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Elisabeth Keller

Odins names in the Poetic Edda compared to Gods names in the Heliand
University of Oslo, Faculty of Humanities, Institute for Linguistics and Scandinavian Studies

21. mai 2012

Elisabeth Keller

Odins names in the Poetic Edda compared to Gods names in the Heliand
From Viking to White Christ The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the literacizing and poeticizing of two narratives supposedly formed on older oral traditions, the Poetic Edda and the Heliand. I will try to show that both are learned literary works of art based on Indo-European and Classic models as well as the conventions of writing that were active at the time of their being written down, and not some spontaneous free spirited folkloristic expressions.1

The study is parted in two: I will first attempt to study how and why traditional oral narratives are transmitted into writing and what can trigger their poeticizing. In order to do this I will take a quick look at how the collection and literacizing of oral narratives happened in Modern times. I will then study what kennings are used for Odin in the Poetic Edda and what names are used for God in the Heliand, comparing those the four that show the closest kinship in etymology and/or semantics. The comparison is based on Odensheite by Hjalmar Falk as part of his historical philosophical class2 and a preliminary list of Gods names in the Heliand, which I have made myself as part of my masters thesis.3

All statistical data used in this survey is to be found as an appendix to this article.

A Textualisation of oral narratives? What is a text?

Traditionally, text has been defined as communication in print, such as a text-book or a chapter in a book. The postmodernist view, however, suggests that the term text has a broader interpretation. Texts do not have to be print sources, but can be any source that communicates meaning. 4

Referring to the problems of the oral formulaic theory of Parry/Lord see: Acker, Paul: Revising Oral Theory, New York, 1998, p. 85 and on the problems with Heuslers ideas on the altgermanische Dichtung see: Haymes, Edward R. The Germanic Heldenlied and the Poetic Edda: Speculations on Preliterary History in Oral Tradition, 19/1 Columbia, 2004, p. 44 2 see: Falk, Hjalmar: Odensheite, Kristiania 1924, pp. 3-34 3 Keller Elisabeth: unpublished masters thesis on the names for God in the Heliand, 2012 4 Susan Davis Lenski, Intertextual Intentions: Making Connections across Texts in The Clearing House , Vol. 72, No. 2, London, 1998, p. 74

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Elisabeth Keller

This is not entirely unproblematic as even music, drama, video, art and gesture5 would fall under this category. While I might accept drama, written music notes and gesture6 as text, music itself, dance, and a category as broad as art and are harder to accept. I would limit what is understood by a text to the aspect of written or verbal communication, the possibility of reading it or reciting it in words without too much loss of information. By this definition the oral narrative that supposedly forms the basis of the Old Norse myths we now call the Eddaic, Skaldic and to a lesser degree Saga literature would fall under this definition, whereas it would not under the previous one. To speak of textualization of oral narratives is therefore false because an oral narrative is also a text. It should rather be called literacizing as a means of clarifying the transition from oral to written. The next issue is to define poetry, as I want to investigate the poeticizing of oral narratives or texts.

The problem of defining poetry We all seem to have an idea of what we understand to be poetry, but actually grasping its essence in form of a definition has proven elusive. There is even the possibility of a text being poetry but not a poem.7 The Britannica Concise Encyclopedia gives the following not definition:
Poetry: Writing that formulates a concentrated imaginative awareness of experience in language chosen and arranged to create a specific emotional response through its meaning, sound, and rhythm. It may be distinguished from prose by its compression, frequent use of conventions of metre and rhyme, use of the line as a formal unit, heightened vocabulary, and freedom of syntax. Its emotional content is expressed through a variety of techniques, from direct description to symbolism, including the use of metaphor and simile.

This definition again excludes oral texts, which is absurd considering that poetry slams and battle rap, both centered around spontaneous orally composed and presented poetry, show that this is indeed quite possible. There is also no reason to believe that the ability to compose poetry spontaneously is new. The word writing should therefore clearly be exchanged with composition. But are we certain that the orally composed and transmitted myths were poetry at all?

Susan Davis Lenski, Intertextual Intentions: Making Connections across Texts in The Clearing House , Vol. 72, No. 2, London, 1998, p. 74 6 As for instance in sign language 7 Steinberg, Erwin R.: Toward a Definition of Poetry, The English Journal , Vol. 56, No. 6, Urbana, 1967, p. 835 8 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/466108/poetry

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Elisabeth Keller

Polishing Oral Narratives If we look at Moltke Moes notes and the fairy tales that he published, the differences are striking. A short factual account from the informant is being broadened, rounded, embellished and polished9 to become the perfect fairy tale. Even endings have been changed completely10 in order to fit the desired scheme. Similar approaches are known from the Grimm brothers and other 19th century collectors of oral narratives in their manipulation of the texts to fit their desired moral and stylistic make-up.11

It is not unreasonable to assume a somewhat similar process of manipulation during the process of literacizing these heathen mythological oral narratives in the Middle Ages, or the Heliand if the latter is based on an oral source. Though it is unlikely that the process was quite as systematic, there seems to have been made the effort to systematize the texts later on. Snorre of course does not have to be the initiator as Wessn and others have suggested12 but was more likely just the most prominent of the compilers and writers. It seems strange to me that Clover and Lindow suggest that this diminishes the motivation for writing the Codex Regius in any way. If one follows Lindblads argumentation that the Poetic Edda was compiled from a number of smaller written works, it only shows that the intellectual circles in medieval Iceland felt the need to put them together in a larger collection.13

Poeticizing orally transmitted myths If we assume that the poeticizing happened when the oral narrative was first put into writing, it would be reasonable to think of it as a way of polishing the texts, both for the sake of the texts themselves, but also as a means of showing ones distinguished capabilities and poetic abilities as a writer. If anything the repeated literacizing of the narratives supports Margaret Clunies Ross notion that the myths, despite their very different reception, represent[ed] the

Jorunn Fltra, Moltke moe som folklorist, Oslo, 1995, pp. 88-89 Jorunn Fltra, Moltke moe som folklorist, Oslo, 1995, pp. 91-92 11 Tully, Carol Lisa, Creating a National Identity: A Comparative Study of German and Spanish Romanticism. Stuttgart, 1997, pp. 137142 12 On Wessn Joseph Harris Eddic Poetry in Carol J. Clover & John Lindow(ed.), Old Norse-Icelandic Literature: A Critical Guide, Cornell, 1985, pp. 75-76 13 Joseph Harris Eddic Poetry in Carol J. Clover & John Lindow(ed.), Old Norse-Icelandic Literature: A Critical Guide, Cornell, 1985, p.76

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truth of human experience and kept their truth-value even during the religious, cultural and social changes from Heathen- to Christendom.14 Snorre writes: En eigi skulu kristnir menn tra heiin go ok eigi sannyndi essa sagna annan veg en sv sem hr finnst upphafi bkar.15 Christian men should not believe in heathen gods, and neither in the truth of these tales in any other way than one might find here in the books beginning. 16 But by pointing backwards in time one could show that one had knowledge of the past, and since the past was widely considered better than the present, as one moved towards doomsday17, using images and formulae from the past would make what was said more meaningful and more powerful. By way of pointing to ones knowledge of Classical literature such as the Bible and some major philosophers, of compositional conventions, of formulae, and by pointing to the past, especially but not limited to, by linking ones genealogy as far as possible back in time, one ennobled both the texts and oneself18. I therefore cannot agree with Lassens conclusion that we should accept the Old Norse mythic texts as fabulae, despite there being no mention of this term. She shows convincingly enough fabula to be a derogative term in medieval learned circles19. She undermines her argument herself by pointing out that the term must have been both known to and used by the Icelandic medieval scholarly corpus, but that there is no trace that they called the Norse mythical texts fabulae.20 If we accept the theory that Edda comes from the Latin edere to publish, to write 21 or relate22 the name Edda itself might actually point to the process I just discussed. I find it by far the most likely theory on the origin of Edda, but we must not forget that one explanation of the title doesnt necessarily exclude the other23. We do know that medieval scholars and

Clunies Ross, Margaret: Prolonged Echoes. Old Norse Myths in medieval Northern Society vol.1: The Myths, Odense 1994. p.18 15 http://heimskringla.no/wiki/Sk%C3%A1ldskaparm%C3%A1l 16 My own translation with the help of Zoga, Geir T., A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Toronto, 2004 17 Goetz, Hans-Werner: The Concept of Time in the Historiography of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries in Medieval Concepts of the Past: Ritual, Memory, Historiography, Cambridge, 2002, p. 154 18 Lassen, Annette: Odin p kristent pergament, Kbenhavn, 2011, p. 106 19 Lassen, Annette: Odin p kristent pergament, Kbenhavn, 2011, pp. 83-86 20 Lassen, Annette: Odin p kristent pergament, Kbenhavn, 2011, p. 87 21 For a short rsum of Olafssons, Karlssons and Faulkners interpretation of Edda see: Joseph Harris Eddic Poetry in Carol J. Clover & John Lindow(ed.), Old Norse-Icelandic Literature: A Critical Guide, Cornell, 1985, pp. 74-75 22 Edere in: James Morwood (ed.), Pocket Oxford Latin Dictionary, Oxford, 2005 23 On the main other interpretations such as r, Oddi and great-grandmother consult: Joseph Harris Eddic Poetry in Carol J. Clover & John Lindow(ed.), Old Norse-Icelandic Literature: A Critical Guide, Cornell, 1985, p. 74

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Elisabeth Keller

writers as those of later times as well were almost obsessed with symbols and double meanings. It might have been fully intentional.

Odins kennings and names for God On the amount and nature of Odins many kennings we can read in Snorres Prose Edda

mlti Gangleri: "Geysimrg heiti hafit r gefit honum, ok at veit tra mn, at at mun vera mikill frleikr, s er hr kann skyn ok dmi, hverir atburir hafa orit sr til hvers essa nafns." segir Hrr: "Mikil skynsemi er at rifja at vandliga upp, en er r at skjtast at segja, at flest heiti hafa verit gefin af eim atbur, at sv margar sem eru greinir tungnanna verldinni, ykkjast allar jir urfa at breyta nafni hans til sinnar tungu til kalls ok bna fyrir sjlfum sr, en sumir atburir til essa heita hafa gerzt ferum hans, ok er at frt frsagnir, ok muntu eigi mega frr mar heita, ef skalt eigi kunna segja fr eim strtendum." 24

Then Odin said: Very many names have you given him, and this my faith knows, that one must remember a lot, if one is to know all the verses, all the events that made each of these names. Then Harr said: It takes much knowledge to explain exactly, so it is shortest to say that most names have been given to him by the event that there are many branches of languages in this world, so all the peoples thought therefore to change his name to their tongue to call upon him and pray to him themselves. Some of the occasions these names came from happened on his journeys and these are recorded in narratives and you cannot be called a wise man if you cannot tell of these great events.25 Odin thus attributes his many names to his followers different languages on the one hand and his many travels on the other. There are two connections that have to be made a) this is a parable over the tower of Babel and the origin of languages, and b) Odin as a either a preChristian or Early-medieval leader would have done, would have to have travelled within his vast reach from place to place in order to ensure his subjects loyality.

When reading the article on Odin in the Kulturhistorisk Leksikon for Nordisk Middelalder Odins etymology seems to be as complex a blend as what we know of the god himself. The etymologic roots of the name seem to be reaching from wind and breath, over ecstasy,
24 25

http://www.heimskringla.no/wiki/Gylfaginning My own translation with the help of Zoga, Geir T., A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Toronto, 2004

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Elisabeth Keller

exaltation and anger to poetry, mysticism and magic.26 I doubt it is a mere coincidence that this largely corresponds with the different spheres he is often associated with in the mythical literature. Just as these two former double meanings27 were intentional, I think so was the notion to model Odin more or less explicitly on the image of the Christian God both in characteristics, deeds and even names.28 To discuss all of these would obviously take a much larger work than this one, so I will concentrate only on the names/ name complexes that show close kinship between the Old Saxon Heliand and the Poetic Edda either semantically or etymologically, had I taken other Old Norse texts or texts that meditate on the Gospel as supplement, or widened what terms are considered to be within an acceptably close relationship to each other, we could for instance find Yahwe Elohe Tzevaot opposite the Old Norse Hertr, meaning God of Hosts or Sigir/Sigtr opposite Sigidrohtin God/Lord of Victory and many more. The list would be considerably longer.

Why would I compare the two? On the one hand we have accounts of supposedly Heathen myths and on the other we have an epic Gospel, they were written in different places, different times, they share the alliterative rhyme but few other formal traits. Snorre has portrayed Odin as the God of chieftains and the Chieftain of the Gods29. It is this aspect of Odin I am primarily interested in studying in comparison to the Old Saxon epic Gospel the Heliand, where God is repeatedly called names that are similar, both etymologically and semantically. Therefore I will compare some of the names used for Odin in the Poetic Edda 30 with a preliminary list of names for God in the Heliand that I have compiled as part of my masters thesis. I will focus on the Poetic Edda for several reasons: First it is the classes literary focus. Second it is a lyrical work as is the Heliand. Third it is the largest uninterrupted Old Norse compilation of mythical poems. The main problem is that the Poetic Edda does not offer any explanations, as the Younger Edda does. I will therefore not only point to the verse in which the Poetic Edda mentions a certain name, when necessary I will also try to put the name both into its own context, and into the larger literary and cultural context.
26 27

KHLNM Bn.12, s. 509 og http://snl.no/Odin that is the manifold meanings of the names Edda and Odin 28 See tables 1 and 2 29 Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur (transl.): Gylfaginning XX in The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturlson, New York, 1916, p. 33 30 Table based on Hjalmar Falk, Odenheite, Kristiania, 1924, pp. 3-34

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Falks list has its gaps and faults, but correcting them all would just take much more time than could be incorporated in an assignment of this length31.

The Comparison: Aldafr/ Alloro firiho fadar The name Father as a name for God is ancient and derives from the Hebrew word Abba - father. The formula father of men can be found in Ephesians 4:632 and should be considered of Christian origin. Aldafr: Odin is called the Father of men on two separate occasions in Vafrnisml. The first time is when he is about to meet with the all-knowing jotun Vafrnir, the second time is when Vafrnir talks to Odin of his fight with Fenrir at Ragnarok. Interestingly it is the jotun not Odin that is all-knowing. This corresponds well with the medieval view of the superiority of the Christian God over the Pagan gods, by means of being all-knowing and allpowerful, which none of the Heathen gods were. Alloro firiho fadar: In the Heliand the name father of all men has so far appeared twice as well, once in song 22, verse 1847, and once in song 23, verse 1978, where Jesus instructs his disciples on the mountain. The Heliand can thus be seen as an etymologic link from the Semitic Gospel text to a Germanic Gospel and to the Germanic Poetic Edda. A related and more common name for God as the father in both the Bible and the Old Norse texts, though slightly different in meaning, is Al(l)fr/ Father of All. Interestingly enough despite the rather extensive vocabulary from the semantic field of God as father, the latter does not seem to appear in the Heliand, where father for the most part is used in conjunction with personal pronouns such as mine and your. This is of course based on the assumption that it will not appear in later stanzas, until my survey is complete I have to say this with a certain reservation. Fimbultr/ God mahtig Meaning the greatest or the mighty God is equally ancient and derives from El Shaddai, the God of Might or belonging to the semantic field of God the

31 32

On the list of Odinskennings see the appendix further down. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Ephesians+4&version=CEV

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Almighty. The name is found multiple times both in the Old and New Testament33, and the Heliand Gospel, but only once in the Poetic Edda.

Fimbultr: Odin is called fimbultr in Volusp, when the seeress describes the second coming of the Gods after Ragnarok. It is mentioned in relation to his knowledge of ancient runes. Possibly pointing towards the biblical term as one tried to incorporate pagan myths into Christian mythology by saying that they pointed towards the Bible, that they were just misunderstood versions of the Bible. This was done to open a possibility for the Heathen forefathers to come to the true faith as they were a much larger degree of peoples family lives.

God mahtig: In the Heliand the term appears many times in different variations, both as mighty, and all mighty, there are also other names given that belong to the same samentic field, such as the all-powerful and so on, see table 2. Fjlnir, Fjlsvir, Gangrr, Gagnrr/ rki rdgeo, rkean rdgeon, rdand God as wise ruler or powerful counselor does not have a biblical origin, as far as I can tell. This might be due to the fact that God was Lord never associate in biblical times, whereas he takes on both roles in the Heliand, as Lord and vassal.34 Maybe he had to take a more active role in the Germanic areas, to be the most powerful ally. Fjlnir, Fjlsvir, Gangrr, Gagnrr: Though etymologically very different terms Fjlnir, Fjlsvir, Gangrr, Gagnrr are semantically related as they define Odin as a powerful friend to have, a wise counselor, one with knowledge of how to gain advantages by concealment and on the road. Lords usually had to stay on the constant move and travel from ally to ally in order to keep them loyal, with gift exchange and the upkeeping of strong personal bonds. An ally with the above mentioned qualities must have been considered quite invaluable; especially since it is said of one considered himself a lord, if not the Lord. Rki rdgeo, rdand: in the Heliand we meet the same idea of God as counselor, here with the attribute of mighty or as rdand with etymological bonds to Rat, council as in ruling

For a list see: http://www.jesuswalk.com/names-god/2_almighty.htm Although not an academic source, the content in question seems correct and at least somewhat academically founded, Dr. Wilson gives his sources at the end of the page. 34 See table 2 in the appendix and the verses 627, 1273 and 1961 in the Heliand.

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council. The double meaning cannot be overlooked when trying to understand its deeper meaning, because it ensures that God is not lowered as some random counselor, but as the ruling council, one that dictates rather than suggests. Herjan/ Hrro Again God is portrayed as lord and ruler with semantic and etymologic ties to the sphere of war, and again the tradition goes back to the Bible, with kinship to the Hebrew El Elyon God most high. Herjan: The Old Norse herjan with the syllable her- from either host as in army or from har(r) as in grey35 not excluding the possibility of both being at work here, calls on associations of a powerful Lord. Falk points out its Indo-European origin as a term for ruler, and its connection to the Southern-Germanic Wotan as leader of the raging host36 as a god of war.

Hrro: The Old Saxon hrro has undoubtedly a shared etymological origin, though it is somewhat hidden at first. As D.H. Green points out, there is no instance of hr- meaning grey in the Heliand, it does however share the meaning high and old.37 I therefore believe that the semantic complex of herjan/hrro is founded on the superiority of the Lord and his function as a lord over warriors, similar to drohtin.

What does this tell us? The original thesis that the Poetic Edda and the Heliand are at least in part modeled on ancient Judeo-Christian and Indo-European traditions, seems to have been verified. There are a number of names for God that link these different spheres together. These sophisticated intricacies in the composition of these works, would most likely not have been apparent for anyone without a certain degree of classical education and literacy, and should therefore be regarded as indicative of carefully composed pieces of work, where the authors specific and thorough knowledge of poetry and of classical Christian texts can both entertain the readers curiosity but at the same time show off his capabilities as author. By supposing that the texts were polished by their writers, in a similar manner to how the 19th century folklorists did we

35 36

See: Hr, Hvi, Harr, Hrr in table 1 in the appendix. Falk, Hjalmar: Odensheite, Kristiania 1924, pp. 3-34 37 D.H. Green: The Carolingian Lord, Cambridge 1965, pp. 406ff. for a detailed discussion of hrro.

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Elisabeth Keller

can also assume that they were state of the art early to high medieval compositions, meant to glorify the past of certain ruling families and the Christian God.

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Elisabeth Keller

Books: Acker, Paul: Revising Oral Theory, New York, 1998 Clunies Ross, Margaret: Prolonged Echoes. Old Norse Myths in medieval Northern Society vol.1: The Myths, Odense 1994 Falk, Hjalmar: Odensheite, Kristiania 1924 Fltra, Jorunn: Moltke moe som folklorist, Oslo, 1995 Gilchrist Brodeur (transl.), Arthur: Gylfaginning XX in The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturlson, New York, 1916 Green, D.H.: The Carolingian Lord, Cambridge, 1965 Harris, Joseph: Eddic Poetry in Carol J. Clover & John Lindow(ed.), Old Norse-Icelandic Literature: A Critical Guide, Cornell, 1985 Hodnb, Finn (ed.): Kulturhistorisk leksikon for nordisk middelalder, Bn.12, Viborg, 1981 Lassen, Annette: Odin p kristent pergament, Kbenhavn, 2011 Morwood(ed.), James: Pocket Oxford Latin Dictionary, Oxford, 2005 Tully, Carol Lisa: Creating a National Identity: A Comparative Study of German and Spanish Romanticism. Stuttgart, 1997, pp. 137142 Zoga, Geir T., A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Toronto, 2004 Articles: Davis Lenski, Susan: Intertextual Intentions: Making Connections across Texts in The Clearing House , Vol. 72, No. 2, London, 1998, p. 74 Goetz, Hans-Werner: The Concept of Time in the Historiography of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries in Medieval Concepts of the Past: Ritual, Memory, Historiography, Cambridge, 2002 Harris, Joseph: Eddic Poetry in Carol J. Clover & John Lindow(ed.), Old Norse-Icelandic Literature: A Critical Guide, Cornell, 1985 Steinberg, Erwin R.: Toward a Definition of Poetry in The English Journal , Vol. 56, No. 6, Urbana, 1967, p. 835 Internet Resources: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/466108/poetry http://heimskringla.no/wiki/Sk%C3%A1ldskaparm%C3%A1l http://www.heimskringla.no/wiki/Gylfaginning http://snl.no/Odin http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Ephesians+4&version=CEV http://www.jesuswalk.com/names-god/2_almighty.htm

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Table 1: Odins kennings in Old Norse and English Table 2: Names for God in the Heliand fitts 1

Both tables are colorcoded, so that the terms to be compared always are in the same color. Table of Odins kennings in Old Norse and English38 Name Old Norse 1) Al(l)fair/ 2) Al(l)fr/ 3) Aldafr Arnhfi Atrid, Atrir, Atrii Auun 1) Bleygr 2) Bileygr Biflindi Bjarki Bjrn Blindi, Blindr Bragi Brni, Brnn Blverkr Drrur, Darrar Ennibrattr Eylr 1) Farmagu, 2) Farmatr Farmgnur Fengr Fimbultr Fimbululr Fjallgeigur Fjlnir
38 39

Meaning39 1 + 2) Allfather, Father of All 3) father of men

Sources 1) Helg. Hund . I, 38; Arnor Tordarson 5, 4; 2) Grimn. 48, Gylfag. Kap. 9, 3) Vafrnisml 4, 52 ramser Grmnisml (48), ramser ramser og (misopfattet) Yngl. S. k. 7 1) fl. st., 2) Grmnisml (47), ramser Grmnisml (49), ramser Ragnv. Kale 14 Harar s. k. 15 Helg. Hund. II Hfulausn 31 ramser Fl.st. Njls s. k. 157, SE. II, 494 ramser ramser 1) SE. I, 84, 2) Grimn. 48, ramser, Hleyg. 11, SE. I, 230 Hleyg. 2 Reginsml 18, ramser Vsp. 60 Hvam. 80, 142 ramser Hyppig i poesi, i prosa SE. I, 38 og

Eagle Head attacking rider, 'At-Rider' friend of wealth (Edwin, Audoin) 1) Flaming Eye, Shifty Eyed 2) Flashing Eye or Wavering Eye Spear Shaker, Shield Shaker Warrior name, Saga Hero Bear Blind Chieftain Brown, Bear 'Bale-Worker' or Evil Worker or Evil Deed Spearman High (lit., 'straight') forehead The ever booming God of Cargoes (or Burdens)

journey empowerer Fetcher or Catcher Mighty God Mighty Thuler Shape god Wise One, concealer

The table is based on Hjalmar Falk, Odensheite, Kristiania, 1924, pp. 3-34 The translation may be inadequate but the ones Ive checked were all in agreement with Falk http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_names_of_Odin

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Fjlsvir Forni Forn-lvir Frrr, Frri Gangleri, Gangari 1) Gangrr 2) Gagnrr Gaprosnir 1) Gautr 2) Gauti 3) Gautatr Geigur Geirlnir Geirlnir Geirtr Gestr Gestumblindi Ginnarr Gizurr Glapsvir

Very Wise Ancient One Ancient lvir The one who rides forth Wanderer or Wayweary 1) 'Gain Rede,'Contrary advisor, Journey Advisor 2) Advantage Counsel The one in gaping frenzy God of the Geats

Fld. II, 12 Grmn 46, ramser, SE. I, 86 Flat. I, 433 ramser ramser Grimn. 46 og ramser 1) ramser 2) Vafrnisml 8 ramser 1) hyppig 2) fl.st. 3) Hkonarml 1, Sonat. 21, Vegt. 2, 13 ramser ramser ramser Sturla Tord. 4, 21 Fms. II, 138 f., Fms. V, 171 f., Flat. II,134 Herv. s. k. 10, ramser ramser Ramser, Mlshtt. 22, Sturla Tord. 8, 4 Grmnisml 47, ramser

Dangler Spear inviter Spear charger Gore/Spear God Gore/Spear Master Blind Guest Bewitch Master of Riddles Swift in Deceit, Swift Tricker, Maddener, Wise in magical spells 1) Mask 2) Hooded, Masked One Battle blinder Yeller Wand-Bearer, Wand-Wielder High, the grey-haired Skilful worker Lord of the hanged God of the Hanged

1) Grmnir 2) Grmr Gunnblindi Gllnir, Gllorr, Gllungr Gndlir Hr, Hvi, Harr, Hrr Hagvirkr Hangadrttinn 1) Hangagu, 2) Hangatr Hangi Haptagu Hrbarr Hengikeptr, Hengikjopt Herblindi 1) Herfr, 2) Herjafr 3) Hertr

1) Grmn. 46, 47, ramser 2) Grmn. 47, 49, ramser ramser ramser Grmn. 49 og ramser Hvam. 109, 111, 165, Vsp. 21, Fms. X, 171 ramser Ynglinga saga 1) Hvard halte, SE. I, 84 2) SE. I, 230, Yngl. s. k. 7, Torbj. Brunason, Torst. Siduh., Hvam. 157 Tind Hallk., o. 987, Hvam. 138 SE. I, 54 Grmn. 49, ramser ramser ramser 1) Vsp. 29, 2) fl. st. 3) Vellekla 3, Skldskaparml 18

Hanged One God of Prisoners Hoary Beard, Grey Beard Hang jaw Host blinder 1) Father of Hosts 2) Father of Hosts 3) God of Hosts

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4) Herteitr Herjan Hjlmberi Hjarrandi Hlfreyr og Hleifrur 1) Hnikarr 2) Hnikur 1) Hrafnagu, 2) Hrafnss 3) Hrafnfreistur Hrami Hrani Hrjr Hroptr, Hroptatr Hrosshrsgrani Hvatmr Hverungr Hrr Httr Itreker Jafnhrr Jlg, Jlkr Jolfr Jlnir Jlfur, Jlfr Jrmunr, Jrundr Karl Kjalarr Langbarr Loungr Njtr fnir Olgr mi ski Raugrani Reginn Reiartr Rgnir Sar Sanngetall Sgrani Shttr
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4) War-Merry Warrior, Harrier, Lord Helmet Bearer Screamer Famous/barrow lord Overthrower, Thruster 1) Raven God 2) Raven God 3) Raven tester Fetterer, Ripper Blusterer Roarer Sage Horse hair moustache Courage of the whet-stone Roarer or Weather-maker Horder (from Hordaland or Jylland) Hooded Splendid Ruler 'Evenhigh,' Just as High, Equally High Gelding or Gelder Horse-wolf, bear Yule figure Yule father The mighty one, cosmic Old man Keel, Nourisher Long Beard Shaggy Cloak Wearer User, enjoyer or needed one Inciter Hawk Resounding one God of Wishes, Wished For Red Mustache Gods Wagon God or God of riders Chief ('He that reigns') Truthful, Sooth Finder of Truth/Sooth Long Beard Broad Hat

4) Grimn. 47, ramser Gylfaginning, Grmnisml (46), ramser Grmnisml 46, ramser Kjenninger og ramser ramser 1) Grmnisml 47, fl.st. 2) Grmnisml 48, ramser 1) 2 skaldesteder, 2) SE I., 126 3) Husdr. 10 ramser Hrolfs s. kraka ramser Fl.st. Gautreks saga, ramser ramser ramser Sgubrot k. 3 Hlfs s. k. 1 SE I., 554 Grmnisml 49, ramser, SE I., 36, 140 Oftere i poesi, SE I., 38 rvar-Odds s. k. 35 rsdr. 12 Fl.st. Ramser, egentlig to helt forskjellige navn SE I., 180 Fl. St. ramser ramser Fl. st. Grimn. 54, ramser ramser Ramser, SE I., 38 Grmn.49, ramser, Ottar svarte. SE. I., 38 Brar saga Snfellsss 18 kjenninger SE I., 230 hyppig Grmn.47, ramser Grmn.47, ramser Alvssm. 6 Grmn. 48, ramser

Elisabeth Keller

Sskeggr Sigir Sigfair Siggautr Sigrhfundr Sigmundr Sigrnnr Sigtryggr Sigtr Sigrr Skilfingr Skollvaldr Svfnir Sveigir 1) Sviurr, 2) Sviur Svirir Svipall Svlnir Tveggi Tvblindi ekkr rasarr rii riggi rr rttr ur undr Ur Vfur Vakr Valfr Valgautr Valkjsandi Valtamr, Valtam Valtr Valgnir Vegtam Veratr Virmnir, Vihrimnir Viurr Virir Yggr jungr, rungr
21. mai 2012

Long Beard Victory giver Father of Victory, War Father Victory Geat Victory Author Victory protection Victory Tree Sure of victory (Victory-true) God of Victory, War God Successful in victory, Thriving in victory Trembler or he of Hlidshilf Ruler of treachery Sleep bringer, Closer Reed Bringer Uncertain, Spear-ox, Swede, Wise One Calmer Changing, Fleeting (or shapeshifter) Cooler Double Twice Blind Known, Welcome One Quarreler Third Triple Thriving Strength Lean Thunderer Loved, Beloved, Striver Wanderer Wakeful, Awakener Father of the Slain Slaughter-Geat, Geat of the Slain Chooser of the Slain Slain Tame, The Warrior Slain God Slain Receiver Wanderer or Way-tame God of men, God of being Contrary screamer or 'wide hoary-beard' Killer Weather God Terrible One Stormy or of the primal streams

Grmn. 48, ramser ramser Vlusp (54), Lokas. 58, Grmn. 48, ramser ramser Sonat. 22 ramser Hsdr. 9 ramser Kjenninger, SE I. 230 ramser Grmn.54, ramser ramser Haraldskvi 11, Grimn. 54, ramser kjenning 1) Grimn. og ramser, SE I., 38, 530 2) ramser Grmn. 50, ramser, SE I. 38 Grmn. 47, ramser hyppig Fl. st. ramser Grmn. 46, ramser ramser Hyppig i poesi, SE I., 36 Sonat. 2 Oftere, Ytal 35 hyppig 3. st. Heilag. II, 644, Hvam. 139 hyppig 3 st. ofte ramser Vsp 1, Grmn. 48ramser Refr. 2,3, ramser Kormak Vegt. 6 Hleyg. 15 Viga-Glum 8 Vegt. Grimn. 3, ramser ramser hyppig hyppig i poesi, SE I., 38, hyppig ramser

Elisabeth Keller

Names for God in the Heliand verses 1-227941 Old Saxon Attribute: English/ German Translation God/ Gott Commentary Verse

Names category: God God, -es, -as, -e, -a

also: good/gut, but those are not counted here

2, 7, 10, 14, 17, 19, 42, 49, 77, 81, 87, 92, 95, 110, 113, 120, 128, 132, 192, 216, 218, 227, 236, 242, 256, 258, 270, 276, 280, 283, 289, 324, 326, 331, 335, 336, 368, 382, 391, 412, 421, 427, 431, 442, 444, 457, 460, 466, 516, 528, 547, 595, 598, 610, 623, 648, 657, 661, 674, 679, 694, 696, 700, 711, 754, 769, 776, 784, 806, 807, 809, 855, 865, 946, 949, 955, 957, 977, 994, 999, 1007, 1015, 1057, 1069, 1072, 1081, 1117, 1145, 1159, 1234, 1241, 1258, 1289, 1299, 1323, 1344, 1373, 1387, 1412, 1418, 1440, 1456, 1465, 1471, 1473, 1539, 1543, 1547, 1557, 1564, 1638, 1662, 1685, 1687, 1726, 1746, 1784, 1793, 1800, 1865, 1921, 1964, 1969, 1977, 1985, 2003, 2070, 2082, 2127, 2133, 2171, 2172, 2204, 2267


Falk has omitted all Odins kennings that call him by his relationship to other mythical figures, such as Balldrs fadir/ Balders father see Hyndlulj 29: http://www.heimskringla.no/wiki/H%C3%A9r_hefr_upp_Hyndlulj%C3%B3%C3%B0 or Vilia brir Vilis brother see Ynglinga saga 16: http://www.heimskringla.no/wiki/Ynglinga-Saga There are many more of this type and many others that are missing from Falks list. There is a list on Wikipedia, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_names_of_Odin - that is more complete in kennings, but lacks a lot of sources. I have checked several that are listed there without source, and they do exist in various Old Norse compositions. When I have found differences as to where a certain kenning was to be found the Wikipedia list was more correct, and often mentions more specific sources than Falks hyppig, ofte og ramser. However combining the lists and making a more complete one from the two would have gone far beyond the scope of a 10 page assignment. 41 Keller Elisabeth: unpublished masters thesis on the names for God in the Heliand, 2012

21. mai 2012


Elisabeth Keller

Uualdand god


the ruling God/ der waltende Gott God's/the Murphy: good spell/ zweideutig Gottes/ der gute Spruch The Holy God (in the heavenly kingdom), der Heilige Gott (im Himmelreich) Divine, gttlich/ von Gott stammend God (from Heaven) himself / Gott (im Himmel) selbst God the Almighty/ Gott der Allmchtige (al)mighty God/ (all)mchtiger Gott Glorious man/ herrlicher mann The mighty God/ der mchtige Gott The allruling,allpowerful God/ der allmchtige Gott The Lamb of God/ Gottes Lamm The glory of God/ Gottes Herrlichkeit The heavenly child/ das himmlische Murphy mankind's God, their clan's God Murphy: Divine Man, Tiefenbach

godspell, spel godes, godes spel Hlag,-o, hlogo Hlag, an god (1914: an himilrkea himilrkea) Godcunde, -s God, -es, -e (213: fon himila) seles, selo, -n God alohmahtig, alomahtigna god, almahtigon gode Thiodgod, theotgodes, thiodgode Gdlcan gumon God mahtig, mahtig mahtigna godes, mahtig god alouualdon gode alouualdon (fon himila) selo alohmahtig

20, 98, 645, 1402, 1614, 1618, 1622, 1658, 1665, 1907, 1959 25, 572, 1376, 1381, 1732

161, 240, 1513, 1914, 1924

188, 195

205, 213, 1937

245, 416, 476, 903, 1110, 1766

285, 789, 1119, 1728


357, 394+395, 1039, 1632, 1827 861, 2155

lamb godes Gdlcnissea godes

lamb gdlcnissea



Names category: Child/Son Himilisc barn Himilisc


21. mai 2012


Elisabeth Keller

is (247: seles) sunu Liolco luttilna man Kind barn Hlaga/ hlage (440: himilsc) barn

Is (seles)

Kind His own Son/ Seinen eigenen Sohn The lovely little man/ den lieblichen kleinen Mann

247, 1042


hlage himilsc

barn godes barne, -u (652: selon)

Godes, selon

The holy (heavenly) Child/ das heilige (himmlische) Kind God's Child (himself), Gottes Kind (selbst) Gods blessed Child/ Gottes seliges Kind The most powerful child/ das mchtigste Kind God's (own) Child of Peace/ Gottes (eigenes) Friedenskind Gods holy Child, das heilige Kind Gottes The (dear) son of the Ruler/ der (teure) Sohn des Herrn God's own child/ Gottes eigenes Kind Mighty Child of God/ Gottes mchtiges Kind

407, 639, 672, 729, 774, 2018 446, 459, 474, 592, 644, 697, 770, 778, 824, 831 385, 440, 663, 708, 804, 1584,

Slig barn godes godes, slig Barno rkiost, barno rkeast Friubarn godes (1157: selo) Hlage barn godes, hlagna barn godes (961: diurlc) drohtines sunu, (1044-1045: mahtigna) sunu drohtines godes gan/egen barn mahtig barn godes rkiost

429, 479, 545, 584, 651 (+ 652), 702, 706, 714, 895, 911, 915, 919, 1164, 1168, 1203, 1260, 1587, 1996, 2176, 2264, 400, 1121, 1180

404, 1249, 1993

Friu, godes, selo Godes, Hlage

450, 667, 760, 983, 1128, 1156-1157, 2099 518, 847, 21212122,

Drohtines, diurlc, mahtigna godes gan Godes, mahtig

534, 834, 961, 1005, 1044-1045, 1596, 2073, 2199

794, 838, 960, 1010, 1135, 1287, 1335, 2000 798, 812, 2024, 2038,

21. mai 2012


Elisabeth Keller

Sunu, suni (1998, 2019: selo) kindisc man Allaro/alloro barno bezt,-a uualdandes barn

The Son/ der Sohn kindisc Allaro, bezt Young man/ kindlicher, junger mann The best of all children/ das beste kind von allen The Rulers Child/ Das Kind des Waltenden/Herr schers The son of the King of Heaven/ der Sohn des Himmelsknigs The Rulers son/ der Sohn des Waltenden Gods (good) Son/ Gottes (guter) Sohn The PeaceChild/ das Friedenskind Christ/ Christus (himself/ selbst)

807, 819, 992, 1998


835, 1066, 1092, 1109, 1590


962, 989, 1050, 1222, 2030

heencuninges sunu



uualdandes sunu uualdandes (2251: guodo) godes sunu friubarn Godes, guodo friu

1026, 1189, 1294, 1984 1064, 1084, 1282, 1384, 1581, 2192, 2234, 2251, 2269 1077

Names category: Christ Crist, -es, -as, e, Krist, Kristus

Iesu Krist Crist, Krist selo, -on, -an hlagna, -o, hlogo Krist, Crist (2178-2179: mahtig) neriondio, neriandan, neriendo, selo hlag Neriondio, hlagna

Jesus Christ/ Jesus Christus Christ himself/ Christus selbst Holy Christ/ heiliger Christus the (powerful) saving (holy) Christ/ der (mchtige) rettende

3, 6, 12, 34, 49, 135, 399, 499, 538, 617, 657, 671, 866, 970, 982, 986, 991, 1004, 1021, 1116, 1134, 1138, 1146, 1182, 1191, 1199, 1235, 1265, 1835, 2018, 2089, 2161, 2208, 2225, 2232, 326 426, 472, 754, 973 1009 460, 521, 1067, 1091, 1107, 2022, 2035, 2068, 2167, 782, 1186-1187, 1267, 1279, 21782179, 2237, 2248,

21. mai 2012


Elisabeth Keller

neriendon Krist (1187: hlagna) Crist alouualdo


Uualdand Krist


hlandean Krist, hlandi Crist Mrion Crist



(heilige) Christus The allpowerful Christ/ der allmchtige Christus The ruling Christ, der waltende Christus The healing Christ/ der heilende Christus The shining/excellen t/famous Christ, der strahlende/hervo rragende/berh mte Christus Lord/ the ruler/ der Waltende/ Herr(scher)

813, 1297, 1334

905, 916, 979, 1017, 1231, 1325, 2078, 2124 1049, 2206, 2278


Names categoy Uualdand Uualdand, -es, e, -a

alouualdon, (998: n) alouualdand, alouualdan uueroldes uualdand Uualdand selo, self uualdand uurlico alouualdon oane, -a Heenes
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uueroldes selo uurlico oane


(the One) AllPowerful/ (der Eine) Allmchtige Ruler of the world/ Herr der Welt The Ruler Himself/ the Herrscher selbst The graceful Ruler/ der holde Herrscher The All-Ruler above/ der Allmchtige von oben The Heavens

26, 39, 90, 106, 117, 179, 186, 190, 260, 277, 300, 327, 332, 358, 432, 453, 462, 469, 475, 575, 671, 682, 689, 700, 779, 1040, 1074, 1281, 1377, 1466, 1554, 1593, 1598, 1633, 1684, 1791, 2005, 2196, 2235, 2241, 2259, 121, 172, 251, 274, 294, 488, 998, 1510, 1979 409

522, 1285, 1765, 1962, 2213, 974

986, 1116



Elisabeth Keller

uualdand sa uualdand Landes uualdand Landes

Ruler/ der Himmelswalten de Our Ruler/ unser Herrscher Ruler of the land/Herrscher ber das Land Lord/ Master/ ruler/ Herr/Meister/ Herrscher Murphy: our dear Chieftain/ the mighty Chieftain

1552 1681

Names category: drohtin drohtin, -es, -e

mahtig drohtin


Drohtin god, drohtin the gdo Manno drohtin

god manno

Folco drohtin Managaro, managoro drohtin

folco managaro

(powerful)Lor d/ Master/ ruler/ (mchtiger) Herr/Meister/ Herrscher The good Lord/ der liebe Herr/gott The Lord of Mankind/ Der Herr der Menschheit Lord of the people/ der Herr des Volkes The Lord of many/ der Herr vieler

27, 83, 140, 264, 316, 418, 446, 485, 490, 505, 515, 702, 710, 770, 889, 936, 967,988, 1000, 1047, 1198, 1208, 1253, 1309, 131842, 1366, 1571, 1790, 1798, 1917, 2084, 2279, 37, 2210,

53, 401, 1025, 1607, 1670, 2169, 383, 846, 1054

430, 2208

[While] John was to be a warriorcompanion (gisi) of the King of Heaven and Christ, and thus to be raised in the virtue of loyalty (treuua). Christ is to be the Chieftain [...] and thus is brought up

439, 1999


Suni drohtines: the sons of God, since it is what God calls his Christian children and not the Son of God as his aspect, it is counted under drohtin not sunu drohtines.

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Elisabeth Keller

fittingly on the appropriate reciprocal virtue: love (minnea)43 hlag drohtin, hlego drohtin drohtin self Rkiumu drohtine, rkeo drohtin drohtin fr erlo drohtin hlag self rkiumu The holy Ruler/ der heilige Herrscher The Ruler himself/ der Herrscher selbst The rich/powerful Chieftain/ der reiche/ mchtige Herr Lord Chieftain/ Herr (und) Herrscher Lord of Earls/Chieftains / Herr der Huptlinge
600, 1292, 1313,

681, 2228,

940, 1688

fr erlo


1027 Note: ethymologically Earl derives from the norse jarl and denotes a highranking warrior/leader/c hieftain. Earl is an Anglo-Saxon term whereas the Saxons were not organized in royal and noble ranks, therefore the supposed older meaning is here being used as a translation instead. 1133

mri drohtin


sa drohtin
43 p. 18

sa, selo

The shining/excellen t/famous Lord, der strahlende/hervo rragende/berh mte Herr Our Lord As far as Ive

1218, 1229, 1560

Murphy, Ronald G.:The Heliand The Saxon Gospel A Translation and Commentary, 1992, Oxford,

21. mai 2012


Elisabeth Keller

(1218: selo), uses drohtines, sumu drohtine

himself / Unser Herr selbst

noticed verse 1218 is the first time God turns into our Lord instead of just the Lord
1284, 1386

thiodo drohtin Sigidrohtin drohtin self hlag an himile


Self, hlag an himile

Liudeo drohtin Firiho drohtin

Liudeo Firiho

The Lord of Peoples/ Herr der Vlker The Lord of Victory/ der Siegesherr The holy Lord in Heaven himself/ der heilige Herr im Himmel selbst The Lord of the People/ Herr des Volkes The lord of men/ der Herr der Menschen Protector/ watchman/ Beschtzer/ Hter The Protector of Many/ Der Beschtzer vieler The (beloved) protector of the land (himself)/ der (geliebte) Beschtzer des Landes (selbst) The beloved protector of the people/ der geliebte Beschtzer der Leute/ des Volkes Protection/ Schutz Mighty holy ward/protector of heaven/





Names category: Protector uuar/uuard

42, 172, 243, 249, 1014,

managoro mundboro (626: liof) landes uuar/uuard (1013: selon) liof liudio uuar


378, 535, 1274

Land, liof, self

626, 1013, 1052, 1382, 2246,

Liudio, liof


friu mahtig hleg himiles uuard Himile, mahtig, hleg

Murphy: Security

1011 1058-1059

21. mai 2012


Elisabeth Keller

Mahtig mundboro (2229: manno kunnie) Heenes uuard Mundboro, -n, mundburd Mildi mundboro

Mahtig, manno kunnie


mchtiger, heiliger Wchter/Besch tzer des Himmels The powerful protector (of mankind)/ der mchtige Beschtzer (der Menschen) Ward of the heavens/ Himmelswrter The Protector/ der Beschtzer The kind protector/ der liebe Beschtzer King of Heaven/ Himmelsknig

1544, 2229, 2233


Not counted when not denominating God



1955, 1981

Names category: cuning Heancuninge, s/ Heencuninge, s, Heenkuning Hhon hhon Heancuninge, s/ Heencuninge, s Hhoston hhoston Heancuninge cuning (407+408: oar al erun endi himiles endi oar eldeo barn) oar al erun endi himiles endi oar eldeo barn

high King of Heaven/ dem hohen Himmelsknig The most high King of Heaven/ dem hchsten Himmelsknig King (over all the earth and the heavens and over all the children of men)/ Knig (ber die ganze Erde, ber die Himmel und alle Menschenkinder ) The Holy King of Heaven/ der

82, 91, 100, 130, 159, 317, 521, 533, 537, 568, 781, 902, 1120, 1461, 1472, 1939, 1989, 2087, 2154 266


407+408, 598, 605, 610, 635, 642

hlagna, hlagana
21. mai 2012


473, 480, 668, 1129


Elisabeth Keller

heancuning, heencuning uuscuning Cuningsterron (973, 1599: allaro) cuningo craftigost Allaro cuningo bezton hran heencuning cuningo rkeost, rkiost Allaro, craftigost Allaro, bezton hran


heilige Himmelsknig A wise king/ ein weiser Knig The King's star/ der Knigsstern The strongest of (all) kings/ Der strkste Knig (von allen) The best of all kings/ Der beste Knig von allen The Lord King of Heaven/ der Herr Himmelsknig The most powerful King/ der mchtigste Knig Master/ Lord/ ruler/ Herr/ Gebieter The Lord of the peoples/ der Herr der Menschen/Vl ker Lord above all/ over everything/ Herr ber alles The kind Lord, der liebe Herr The powerful Lord/ der mchtige Herr The heavenly Lord/ der himmliche Herr The good Lord/ der gute Herr The best Man of

583 635 973, 1134, 1599



1138, 1334, 2089

Names category: Hrro Hrro, -n, -en, hrran

liudeo hrron, liudio hrro


100, 111, 259, 287, 480, 676, 708, 917, 956, 1022, 1093, 1120, 1165, 1171, 1187, 1199, 1342, 1509, 1566, 1573 413, 431, 573

holdan Hrro, n, -en, hrran Hrro, -n, -en, hrran oar al lioes, lioan, leoon Hrro, an mahtigna hrron himilsc hrro Hrro the gdo

holdan oar al lioes, mahtigna himilsc Gdo

486, 968 890

932, 1542


1209, 1767

1588, 2105

Names category: gumon Friugumono Friu, bezt

21. mai 2012



Elisabeth Keller

bezt thiodgumono bezto gumono bezto Thiod, bezt


Peace/ der beste Friedensmann Greatest man of the people/ der Menschen bester Mann The best of men/ der beste Mensch The Shepherd of Fortresses/ der Hirte von Burgen Herdsman of the Land/ Hirte des Landes The powerful Counsellor/ der mchtige Ratgeber The wise Ruler/ der Ratgeber



Names category: Hirdi burgo hirdi burgo


lands hirdi



Names category: Counsellor rki rdgeo, rki rkean rdgeon rdand

627, 1961

1273 Murphy: the wise Ruler; in German the ethymologic double meaning is still visible in constructions such as Rathaus (eng.: City Hall), where the ruling would meet and discuss current issues, in Norwegian the double meaning of ruling and counseling has remained (et rd, rde) 828

Names category: fader mn mahtig mahtig fader

My mighty father/ mein mchtiger Vater

alomahtig fader, fadar alamahtig

21. mai 2012


1. appearance of father as a name for God in a direct speech from Jesus Allmight Father/ father has so der allmchtige far only

1087, 1619


Elisabeth Keller


Himiliscan Himiliscan fader, himilfader Fadar sa (iuuua) hlag fadar (an himilrkea) sa Iuuua, hlag, an himilrkea

fadar iuuuan Alloro firiho fadar, fader

Iuuuan Alloro firiho

Fader alauualdan alauualdan, alouualdan fader Names category: Auxiliaries Hlagna gst, Hlagas gstes, hlago gst, hlagon gst

The heavely father/ der himmlische Vater Our father/ Vater unser (your) holy father in the kingdom of heaven/ euer heiliger Vater im Himmelreich Your father/ euer Vater Father of all men/ Vater aller Menschen The allruling father/ der allmchtige Vater The Holy Spirit/ der Heilige Geist

appeared in one direct speech from Jesus, here it is the devil talking to Jesus, trying to discredit his divine descent First time father appears in a more general context

1403, 2004

1600 1635

1795, 1908, 1913, 1960 1847, 1978

1922, 1973

Note on 467: He (the old man, being Simeon) had the Holy Spirit, a happy heart. Murphy, The Heliand The Saxon Gospel, 1992, Oxford, p. 19

11, 21, 50, 275, 291, 325, 335, 467, 890, 985, 1002, 1006, 1902, 2004

hie mster

Aalordfrumo (alomahtig)
21. mai 2012

He who/ er der teacher/ master/ superior/ Lehrer/ Meister/ Vorgesetzter The noble creator

29, 35, 38, 39 30



Elisabeth Keller

(38: hie/is ) nes

Hliand, hlandero, hleand, hleandoro, (990: selon) (2031, 2180: bezt) fron, fr, frhan is seles, selo, ina selon, he selo, im selo, im self

(almighty)/ der (allmchtige) edle Schpfer all by himself/ him alone/ er allein/ seine eigene Savior/ Redeemer (himself)/ Heiland/ Erlser (selbst) Lord/ Herr his own, Himself, Him Himself, He Himself/ sein eigener, selbst, ihn selbst, er selbst Ruler, Lord/ Herrscher, Herr In holiness from heaven/ der Heilige im Himmel The brilliant/bright / der Glnzende/ Strahlende The (workings of the) Measurer/ des Ermessers/ Messendes (Geschfte)

38, 119, 1770

Murphy: Healer

50, 266, 443, 958, 990, 2031, 2180

109, 490, 931, 1077, 1094, 1128, 1308, 1667, 137, 377, 601, 604, 845, 991-992, 1029, 1248, 1250, 1264, 1843

theodan Hlag fon himile The mreo

269 295


Metodes, metodo(2190: gescapu, 2210: gisceftie)

Murphy: A synonyme for God or Fate as the ultimate determiner of the length of existence for any person or thing44

511, 2190, 2210

neriandas, neriandan, neriendo lioht ar, ar lioht


The Rescuer/ der Erretter/ Erlser The other light/ das andere Licht

520, 1144, 2177

578, (1331)

Murphy, The Heliand The Saxon Gospel, 1992, Oxford, p. 20

21. mai 2012


Elisabeth Keller

manno lioosto thegan

Dear man/ lieber mann The thane/ der Thane

821 851, 862 According to 45 Tiefenbach thane can be used for everything between boy, follower, hero and servant from the 9th century it was to be understood as a royal official with certain highly valued priviliges, thane has been used earlier in the Heliand but not as a word for God, the three wisemen from the East are called thanes 1314, 1999, 2103, 2193

Mahtig (1314: selo), mahtiges, mahtigna (2193: mildi) The rkeo, Rkeon Lioht

The (kind) mighty One(himself)/ der (milde) Mchtige (selbst) The Powerful/ der Mchtige The light/ das Licht

1595, 1980 1708

Hlage lioht


Check the Sermon on the Mount. Is this really a name for God in a figurative sense? The holy light/ Check the das heilige Licht Sermon on the Mount. Is this really a name for God in a figurative sense?



21. mai 2012


Elisabeth Keller

Mnumu namon


My name/meine Name The light of god/ das Licht Gottes

Liohte godes, lioht gode


Himiles lioht


The light of heaven/ das Himmelslicht

1891 The name of God itself seems to wield some form of power 1912, 2138 Check the Sermon on the Mount. Is this really a name for God in a figurative sense? 1920 Check the Sermon on the Mount. Is this really a name for God in a figurative sense? 2079

An godes namon Seolono lioht

Godes Seolono

In Gods name/ in Gottes Namen The light of souls/ das Licht der Seelen The holy one/ den Heiligen My good lord/ Mein guter Herr My Lord-Ruler/ mein Herr und Herrscher The Allmighty/ der Allmchtige His name/ sein Name Powerful man/ mchtiger Mann

Is this really a name for God in a figurative sense?


Hlagne, hlago Fr mn the gdo Uualdand fr mn Alomahtig Is namo Mahtigoro manni Is Mahtigoro Mn, The gdo Uualdand, mn

2095, 2211 2099 2109

2168 2177 2262

21. mai 2012


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