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Wayne Hacker

Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved.

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved. 1

Contents

1 Introduction to Thermodynamics 1.1 Introductory Concepts and Denitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6 1.1.7 1.1.8 1.2 What is the study of thermodynamics? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dening Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Closed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Property, state, and process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extensive and intensive properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and processes . . . . . . . . . . . Base SI units for mass, length, time, Force, energy, and pressure . 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 12

Static Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 Pascals Law and Archimedess principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Density, specic volume, specic weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Static Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3

Temperature Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved. 2

1

1.1

1.1.1

Introduction to Thermodynamics

Introductory Concepts and Denitions

What is the study of thermodynamics?

Problem 1. Which of the following items does not describe the main focus of the study of thermodynamics. (a) energy storage (b) the transfer of energy through heat and work (c) how energy transforms from one form of energy, such as kinetic, into another form *(d) how energy is bought and sold on the open market Solution: While holding down cost and making equipment energy ecient is always a concern for engineerings, the particulars of how energy is bought and sold is typically not a concern. Answer (d). 1.1.2 Dening Systems

Problem 2. Which statement best describes the concept of a system? *(a) the subject of the analysis (b) an object with xed set of molecules (c) a uid together with some sort of solid (d) an object that radiates heat into its environment Solution: (a) Problem 3. Consider a refrigerator in a kitchen. Take the refrigerator and everything in it to be our system. Which best describes the systems surroundings? (a) All of the air in the kitchen. (b) Any one standing in the kitchen. (c) The air inside the refrigerator. *(d) Everything in the universe external to the system. Solution: (d) Problem 4. Consider a refrigerator in a kitchen. Take the refrigerator and everything in it to be our system. Which best describes the systems boundary? (a) All of the air in the kitchen. (b) The thin region separating the system from everything else. (c) The air inside the refrigerator. (d) The walls of the refrigerator. Solution: Only (b) is correct. The walls are part of the system, but out could think of the thin metal layer as the boundary in practice.

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved. 3 1.1.3 Closed systems

Problem 5. Identify all of the true statements: (a) A closed system is necessarily an isolated system *(b) An isolated system is necessarily a closed system (c) A system cannot be both closed and isolated. (d) The concepts of closed and isolated in regards to a system are independent concepts. Solution: Only (b) is true. In an isolated system no energy can escape. If mass were to escape, then by e = mc2 , energy would also escape. 1.1.4 Control volume

Problem 6. Identify all of the true statements: *(a) closed system = control mass (b) closed system = control volume (c) open system = control mass *(d) open system = control volume Solution: Only (a) and (d) are true. Problem 7. Which of the following situations would be well suited for using a control volume in the thermodynamic analysis of the system? Do not worry about the details of the analysis. (a) compression of air in a cylinder (b) expansion of gases in a cylinder after a combustion (c) the air in a balloon *(d) lling a bike tire with air from a compressor Solution: The answer is (d). The bike tire is not a closed system, but the volume is clearly dened as the inside of the tube in the tire. Notice that the control volume can change shape. Problem 8. Which of the following situations would be well suited for using a control mass in the thermodynamic analysis of the system? Do not worry about the details of the analysis. *(a) compression of air in a sealed cylinder (b) a window unit air conditioner (c) a jet engine (d) a re hose spurting out water Solution: Only (a) the system in (a) is a closed system.

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved. 4 1.1.5 Property, state, and process

Problem 9. Consider the following two statements: (i) A system is in steady state if its properties are independent of space. (ii) A system is in steady state if its properties are independent of time. Which of the following statements is true: (a) Statement (i) is true and statement (ii) is true (b) Statement (i) is true and statement (ii) is false *(c) Statement (i) is false and statement (ii) is true (d) Statement (i) is false and statement (ii) is false

Problem 10. Which of the following is not an extensive property? (a) Kinetic Energy (b) Momentum (c) Mass *(d) Density (e) None of these Problem 11. Which of the following is not an intensive property? (a) Velocity *(b) Volume (c) Pressure (d) Temperature (e) None of these

1.1.7

Problem 12. Two metal blocks, one at 50 , and the other at 0 are set next to each other in a perfectly insulted box at time t = 0. At this instant are the blocks in thermal equilibrium? Now suppose you wait a long time. Are they in equilibrium now? Solution: At time t = 0 the blocks are not in thermal equilibrium. As time increases (i.e., t ) the system approaches equilibrium. Problem 13. In a quasi-equilibrium process, the pressure in a system (a) is held constant throughout the entire process *(b) is approximately spatially uniform throughout the system at each moment in time (c) increases if volume increases (d) always varies with temperature Problem 14. Which of the following process is a quasi-equilibrium process? (a) the stirring and mixing of cold creamer in hot coee (b) a balloon bursting (c) combustion *(d) the slow and steady compression of air in a cylinder

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved. 5 1.1.8 Base SI units for mass, length, time, Force, energy, and pressure

Problem 15. Express kinetic energy in terms of the base SI units: the kilogram, meter, and second. Write your answer in terms of the abbreviations ({kg, m, s}), and then identify the resulting derived unit. Solution: Apply the uninator: 1 m [KE] = [ mv 2 ] = [m] [v]2 = kg 2 s

2

= kg

m m=Nm=J s2

Problem 16. Express work (force distance) in terms of the base SI units: the kilogram, meter, and second. Express your answer in terms of the abbreviations (kg, m, s). Solution: Apply the uninator: [W ] = [F d] = [F ] [d] = N m = J Problem 17. Express P V , where P is pressure and V is volume, in terms of the base SI units: the kilogram, meter, and second. Express your answer in terms of the abbreviations (kg, m, s). Compare this answer to the previous one. What do you notice? Solution: Apply the uninator: [P ] = V F = V A N m2 m3 = J

Thus, preesure times volume has the units of work. In fact, it will be the most common form of work that we will encounter. It is the work done by an expanding gas in moving a boundary. Problem 18. Express power in terms of the base SI units: the kilogram, meter, and second. Write your answer in terms of the abbreviations ({kg, m, s}), and then identify the resulting derived unit. Solution: Apply the uninator: [P] = W t = J = watt s

Problem 19. Express specic weight in terms of the base SI units: the kilogram, meter, and second. Express your answer in terms of the abbreviations ({kg, m, s}), and then identify the resulting derived unit. Solution: Apply the uninator: [g] = kg N m Pa g = 3 = V m kg m [gh] = Pa,

as expected, since gh is known to be the pressure owing to the weight the uid h units above the point where the pressure is measured. Problem 20. Express specic volume in terms of the base SI units: the kilogram, meter, and second. Express your answer in terms of the abbreviations ({kg, m, s}). Solution: The specic volume is just the reciprocal of density. Work it out!

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved. 6 Problem 21. Which one of the following expressions can be converted to the unit of a Joule? (a) Pa m2 *(b) Pa m3 2 (c) Pa/m (d) N/kg (e) None of these Solution: Since Pa = N/m2 and J = Nm, it follows that (b) is the answer. Problem 22. Which of the following is not an acceptable extended SI unit? Recall: The SI system is the MKS system (Meter, Kilogram, Second), but well allow the extended SI system to include the cgs system (centimeter, gram, second), but you cant mix these two systems. (a) distance measured in centimeters (b) pressure measured in newtons per square meter (c) volume measured in cubic meters *(d) density measured in grams per cubic meter Solution: Cant mix grams and meters.

1.2

1.2.1

Static Fluids

Pascals Law and Archimedess principle

Problem 23. Which of the following is a statement of Pascals law? (a) If a gas is maintained at a constant temperature, then its volume will be inversely proportional to its pressure. *(b) Pressure applied to an enclosed uid is transmitted undiminished to every portion of the uid and to the walls of the container. (c) A body immersed in a uid is buoyed up with a force equal to the weight of the uid displaced by the body. (d) One mole of any ideal gas at standard temperature and pressure will have a volume of 22.4 liters. Problem 24. Which of the following is a statement of Archimedess principle? (a) If a gas is maintained at a constant pressure, then its volume will be proportional to its absolute temperature. (b) Pressure applied to an enclosed uid is transmitted undiminished to every portion of the uid and to the walls of the container. *(c) A body immersed in a uid is buoyed up with a force equal to the weight of the uid displaced by the body. (d) Dont be rude to armed Romans.

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved. 7 1.2.2 Density, specic volume, specic weight

Problem 25. The density of air is 1.3 kg/m3 . A room is 5.6 m long by 4.9 m deep by 2.4 m high. What is the mass of the air in the room? Round your answer to the nearest km. (a) 62 kg (b) 69 kg (c) 77 kg *(d) 86 kg (e) None of these Solution: The mass equals the density times the volume. We know the density , the length l, the width w, and the height h. Hence m = V = lwh = (1.3 kg/m3 )(5.6 m)(4.9 m)(2.4 m) = 86 kg Problem 26. The density of air at sea level is 1.20 kg/m3 . The living room in your seaside cottage is 5.0 m wide, 4.0 m deep, and 3.0 m high. What is the weight of the air in the room? Give your answer to the nearest pound. Recall: 1 lb = 4.448 N. (a) 18 lb *(c) 160 lb (e) None of these (b) 39 lb (d) 1752 lb

Solution: The weight of a volume of gas is the mass times gravity = density times volume times gravity, and the the volume of a rectangular box is Volume = length width height: w = mg = (V )g = glwh = (1.20 kg/m3 )(5.0 m)(4.0 m)(3.0 m) = 710 N. Lastly, we must convert Newtons to pounds: 710 N = 710 N 1 lb 4.448 N = 160 lb.

Problem 27. Your new roommate has left the water running in the sink of your rectangular water-tight dorm room, and the room is now full of water. If the dimensions of the room are: length = 5.0 m, width = 4.0 m, and height = 3.0 m, and the density of water is 1.0 103 kg/m3 , then what is the weight of the water in the room? Round your answer to two signicant gures. (a) 6.5 106 N (c) 6.0 104 N (e) None of these *(b) 5.9 105 N (d) 5.4 103 N

Solution: wwater = mwater g = water V g, where V is the volume of the container. We have used the denition of density = m/V to nd the mass of the water. The volume of a rectangular box is length width height = LW H. Thus w = water V g = water LW Hg = (103 kg )(5m)(4m)(3m)gm/s2 = 64 (9.8)N 65 . m3

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved. 8 Problem 28. Your new roommate has lled his room with nitrous oxide gas, which has a density of 1.96 kg/m3 . The room is 4.0 m long by 5.0 m wide by 3.0 m high. What is the mass of the N2 O in the room? Round your answer to the nearest kilogram. (a) 115 kg *(c) 118 kg (e) None of these (b) 57 kg (d) 164 kg

Solution: From the denition of density = m/V we have mN2 O = N2 O V , where the volume of the rectangular room is V = LW H. Thus mN2 O = water LW H = (1.96 kg )(4m)(5m)(3m)m/s2 120kg . m3

Problem 29. Your new roommate has lled his room with helium, which has a density of 0.18 kg/m3 . The room is 4.0 m long by 5.0 m wide by 3.0 m high. What is the mass of the helium in the room? Round your answer to two signicant gures. (a) 0.71 kg *(b) 11 kg (c) 1.0 kg (d) 28 kg (e) None of these Solution: From the denition of density and the volume of a rectangular room: mhelium = helium LW H = (0.18 kg )(4m)(5m)(3m)m/s2 = 10.8 11kg , 3 m

where L = length, W = width, and H = height. Problem 30. The mass of an unknown gas mixture in a room that is 3 m 4 m 5 m is known to be 500 kg. What is the density of the gas ( = m )? V Solution: From the denition of density and the volume of a rectangular room: = m 500 kg 25 kg kg = = = 8.33 3 , 3 LW H (5 m)(4 m)(3 m) 3 m m

Problem 31. A solar-water heating system uses solar panels on the roof of a large build, 40.0 m above the storage tank. The pressure at the panels is 1 atmosphere. What is the absolute pressure at the top of the tank? Solution: Use the formula for static pressure: Pabs = Patm + gh. Problem 32. A solar-water heating system uses solar panels on the roof of a large build 10 m above the top of a large storage tank. The pressure at the panels is 1 atmosphere. What is the gage pressure at the top of the tank? Take the density of water to be kg m = 1000 m3 and g = 10 s2 . (a) 1 kPa (b) 10 kPa 2 *(c) 10 kPa (d) 103 kPa (e) None of these

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved. 9 Solution: Use the equation Pgage = P = Pabs Patm = gh = (103 kg N m )(10 2 )(10m) = 105 2 = 105 Pa = 102 kPa 3 m s m

Problem 33. A town in the middle-of-nowhere is built up around a large 100 meter hill. Since the hill is in the center of a town, it is proposed at a town-hall meeting that a water tower be placed at the top of the hill. However, the town barber points out that when water ows through a pipe there is a great amount of resistance owing to viscosity and turbulent mixing of the uid. He estimates that the gauge pressure in the pipe at the bottom of the hill must be at least 100 kPa in order for water to make it to the outskirts of town. Find what the gauge pressure would be at the bottom of the hill. Solution: Use Pgage = Pabs Patm = gh. Problem 34. A submarine has a circular top hatch with a 1 m diameter. What is the force exerted on the hatch from the pressure due to the water above the hatch when the sub dives down to a depth of 200 m? Take the approximate density of sea water to be kg m = 1000 m3 and g = 10 s2 . Note: we are ignoring atmospheric pressure Patm in this problem and we are assuming the submarine is a rigid body (i.e., we can ignore the pressure from inside the sub). (a) 2 105 N (b) 106 N (c) 2 106 N *(d) 106 N 2 (e) None of these Solution: First well nd the pressure on the hatch, then well use the denition of pressure to nd the force Fhatch = Phatch Ahatch , where Fhatch is the force on the hatch from the pressure of the sea water above the hatch, Phatch is the pressure on the hatch, and Ahatch is the area of the hatch. Phatch = gh = (103 m N kg )(10 2 )(2 102 m) = 2 106 Pa = 2 106 2 . 3 m s m

2 Fhatch = Phatch Ahatch = (rhatch ) Phatch =

1 2

m2 2 106

N = 106 N m2 2

Problem 35. A vertical, frictionless piston-cylinder device contains a gas that is in equilibrium with the weight of the piston balanced by the internal pressure for the gas. Suppose the mass of the piston is mpiston , the area of the piston cylinder is Acyl , and the atmospheric pressure outside the cylinder is Patm . Derive a formula for the gas contained in the cylinder Pgas in terms of the given information. Solution: Using a free-body diagram it can be seen that Fgas = Fatm + mpiston g

Acyl

Pgas = Patm +

mpiston g . Acyl

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved.10 Problem 36. The basic barometer can used to measure the height of a building. To do this a measurement is made at the bottom of the building at ground level and a second measurement is taken at the top of the building on the roof. One can then relate these readings to pressure using the equation for a mercury-lled barometer: Patm (hHg ) = Hg ghHg , where Hg = 13, 600 kg/m3 is the density of mercury, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and hHg is the height of the mercury column in the barometer measured in millimeters. The approximate height of the building can then be found by making a few simplifying assumptions. For moderate sized buildings a reasonable assumption for the average density of air under fair weather conditions is approximately air 1.18 Kg/m3 . If the barometric readings at the top and bottom of a certain building are 730 mmHg and 755 mmHg respectively, what is the height of the building? Solution: See handwritten solutions Problem 37. A gas is contained in a vertical, frictionless piston-cylinder device. The piston has a mass of 4 kg and cross-sectional area of 35 cm2 . A compressed spring above the piston exerts a force of 60 N on the piston. If the atmospheric pressure is 95 kPa, determine the pressure inside the cylinder. Solution: See handwritten solutions Problem 38. High-altitude balloons are often lled with helium gas because it weighs only about one-seventh of what air weighs under identical conditions. The buoyancy force, which can be expressed as Fb = air gVballoon , will push the balloon upward. If we approximate the shape of the balloon as a sphere with a radius of 5 m and a total payload of 140kg (including the ropes and cage), determine the acceleration of the balloon when it is rst released. Assume the density of air is air = 1.16 kg/m3 . Solution: See handwritten solutions Problem 39. A glass tube is attached to a water pipe as shown in the gure below. If the water pressure at the bottom of the tube is 115 kPa and the local atmospheric pressure is Patm = 92 kPa, determine how high the water will rise in the tube, in m. Assume g = 9.8 m/s2 at that location and take the density of water to be 103 kg/m3 .

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved.11

Patm

h=?

Figure 1: Vertical glass tube attached to horizontal water pipe. Solution: See handwritten solutions Problem 40. A pressure cooker cooks a lot faster than an ordinary pan by maintaining a higher pressure and temperature inside the cooker. The lid of a pressure cooker is well sealed, and the steam can escape only through an opening in the middle of the lid. A separate piece of metal, the petcock, sits on top of this opening and prevents steam from escaping until the pressure inside the cooker provides enough force on the petcock to over come the weight of the petcock allowing the hot gas to escape. This mechanism provides a safety device that limits the maximum pressure that can form in the pressure cooker by providing a periodic release of the high-pressure gas in the container. This in turn prevents extremely high pressures from building up in the cooker that could lead to a potentially deadly explosion of hot gas and metal shards. Assuming that once the cooker reaches the maximum pressure that the gas remains constant in the pressure cooker, determine the mass of the petcock needed for a pressure cooker that is designed to have an operation gage pressure of 100 kPa and has an opening cross-sectional area of 4 mm2 . Assume an atmospheric pressure of 101 kPa. Be sure and draw a free-body diagram of the petcock to accompany your solution. Solution: See handwritten solutions

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved.12

1.3

Temperature Scales

Use the equations TC = TK 273 and TF = 9 TC + 32 to answer the following questions. 5 Round your answers to the nearest integer. Problem 41. If heat is added to a system and the temperature of a system increases, without knowing anything else, which form of energy will be denitely increase? (a) The kinetic energy of the system (b) The potential energy of the system (c) The work done by the system *(d) The internal energy (i.e., the molecular energy) of the system Solution: If the temperature increases, then the internal energy, which depends on temperature, will certainly rise. But adding heat to a system need not result in an increase in bulk energy of the system. For example, consider a pot of water sitting on a hot-plate. If we take the water as our system, then clearly heat is being added to the system, but since the pot is not moving, its potential and kinetic energy are not changing. Since the boundary of the system is not moving, there is no work being done to, or by the system. Problem 42. Convert 98 F to C. (a) 32 C (b) 208 C (c) 20 C *(d) 37 C (e) None of these 5 5 5 5 5 Solution: TC = (TF 32) = (98 32) C = 66 C = 22 C = (35 + ) C 37 C 9 9 9 3 3 Problem 43. Convert 68 F to C. (a) 12 C (b) 17 C *(c) 20 C (d) 37 C (e) None of these 5 Solution: TC = (TF 32) = 20 C 9 Problem 44. Convert 110 F to C. (a) 50 C *(b) 43 C (c) 20 C (d) 37 C (e) None of these 5 Solution: TC = (TF 32) = 43.3 C 43 C 9 Problem 45. Convert 20 C to F. *(a) 68 F (b) 98 F (c) 120 F (d) 212 F (e) None of these 9 Solution: TF = TC + 32 = 68 F 5

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved.13 Problem 46. Convert 100 C to F. (a) 68 F (b) 98 F (c) 120 F *(d) 212 F (e) None of these 9 Solution: TF = TC + 32 = 212 F 5 Problem 47. Convert 20 C to K. (a) 253 K *(b) 293 K (c) 68 K (d) 0 K (e) None of these Solution: TK = TC + 273 K = (20 + 273) K = 293 K. Problem 48. Convert 10 K to C. *(a) 263 K (b) 293 K (c) 68 K (d) 0 K (e) None of these Solution: TC = TK 273 C = (10 273) C = 263 C. Problem 49. Convert 98 F to R (degrees rankine). (a) 460 R *(c) 558 R (e) None of these (b) (d) 558 R 200 R

Solution: TR = TF + 459.67 TF + 460 = 558 R. Note: Some books say do not use the degree symbol with the Rankine scale, since its an absolute scale like the Kelvin scale.

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved.14 Problem 50. (Measuring wind chill) It is well-known that cold air feels much colder in windy weather than what the thermometer reading indicates because of the chilling eect of the wind. This eect is due to the increase in the convection heat transfer coecient with increasing air velocities. The equivalent wind chill temperature in F is given by (all variables with an asterisk superscript ( ) are dimensional quantities)

Tequiv,F ( F) = Tadj,F ( F) + (Tambient,F ( F) Tadj,F ( F)) f (vb )

where f is the dimensionless function (which must have dimensionless arguments in order to be dimensionally consistent! - for any smooth function this can be proved via a Taylor series expansion) f (vb ) = 0.475 0.0203vb + 0.304 vb ,

and Tadj,F = 91.4 F is a temperature adjustment term, vb is a dimensionless wind speed that has been non-dimensionalized by miles per hour (i.e. vb = vb , (miles/hour and Tambient is the ambient air temperature in F in calm air, which is taken to be light winds at speeds of no more than 4 mph. The constant 91.4 F in the above equation is the mean temperature of a resting person in a comfortable environment. Windy air at temperature Tambient and velocity v will feel as cold as the calm air at temperature Tequiv . Notice that the units of the coecients in the second factor of the second term are, in order: dimensionless, hours per mile, and the square root of hours per mile so that the resulting second factor is dimensionless after the dimensional variables are substituted into the equation.

Using proper conversion factors, obtain an equivalent relation in SI units where vSI is the dimensionless wind speed based on m/s and Tambient is ambient air temperature in C. Hint: When working with physical equations all terms must be dimensionally consistent. To preserve the dimensional consistency whatever we do to one side of the equation, we must do to the other, just as you learned in algebra. Solution: Starting from the original equation we rst transform the dimensional component (i.e., the temperature component has physical dimensions, but the factor f (vb ) is dimensionless).

Tequiv,F ( F) = Tadj,F ( F) + (Tambient,F ( F) Tadj,F ( F)) f (vb ) Tequiv,F ( F) 32 F = (Tadj,F ( F) 32 F) + (Tambient,F ( F) Tadj,F ( F)) f (vb ) 32 F

5 C 9 F

5 C 9 F =

Tequiv,F ( F) 32 F

Hackernotes: Problem Set 1 solns Copyright Wayne Hacker 2009. All rights reserved.15

TC ( C)

5 C 9 F

5 C 9 F

= 33 C + = 33 C 5 C + 9 F

5 C 9 F

(Tambient,F ( F) 32 F)

5 C 9 F

(Tadj,F ( F) 32 F) f (vb )

= 33 C + Tambient,C ( C) 33 C f (vb )

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