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FrameCAD Pro Engineer

LGS Framing System Documentation for SAAD Group

The MFT Group

Contents
Section One General o Prefix o Design Scope o Design Methods Wall Frame System o Fabrication Connections o Wall System Capacity Tables o Bracing Requirements o Site Connections In plane Truss System o Fabrication Connections o Site Connections Floor Frame System o Fabrication Connections o Floor System Capacity Tables o Site Connections Design Methods o Strength and Stability Checks o Units of Measure o Common Notations o Capacity Calculations

Section Two

Section Three

Section Four

Section Five

Preface
This document is intended to outline the minimum design requirements for the design of a light gauge steel framing systems in domestic construction. Due to the absence of a loading code the following dead loads, live loads, snow loads, seismic loads and wind speeds have been supplied by the client. External and internal pressure coefficients have been based on the requirements of AS4055 Wind Loads for Housing. Minimum bracing requirements have also being based on this standard. Load combinations for the purpose of design have been derived from AS3623-1993 Domestic Metal Framing, with snow load combinations derived from AS1170.0:2002 Structural Design Actions - General Principals. Structural design of steel members is in accordance with AS/NZS 4600:2005 Cold Formed Steel Structures. All steel used is in accordance with AS 1397-2001 Steel Sheet and Strip Coated Products. Earthquake design requirements are also loosely based on the design component of AS1170.4-1993 Earthquake Loads. All design calculations assume a minimum return period of 50 years. All tables generated, unless noted otherwise, have been created through calculations and NOT through testing.

Limitations
For the conditions of this document, the following conditions shall apply: 1. The distance from the ground level to the underside of the eaves shall not exceed 6.0m. 2. From the ground to the highest point of the roof, neglecting chimneys shall not exceed 8.5m. 3. Within each storey, the distance at the external walls between the finished floor level and ceiling level shall not exceed 3.0m. 4. The width (W), including roofed verandahs but excluding eaves, shall not exceed 16.0m 5. The length (L) shall not exceed five times the width. 6. The roof pitch shall not exceed 45.

Exclusions
The following items have not been taken into consideration within the design: 1. Thermal effects on steel framing 2. Fire ratings and effects on steel framing 3. Sound transmissions through steel framing 4. Roof batten designs 5. Ceiling batten designs

Material Usage
Material Name S8975 Lipped Cee S8995 Lipped Cee S14012 Lipped Cee Grade G550 Nominal Properties Gauge Height Width 0.75 0.95 1.15 89.0 89.0 140.0 41/41 41/41 41/41 Lip 11.0 11.0 11.0

Dead Loads Used for Design


Load Type Sheet Roof Load Pitch Roof Load Tile Roof Load Truss Self Weight Ceiling Weight Framing, plasterboard and insulation Floor framing and floor sheeting External Internal 0.48 Sheeting Lining and Pitch Terra Cotta Tiles Total Load 0.29kpa 0.42kpa 0.77kpa 0.06kN/m 0.15kpa

Floor Self Weight Wall Self Weight

0.49kpa 1.00kpa 0.40kpa

Live Loads Used for Design


Location Construction Point Load Roofs Floor Long Term Point Load Floor Live Loads Roof Live Load Load 1.1kN 1.8kN 2.00kpa 3.00kpa 0.50kpa

Earthquake Design
Location Ground Acceleration Amplification Factor Load 0.4g 1

Roof Snow Loads


Location Roof Snow Load Load 0.00kpa 0.50kpa 1.00kpa 1.50kpa 2.50kpa

Basic Wind Speeds and Factors


Item Design Wind Speeds Load 35m/s - 0.74kpa 45m/s -1.22kpa 55m/s - 1.82kpa -0.90,+0.40 +0.20,-0.30 -1.8 +0.20 +0.70 -0.30 -1.30 +0.20

External roof coefficients Internal roof coefficients External roof coefficients at eaves Internal roof coefficients at eaves External wall coefficients Internal wall coefficients External wall coefficients at corners Internal wall coefficients at corners

Design Limitations
Limitation Type Construction Levels Roof truss span Roof truss spacing Roof truss pitch Wall height Stud spacing Opening widths Floor joist span Floor joist spacing Limit 2 Storey 1000 to 14000mm 600 to 1200mm 15 to 45 2500 to 4000mm 200 to 600mm 600 to 3600mm 900 to 6000mm 300 to 600mm

The design limitations above, refers to the limitations of the design work done, and not to the capability of the system created. The systems limitations are generally of a complex nature and a matrix to show such limitations would not be practical.

Design Load Combinations and Methods


For the purposes of table creation, most tables have been created using a matrix plane frame analysis technique using the displacement method to generate the forces and other complex custom software is used to do the required design checks. Below is a summary of the load combinations used and serviceability checks done.

Wind Pressure Design Calculations


For Where Wu Wu qu Cpt S qu Vu = = = = = = = quCptS ultimate upward wind action free stream gust pressure coefficient for upward wind direction Spacing of member being designed 0.6(Vu)2 / 1000 ultimate design wind speed

For Where

Wd Wd qu Cpt S qu Vu

= = = = = = =

quCptS ultimate downward wind action free stream gust pressure coefficient for downward wind direction Spacing of member being designed 0.6(Vu)2 / 1000 ultimate design wind speed

For Where

Ws Ws qs Cpt S Qs Vs

= = = = = = =

qsCptS serviceability wind action free stream gust pressure coefficient for appropriate wind direction Spacing of member being designed 0.6(Vs)2 / 1000 serviceability wind speed

Top Plate Design Process


Load bearing wall plates are designed to transfer loads in the vertical direction only. Wall plates are not designed to transfer horizontal loads, ceiling and floor diaphragms are designed for this purpose. The reaction due to roof or floor loads may be ignored in the design of the top plate is such that the load is transferred directly to the stud. While wall plates may be required to carry horizontal loads such as wind loads, these loads will be transferred into other members such as floor members or roof trusses which will limit the spans and corresponding loads and therefore eliminate the need to design for these loads. The tables generated also take into account the connection capacity of the top plate to the stud using the screw joint capacities as set out previously in this document. This check is for the upward wind loads only, as it is considered that the top will bear directly on or close to the stud. The clearance between the top plate and the stud is assumed to be 1mm. Load Combinations LC1 LC2 LC3 LC4 LC5 LC6 LC7 LC8 For LC7 Where G Q Q1 S P P1 Wu Wd L = = = = = = = = = = 1.2G + 1.5Q 1.2G + 1.5Q1 1.2G + 0.4Q + 1.5S 1.2G + 0.4Q1 + 1.5S 0.9G + Wu 1.2G + Wd G+S P Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Serviceability check Serviceability check L / 200mm or 3mm Gravity load Roof live load Floor live load Snow Load 1.1kN point load Floor live load as a point load Wind upward force Wind downward force Member span Deflection

Serviceability Limits

For connection capacity of the stud to the plate, load combination LC5 has been used for this check.

Lintel Design Process


Lintels are designed to transfer loads in the vertical direction over the openings to the jamb studs on either side. Lintels are not designed to transfer horizontal loads, ceiling and floor diaphragms are designed for this purpose. Lintels in single storey or upper storey walls are designed to support rafters and trusses, whereas lintels in lower storey construction are designed to support the loads from the walls above including roof loads and floor loads from the storey above. Lintels are designed as part of a system that includes the wall plates and upper studs that are connected directly to the lintel. In all cases lintels are designed to support evenly spaced loads and no allowance has been made for concentrated loads. While lintels may be required to carry horizontal loads such as wind loads, these loads will be transferred into other members such as floor members or roof trusses which will limit the spans and corresponding loads and therefore eliminate the need to design for these loads. The tables generated also take into account the connection capacity of the lintel to the stud using the screw joint capacities as set out previously in this document. This check is for the upward wind loads only, as it is considered that the top will bear directly on or close to the stud. The clearance between the top plate and the stud is assumed to be 1mm. The lintel is assumed to be fixed to the top plate so the lintel and top plate act as a single member. Load Combinations LC1 LC2 LC3 LC4 LC5 LC6 LC7 LC8 LC9 For LC7 For LC8 For LC9 Where G Q Q1 S P Wu Wd L = = = = = = = = = Gravity load Roof live load Floor live load Snow Load 1.1kN point load Wind upward force Wind downward force Member span Deflection 1.2G + 1.5Q 1.2G + 1.5Q1 1.2G + 0.4Q + 1.5S 1.2G + 0.4Q1 + 1.5S 0.9G + Wu 1.2G + Wd G+S P Wu Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Serviceability check Serviceability check Serviceability check L / 300mm or 10mm L / 300mm or 10mm L / 200mm

Serviceability Limits

Roof Support Beam Design Process


Roof support beams are designed to transfer loads in the vertical direction to end or intermediate supports. Roof support beams are not designed to transfer horizontal loads, ceiling diaphragms are designed for this purpose. Roof support beams are designed to support rafters and trusses only. While roof support beams may be required to carry horizontal loads such as wind loads, these loads will be transferred into other members such as roof trusses which will limit the spans and corresponding loads and therefore eliminate the need to design for these loads. Roof beams are designed to withstand the crushing loads imposed by the trusses or rafters, but at support locations, beams are assumed to be supported in such a way that crushing does not occur. Roof support beam tables do not take into account the connection capacity, this is treated separately from the span tables. Where back to back beams are used, the beams are assumed to fixed in such a way that the two beams act as a single member. Load Combinations LC1 LC2 LC3 LC4 LC5 LC6 For LC5 For LC6 Where G Q S P Wu Wd L = = = = = = = = Gravity load Roof live load Snow Load 1.1kN point load Wind upward force Wind downward force Member span Deflection 1.2G + 1.5Q 1.2G + 0.4Q + 1.5S 0.9G + Wu 1.2G + Wd G+S P Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Serviceability check Serviceability check L / 300mm or 10mm L / 300mm or 10mm

Serviceability Limits

Stud Design Process


Studs are broken into three main categories, common studs, jamb studs and girder studs. Common studs support the vertical loads applied to the top wall plate and horizontal loads due to wind. Jamb studs are provided on each side of openings. They support the loads from the lintels over the openings and horizontal wind loads across the width of the opening. The quantity of jamb studs required is directly proportional to the allowable spacing of the common studs. Girder studs are designed to transfer concentrated loads from the top plate to the bottom plates or floor. Where back to back girder studs are used, the studs are assumed to fixed in such a way that the two studs act as a single member. In all cases the studs are designed to transfer tension and compression loads from supported floors and roofs and to transfer horizontal wall loads in bending to the top and bottom plates. The tables generated also take into account the connection capacity of the plates to the stud using the screw joint capacities as set out previously in this document. This check is for the upward wind loads only, as it is considered that the stud will bear directly on or close to the plate web. The clearance between the top plate and the stud is assumed to be 1mm. LC1 LC2 LC3 LC4 LC5 LC6 LC7 LC8 LC9 For LC8 For LC9 G Q Q1 P Wu Wd Wh Ws S L = = = = = = = = = = = 1.2G + 1.5Q 1.2G + 1.5Q1 1.2G + 0.4Q + 1.5S 1.2G + 0.4Q1 + 1.5S 1.2G + Wd + Wh 0.9G + Wu + Wh 0.9G + Wu Ws P Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Serviceability check Serviceability check L / 150mm or 20mm L / 200mm or 12mm Gravity load Roof live load Floor live load 0.7kN impact load Wind upward force Wind downward force Wind horizontal force Wind serviceability force Snow load vertically Member span Deflection

Load Combinations

Serviceability Limits Where

For LC9 the point load is applied at a height of 1300mm above the floor level. It should also be noted that non load bearing walls are designed to allow for the internal pressure differentials as caused by the difference in external and internal wind pressures. For connection capacity of the stud to the plate, load combination LC7 has been used for this check.

Bearers and Joist Design Process


All floor members including floor joists, bearers and floor sheeting are designed to act together as a single structural unit to transfer all actions imposed to the appropriate supports. In addition to this, the floor assembly is also designed to act as a diaphragm to transmit the horizontal shear actions arising from the wind and earthquake actions. Floor joists are mainly designed to carry floor and ceiling loads. They are also required to carry load bearing and non load bearing walls which may run parallel or perpendicular to the joists. Bearers are designed to carry the floor joists plus any other imposed action transmitted by the roof or any floor systems above. Load Combinations LC1 LC2 LC3 LC4 LC5 LC6 For LC4 For LC5 For LC6 G Q1 Q2 P1 P2 S L = = = = = = = = Gravity load Floor live load 0.2Q1 uniform load 1.8kN point load 1.0kN point load Snow Load Member span Deflection 1.2G + 1.5Q1 1.2G + 1.5P1 1.2G + 0.4Q1 + 1.5S P2 Q2 G + Q1 + S Strength check Strength check Strength check Dynamic check Dynamic check Serviceability check 2mm Natural frequency > 8Hz L / 500mm or 12mm

Serviceability Checks

Where

Roof Truss Design Process


All roof members including roof battens, roof trusses or rafters, ceiling battens and bracing are designed to act together as a single structural unit to transfer all actions imposed to the appropriate supports. Load Combinations LC1 LC2 LC3 LC4 LC5 LC6 LC7 LC8 LC9 For LC6 For LC7 For LC8 For LC9 G Q P Wu Wd Ws S L = = = = = = = = = 1.2G + 1.5Q 1.2G + 1.5P 1.2G + 0.4Q + 1.5S 0.9G + Wu 1.2G + Wd G+S Ws Q P Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Serviceability check Serviceability check Serviceability check Serviceability check Gravity load Roof live load 1.1kN point load Wind upward force Wind downward force Wind serviceability force Snow load Member span Deflection L L L L / 300mm / 150mm / 250mm bottom chord / 200mm top chord

Serviceability Checks

Where

In the case of LC2, the point load should be applied to any point on any of the chords where ever it will have the worst effect. Load sharing is permitted with adjacent roof trusses.

Roof Rafter Design Process


All roof members including roof battens, roof trusses or rafters, ceiling battens and bracing are designed to act together as a single structural unit to transfer all actions imposed to the appropriate supports. Load Combinations LC1 LC2 LC3 LC4 LC5 LC6 LC7 LC8 For LC6 For LC7 For LC8 G Q P Wu Wd Ws S L = = = = = = = = = 1.2G + 1.5Q 1.2G + 1.5P 1.2G + 0.4Q + 1.5S 0.9G + Wu 1.2G + Wd G+S Ws P Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Serviceability check Serviceability check Serviceability check L / 300mm L / 150mm L / 250mm top chord Gravity load Roof live load 1.1kN point load Wind upward force Wind downward force Wind serviceability force Snow load Member span Deflection

Serviceability Checks

Where

In the case of LC2, the point load should be applied to any point on any of the chord where ever it will have the worst effect. Load sharing is permitted with adjacent rafters.

Ceiling Batten Process


All roof members including roof battens, roof trusses or rafters, ceiling battens and bracing are designed to act together as a single structural unit to transfer all actions imposed to the appropriate supports. Load Combinations LC1 LC2 LC3 LC4 For LC3 For LC4 G Wu Wd Ws L = = = = = = 0.9G + Wu 1.2G + Wd G G + Ws Strength check Strength check Serviceability check Serviceability check L / 500mm L / 200mm Gravity load Wind upward force Wind downward force Wind serviceability force Member span Deflection

Serviceability Checks Where

Roof Batten Design Process


All roof members including roof battens, roof trusses or rafters, ceiling battens and bracing are designed to act together as a single structural unit to transfer all actions imposed to the appropriate supports. Load Combinations LC1 LC2 LC3 LC4 LC5 LC6 LC7 For LC5 For LC6 For LC7 G P Wu Wd Ws S L = = = = = = = = 1.2G + 1.5P 1.2G + 1.5S 0.9G + Wu 1.2G + Wd G+S Ws P Strength check Strength check Strength check Strength check Serviceability check Serviceability check Serviceability check L / 300mm L / 150mm L / 150mm Gravity load 1.1kN point load Wind upward force Wind downward force Wind serviceability force Snow load Member span Deflection

Serviceability Checks

Where

In the case of LC1, load sharing is permitted with adjacent battens.

Strength and Stability Checks


For strength and stability checks, all members in all load cases are checked without exception. Methods of calculating the above are listed in much more detail below. Items check for are listed below: Compression Bending Shear Tension Bearing Combined bending and compression Combined bending and tension Combined bending and shear Combined bending and bearing

Units of Measure
The software is not flexibale with the units of measure. Units of measure used are listed below. Abbreviation Location coordinates Lengths and distances Applied Point Loads Applied moments Applied distributed loads Yield/Tensile strength Moment of Inertia Torsion constants Warping constant Rotation Reactions Joint loads and capacities Axial forces Bending moments Shear force Compression capacity Bending capacity Shear capacity Effective area Section modulus Bearing Capacity Various Report Type Node inputs Various Node inputs Node inputs Node inputs Section Data Sectional Properties Sectional Properties Sectional Properties Node Results Node Results Node Results Member Results Member Results Member Results Member Capacities Member Capacities Member Capacities Member Capacities Member Capacities Member Capacities Code Compliance Unit of Measure Metric Imperial Nominal units mm kN N/m kpa/m mpa mm4 mpa mpa Degrees N N N Nmm N N Nmm N mm2 mm3 N Percentage %

Common Notations
Ag An lx ly Ix Iy Zx Zy rx ry xo yo ro1 J Iw E G df tw fy fu = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = gross area of section nett area of section effective length in X axis effective length in Y axis second moment of inertia about X axis second moment of inertia about Y axis section modulus about X axis section modulus about Y axis radius of gyration about X axis radius of gyration about Y axis distance from X centroid to X shear centre distance from Y centroid to Y shear centre polar radius of gyration torsional constant warping constant Youngs modulus of elasticity 200000 shear modulus 80000 screw diameter material thickness material yield strength material ultimate design strength

Tension Capacity
Need to satisfy: N* N* Where N* Nta Ntb k1 t = = = = = = = = = applied tensile load tensile capacity of member Agfy tensile capacity of member 0.85k1Anfu correction factor 0.85 capacity reduction factor 0.90 tNta tNtb AN/NZS4500:2005 Clause 3.2.2 AN/NZS4500:2005 Clause 3.2.2

Bearing Capacity
Need to satisfy: R* Rb Where R* Rb ri d1 w = = = = = applied bearing load bearing capacity of section inside bend radius of section depth of flat portion of web capacity reduction factor = wRb AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 3.3.6

Ctw2fy(1 Cr(ri/tw)0.5)(1 + Cl (75/tw)0.5)(1 Cw(d1/tw)0.5)

For sections supported an the end C = 4 = 0.14 Cr = 0.35 C1 = 0.02 Cw = 0.85 w

For sections supported internally C = 13 Cr = 0.23 C1 = 0.14 Cw = 0.01 w = 0.90

Shear Capacity
Need to satisfy: V* Where V* Vv = = vVv AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 3.3.4

applied shear load shear capacity of member Vv = 0.64fyd1tw Vv = 0.64tw2(5.34Efy)0.5 Vv = 4.83Etw3 / d1

For For For

d1/tw (5.34E / fy)0.5 (5.34E / fy)0.5 d1/tw 1.415(5.34E / fy)0.5 d1/tw > 1.415(5.34E / fy)0.5 d1 v = = =

depth of flat portion of web excluding curves capacity reduction factor 0.90

Compression Capacity
Need to satisfy: N* N* N* Ns c Ae Nc Ae For For c foc fox foy foz foxz x y Iez = = = = = = = = = c 1.5 c > 1.5 = = = = = = = = = = cNs cNc AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 3.4.1 AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 3.4.1

Where

applied compression load section compression capacity A ef y capacity reduction factor 0.85 effective area at yield stress fy member compression capacity A ef n effective area at critical stress fn fn = (0.658c2)fy fn = (0.877/c2)fy (fy/foc)0.5 lesser of foxz or fox 1 (xo / ro1)2 2E/(x)2 2E/(y)2 (GJ/Agro12)(1 + 2EIw/(GJIez2)) (0.5 / )[(fox + foz) ((fox + foz)2 - 4foxfoz)0.5] lx / rx 200 ly / ry 200 effective length for twisting minimum lx or ly

Bending Capacity
Need to satisfy: M* M* Where M* Ms Ze b Mb Zc fc For For For b My Zf Mo Cb fox foy foz Iez = = = = = = = = = = maximum moment section moment capacity Z ef y effective sectional modulus calculates at fy capacity reduction factor 0.90 member moment capacity Zcfc effective sectional modulus at fc Mc/Zf M c = My Mc = 1.11My[1 (10b2/36)] Mc = My[1/ b2] bMs bMb AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 3.3.2.2 AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 3.3.3.2

b 0.60 0.6 < b < 1.366 b 1.366 = = = = = = = = =

(My/Mo)0.5 Zf * fy full sectional modulus CbAgro1(foyfoz)0.5 12.5Mmax / (2.5Mmax + 3M3 + 4M4 + 3M5) 2E/( lx / rx)2 2E/( ly / ry)2 (GJ/Agro12)(1 + 2EIw/(GJIez2)) effective length for twisting minimum lx or ly

Combined Bending and Compression


Need to satisfy: (N*/cNc) + (M* / bMb) (N*/cNs) + (M* / bMb) 1 1 AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 3.5.1 AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 3.5.1

Combined Bending and Tension


Need to satisfy: (N* / t Nt) + (M* / b Mb) (N* / t Nt) + (M* / b Ms) 1 1 AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 3.3.5 AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 3.3.5

Combined Bending and Shear


Need to satisfy: (V*/ b Vv)2 + (M* / b Ms) 2 1 AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 3.3.5

Combined Bending and Bearing


Need to satisfy: 1.07(R* / wRb) + (M* / b Ms ) 1.42 AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 3.3.5

Screw Connections
Need to satisfy: V* V* V* V* V* Vst Vsb Vsc Vsv b v Pst Psb Psc Psv = = = = = = = = = = = = = vVsc bVst bVsb vVsv applied shear force connection tilting capacity per screw connection bearing capacity per screw screw shear capacity per screw shear capacity of material screw capacity reduction factor 0.50 capacity reduction factor 0.90 4.2(tw3df)0.5fu 2.7twdffu screw manufacturers shear value 2.5dftwfy AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 5.4.2.2 AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 3.3.5 AS/NSZ4500:2005 Clause 3.3.5

Where

Screw Type 6-16 6-20 8-16 10-16 10-24 12-14 12-24 14-10 14-20

Common Tek Screw Capacities Screw Gauge Screw Diameter Single Shear 6g 3.6 mm 3.4 Nm 6g 3.6 mm 3.5 Nm 8g 4.1 mm 6.3 Nm 10 g 4.8 mm 6.8 Nm 10 g 4.8 mm 6.2 Nm 12 g 5.5 mm 8.8 Nm 12 g 5.5 mm 9.0 Nm 14 g 6.2 mm 10.9 Nm 14 g 6.2 mm 11.2 Nm

Axial Tensile 4.2 Nm 4.3 Nm 6.3 Nm 11.9 Nm 11.4 Nm 15.3 Nm 16.7 Nm 19.7 Nm 21.2 Nm

The above table reproduced from the Buildex Product Catalog 2003 edition.

Index
Contents ...................................................................................................... 1 Preface ........................................................................................................ 2 Limitations.................................................................................................... 2 Exclusions..................................................................................................... 2 Material Usage ............................................................................................... 2 Dead Loads Used for Design................................................................................ 3 Live Loads Used for Design................................................................................. 3 Earthquake Design........................................................................................... 3 Roof Snow Loads............................................................................................. 3 Basic Wind Speeds and Factors............................................................................ 4 Design Limitations........................................................................................... 4 Design Load Combinations and Methods ................................................................. 5 Wind Pressure Design Calculations..................................................................... 5 Top Plate Design Process ................................................................................ 6 Lintel Design Process..................................................................................... 7 Roof Support Beam Design Process .................................................................... 8 Stud Design Process ...................................................................................... 9 Bearers and Joist Design Process..................................................................... 10 Roof Truss Design Process ............................................................................. 11 Roof Rafter Design Process............................................................................ 12 Ceiling Batten Process ................................................................................. 13 Roof Batten Design Process ........................................................................... 13 Strength and Stability Checks ........................................................................... 14 Units of Measure ........................................................................................... 14 Common Notations ........................................................................................ 15 Tension Capacity .......................................................................................... 15 Bearing Capacity........................................................................................... 15 Shear Capacity ............................................................................................. 16 Compression Capacity .................................................................................... 16 Bending Capacity .......................................................................................... 17 Combined Bending and Compression ................................................................... 17 Combined Bending and Tension ......................................................................... 17 Combined Bending and Shear............................................................................ 17 Combined Bending and Bearing ......................................................................... 18 Screw Connections ........................................................................................ 18 Index......................................................................................................... 19