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ANSWER SCHEME TOPIC : INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS SKILL 1 : KNOWLEDGE What is meant by 1. Physical quantity 2. Base quantities 3.

Derived Quantities 4. Scalar quantities 5. Vector quantities 6. Accuracy 5. Sensitivity 6. Consistency 7. Zero error Statement Physical characteristic that can be measured Quantities that cannot be defined in terms of other base quantities Quantities that obtained by combining base quantities by multiplication, division or both these operations Quantities that have magnitude but no direction Quantities that have both magnitude and direction How close the measurement made is to the actual value Ability to detect a small change in the quantity to be measured How little deviation there is among the measurements made when a quantity is measured several times Error due to the pointer does not return to zero when not in use

SKILL 2 : UNDERSTANDING Question 1 Accuracy is the ability of the instrument to give readings close to the actual value. The value determined is accurate if it is near to the actual value The consistency of a measuring instrument is the ability of instrument to record consistent readings for each measurement with little deviation among readings. The measurement is consistent if the values determined are close to each other.

Question 2 (a) (b) To transfer heat faster from surroundings to the mercury mercury does not vaporize/ conducts heat well/ does not wet the sides of the tube/ thread opaque

Question 3 (i) No

(ii)

the reading from Student 2 and 3 out of range (0-3V).

SKILL 3 : CONCEPTUALIZATION Question 1 (a) ampere or A [1 mark] (b) Figure 1(a), reading of ammeter is 0.9 A and Figure 1(b), reading of ammeter is 0.75 A. Reading in Figure 1 (a) has one decimal place, reading in Figure 1(b) has two decimal places Ammeter in Figure 1(b) has more divisions in scale than in diagram 1(a) Ammeter in Figure 1(b) can detect a smaller change than in diagram 1 (a) Concept : sensitivity [5 marks]

SKILL 4 : PROBLEM SOLVING QUALITATIVE Question 1 (a) i) External diameter ii) Internal diameter Diagram 1 = 2.03 cm Diagram 2 = 1.70 cm Thickness of the glass = 2.03 cm -1.70 cm / 2 = 0.165 cm

[2 marks]

(b)

[2marks]

(c)

[2 marks]

(d)

The zero error has to be subtracted from both the external and internal diameter In determining the thickness of the glass, the internal diameter is subtracted from the external diameter, thus the zero error will cancel out [2 marks]

Question 2 Characteristics/ ways/design i) Casing is made from soft material Transparent covering is made from softer plastic ii) Increase the divisions in the scale Take a few reading and calculate the average iii) Casing is made from lower density material Reason To reduce impulsive force To reduce impulsive force To detect smaller change in reading To obtain more accurate reading Lighter to carry around

SKILL 5 : PROBLEM SOLVING QUANTITATIVE Question 1 (i) volume = 15cm x 20cm x 30 cm = 9000 cm3 = 9.0 x 103 cm3 volume = 9.0 x 103 cm3 = 9.0 x 10-3 m3.

[2 marks]

(ii)

[2 marks]

(iii)

Density = mass / volume = 15 kg / 9.0 x 10-3 m3 = 1.67 x 103 kg m-3

[2 marks]

Question 2 (i) Thickness = 0.06 mm = 0.06 x 10-3 m = 20 cm x 10 cm = 20 cm2 = 20 x 10-4 m2

[1 mark]

(ii)

Area

[3marks]

SKILL 6 : DECISION MAKING Question 1 . Characteristic Small range of measurement Small division on scale High sensitivity No parallax error Decision : M Reason The estimate measurement is within a few mm only Can give accurate reading Can detect small change in measurement To obtain more accurate reading It has small range of measurement, small division on scale, high sensitivity, and no parallax error

Question 2

- The length of the rope is approximately same as the length needed so that the length is not too long or too short. - The density of the rope has to be small to make it light - The snapping force is larger to ensure that the rope is not easily break.

2 2

2 - The diameter of the rope must smaller Occupy a smaller space 2 - The best choice is K because the length is approximately the same as needed, low density, snapping force is bigger than the load and Smaller diameter

TOPIC 2 : FORCE AND MOTION SKILL 1 : KNOWLEDGE TOPIC : Force and Motion

What is meant by 1. Linear motion 2. Scalar quantity 3. Vector quantity 4. Velocity 5. Speed 6. Acceleration 7. Distance 8. Displacement

Statement Motion along a straight line A physical quantity which has only magnitude A physical quantity which has both magnitude and direction The rate of change of displacement The rate of change of distance The rate of change of velocity The total length of the path travelled Displacement is the shortest distance from one point to another point along a specific direction The tendency of an object to resist change to its state of rest or motion. An object will remain at rest or motion with uniform velocity along a straight line unless it is acted upon by an external

9. Inertia 10. Newtons First law

What is meant by force. 11. Newtons Second law 12. Newtons Third law 13. Momentum 14. Principle of conservation of momentum 15. Force

Statement

The net force on an object is proportional to the rate of change in momentum. To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction . The product of mass and velocity of an object The total momentum of a system is constant if no external forces act on the system.

A push or a pull that can change the size, shape or velocity of an object.

16. Impulse 17. Impulsive force

Change of momentum. A large force that acts for a short period of time during a collision or explosion The force of gravity which is exerted on it by earth. The amount of matter in the object. Free fall occurs when an object falling under the force of gravity only without being affected by any other external forces. . The product of force and the displacement along the direction of the force The capacity to do work.

18. Weight 19. Mass 20. Free fall

21. Work

22. Energy

23. Gravitational field

The region in which an object experiences a force due to gravitational attraction. The Potential Energy of an object is the energy stored in the object because of its position or state. The energy of an object when it is stretched or compressed The energy of an object due to its motion Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can be transformed from one form to another, but the total energy in a closed system is constant. The rate at which work is done or energy is transferred.

24. Potential energy

25. Elastic potential energy 26. Kinetic energy 27. The principle of conservation of energy

Power

What is meant by 28. Elasticity

Statement The property of an object that enables it to return to its original shape and dimensions (size) after an applied external force is removed. The extension of a spring is directly proportional to the stretching force provided the elastic limit is not exceeded. The elastic limit of a spring is the maximum stretching force which can be applied to the spring before it ceases to be elastic. The force constant of a spring is the force per unit extension.

29. Hookes law 30. Elastic limit

31. Force constant (spring constant)

SKILL 2 : UNDERSTANDING
No 1 Answers When the boy jumps onto the river bank, his momentum is forward. Using the Principle of conservation of momentum, the total momentum before and after jumping is equal. The boat moves backward to balance the forward momentum. - Fuel burns in the combustion chamber - Hot gases expelled at high speed backwards - A large backwards momentum is produced - In accordance to the principle of conservation of momentum, The rocket gains forwards momentum of equal magnitude Mark 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

There are two types of force Attraction and repulsive force between the particles of the solid. When the solid is stretched, the molecules displaced away from each other Attractive forces are acting to oppose the stretching When the solid is compressed, the molecules displaced closer to each other Repulsive forces are acting to oppose the compression The inertia of lorry and load is very big when it is moving The separate compartments make the load divided into smaller mass, thus reducing the ineatia of each unit. The momentum of lorry and load is very big when it is moving and produce abigger impulsive force. The steel structure will prevent the loads from smashing into the drivers compartment during emergency braking.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SKILL 3 : CONCEPTUALIZATION QUESTION (a) (b)


1

Answer Mass x velocity Table 1.1 : Momentum of A and B before collision = 2.7 Momentum of A and B after collision = 2.7 Table 1.2 : Momentum of A and B before collision = 0.42 Momentum of A and B after collision = 0.42 Total momentum before collision = total momentum after collision Total momentum before collision = total momentum after collision Principle of conservation of momentum Mass x velocity The gas and the jet plane move in opposite directions The momentum of the gas and the momentum of the jet plane have equal magnitudes. Both the momentum = 0 Principle of conservation of momentum The total momentum is conserved if there are no external forces

Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(c)

(i) (ii) (iii)

(a) (b)

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(a) (b)(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (c)

Change of momentum force on the eggs that strike Surface A is smaller. the time of impact of the eggs on Surface A is longer. When the time of impact is shorter the force produced in a collision is bigger sponge, pillow Realise pile hammer from maximum height. Produce bigger impulse during the collision Product of mass and velocity Mass of air discharged in diagram 4.2 > diagram 4.1 Balloon B has bigger velocity. When the mass of air discharged increased, the velocity of the balloon also increased. The direction of the balloon movement is opposite to the direction of air discharged. The Principle of conservation of momentum. Displacement divided by time Mass is higher // inertia is higher Mass of top 1 is higher

.a) b)

(a) (b) (c ) (i) 5 (ii) (iii) (d) (e)

1 time of rotating for top 1 is longer 1 the higher he mass the longer the time of rotating 1 The higher the mass the longer the inertia 1. Increase the mass 2. Use greater spinning force 1

SKILL 4 : PROBLEM SOLVING QUALITATIVE

(i) (ii)

The compression of the spring is directly proportional to the load Exceed the elastic limit of the spring/ Spring does not return to its original condition after the applied force has been removed. Connect the spring in parallel Use spring with larger spring constant. Use spring with smaller diameter.

1 1

(iii)

Suggested safety features The bonnet should be long and easily crumpled during collisions

Reasons - will increase the stopping time so as to decrease the impulsive force

2 2 2

Passenger compartment must be built with strong and reinforced frame

- so that the compartment is not easily crumpled and the passengers are safe during a collisions

2 2 Any other reason able sugges tions and reason s

Air bag that can be inflated within a split of a second is fitted inside the steering.

- the air bag acts as cushion to prevent the driver being thrown forward during a collision. Also increases time to stop. This reduces the impulsive force - to prevent passengers from hitting into the windscreen.

Broads safety seat belts

The body of the car must be low as - So that the car is more stable and possible and is fitted with board not easily toppled when taking base the corners tyres .

SKILL 5 : PROBLEM SOLVING QUANTITATIVE

QUESTION (i) 1 (ii) (iii) Distance = 20 x 5 = 100 m 500 N a = F / m = -500 800 -2 = -25 ms

ANSWER

MARK 2 2 2

(a) 2 (b)

The spring constant = gradient of the graph -1 For P , spring constant = 8 / 0.5 = 16 N cm -1 For Q , spring constant = 3 / 0.5 = 6 Ncm Elastic potential energy = x 8 x 0.5 x 10 =0.02 J
-2

(i) (ii)

Elastic potential energy

1 1

F , x

3.6 4 k = 0.9 N cm-1


= x 3.6 x 4/100 = 0.072 J

E = Fx (iii)

(iv) i

5 0.9 l = 12 5.56 = 6.44 cm x


72 kmh-1

72 x 1000 3600 =

= 20 ms-1

Impulse = mv mu = 0 (800 x 20) = 16000 Ns Ans + unit ii.

1 1 1 1 1

16000 Impulsive force = 0.2


= 80000 N 500N (i) 200 sin 300 N (i) 200 cos 300 = 173.2N (ii) 173.2N = 50 a a = 3.464 m s-2 (ii) 200 cos 300 N

(a) (b) 5

1+1 1 1 1

(d) (e)

500 + 200sin 300 = 600 N Because the total force acting perpendicular to the floor is smaller. 1

QUESTION

ANSWER

MARK

(a) 6 (b) (c)

(i) 400 N (ii) 40 N In situation (i) the longer the time of impact, the bigger the impulsive force.

1 1 1 1

SKILL 6 : DECISION MAKING


QUESTION NO.

ANSWER Characteristics High spring constant Explanation Stiffer, more potential energy stored and converted to kinetic energy. The kinetic energy provided pushes the competitors higher up in the air. Stronger, can support the competitor Allows for higher bounces and more complicated stunts.

MA RK

(i)

Steel frame More coiled springs

2 2 2

Q is chosen because it has the highest spring constant, it is made of steel and has the most number of coiled spring. (ii) 1. 2. Jump harder/ push harder To increase reactive force/ to store more energy Total

1 1 10

Characteristic Density of the material must be small Elasticity must be high Thickness must be thick Air absorption must be high 2

Reasons To make the landing pad lighter / easier to carry Lengthen the time of impact to reduce the impulsive force Better absorb the impact // to reduce the impulsive force Release and absorb the air easily

1+1 1+1 1+1 1+1 1 1

- the most suitable material is R Because its density is low, elasticity is high, it is thick and high absorption of air suitability Reason small enough space for the spring to be diameter installed High elastic limit can support motorcylist up to 100kg

1 1 1 1 1

higher spring constant small natural frequency

1 small compression of the spring 1 1 to reduce bumping 1 1

D , because has a small diameter , highest elastic limit ,highest spring constant and small natural frequency 4 (a) (b) 5N (i) T1 = 4.16N (ii) T2 = 3.13 N Picture in figure (a) because, the tension of the string is higher 1 2 2 2

(c)

Miscellaneous

F2 = 10 cos 30oN = 10 (0.866) N = 8.66 N

x 3 The trolleys move off separately in opposite directions.

TOPIC : FORCE AND PRESSURE


SKILL 1 : KNOWLEDGE 1. 2. 3. Pressure is force acting normally per unit area // P Density is the mass per volume Pascals Principle states that pressure exerted on an enclosed liquid is transmitted equally through the liquid Archimedes Principle states that, an object which is completely or partially immersed in a fluid, is acted on by a buoyant force, which is equal to weight of the fluid displaced. Bernoullis Principle states that, in a steady flow of a fluid, the pressure of the fluid decreases when the velocity of the fluid increases.
Force Area

1 1 1

4.

5.

SKILL 2 : UNDERSTANDING 1 (a) (b) Archimedes Principle 1. Total density of ship < density of water 2. Buoyant Force = Total weight of ship To ensure the ship will not be overload // ensure the safety of ship To enable the ship to travel safely in different densities of sea water 1 1 1 1 1

(c) (i) (ii)

SKILL 3 : CONCEPTUALIZATION 1. (a) Mass divide by volume (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Density sphere A less than B Weight A less than B The weight of water displaced by A less than B Larger weight of sphere, displaced bigger weight of water Weight of water displaced = upthrust // When the weight of water displaced increase, upthrust increase Archimedes principle Submarine

1 1 1 1 1 1

(c) (d)

1 1

SKILL 4 : PROBLEM SOLVING QUALITATIVE


Modification Cylinder with a bigger bulb bulb with lead shots at the bottom small capillary tube longer stem The hydrometer float in alcohol, The hydrometer float in higher density liquid, Explanation to avoid overturn to avoid overturn small reading scale can be incorporated the stem can stil visible in avery low density of liquid mark the liquid level (upper level)

mark the liquid level (lower level)

SKILL 5 : PROBLEM SOLVING QUANTITATIVE

(e) (i)

Volume of water displaced = Volume of wooden block =m 3 = 800 = 3.75 x 10-3 m3 Weight of load + Weight of wooden block = weight of water displaced Weight of load + Weight of wooden block = V g Weight of load + (3 x 10) = 1000 x 3.75 x 10-3 x 10 Weight of load + (3 x 10) = 37.5 Weight of load = 37.5 30 = 7.5 N Mass of load = 0.75 kg

1 1

(ii)

1 1 1

SKILL 6 : DECISION MAKING

1 Characteristics Streamlined shape High strength of metal Wide base cross section area High volume of air space in the ship Structure P Reason To reduce water resistance To withstand high water pressure So that ship can float//prevent from overturn // ship more stable // ship not sink deeper Produce air buoyant force// ship can float Streamlined shape, High strength of metal, Wide base cross section area, High volume of air space in the ship

TOPIC : HEAT SKILL 1 : KNOWLEDGE


What is meant by 1. Heat 2. Temperature 3. Thermal equilibrium Heat is a form of energy Temperature is the degree.of hotness of a body Thermal equilibrium is reach when the net rate of heat transfer between the two bodies is zero and its reach the same temperature. Statement

4. Specific heat Capacity , c

Specific heat capacity is defined as the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a mass of 1 kg by 1 C or 1 K. c= Q m , SI unit for c = J kg-1 C-1

5. Specific latent Heat of fusion

Specific latent heat of fusion is defined as the quantity of heat energy required to change 1 kg of a substance from the solid state to the liquid state, without a change in temperature Lf= Q m , SI unit for L= J kg-1

6. Specific latent heat of vaporization

Specific latent heat of vaporization is defined as the quantity of heat energy required to change 1 kg of a substance from the liquid state to the gaseous state, without change in temperature Lw= Q m , SI unit for L= J kg-1

7. Boyles Law 8.Charles Law 9. Pressure Law

Boyles Law states that for a fixed mass, at constant temperature, the pressure of gas is inversely proportional to its volume. Charles Law states that for a fixed mass at constant presure, the volume of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. Pressure Law states that for a fixed mass at constant volume, the pressure of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. .

SKILL 2 : UNDERSTANDING
No Answers Mark

Thermometer is placed in the mouth of patient, Heat is transferred from patients body to the thermometer Thermal equilibrium between the thermometer and patients body is reached when the net rate of heat transfer is zero. The thermometer reading shows the temperature of the patients body. No Answers During the day,the land and the sea receive the same amount of heat from the sun. Water has a higher specific capacity than the land The land is heated to a higher temperature than the sea/The density of the air above the sea is higher than the density of the air above the land. The air above the land flows up and the air above the sea flows towards the land.

1 1 1 1 Mark 1 1 1 1

SKILL 3 : CONCEPTUALIZATION

QUESTION

ANSWER 1. Air molecules are in continuous random motion. 2. Air molecules collide with the wall of the glass tube and bounces back. 3. This result in change in momentum and a force is exerted on the wall. 4. Force per unit area is the pressure of the air. Length of trapped air in condition Q is higher than in condition P. Volume of trapped air in condition Q is higher than in condition P Pressure in condition P is bigger than that in condition Q. Length of trapped air is directly proportional to the volume of trapped air. The volume of trapped air is inversely proportional with pressure Boyles law.

MARK 4

(a)

(b) i ii iii (c) i ii (d)

1 1 1 1 1 1

QUESTION (a)i Ii (b) i ii

ANSWER The quantity of heat in water and cooking oil is equal The temperature of the water is lower than the temperature of the cooking oil Specific heat capacity The higher the specific heat capacity of a material,the rate of increase of temperature slower.

MARK 1 1 1 1

SKILL 4 : PROBLEM SOLVING QUALITATIVE

QUESTION Lower fixed point The thermometer is placed in pure melting ice When the mercury level is steady, its position in glass stem of the thermometer is marked as 0oC . Upper fixed point The thermometer is placed in a container that is surrounded by steam of boiling water at ordinary atmospheric pressure When the mercury level is steady, its position on the glass stem of the thermometer is marked as 100oC . The distance on the stem of the thermometer between 0oC and 100oC is measured, then divided equally into 100 parts. (Each part represents 1oC) L - Lo L100 - Lo (ii) x 100 oC x 100 oC 1 1

1 1

(i)

1 1 1

= 10.0 - 2.5 13.8 2.5

1 1 1

(i) (ii) 2

= 66.37 oC Heat is absorbed by the metal block The rate of heat flows between metal block and the water is the same. The water and the metal block achieve thermal equilibrium.

1 1

mwater x cwater x water = mmetal block x cmetal block x metal block cmetal block = 0.1 x 4200 x (48-28) (iii) 0.5 x (48-28) = 840 J kg-1 C-1

1 1

QUESTIO N NO.

ANSWER

MA RK

(i) 3

Modifications thermometer is made from transparent glass that is strong the thermometric liquid chosen is mercury the capillary tube is made narrow and thin the shape of the thermometer is round the thermometer is placed in melting ice to obtain the lower point

Reason so that it is not easily broken because it easily expands uniformly so that it is more sensitive so that it has a magnifying effect the thermometer is placed in steam from boiling water to obtain the upper point Total

2 2

2 2

10

SKILL 5 : PROBLEM SOLVING QUANTITATIVE

QUESTIO N (i) P = Patm + Pwater = 10 + 0.5 = 10.5 m water P1V1 = P2V2 V1 = P2V2 P1 = 10.5 x 0.5 10 = 0.525 cm3

ANSWER

MAR K 1

1 (ii)

L = (a)

Pt m
1

= 0.1 x 10 3 x 156 0.05 = 312000 J kg-1

2 t = 72 s (from graph) (b) c = Pt m = 0.1 x 10 3 x 72 0.05 x 140 = 1028.57 J kg-1 C

1 1

QUESTIO N

ANSWER

MAR K 1

SKILL 6 : DECISION MAKING QUESTIO N NO. Characteristics High boiling point MA RK

ANSWER

(i) 1

Explanation It will not boil easily when absorbing heat from the engine Low freezing point It will not freeze during cold weather//can flow at low temperature High specific heat It can transfer a big quantity of heat with small capacity rise in temperature A low ability to react The metal parts of the engine will not corrode with metals easily K is the most suitable liquid Because of its low freezing point, high boiling point, high specific of heat capacity and low ability to react with metals Total

2 2

2 1 1 10

QUESTIO N NO. Characteristics Low specific heat capacity of ice cream box Smaller size of ice cream box Plastic PVC Bright colour of outer box

ANSWER

MA RK

Explanation Easy get cold // becomes cool quickly

Easier to carry // easy too become cool

2 2

(i) 2

R is Poor conductor of heat chosen Does not absorb heat from surrounding because quickly Low specific heat capacity of ice cream box, Smaller size of ice cream box, Plastic PVC, Bright color of outer box

2 1 1 10

Total

Miscellaneous 1 2 Rate of change of momentum of the molecules increases

1 V
3 Aluminium contains more heat energy than Copper

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