theorem Power Conservative forces and potential energy Conservation of mechanical energy Definition of impulse and momentum Conservation of momentum Collisions Momentum of a system of particles Center of mass Newtons laws (free body diagram, resolution of forces) Motion on an inclined plane Motion of blocks with pulley systems Circular motion centripetal force Inertial and non-inertial frames Properties of vectors Position, velocity and acceleration vectors Motion with constant acceleration Projectile motion Uniform circular motion Relative motion Units (Different systems of units, SI units, fundamental and derived units) Dimensional Analysis Precision and significant figures Fundamental measurements in Physics (Vernier calipers, screw gauge, Physical balance etc)

7. Gravitation 7.1 7.2 7.3 8. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 9. Oscillations 9.1 9.2 9.3 10. Waves 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 11. Heat and Thermodynamics 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 12. Electrostatics 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 13. Current Electricity 13.1 13.2 13.3 14. Magnetic Effect of Current 14.1 14.2 Biot-Savarts law and its applications Amperes law and its applications Ohms law, Joule heating D.C circuits Resistors and cells in series and parallel, Kirchoffs laws, potentiometer and Wheatstone bridge, Electrical Resistance (Resistivity, origin and temperature dependence of resistivity). Coulombs law Electric field (discrete and continuous charge distributions) Electrostatic potential and Electrostatic potential energy Gauss law and its applications Electric dipole Capacitance and dielectrics (parallel plate capacitor, capacitors in series and parallel) Kinetic theory of gases Thermal equilibrium and temperature Specific heat, Heat Transfer - Conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Newtons law of cooling Work, heat and first law of thermodynamics 2nd law of thermodynamics, Carnot engine Efficiency and Coefficient of performance Progressive sinusoidal waves Standing waves in strings and pipes Superposition of waves, beats Doppler Effect Kinematics of simple harmonic motion Spring mass system, simple and compound pendulum Forced & damped oscillations, resonance Elasticity Pressure, density and Archimedes principle Viscosity and Surface Tension Bernoullis theorem Newtons law of gravitation Gravitational potential energy, Escape velocity Motion of planets Keplers laws, satellite motion

14.3 14.4 15. Electromagnetic Induction 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 16. Optics 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 17. Modern Physics 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5

Lorentz force, force on current carrying conductors in a magnetic field Magnetic moment of a current loop, torque on a current loop, Galvanometer and its conversion to voltmeter and ammeter

Faradays law, Lenzs law, eddy currents Self and mutual inductance Transformers and generators Alternating current (peak and rms value) AC circuits, LCR circuits

Laws of reflection and refraction Lenses and mirrors Optical instruments telescope and microscope Interference Huygens principle, Youngs double slit experiment Interference in thin films Diffraction due to a single slit Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (only qualitative ideas), Electromagnetic spectrum Polarization states of polarization, Malus law, Brewsters law

Dual nature of light and matter Photoelectric effect, De Broglie wavelength Atomic models Rutherfords experiment, Bohrs atomic model Hydrogen atom spectrum Radioactivity Nuclear reactions : Fission and fusion, binding energy

Part II: Chemistry 1. States of Matter 1.1 1.2 1.3 Measurement: Physical quantities and SI units, Dimensional analysis, Precision, Significant figures. Chemical reactions: Laws of chemical combination, Daltons atomic theory; Mole concept; Atomic, molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition empirical & molecular formula; Balanced chemical equations & stoichiometry Gaseous state: Gas Laws, Kinetic theory Maxwell distribution of velocities, Average, root mean square and most probable velocities and relation to temperature, Diffusion; Deviation from ideal behaviour Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, van der Waals equation. Liquid state: Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity. Solid state: Classification; Space lattices & crystal systems; Unit cell Cubic & hexagonal systems; Close packing; Crystal structures: Simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals, covalent crystals diamond & graphite, metals. ImperfectionsPoint defects, non-stoichiometric crystals; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties; Amorphous solids qualitative description.

1.4 1.5

2. Atomic Structure 2.1 2.2 Introduction: Radioactivity, Subatomic particles; Atomic number, isotopes and isobars, Rutherfords picture of atom; Hydrogen atom spectrum and Bohr model. Quantum mechanics: Wave-particle duality de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and wavefunctions, atomic orbitals and their shapes (s, p, and d), Spin quantum number.

2.3 2.4

Many electron atoms: Pauli exclusion principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms, Hunds rule. Periodicity: Periodic law and the modern periodic table; Types of elements: s, p, d, and f blocks; Periodic trends: ionization energy, atomic and ionic radii, electron affinity, electro negativity and valency.

3. Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure 3.1 3.2 3.3 Ionic Bond: Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle; Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond Molecular Structure: Lewis picture & resonance structures, VSEPR model & molecular shapes Covalent Bond: Valence Bond Theory- Orbital overlap, Directionality of bonds & hybridization (s, p & d orbitals only), Resonance; Molecular orbital theory- Methodology, Orbital energy level diagram, Bond order, Magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic species. Metallic Bond: Qualitative description. Intermolecular Forces: Polarity; Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond.

3.4 3.5

4. Thermodynamics 4.1 4.2 Basic Concepts: Systems and surroundings; State functions; Intensive & Extensive Properties; Zeroth Law and Temperature First Law of Thermodynamics: Work, internal energy, heat, enthalpy, heat capacities; Enthalpies of formation, phase transformation, ionization, electron gain; Thermochemistry; Hesss Law. Bond dissociation, combustion, atomization, sublimation, dilution Second Law: Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and non-mechanical work; Standard free energies of formation, free energy change and chemical equilibrium Third Law: Introduction

4.3 4.4

5. Physical and Chemical Equilibria 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Concentration Units: Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality Solutions: Solubility of solids and gases in liquids, Vapour Pressure, Raoults law, Relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression in freezing point; elevation in boiling point; osmotic pressure, determination of molecular mass; solid solutions. Physical Equilibrium: Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas, solid-gas), Surface chemistry, Adsorption, Physical and Chemical adsorption, Langmuir Isotherm, Colloids and emulsion, classification, preparation, uses. Chemical Equilibria: Equilibrium constants (KP, KC), Le-Chateliers principle. Ionic Equilibria: Strong and Weak electrolytes, Acids and Bases (Arrhenius, Lewis, Lowry and Bronsted) and their dissociation; Ionization of Water; pH; Buffer solutions; Acid-base titrations; Hydrolysis; Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts; Common Ion Effect. Factors Affecting Equilibria: Concentration, Temperature, Pressure, Catalysts, Significance of DG and DG0in Chemical Equilibria.

5.6

6. Electrochemistry 6.1 Redox Reactions: Oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfer concept); Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Electrode potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Factors affecting the electrode potential; Gibbs energy change and cell potential; Secondary cells; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention. Electrolytic Conduction: Electrolytic Conductance; Specific and molar conductivities; Kolhrauschs Law and its application, Faradays laws of electrolysis; Coulometer; Electrode potential and electrolysis, Commercial production of the chemicals, NaOH, Na, Al, Cl2 & F2.

6.2

7. Chemical Kinetics 7.1 7.2 Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reaction; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions. Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Concentration of the reactants, size of particles; Temperature dependence of rate constant; Activation energy; Catalysis, Surface catalysis, enzymes, zeolites; Factors affecting rate of collisions between molecules. Mechanism of Reaction: Elementary reactions; Complex reactions; Reactions involving two/three steps only.

7.3

8. Hydrogen and s-block elements 8.1 Hydrogen: Element: unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes; Dihydrogen: preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; Molecular, saline, interstitial hydrides; Water: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen as a fuel.

8.2 8.3

s-block elements: Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first elements in each group; diagonal relationships. Alkali metals: Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity, and electrode potentials; Biological importance; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and liquid ammonia; Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such as NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, and KOH. Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with nonmetals; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Biological importance; Properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, Ca(OH)2, plaster of Paris, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3, and CaSO4; Lime and limestone, cement.

8.4

9. p- d- and f-block elements 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group;. Group 13 elements: Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron hydrides & halides. Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis; Group 14 elements: Carbon: Uses, Allotropes (graphite, diamond, fullerenes), oxides, halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicone, silicon tetrachloride, Zeolites. Group 15 elements: Dinitrogen; Reactivity and uses of nitrogen and its compounds; Industrial and biological nitrogen fixation; Ammonia: Habers process, properties and reactions; Oxides of nitrogen and their structures; Ostwalds process of nitric acid production; Fertilizers NPK type; Production of phosphorus; Allotropes of phosphorus; Preparation, structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids and halides of phosphorus. Group 16 elements: Isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen; Acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides; Preparation, structure and properties of ozone; Allotropes of sulphur; Production of sulphur and sulphuric acid; Structure and properties of oxides, oxoacids, hydrides and halides of sulphur. Group 17 and group 18 elements: Structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids of chlorine; Inter halogen compounds; Bleaching Powder; Preparation, structure and reactions of xenon fluorides, oxides, and oxoacids. d-Block elements: General trends in the chemistry of first row transition elements; Metallic character; Oxidation state; Ionic radii; Catalytic properties; Magnetic properties; Interstitial compounds; Occurrence and extraction of iron, copper, silver, zinc, and mercury; Alloy formation; Steel and some important alloys; preparation and properties of CuSO 4, K2Cr2O7, KMnO4, Mercury halides; Silver nitrate and silver halides; Photography. f-Block elements: Lanthanoids and actinoids; Oxidation states and chemical reactivity of lanthanoids compounds; Lanthanide contraction; Comparison of actinoids and lanthanoids. Coordination Compounds: Coordination number; Ligands; Werners coordination theory; IUPAC nomenclature; Application and importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems e.g. chlorophyll, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin); Bonding: Valence-bond approach, Crystal field theory (qualitative); Stability constants; Shapes, color and magnetic properties; Isomerism including stereoisomerisms; Organometallic compounds.

9.5

9.6 9.7

9.8 9.9

10. Principles of Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 Classification: Based on functional groups, trivial and IUPAC nomenclature. Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: Inductive, resonance effects, and hyperconjugation; free radicals; carbocations, carbanions, nucleophiles and electrophiles; types of organic reactions. Alkanes and cycloalkanes: Structural isomerism and general properties. Alkenes and alkynes: General methods of preparation and reactions, physical properties, electrophilic and free radical additions, acidic character of alkynes and (1,2 and 1,4) addition to dienes. Aromatic hydrocarbons: Sources; Properties; Isomerism; Resonance delocalization; polynuclear hydrocarbons; mechanism of electrophilic substitution reaction, directive influence and effect of substituents on reactivity. Haloalkanes and haloarenes: Physical properties, chemical reactions. Uses and environmental effects; di, tri, tetrachloromethanes, iodoform, freon and DDT. Petroleum: Composition and refining, uses of petrochemicals.

11. Stereochemistry 11.1 11.2 11.3 Introduction: Chiral molecules; Optical activity; Polarimetry; R,S and D,L configurations; Fischer projections; Enantiomerism; Racemates; Diastereomerism and meso structures. Conformations: Ethane conformations; Newman and Sawhorse projections. Geometrical isomerism in alkenes

12. Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Oxygen and Nitrogen 12.1 12.2 General: Electronic structure, important methods of preparation, important reactions and physical properties of alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro compounds, amines, diazonium salts, cyanides and isocyanides. Specific: Effect of substituents on alpha-carbon on acid strength, comparative reactivity of acid derivatives, basic character of amines methods of preparation, and their separation, importance of diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry.

13. Biological , Industrial and Environmental chemistry 13.1 13.2 The Cell: Concept of cell and energy cycle. Carbohydrates: Classification; Monosaccharides; Structures of pentoses and hexoses; Anomeric carbon; Mutarotation; Simple chemical reactions of glucose, Disaccharides: reducing and non-reducing sugars sucrose, maltose and lactose; Polysaccharides: elementary idea of structures of starch, cellulose and glycogen. Proteins: Amino acids; Peptide bond; Polypeptides; Primary structure of proteins; Simple idea of secondary , tertiary and quarternary structures of proteins; Denaturation of proteins and enzymes. Nucleic Acids: Types of nucleic acids; Primary building blocks of nucleic acids (chemical composition of DNA & RNA); Primary structure of DNA and its double helix; Replication; Transcription and protein synthesis; Genetic code. Vitamins: Classification, structure, functions in biosystems; Hormones Polymers: Classification of polymers; General methods of polymerization; Molecular mass of polymers; Biopolymers and biodegradable polymers; Free radical, cationic and anionic addition polymerizations; Copolymerization: Natural rubber; Vulcanization of rubber; Synthetic rubbers. Condensation polymers. Pollution: Environmental pollutants; soil, water and air pollution; Chemical reactions in atmosphere; Smog; Major atmospheric pollutants; Acid rain; Ozone and its reactions; Depletion of ozone layer and its effects; Industrial air pollution; Green house effect and global warming; Green Chemistry. Chemicals in medicine, health-care and food: Analgesics, Tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, anti-microbials, anti-fertility drugs, antihistamines, antibiotics, antacids; Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, antioxidants, soaps and detergents.

13.7

13.8

14. Theoretical Principles of Experimental Chemistry 14.1 Volumetric Analysis: Principles; Standard solutions of sodium carbonate and oxalic acid; Acid-base titrations; Redox reactions involving KI, H2SO4, Na2SO3, Na2S2O3and H2S; Potassium permanganate in acidic, basic and neutral media; Titrations of oxalic acid, ferrous ammonium sulphate with KMnO4, K2Cr2O7/Na2S2O3, Cu(II)/Na2S2O3. Qualitative analysis of Inorganic Salts: Principles in the determination of the cations Pb 2+, Cu2+, As3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+, Fe3+, Ni2+ and the anions CO32-, S2-, SO42-, SO32-, NO2-, NO3-, Cl-, Br-, I-, PO43-, CH3COO-, C2O42-. Physical Chemistry Experiments: preparation and crystallization of alum, copper sulphate, ferrous sulphate, double salt of alum and ferrous sulphate, potassium ferric sulphate; Temperature vs. solubility; pH measurements; Lyophilic and lyophobic sols; Dialysis; Role of emulsifying agents in emulsification. Equilibrium studies involving (i) ferric and thiocyanate ions (ii) [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions; Enthalpy determination for (i) strong acid vs. strong base neutralization reaction (ii) hydrogen bonding interaction between acetone and chloroform; Rates of the reaction between (i) sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, (ii) potassium iodate and sodium sulphite (iii) iodide vs. hydrogen peroxide, concentration and temperature effects in these reactions. Purification Methods: Filtration, crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, and chromatography. Principles of melting point and boiling point determination; principles of paper chromatographic separation Rf values. Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous and halogens; Detection of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in foodstuff; Detection of alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic, amino groups and unsaturation. Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Basic principles for the quantitative estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogen, sulphur and phosphorous; Molecular mass determination by silver salt and chloroplatinate salt methods; Calculations of empirical and molecular formulae. Principles of Organic Chemistry Experiments: Preparation of iodoform, acetanilide, p-nitro acetanilide, di-benzayl acetone, aniline yellow, beta-naphthol; Preparation of acetylene and study of its acidic character.

14.2 14.3

14.4 14.5

14.6

14.7

Part III: (a) English Proficiency and (b) Logical Reasoning (a) English Proficiency This test is designed to assess the test takers general proficiency in the use of English language as a means of self-expression in real life situations and specifically to test the test takers knowledge of basic grammar, their vocabulary, their ability to read fast and comprehend,

and also their ability to apply the elements of effective writing. 1. Grammar 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Agreement, Time and Tense, Parallel construction, Relative pronouns Determiners, Prepositions, Modals, Adjectives Voice, Transformation Question tags, Phrasal verbs

2. Vocabulary 2.1 Synonyms, Antonyms, Odd Word, One Word, Jumbled letters, Homophones, Spelling 2.2 2.3 Contextual meaning. Analogy

3. Reading Comprehension 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Content/ideas Vocabulary Referents Idioms/Phrases Reconstruction (rewording)

(b) Logical Reasoning The test is given to the candidates to judge their power of reasoning spread in verbal and nonverbal areas. The candidates should be able to think logically so that they perceive the data accurately, understand the relationships correctly, figure out the missing numbers or words, and to apply rules to new and different contexts. These indicators are measured through performance on such tasks as detecting missing links, following directions, classifying words, establishing sequences, and completing analogies.

5. Verbal Reasoning 5.1 Analogy Analogy means correspondence. In the questions based on analogy, a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to be identified from the alternatives provided. 5.2 Classification Classification means to assort the items of a given group on the basis of certain common quality they possess and then spot the odd option out. 5.3 Series Completion Here series of numbers or letters are given and one is asked to either complete the series or find out the wrong part in the series. 5.4 Logical Deduction Reading Passage Here a brief passage is given and based on the passage the candidate is required to identify the correct or incorrect logical conclusions. 5.5 Chart Logic Here a chart or a table is given that is partially filled in and asks to complete it in accordance with the information given either in the chart / table or in the question. 6. Nonverbal Reasoning 6.1 Pattern Perception Here a certain pattern is given and generally a quarter is left blank. The candidate is required to identify the correct quarter

from the given four alternatives. 6.2 Figure Formation and Analysis The candidate is required to analyze and form a figure from various given parts. 6.3 Paper Cutting It involves the analysis of a pattern that is formed when a folded piece of paper is cut into a definite design. 6.4 Figure Matrix In this more than one set of figures is given in the form of a matrix, all of them following the same rule. The candidate is required to follow the rule and identify the missing figure. 6.5 Rule Detection Here a particular rule is given and it is required to select from the given sets of figures, a set of figures, which obeys the rule and forms the correct series.

Part IV: Mathematics 1. Algebra 1.1 1.2 1.3 Complex numbers, addition, multiplication, conjugation, polar representation, properties of modulus and principal argument, triangle inequality, roots of complex numbers, geometric interpretations; Fundamental theorem of algebra. Theory of Quadratic equations, quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions, relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, equations reducible to quadratic equations. Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means, arithmetico-geometric series, sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions, infinite geometric series, sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers. Logarithms and their properties. Exponential series. Permutations and combinations, Permutations as an arrangement and combination as selection, simple applications. Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, properties of binomial coefficients, Pascals triangle Matrices and determinants of order two or three, properties and evaluation of determinants, addition and multiplication of matrices, adjoint and inverse of matrices, Solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables, elementary row and column operations of matrices, Sets, Relations and Functions, algebra of sets applications, equivalence relations, mappings, one-one, into and onto mappings, composition of mappings, binary operation, inverse of function, functions of real variables like polynomial, modulus, signum and greatest integer. Mathematical Induction Linear Inequalities, solution of linear inequalities in one and two variables.

1.9

1.10 1.11

2. Trigonometry 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Measurement of angles in radians and degrees, positive and negative angles, trigonometric ratios, functions and identities. Solution of trigonometric equations. Properties of triangles and solutions of triangles Inverse trigonometric functions Heights and distances

3. Two-dimensional Coordinate Geometry 3.1 3.2 Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift of origin. Straight lines and pair of straight lines: Equation of straight lines in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line, lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines, concurrent lines. Circles and family of circles : Equation of circle in various form, equation of tangent, normal & chords, parametric equations of a

3.3

circle , intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle, equation of circle through point of intersection of two circles, conditions for two intersecting circles to be orthogonal. 3.4 Conic sections : parabola, ellipse and hyperbola their eccentricity, directrices & foci, parametric forms, equations of tangent & normal, conditions for y=mx+c to be a tangent and point of tangency.

4. Three dimensional Coordinate Geometry Co-ordinate axes and co-ordinate planes, distance between two points, section formula, direction cosines and direction ratios, 4.1 equation of a straight line in space and skew lines. Angle between two lines whose direction ratios are given, shortest distance between two lines. 4.2 Equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane, condition for coplanarity of three lines, angles between two planes, angle 4.3 between a line and a plane. 5. Differential calculus Domain and range of a real valued function, Limits and Continuity of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, 5.1 Differentiability. Derivative of different types of functions (polynomial, rational, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, 5.2 implicit functions), derivative of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, chain rule. Geometric interpretation of derivative, Tangents and Normals. 5.3 Increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of a function. 5.4 Rolles Theorem, Mean Value Theorem and Intermediate Value Theorem. 5.5 6. Integral calculus Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard functions. 6.1 Methods of integration: Integration by substitution, Integration by parts, integration by partial fractions, and integration by 6.2 trigonometric identities. Definite integrals and their properties, Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus, applications in finding areas under simple 6.3 curves. Application of definite integrals to the determination of areas of regions bounded by simple curves. 6.4 7. Ordinary Differential Equations Order and degree of a differential equation, formulation of a differential equation whole general solution is given, variables 7.1 separable method. Solution of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree 7.2 Linear first order differential equations 7.3 8. Probability Various terminology in probability, axiomatic and other approaches of probability, addition and multiplication rules of probability. 8.1 Conditional probability, total probability and Bayes theorem 8.2 Independent events 8.3 Discrete random variables and distributions with mean and variance. 8.4 9. Vectors Direction ratio/cosines of vectors, addition of vectors, scalar multiplication, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a 9.1 given ratio. Dot and cross products of two vectors, projection of a vector on a line. 9.2 Scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations. 9.3 10. Statistics Measures of dispersion 10.1 Measures of skewness and Central Tendency, Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances 10.2 11.Linear Programming Various terminology and formulation of linear Programming 11.1 Solution of linear Programming using graphical method, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal 11.2 feasible solutions (upto three nonitrivial constraints)

EAMCET

EAMCET 2012 Syllabus I. ALGEBRA: (a) Functions Types of functions Algebra of real valued functions (b) Mathematical induction and applications (c) Permutations and Combinations linear and circular permutations combinations. (d) Binomial theorem for a positive integral index for any rational index applications Binomial Coefficients. (e) Partial fractions (f) Exponential and logarithmic series (g) Quadratic expressions, equations and inequations in

one

variable.

(h) Theory of equations Relations between the roots and Coefficients in any equation Transformation of equations reciprocal equations. (i) Matrices and determinants Types of matrices Algebra of matrices Properties of determinants simultaneous linear equations in two and three variables Consistency and inconsistency of simultaneous equations. (j) Complex numbers and their properties De Moivres theorem Applications Expansions of trigonometric functions. II. TRIGONOMETRY: (a) Trigonometric functions Graphs periodicity (b) Trigonometric ratios of (c) Transformations (d) Trigonometric equations (e) Inverse trigonometric functions (f) Hyperbolic and inverse hyperbolic functions

compound

angles,

multiple

and

sub-multiple

angles.

(g) Properties of Triangles (h) Heights and distances (in two-dimensional plane) III. VECTOR ALGEBRA: (a) Algebra of vectors angle between two non-zero vectors linear combination of vectors vector equation of line and plane (b) Scalar and vector product of two vectors and their applications (c) Scalar and vector triple products, Scalar and vector products of four vectors IV. PROBABILITY: (a) Random experiments Sample space events probability of an event addition and multiplication theorems of probability Bayes theorem (b) Random variables Mean and variance of a random variable Binomial and Poisson distributions V. Coordinate Geometry: (a) Locus, Translation of axes, rotation of axes (b) Straight line (c) Pair of straight lines (d) Circles (e) System

of

circles

(f) Conics Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Equations of tangent, normal, chord of contact and polar at any point of these conics (g) Polar Coordinates (h) Coordinates in three dimensions, distance between two points in the space, section formula and their applications (i) Direction Cosines and direction ratios of a line angle between two lines (j) Cartesian equation of a plane in (i) general form (ii) normal form and (iii) intercept form angle between two planes (k) Sphere Cartesian equation Centre and radius VI Calculus: (a) Functions limits Continuity (b) Differentiation Methods of differentiation (c) Successive differentiation Leibnitzs theorem and its applications (d) Applications of differentiation (e) Partial differentiation including Eulers theorem on homogeneous functions (f) Integration methods of integration (g) Definite integrals and their applications to areas reduction formulae (h) Numerical integration Trapezoidal

and

Simpsons

rules

(i) Differential equations order and degree Formation of differential equations Solution of differential equation by variables seperable method Solving homogeneous and linear differential equations of first order and first degree. I - MEASUREMENTS, UNITS AND DIMENSIONS : Introduction- units and Dimensions, Accuracy, precision of measuring instruments, Constant errors, systematic errors, environmental errors (errors due to external causes). Error due to imperfection, Random errors, Gross Errors, Absolute Errors, Relative percentage errors, Errors due to addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, powers of observed quantities, Significant figures, Fundamental and derived physical quantities / System of Units, definition of units in SI. Multiple and submultiples of SI units, Dimensional formulae and dimensional equations, dimensional constants and dimensionless quantities. Principle of homogeneity of dimensions, Conversion of one system of units into another, to check correctness of an equation, to derive the relationship between different physical quantities. II - ELEMENTS OF VECTORS : Physical quantities, geometrical representation of vectors, addition of vectors, equality of vectors, Resolution of a vector into components, null vector, unit vector in Cartesian co-ordinate system, position vector and its magnitude, Parallelogram law of addition of vectors, Derivation of expression for the magnitude and the direction of resultant vector, Special cases, Triangle law and polygon law of vectors, triangle law of addition of vectors, polygon law of addition of vectors, concept of relative velocity, application to relative motion of a boat in a river, motion of a boat across a river, shortest path, shortest time, Multiplication of vector with a scalar, product of two vectors, scalar product or dot product of two vectors, properties of scalar product, examples of scalar product, work done and energy, vector product of two vectors, properties of vector product of two vectors, torque,

angular

momentum.

III - Kinematics : Introduction- Equations of motion, position-time and velocity-time graphs, equations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment), acceleration due to gravity, equations of motion of a freely falling body, Equations of motion of an object vertically projected upwards from the ground, Maximum height (H), Time of ascent, time of descent, velocity of the body on returning to the point of projection, Vertical projection of an object from a tower, Projectiles oblique projection from ground, equation of trajectory, maximum height, time of ascent, time of flight, horizontal range, two angles of projection for the same range, velocity of projection at any instant, horizontal projection from the top of a tower, equation of trajectory, time of descent, range, velocity of the projectile (at any instant). IV - DYNAMICS : Introduction- Newtons laws of motion, applications of Newtons laws. Objects suspended by strings, Atwood machine, blocks placed in contact with each other on frictionless horizontal surface, apparent weight in a lift, Impulse, law of conservation of linear momentum, conservation of linear momentum during collision, work, power, energy, KE&PE definition and derivation for both, Relation between KE and Linear momentum, conservative and non-conservative forces, work-energy theorem, Law of conservation of energy in case of freely failing body and vertically projected body. V - COLLISIONS: Introduction Elastic and inelastic collisions, Collisions in one dimension (Elastic collision only), body at rest, bodies moving in same direction and opposite directions, Co-efficient of restitution, definition, equation for height attained for freely falling body after number of rebounds on floor. VI - CENTRE OF MASS (CM): Introduction- Centre of mass, difference between centre of mass and centre of gravity, co-ordinates of centre of mass, centre of mass of particles along a line, centre of mass of system of particles in a plane, center of mass of system of particles in space, motion of centre of mass (Velocity and acceleration of CM), characteristics of centre of mass, laws of motion of the centre of mass, velocity and acceleration, explosion. VII FRICTION: Introduction - cause of friction, advantages of friction, disadvantages of friction, methods of reducing friction, types of friction, static friction, kinetic (or) dynamic friction, rolling friction, Distinction between static and dynamic friction. Normal reaction, laws of friction, static friction, kinetic friction or Dynamic friction, Rolling friction, Angle of friction, motion of body on rough horizontal plane, motion of bodies on an inclined plane, Body at rest on the plane-Angle of repose-when the body is just ready to slide, when the body is sliding down. Motion of a body on smooth and rough inclined plane, body sliding down the plane, body sliding up the plane, pushing and pulling of a lawn roller. A lawn roller on a horizontal surface pulled by an inclined force, a roller on horizontal surface pushed by an inclined force. VIII - ROTATORY MOTION: Couple (concepts, units, dimensional formula and examples), Vector representation of torque, Moment of Inertia(MI), definition, units, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems. Expressions for MI of a thin rod, uniform disc, rectangular lamina, solid and hollow spheres, circular ring and cylinder (no derivations needed), angular momentum, relation between angular momentum and torque, law of conservation of angular momentum with examples, Motion in vertical circle. IX- GRAVITATION: Introduction- Basic forces in nature, Nature of gravity, law of universal gravitation, Relation between Universal gravitational constant (G) and acceleration due to gravity (g), variation of g with altitude, depth, latitude and shape of the earth, characteristics of gravitational force, limitations of Newtons third law, gravitational field, field strength, properties of gravitational fields, Origin of black holes, Chandrashekar limit, neutron star, Frames of reference, Inertial and Non- Inertial frames, Inertial and Gravitational mass & relation between them, Principle of equivalence, Escape and Orbital velocities, definition, derivation of expressions and relation between them, Geostationary satellites and their uses. X- SIMPLE HARMIMIC MOTION (SHM): Introduction- simple harmonic motion examples, SHM explanation by reference circle, expression for displacement, amplitude, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency, phase, initial phase (epoch) - Simple pendulum, expression for time period, loaded spring, expression for time period, force constant, PE and KE of simple harmonic oscillator, Total Energy of Simple Harmonic Oscillator, Law of conservation of energy in the case of a simple pendulum. XI- ELASTICITY: Introduction- Elasticity and plasticity, stress, strain, Hooks law, Moduli of elasticity, Poissons ratio, definition and its limit, Behavior of a wire under gradually increasing load- Elastic fatigue, strain energy - experimental determination of Youngs modulus of wire. XII- SURFACE TENSION: Introduction - surface tension, definition - Examples, molecular theory of surface tension. Surface energy, Angle of contact, capillarity-examples in daily life, Determination of surface tension by capillary rise method theory and experiment. Effect of temperature on surface tension, excess pressure in liquid drops and soap bubbles. XIII- FLUID MACHANICS: Introduction - Principle of Buoyancy- pressure in a fluid - Streamline flow Bernoullis theorem - equation with derivation applications-aerodynamic lift, motion of a spinning ball, Illustrations of Bernoullis theorem. Viscosity explanation, coefficient of viscosity, effect of temperature on viscosity, Poiseuilles equation, Motion of objects through fluids. Stokes formula, net force on the object,

terminal

velocity.

XIV- TEMPERATURE AND THERMAL EXPANSION OF MATERIALS: Introduction-concept of temperature, Measurement of temperature, Fahrenheit, Centigrade scales of temperature, their relation (only formulae)- Different types of thermometers (brief theoretical description). Vibration of atoms in a solid, PE curve, Anharmonicity of vibrations, explanation for expansion in solids. Coefficients of linear, areal and cubical expansion, definitions, Expressions & Relation between these coefficients of expansions, change of density with temperature, examples in daily life. Introduction- coefficients of real and apparent expansion of liquids, relation between them with derivation, Determination of coefficient of apparent expansion of liquids by specific gravity bottle method, Anomalous expansion of water, its significance in nature. Introduction - volume and pressure coefficients of gases, relation between them and derivation. Determination of volume coefficientRegnaults method. Determination of pressure coefficient-Jollys bulb method. Kelvin scale of temperature, Boyles and Charles laws. Ideal gas equation, derivation, significance of Universal gas constant. XV - THERMO-DYNAMICS: Introduction - Quasistatic and cyclic process, reversible and irreversible processes, Heat and Temperature, Zeroeth law of Thermodynamics, definition of Calorie, Joules law and mechanical equivalent of heat, Internal energy, First law of thermodynamics, equation and explanation. Heat capacity, specific heat, experimental determination of specific heat by the method of mixtures. Specific heats of a gas (Cp and Cv), External work done by a gas during its expansion. Relation between Cp and Cv derivation, Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Relation between P, V and T in these processes. Expression for work done in Isothermal process (no derivation), expression of work done in adiabatic process (no derivation). Heat engines and refrigerators (only qualitative treatment). Three phases of mater, Triple point Triple point of water. Latent heat, Determination of latent heat of vaporization of water, Second law of thermodynamics different statements. XVI- TRANSMISSION OF HEAT: Introduction - conduction of heat, coefficient of thermal conductivity, convection- Type of convections, Nature and properties of Thermal radiation, Prevosts theory of heat exchange - emission power and absorptive power - Black body radiation, Kirchoffs law and its applications Stefans law Newtons law of cooling. XVII- WAVE MOTION: Longitudinal and transverse waves, Equation for a progressive wave, principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, Formation of waves on a stretched string, laws of vibrating strings, experimental verification by Sonometer, Sound: Characteristics of sound, speed of sound in solids, liquids and gases (only formula to be given), Forced Vibrations, Free Vibrations, Resonance with examples, standing waves in Organ Pipes, Open Pipes, Closed Pipes, Fundamental frequency-Overtones, Harmonics, definition and explanation, Beats definition and its importance. Doppler Effect, Definition, derivation of relation for apparent frequency of a sound note emitted by a source for the cases a) only source is moving, b) only listener is moving, c) both source and listener are moving. Applications and limitations of Doppler Effect- Echoes, Absorption of sound waves, Reverberation Reverberation Time, Fundamentals of building Acoustics Statement of Sabines Law. XVIII- OPTICS: Nature of Light, Newtons corpuscular Theory, Huygens Wave Theory- Electromagnetic spectrum. Huygens Explanation of Reflection and Refraction of plane waves at a plane surface. Refraction through prism, Derivation of Refractive index of material of prism for minimum deviation, critical angle, Total Internal Reflection, Relation between Critical angle and Refractive Index, application of total internal reflection to Optical fibers. Defects in Images: Spherical and Chromatic aberrations and reducing these defects, Different methods (qualitative treatment). Optical Instruments: Microscope, Telescope, Formula for magnification of Microscope, Astronomical and Terrestrial Telescopes. Construction of Ramsdens and Huygens eye pieces with ray diagrams. Dispersion of light, dispersive power, pure and impure spectra, condition for obtaining pure spectrum, different kinds of spectra Emission spectra, Line, Band and continuous spectra, absorption spectra, Fraunhofer lines and their significance. XIX- PHYSICAL OPTICS: Interference condition for interference, Youngs double slit experiment Derivation for Intensity and fringe width Uses of interference, Diffraction: Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction (Qualitative only). Polarisation: Concepts of Polarisation. Plane Polarisation of Light by Reflection, Refraction and Double Refraction (Polaroids). XX- MAGNETISM: Coulombs Inverse Square Law, Definition of Magnetic Field, Magnetic Lines of Force- Uniform and Non Uniform Magnetic Fields. Couple acting on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field, Definition of magnetic moment of magnet. Magnetic Induction due to a bar magnet on axial and equatorial lines. Superposition of magnetic fields, Tangent Law, Deflection Magnetometer. Comparison of Magnetic Moments in Tan A, Tan B positions by equal distance method and Null Method, Verification of Inverse Square Law. Vibration Magnetometer- Principle and Description, Experimental determination of M and BH(earths horizontal component) using Vibration Magnetometer. Types of magnetic materials Para, Dia, and Ferro Magnetism Definition and properties. XXI- ELECTROSTATICS: Charges conservation of charge and additive property of charges. Coulombs Law : Permittivity of Free Space and Permittivity of Medium, Force between two point charges. Force due to multiple charges Principle of superposition with examples. Electric field, Electric lines of force, their properties, Electric field intensity definition, electric intensity due to isolated charge and due to multiple

charges. Electrostatic Potential, Definition of Electrostatic Potential in an electric field- Potential due to single charge and multiple charges, Electrostatic potential energyRelation between electrostatic potential and electric intensity. Electric Flux & Gauss Law: Electric Flux Definition, Gauss Law-Statement of Gauss Law, Application of Gauss Law to find electric intensity and electrostatic Potential due to continuous charge distribution of Infinite Long wire, Infinite Plane Sheet and Spherical Shell. Capacitance, Definition of Electrical Capacity of a Conductor, Capacitance, Dielectric constant, Definition of Condenser, its uses, Parallel plate Condenser, Formula for Capacitance of Parallel Plate Condenser, Dielectric, Dielectric Strength, Effect of dielectric on capacitance of capacitor. Capacitors in series and in parallel: derivation of the equivalent capacitance for the above cases. Energy stored in a Condenser, Effect of dielectric on Energy of Condenser, Types of capacitors, their uses. XXII- CURRENT ELECTRICITY: Electric current Flow of Electric charges in a metallic conductor, Drift velocity and mobility, Relation between electric current and drift velocity. Ohms Law: Statement, Ohmic and Non-Ohmic elements with examples, Conductance, Specific resistance, Variation of resistivity with temperature, Variation of Resistance with temperature, Thermistor. E.M.F. of Cell Internal resistance and back E.M.F., Difference between EMF of a Cell and potential difference. Electrical energy, Power definition of kWh. Kirchhoffs laws: Statement of Kirchhoffs voltage law, Kirchhoffs current law, their application to Wheatstone bridge, condition for balancing, Meter bridge, Determination of resistance of a conductor using meter bridge. Principle of Potentiometer determination of internal resistance and E.M.F. of a cell using potentiometer. Series and parallel combination of cells Derivation of equivalent EMF for the above cases. XXIII- THERMOELECTRICITY: Introduction- Seebeck effect, Peltier and Thomson effects and their coefficients. Variation of themo EMF with temperature, Neutral and Inversion Temperatures. Applications of ThermoCouple. XXIV- ELECTROMAGNETICS: Oersteds Experiment, Biot Savart Law, Amperes Law, Magnetic field near a long straight wire and magnetic field at the Center of a circular coil carrying current (with derivations). Field on the axis of circular coil carrying current (expression only). Tangent Galvanometer (TG), Principle and working, Definition of Reduction Factor. Force on a moving charge in a magnetic field, Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field, Force between two long straight parallel conductors carrying current, Definition of Ampere, Flemings Left Hand Rule, Current loop as a magnetic dipole, force and Torque on Current loop in an uniform magnetic field, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Principle, Construction and working of Moving Coil Galvanometer (MCG), Converting MCG into ammeter and voltmeter, comparison of MCG with TG. Electromagnetic induction, Magnetic Flux, Induced EMF, Faradays and Lenzs Laws. Flemings Right Hand Rule, Self Inductance, Mutual Inductance, Principle of Transformer. Growth & decay of current in L-R circuit with DC source, Growth and decay of charge in R.C. Circuit connected to DC source, Equations for charge on condenser Current in inductor, Time constant, Definition and its significance. Alternating current (A.C), Introduction Instantaneous, maximum and RMS value of A.C. current, Alternating Voltage applied to a pure resistor, pure inductor, pure capacitor, AC through C-R, L-R and L-C-R series circuits. XXV ATOMIC PHYSICS: Discovery of electron, e/m of electron by Thomsons method, Charge of the electron by Millikans Oil Drop Method (Principle Only). Photo Electric Effect : Definition, Laws of Photoelectric Emission, Einsteins explanation of Photoelectric effect, Einsteins Photo electric equation and its experimental verification by Milikans method. Photo Electric Cells, working and uses. X- Rays- Production of XRays, Coolidge tube, X- ray spectrum, Continuous X- Ray Spectra, Characteristic X Ray Spectra, Moseleys Law and its importance. Compton effect (Statement only), Dual nature of matter, de Broglies hypothesis (concept only). XXVI NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Composition and size of nucleus, mass deffect and binding energy and their relation (Explanation with examples). Natural radio activity alpha, beta and gamma radiations and their properties, radio active decay law, half life and average life of a radio active substance, Nuclear forces Their Properties, Artificial Transmutation of elements, Discovery of Neutron, Radio Isotopes and their uses. Nuclear Fission, Chain Reaction, Principle and Working of a Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Radiation Hazards, Protective shielding, Types of reactors Breeder Reactor, Power Reactor and their uses. Nuclear Fusion, Energy of Sun and stars, Carbon Nitrogen cycle and proton proton cycle, Elementary particles. XXVII SEMI-CONDUCTOR DEVICES: IIntroduction- Intrinsic and extrinsic semi conductors (n and p type). Junction diode, p -n junction, depletion layer and barrier potential, Forward and Reverse bias, and Current -voltage characteristics of junction diode, p n Diode as half wave and full wave rectifier (only qualitative treatment), Zener Diode as a voltage regulator.Transistor Function of Emitter, Base and Collector, p-np and n-p-n Transistors, Biasing of Transistors, Current Voltage Characteristics of Transistor in CE configuration, Transistor as common emitter amplifier (qualitative treatment), Logic Gates -OR, AND , NOT, NOR, NAND XXVIII COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: Elements of communication systems (block diagram only), Bandwidth of signals (Speech, TV and digital data), bandwidth of Transmission medium. Popagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, Modulation, Need for modulation.

I. ATOMIC STRUCTURE: Characteristics of electron, proton and neutron. Rutherford model of an atom. Nature of electromagnetic radiation. Plancks quantum theory. Explanation of photo electric effect. Dual behavior of electromagnetic radiation. Features of atomic spectra Emission and absorption spectra. Characteristics of hydrogen spectrum. Bohrs theory of the structure of atom Postulates. Bohrs theory of hydrogen atom,Energy of an electron. Bohrs explanation of spectral lines. Failure of Bohrs theory. Wave-particle nature of electron. De Broglies hypothesis, Heisenbergs uncertainty principle. Important features of the quantum mechanical model of an atom Meaning and significance of wave function. Quantum numbers, concept of orbitals, definition of atomic orbital in terms of quantum numbers - shapes of s, p and d orbitals, Aufbau principle, Paulis exclusion principle and Hunds rule of maximum multiplicity. Electronic configuration of atoms. Explanation of stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. II. CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES: Concept of grouping the elements in accordance to their properties Mendeleefs Periodic Table. Periodic law Mendeleefs classification of elements. Significance of atomic number and electronic configuration as the basis for periodic classification. Classification of elements into s, p, d, f blocks and their main characteristics. Periodic trends in physical and chemical properties of elements: Atomic radii, Ionic radii, Inert gas radii, Ionization energy, Electron gain energy, Electronegativity and Valency. Variation of oxidation states, Electropositivity Metallic and Non-metallic nature, Nature of Oxides, Diagonal relationship. Variation of atomic radii in inner transition elements. III. CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE: Kossel -Lewis approach to chemical bonding. Factors favorable for the formation of ionic bond, energy changes in ionic bond formation. Crystal lattice energy - calculation of lattice energy Born Haber cycle. Crystal structure of sodium chloride and Caesium chloride, Coordination number. Properties of ionic compounds. Covalent bond - VSEPR theory Lewis representation of covalent compounds, Formal charge, geometry of simple molecules. The valence bond approach for the formation of covalent bonds. Directional properties of covalent bond. Properties of covalent bond. Hybridization - different types of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals. Shapes of simple covalent molecules. Definition of coordinate covalent bond with examples. Molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules. Symmetry and energy of sigma and pi bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals. Molecular orbital energy diagram of H2, N2 and O2. Concept of hydrogen bond and its types with examples. Effect of hydrogen bonding on properties of compounds. IV. STOICHIOMETRY: Laws of chemical combination Principles and examples. Molar mass, concept of equivalent weight with examples. Percentage composition of compounds and calculation of empirical and molecular formulae of compounds. Chemical reactions and Stoichiometric equations. Oxidation number concept. Balancing of redox reactions by ion electron method and oxidation number method. Types of redox reactions. Applications of redox reactions in titrimetric quantitative analysis. Redox reactions and electrode processes. V. STATES OF MATTER : GASES AND LIQUIDS : Grahams law of diffusion, Daltons law of partial pressures, Avogadros law. Ideal behavior, empirical derivation of gas equation, ideal gas equation. Kinetic molecular theory of gases. Kinetic gas equation (No derivation) - deduction of gas laws. Distribution of molecular velocities and types of molecular velocities Average, Root Mean Square and Most Probable Velocity. Behavior of real gases, deviation from ideal behaviour, compressibility factor versus pressure diagrams of real gases. Conditions for liquification of gases, critical temperature. Liquid state Properties of liquids in terms of intermolecular attractions. Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivation) VI. SOLUTIONS: Classification of solutions, molarity, normality, molality and mole fraction. Dilute solutions, vapor pressure, Raoults law, Limitations of Raoults law. Colligative properties (i) Relative lowering of vapor pressure (ii) Elevation of B.P (iii) Depression in freezing point and their relation to molar mass. Osmosis and osmotic pressure - theory of dilute solutions. Determination of molar mass using colligative properties: Ostwalds dynamic method, Cottrells method, Rasts method and Berkeley Hartleys method. Abnormal molecular mass. VII. ELECTRO CHEMISTRY: Conductance in electrolytic solutions. Specific, Equivalent and Molar conductance - variation of conductance with concentration, Kohlrauschs law and its application to calculation of equivalent conductance of weak electrolytes. Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes, redox reactions. Electrolysis. Some typical examples of electrolysis viz; Fused Sodium hydroxide, Fused sodium chloride, Brine solution, Fused Magnesium chloride. Faradays laws of electrolysis and applications. Galvanic and voltaic cells. Representation and notation of electrochemical cells with and without salt bridge. Standard hydrogen electrode, electrode potentials, electrochemical series. EMF of the cell, Nernst equation and its application to calculate EMF of electrochemical cells. Primary cell - dry cell / Lechlanche cell. Secondary cells - Fuel cells: Hydrogen - Oxygen fuel cell and Hydrocarbon - Oxygen fuel cell. Corrosion: mechanism, factors to promote corrosion and prevention of corrosion, passivity. Lead accumulator. VIII. SOLID STATE: Classification of solids based on different binding forces as molecular, ionic, covalent, and metallic solids. Elementary treatment of metallic bond. Metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids. Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices.

Seven crystal systems, Bravais lattices. Braggs equation, X-ray study of crystal structure, Braggs method. Calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per cubic unit cell. Point defects - Schottky and Frenkel defects. Electrical and magnetic properties. IX. CHEMICAL KINETICS: Concepts of reaction rate, factors affecting reaction rates. Rate law, Units of rate constant. Order and molecularity. Methods of determination of order of a reaction. Integrated rate equations and half lives for zero and first order reaction Collision theory of reaction rates (elementary ideas). Concept of activation energy. Equilibrium: Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, Law of mass action, equilibrium constant. Factors affecting equilibrium. Relation between Kp and Kc Le Chateliers principle, application to industrial synthesis of (i) Ammonia (ii) Sulphur trioxide. Acids and Bases: Lowry-Bronsted acid base theory. Lewis theory, limitation of Lewis theory, Ionic equilibrium. Ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization. Ionic product of water. Concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), hydrolysis constant, buffer solutions. Solubility product and common ion effect with illustrative examples. X. THERMODYNAMICS: Concept of system, types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics - Internal energy and Enthalpy. Heat capacity and Specific heat, Exothermic and Endothermic reactions, measurement of Enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, neutralization, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization and dilution. Thermo chemical equations. Hesss law of constant heat summation. Driving force for a spontaneous process. Thermodynamic representation of criteria of spontaneity in terms of entropy, entropy as a state function.Gibbs free energy, Gibbs free energy change for spontaneous, non-spontaneous and equilibrium processes. XI. SURFACE CHEMISTRY: Adsorption: Physical and chemical adsorption, adsorption of gases on solids, factors affecting it - pressure (Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherms) and temperature. Catalysis - types of catalysis, autocatalysis Colloidal state: colloidal solutions, classification of colloidal solutions, protective colloids and Gold number, Properties of colloids - Tyndall effect, Brownian movement. Coagulation. Emulsions, classification of emulsions, micelles, cleansing action of soap. XII. HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS: Position of hydrogen in periodic table. Occurrence, isotopes of hydrogen. Hydrogen - Preparation, properties and uses including as a fuel. Reactions of hydrogen leading to ionic, molecular and non - stoichiometric hydrides. Physical and Chemical properties of water and heavy water. Hardness of water and its removal Hydrogen peroxide methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties - oxidation, reduction, decomposition, disproportionation and addition reactions. Detection, structure and uses of Hydrogen Peroxide. XIII. ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS: Electronic configuration, occurrence, Anomalous properties of the first element in each group. Diagonal relationship. Trends in properties like ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii, reactivity with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and water, uses of alkali and alkaline earth metals. Preparation, properties and uses of sodium hydroxide, salts of oxo acids, sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium chloride. Preparation and uses of Calcium oxide, Calcium carbonate and Calcium sulphate. Biological importance of Na, K, Mg and Ca. XIV. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 13 ELEMENTS: (IIIA GROUP ELEMENTS): Electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties and oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity. Anomalous properties of first element of the group. Boron- Physical and chemical properties and uses of boron. Borax, boric acid and boron hydrides. Preparation, structure and properties of diborane. Aluminum: uses, reactions with acids and alkalis. Potash alum. XV. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 14 ELEMENTS: (IVA GROUP ELEMENTS): Electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties and oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity. Anomalous behavior of first element. Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties and uses. Similarities between carbon and silicon, uses of oxides of carbon. Important compounds of Silicon - Silicon dioxide, Silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites. Manufacture and uses of Producer gas and Water gas. XVI. p- BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 15 ELEMENTS (VA GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence - physical states of nitrogen and phosphorous, allotropy, catenation electronic configuration, oxidation states. General characteristics and structure of hydrides. General characteristics of oxides and halides. Oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorous. Preparation and uses of nitric acid and Ammonia. Super phosphate of lime. XVII. p- BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 16 ELEMENTS (VIA GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence, electronic configuration, oxidation states, physical states of oxygen and sulphur, their structure and allotropy. General characteristics of hydrides, oxides and halides. Structural aspects of oxy acids of chalcogens. Preparation, properties and uses of Ozone and sodium thiosulphate. Industrial process for manufacture of sulphuric acid. XVIII. p- BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 17 ELEMENTS (VIIA GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence, electronic configuration and oxidation states. Physical states of halogens. Ionization Potential, Electro negativity, Electron affinity, bond energies, chemical reactivity, oxidizing power of

fluorine and chlorine. Structural aspects of oxy acids of chlorine. Preparation, properties and uses of fluorine, chlorine and bleaching powder. Structures of Inter halogen compounds. XIX. GROUP 18 ELEMENTS: (ZERO GROUP ELEMENTS): Electronic configuration, occurrence and isolation. Trends in physical and chemical properties and uses. Structures of Xenon oxides and halides. XX TRANSITION ELEMENTS: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. General trends in properties of first row transition elements - metallic character, ionization energy, variable oxidation states, atomic and ionic radii, color, catalytic property, magnetic property, interstitial compounds and alloy formation. Lanthanides: Electronic configuration, variable oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanide contraction. Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, Werners theory of coordination compounds, shapes of coordination compounds - Valence bond theory, IUPAC nomenclature of mono molecular coordination compounds, bonding, isomerism, EAN rule, importance of coordination compounds in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems (chromo proteins, haemoglobin, chlorophyll: structures only). XXI. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF METALLURGY: Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, reduction by chemical and Electrolytic methods and refining. Occurrence and principles of extraction of Copper, Zinc, Iron and Silver. Molten electrolysis processes of Aluminium, Magnesium and Sodium. XXII. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: Definition of terms, types of Pollution, Air, Water and Soil pollution. Oxides of carbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, chloro fluoro carbons. Chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain. Ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer. Green house effect and global warming. Pollution due to industrial wastes. Green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution with two examples. XXIII. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: Methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic compounds. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of covalent bond. Types of regents electrophiles, nucleophiles and free radicals with examples. Reactive intermediates. Types of organic reactions - substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement reactions with examples. Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. XXIV. HYDROCARBONS: Classification of hydrocarbons. Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism. Methods of preparation of ethane. Conformations of ethane. Physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, Combustion and Pyrolysis of ethane. Cycloalkanes : Preparation and properties of cyclohexane. Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of ethene, geometrical isomerism and physical properties of geometrical isomers. Ethylene: Methods of preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions - addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikovs addition and peroxide effect), Ozonolysis and oxidation. Mechanism of electrophilic addition. XXV. ALKYNES & AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: Nomenclature, structure of triple bond. Acetylene - Methods of preparation, Physical properties and chemical reactions: acidic character of acetylene, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water. Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene: resonance and aromaticity, Chemical properties: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution Nitration, Sulphonation, Halogenation, Friedel Crafts alkylation and Acylation. Directive influence of functional group in mono substituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity of aromatic compounds. IX. CHEMICAL KINETICS: Concepts of reaction rate, factors affecting reaction rates. Rate law, Units of rate constant. Order and molecularity. Methods of determination of order of a reaction. Integrated rate equations and half lives for zero and first order reaction Collision theory of reaction rates (elementary ideas). Concept of activation energy. Equilibrium: Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, Law of mass action, equilibrium constant. Factors affecting equilibrium. Relation between Kp and Kc Le Chateliers principle, application to industrial synthesis of (i) Ammonia (ii) Sulphur trioxide. Acids and Bases: Lowry-Bronsted acid base theory. Lewis theory, limitation of Lewis theory, Ionic equilibrium. Ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization. Ionic product of water. Concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), hydrolysis constant, buffer solutions. Solubility product and common ion effect with illustrative examples. X. THERMODYNAMICS: Concept of system, types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics - Internal energy and Enthalpy. Heat capacity and Specific heat, Exothermic and Endothermic reactions, measurement of Enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, neutralization, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization and dilution. Thermo chemical equations.

Hesss law of constant heat summation. Driving force for a spontaneous process. Thermodynamic representation of criteria of spontaneity in terms of entropy, entropy as a state function.Gibbs free energy, Gibbs free energy change for spontaneous, non-spontaneous and equilibrium processes. XI. SURFACE CHEMISTRY: Adsorption: Physical and chemical adsorption, adsorption of gases on solids, factors affecting it - pressure (Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherms) and temperature. Catalysis - types of catalysis, autocatalysis Colloidal state: colloidal solutions, classification of colloidal solutions, protective colloids and Gold number, Properties of colloids - Tyndall effect, Brownian movement. Coagulation. Emulsions, classification of emulsions, micelles, cleansing action of soap. XII. HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS: Position of hydrogen in periodic table. Occurrence, isotopes of hydrogen. Hydrogen - Preparation, properties and uses including as a fuel. Reactions of hydrogen leading to ionic, molecular and non - stoichiometric hydrides. Physical and Chemical properties of water and heavy water. Hardness of water and its removal Hydrogen peroxide methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties - oxidation, reduction, decomposition, disproportionation and addition reactions. Detection, structure and uses of Hydrogen Peroxide. XIII. ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS: Electronic configuration, occurrence, Anomalous properties of the first element in each group. Diagonal relationship. Trends in properties like ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii, reactivity with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and water, uses of alkali and alkaline earth metals. Preparation, properties and uses of sodium hydroxide, salts of oxo acids, sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium chloride. Preparation and uses of Calcium oxide, Calcium carbonate and Calcium sulphate. Biological importance of Na, K, Mg and Ca. XIV. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 13 ELEMENTS: (IIIA GROUP ELEMENTS): Electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties and oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity. Anomalous properties of first element of the group. Boron- Physical and chemical properties and uses of boron. Borax, boric acid and boron hydrides. Preparation, structure and properties of diborane. Aluminum: uses, reactions with acids and alkalis. Potash alum. XV. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 14 ELEMENTS: (IVA GROUP ELEMENTS): Electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties and oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity. Anomalous behavior of first element. Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties and uses. Similarities between carbon and silicon, uses of oxides of carbon. Important compounds of Silicon - Silicon dioxide, Silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites. Manufacture and uses of Producer gas and Water gas. XVI. p- BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 15 ELEMENTS (VA GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence - physical states of nitrogen and phosphorous, allotropy, catenation electronic configuration, oxidation states. General characteristics and structure of hydrides. General characteristics of oxides and halides. Oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorous. Preparation and uses of nitric acid and Ammonia. Super phosphate of lime. XVII. p- BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 16 ELEMENTS (VIA GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence, electronic configuration, oxidation states, physical states of oxygen and sulphur, their structure and allotropy. General characteristics of hydrides, oxides and halides. Structural aspects of oxy acids of chalcogens. Preparation, properties and uses of Ozone and sodium thiosulphate. Industrial process for manufacture of sulphuric acid. XVIII. p- BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 17 ELEMENTS (VIIA GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence, electronic configuration and oxidation states. Physical states of halogens. Ionization Potential, Electro negativity, Electron affinity, bond energies, chemical reactivity, oxidizing power of fluorine and chlorine. Structural aspects of oxy acids of chlorine. Preparation, properties and uses of fluorine, chlorine and bleaching powder. Structures of Inter halogen compounds. XIX. GROUP 18 ELEMENTS: (ZERO GROUP ELEMENTS): Electronic configuration, occurrence and isolation. Trends in physical and chemical properties and uses. Structures of Xenon oxides and halides. XX TRANSITION ELEMENTS: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. General trends in properties of first row transition elements - metallic character, ionization energy, variable oxidation states, atomic and ionic radii, color, catalytic property, magnetic property, interstitial compounds and alloy formation. Lanthanides: Electronic configuration, variable oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanide contraction. Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, Werners theory of coordination compounds, shapes of coordination compounds - Valence bond theory, IUPAC nomenclature of mono molecular coordination compounds, bonding, isomerism, EAN rule, importance of coordination compounds in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems (chromo proteins, haemoglobin, chlorophyll: structures only).

XXI. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF METALLURGY: Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, reduction by chemical and Electrolytic methods and refining. Occurrence and principles of extraction of Copper, Zinc, Iron and Silver. Molten electrolysis processes of Aluminium, Magnesium and Sodium. XXII. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: Definition of terms, types of Pollution, Air, Water and Soil pollution. Oxides of carbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, chloro fluoro carbons. Chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain. Ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer. Green house effect and global warming. Pollution due to industrial wastes. Green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution with two examples. XXIII. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: Methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic compounds. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of covalent bond. Types of regents electrophiles, nucleophiles and free radicals with examples. Reactive intermediates. Types of organic reactions - substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement reactions with examples. Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. XXIV. HYDROCARBONS: Classification of hydrocarbons. Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism. Methods of preparation of ethane. Conformations of ethane. Physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, Combustion and Pyrolysis of ethane. Cycloalkanes : Preparation and properties of cyclohexane. Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of ethene, geometrical isomerism and physical properties of geometrical isomers. Ethylene: Methods of preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions - addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikovs addition and peroxide effect), Ozonolysis and oxidation. Mechanism of electrophilic addition. XXV. ALKYNES & AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: Nomenclature, structure of triple bond. Acetylene - Methods of preparation, Physical properties and chemical reactions: acidic character of acetylene, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water. Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene: resonance and aromaticity, Chemical properties: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution Nitration, Sulphonation, Halogenation, Friedel Crafts alkylation and Acylation. Directive influence of functional group in mono substituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity of aromatic compounds.

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