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ELECTRICITY FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW) - the first of its kind in the country

Presentation by Deepak Bhatnagar and P. R. Basak Technology Information, Forecasting & Assessment Council (TIFAC) (Department of Science & Technology) Govt. of India, New Delhi 11 March 2004


DAILY PER CAPITA WASTE GENERATION (gram) 800 600 400 200 0 1947 1997 2005 2010 2015 2020

TOTAL WASTE GENERATED (miilion tonne) 150 100 50 0 1947 1997 2005 2010 2015 2020

AREA UNDER LANDFILL (thousand of ha) 80 60 40 20 0 1947 1997 2005 2010 2015 2020


5% 30%











Typical Composition & Properties of Indian MSW

Organic Fraction/Bio-mass Woody Bio-mass Paper Rags/Textiles Plastic Rubber etc. Glass Metals : 35.00 % : 15.00 % : 05.00 % : 05.00 % : 00.05 % : 04.85 % : 00.05 % : 00.05 %

Stones : 20.00 % Sand/Earth etc. : 15.00 % ---------------------------------------------------------Moisture Content (%) : 50.00 : 0.4-0.6 Bulk Density (MT/m3) Gross Calorific Value (kcal/kg) : 800


A Pilot Plant Effort

The Department of Science & Technology (DST) set up the first Pilot Plant in Mumbai in association with CMC Ltd and Bombay Municipal Corporation Equipment used were all indigenous Special purpose equipment like MSW fired Hot Air Drier, Air Density Separator etc. developed A modular production stream capable of producing RDF pellets @ 2 Tons per hour perfected and operationalised

First Commercial Plant

TIFAC transferred the DST Technology to M/s SELCO International Ltd. to set up the first commercial scale plant in Hyderabad The plant was set up with a processing capacity of about 700 TPD of MSW APTDC played a key role in assisting TIFAC Fuel Pellets having calorific value of about 3000 kCal/kg were sold in the market

MSW Processing Plant

Conversion of Processed MSW to Electricity - the first project of its kind in India
6.6 MW Power plant based on processed MSW has been commissioned and synchronized to the grid in November 2003 Nearly a decade of efforts of TIFAC and M/s SELCO International Limited have become successful in proving that electricity can be generated from heterogeneous garbage

Both TIFAC and Technology Development Board (TDB) (Govt. of India) jointly extended financial and techno-managerial support to the technopreneur M/s SELCO International Limited in successful implementation of the project


Being the first project of its kind in the country, many suggestions were given by experts, consultants and designers during the construction of the project. Most of these suggestions have immensely helped in successful implementation of the project. In the first month of operations many breakdowns were faced due to various reasons like improper feeding of low density, voluminous and heterogeneous RDF into the conveyor and into the boiler.

Power Generation
In the first month 12 lakhs units produced In the second month 18 lakhs units produced In the third month 28 lakhs units produced The progress made in the capacity utilization is a clear indication that the plant is stabilizing and reached 60% PLF based on the suggestions of the experts and experiences gathered. Further modifications being carried out to reach 100% PLF

Some critical features

Air cooled Condenser concept introduced for the first time, saving 30,000 liters of under ground water per hour - thus a true green project Proper design of the Boiler with suitable protections to prevent the erosion and corrosion during incineration of heterogeneous MSW Additional Heat surface area - the total heat surface area increased by 10% Modifications in fuel feeding and handling systems

Technology Replication
TIFAC technology of processing MSW was already replicated at Vijayawada and Guntur Large scale replication is under planning in the state of Andhra Pradesh with World bank funding GRASIM industries of Aditya Birla group is testing the MSW derived fuel at their plant in Tiruchi INDIA Cements is also testing the fuel at AP TATA Projects Ltd has shown keen interests to set up recycling of MSW units in their townships MONSANTO DMCC Enviro tech and Engineering Ltd, Mumbai has agreed in principle to sign the MOU for the technology transfer

Show Case / Model Project

This project can be made into a showcase/model project for large scale replication not only in our country but also abroad Several states in India are in the advanced stage of adapting this MSW processing technology of TIFAC A consortium of TIFAC-APTDC-SELCO is offering concept - to - commissioning in transferring this technology for large scale replication with active participation of concerned Municipal Authorities and interested technopreneurs

website: www.tifac.org.in email: basakpr@tifac.org.in and deepak@alpha.nic.in