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Ubuntu:1aunty

From
Ubuntu 9.4 (1aunty 1ackalope)
Introduction
On April 23, 2009 Ubuntu 9.04 was released.
It is code named Jaunty Jackalope and is the successor to Intrepid Ibex (8.10) (Intrepid1).
Jaunty Jackalope is NOT an LTS (Long Term Support) release. It will be supported with security
updates until October 2010.
Languages:
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() esky Deutsch Espa ol
English Estonian Filipino Fran ais
Hindi Hrvatski Kurd
Lietuvi kai Latvie u tulkojums Indonesian
Bahasa Malaysia
(http://melayubuntu.blogspot.com/) Italiano
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Wersja
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Contents
1 Ubuntu 9.04 (Jaunty Jackalope)
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 General Notes
1.1.2 How to Iind out which version oI Ubuntu you're using
1.1.3 How to Iind out which kernel you are using
1.1.4 Newer Versions oI Ubuntu
1.1.5 Older Versions oI Ubuntu
1.1.6 Installing Ubuntu
1.1.6.1 Hardware requirements
1.1.6.2 Fresh Installation
1.1.6.3 Dual-Booting Windows and Ubuntu
1.1.6.4 Installing multiple OS on a single computer
1.1.6.5 Use Startup Manager to change Grub settings
1.1.6.6 Dual-Booting Mac OS X and Ubuntu
1.1.6.6.1 Installing Mac OS X aIter Ubuntu
1.1.6.6.2 Installing Ubuntu aIter Mac OS X
1.1.6.7 Upgrading Intrepid to Jaunty
1.1.6.8 Reinstalling applications aIter a Iresh install
1.1.7 Ubuntu Resources
1.1.7.1 Gnome Project
1.1.7.2 Ubuntu Screenshots and Screencasts
1.1.7.3 New Applications Resources
1.1.7.4 Other *buntu guides and help manuals
1.2 Add Extra Ubuntu Repositories
1.2.1 Types oI Repositories
1.2.1.1 Third party repositories
1.2.2 Add Repositories using Synaptic Package Manager
1.2.3 Manually add repositories
1.2.4 Add repository keys
1.3 Ubuntu Package Installation and Updates
1.3.1 Apt and Package Basics
1.3.1.1 Installing .deb packages
1.3.1.2 Handling (Tar/GZip) and (Tar/Bzip2) archives
1.3.1.3 Installing a package Irom source
1.3.1.3.1 Create a .deb package Irom source Iiles
1.3.2 Aptitude
1.3.3 Synaptic Package Manager
1.3.4 Add/Remove Programs
1.3.5 Manual Updates
1.3.6 Automated Updates
2 Ubuntu Addon Applications
2.1 Eye Candy Applications
2.1.1 Gnome Eye-Candy Resources
2.1.2 Metacity
2.1.3 Compiz Fusion
2.1.3.1 Fusion Icon
2.1.3.2 Rotate the Compiz Cube
2.1.4 Emerald
2.1.5 Ubuntu Wallpaper
2.1.6 Change USplash Boot Screen
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2.1.7 Google Desktop
2.1.8 Dock applications
2.1.8.1 Avant Window Navigator
2.1.8.2 Cairo Dock
2.1.8.3 wbar
2.1.8.3.1 wbarconI
2.2 Virtualization
2.2.1 VirtualBox
2.2.2 QEMU
2.2.3 KVM
2.2.4 Xen
2.2.5 VMWare
2.2.5.1 VMWare Player
2.2.5.2 VMWare Server
2.2.5.2.1 VMWare Package
2.2.5.3 Keyboard errors in VMware guest
2.2.6 Virtual Machine Manager
2.2.7 Crossover Ior Linux
2.2.8 Wine
2.2.8.1 PlayOnLinux
2.2.8.2 Internet Explorer 6
2.2.8.3 Wine-doors
2.2.9 Transgaming Cedega
2.2.10 Mono
2.2.10.1 Moonlight
2.2.10.1.1 NetIlix under Moonlight
2.3 Edutainment Applications
2.3.1 Google Earth
2.3.1.1 Troubleshooting
2.3.1.2 Uninstall Google Earth
2.4 Proprietary Applications
2.4.1 Restricted Extras
2.5 Games Applications
2.5.1 VdriIt
2.5.2 Action
2.5.2.1 Nexuiz
2.5.2.2 UrbanTerror
2.5.2.3 Spring
2.5.2.4 PlaneShiIt
2.5.2.5 PrBoom - the classic Doom2 game
2.5.2.6 Wing Commander Privateer
2.6 Graphics and Video Applications
2.6.1 Kino (Non-linear Video Editing Suite)
2.6.2 Cinelerra (Non-linear Video Editing Suite)
2.6.3 KdenLive (Non-linear Video Editing Suite Ior KDE)
2.6.4 Dia (Diagram editor)
2.6.5 Kivio (Diagram editor)
2.6.6 GIMP (Image Manipulator)
2.6.7 Inkscape Vector Illustrator
2.6.8 recordMyDesktop (Desktop Session Recording)
2.6.9 Istanbul (Desktop Session Recording)
2.6.10 Wink (Presentation Editor)
2.6.11 Digikam (Photo Organiser)
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2.6.12 Google Picasa (Photo Organiser)
2.6.13 Camorama (Web Cam)
2.7 Internet Applications
2.7.1 Web Browsers
2.7.1.1 Mozilla FireIox
2.7.1.1.1 FireIox Plug-ins
2.7.1.1.1.1 Adblock plug-in (block ads in a web page)
2.7.1.1.1.2 Noscript plug-in (controls scripts)
2.7.1.1.1.3 User Agent Switcher plug-in Ior FireIox
2.7.1.1.1.4 Video Download Helper plug-in Ior FireIox
2.7.1.1.1.5 Unplug Download Management
2.7.1.1.1.6 Java Runtime Environment (JRE) Ior FireIox plug-in
2.7.1.1.1.7 Adobe Acrobat Reader Ior FireIox Plug-in
2.7.1.1.1.8 Adobe Flash Player Ior FireIox Plug-in
2.7.1.1.1.9 Gnash Plug-in (Open source Flash Player replacement)
2.7.1.1.1.10 VLC plug-in Ior FireIox
2.7.1.1.1.11 Gecko MediaPlayer Plug-in Ior FireIox
2.7.1.1.1.12 KaIIeine Plug-in Ior FireIox
2.7.1.1.1.13 Helix player plug-in Ior FireIox
2.7.1.1.2 FireFTP Ior FireIox
2.7.1.1.3 FireIox Widgets
2.7.1.1.4 Turn oII browser bar drop-down list in FireIox
2.7.1.2 IceCat
2.7.1.3 SeaMonkey
2.7.1.4 IceApe
2.7.1.5 Opera
2.7.2 Download Managers
2.7.2.1 Downloader Ior X
2.7.3 Email Clients
2.7.3.1 Evolution
2.7.3.1.1 Evolution and PGP
2.7.3.2 KMail
2.7.3.3 Thunderbird
2.7.3.3.1 Lightning calendar extension
2.7.3.3.2 Enigmail
2.7.3.3.3 New Mail Icon Ior Thunderbird
2.7.4 Newsreaders
2.7.4.1 Akregator
2.7.4.2 RSSOwl
2.7.5 Instant Messengers
2.7.5.1 Pidgin
2.7.5.2 Kopete
2.7.5.2.1 Kopete Styles
2.7.5.2.2 GoogleTalk on Kopete
2.7.5.3 Konversation (IRC client)
2.7.5.4 aMSN
2.7.5.5 Emesene
2.7.6 VideoconIerencing and VOIP
2.7.6.1 Ekiga
2.7.6.2 Skype
2.7.6.2.1 How to install Skype on a 64-bit system
2.7.6.3 Wengophone
2.7.6.4 Gizmo5
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2.7.6.5 Asterisk VOIP PBX system
2.7.6.6 Kiax
2.7.7 FTP Clients
2.7.7.1 Filezilla
2.7.8 Filesharing / P2P
2.7.8.1 Transmission (BitTorrent Client)
2.7.8.2 KTorrent
2.7.8.3 Azureus
2.7.8.4 QTorrent
2.7.8.5 Apollon (P2P Filesharing)
2.7.8.6 MLDonkey (P2P eMule/eDonkey2000)
2.7.8.6.1 MLDonkey GUI Irontends
2.7.9 Privacy
2.7.9.1 PGP (Message Encryption)
2.7.9.1.1 Seahorse
2.7.9.2 Tor (Network Privacy)
2.7.9.2.1 Tor GUIs
2.8 Multimedia Applications
2.8.1 CDs and DVDs
2.8.1.1 DVD Playback Capability
2.8.1.2 K9copy DVD-Ripper
2.8.1.3 dvd::rip
2.8.1.4 DVD Fab DVD Ripper
2.8.1.5 Handbrake
2.8.1.6 FFMPEG video / audio conversion
2.8.1.6.1 FFMPEG GUI
2.8.1.6.2 Join video segments
2.8.1.7 Save any streaming Flash video
2.8.1.8 Convert Flash video audio to mp3
2.8.1.9 2ManDVD
2.8.1.10 DeVeDe
2.8.1.11 DVD Author
2.8.1.11.1 QDVDAuthor
2.8.1.12 Gnomebaker (CD/DVD burner)
2.8.1.13 K3b (CD/DVD burner)
2.8.1.14 Ripper X CD Ripper/Encoder
2.8.1.15 Asunder CD Ripper/Encoder
2.8.1.16 Audex CD Ripper/Encoder
2.8.1.17 EasyTag (ID3 Tag Editor)
2.8.1.18 Audacity (Audio Editor and Recorder)
2.8.2 Music Players
2.8.2.1 Rhythmbox
2.8.2.2 Amarok
2.8.2.2.1 Amarok themes
2.8.2.3 Audacious
2.8.2.4 Banshee Music Player
2.8.2.5 Exaile Music Manager and Player
2.8.2.6 Songbird Music Player
2.8.3 Video and Music Players
2.8.3.1 MPlayer Multimedia Player
2.8.3.1.1 SMPlayer
2.8.3.1.2 Dump a video stream to disc
2.8.3.2 VLC Multimedia Player
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2.8.3.2.1 Playing VCD on VLC
2.8.3.3 Xine-UI Multimedia Player
2.8.3.4 KaIIeine Video Player
2.8.3.5 RealPlayer 11 Multimedia Player
2.8.4 Internet TV
2.8.4.1 Miro Player
2.8.4.2 Myth TV
2.8.4.3 Sopcast Internet TV
2.8.4.4 Zattoo
2.8.5 Media Centers and PVR (Personal Video Recorder)
2.8.5.1 MythTV
2.8.5.2 Mythbuntu
2.8.5.3 XBMC
2.8.5.4 Boxee
2.8.5.5 Elisa
2.8.5.6 LinuxMCE
2.8.6 Multimedia Servers
2.8.6.1 MPD Multimedia Playing Server
2.8.6.2 TiMidity MIDI Sound Server
2.8.6.3 uShare UPnP A/V Media Server
2.8.7 Multimedia Encoders
2.8.7.1 Gnac (GNome Audio Converter)
2.8.7.2 SOX (encodes/decodes audio)
2.8.8 Internet Radio
2.8.8.1 Last FM
2.8.8.2 Shoutcast Internet Radio
2.8.8.3 StreamTuner Stream Directory Browser
2.8.8.4 BBC program recording
2.9 Home Automation / Home Theater / Home Security
2.9.1 Complete Systems
2.9.1.1 Linux MCE (Media Center Edition)
2.9.2 Home Security
2.9.2.1 Zoneminder surveillance system
2.9.2.1.1 Myth Zoneminder
2.10 Productivity Applications
2.10.1 OIIice Suites
2.10.1.1 Open OIIice
2.10.1.1.1 Open Word 2007 Documents in Open OIIice
2.10.1.2 KOIIice
2.10.1.3 AbiWord
2.10.2 Personal InIormation Managers
2.10.2.1 Kontact Personal InIormation Manager
2.10.2.2 Mozilla Sunbird (Calendar)
2.10.2.3 BasKet Note Pads
2.10.2.4 Planner (Project planning & management)
2.10.2.5 Time Tracker
2.10.3 Financial SoItware
2.10.3.1 GnuCash (Personal Finance Management)
2.10.3.2 KMyMoney (Personal Finance Management)
2.10.3.3 Moneydance (Personal Finance Management)
2.10.3.4 SQL-Ledger (Enterprise Finance Management)
2.10.3.5 WebERP (Enterprise Finance Management)
2.10.3.6 Phreebooks (Enterprise Finance Management)
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2.10.3.7 Quasar (Enterprise Finance Management)
2.10.4 Groupware
2.10.4.1 Groupware Servers
2.10.4.1.1 Kolab
2.10.4.1.1.1 Kolab Ubuntu package
2.10.4.1.2 Citadel
2.10.4.1.3 eGroupware
2.10.4.1.4 Open-Xchange
2.10.4.1.5 OpenGroupware
2.10.4.1.6 ZaraIa
2.10.4.1.7 Zimbra
2.10.4.1.8 SugarCRM Server
2.10.4.1.9 SchoolTool
2.10.4.2 Groupware Clients
2.10.4.2.1 Kontact Personal InIormation Manager
2.10.4.2.2 KDE Groupware Wizard
2.10.4.2.3 Yahoo!zimbra Desktop in Ubuntu 8.04
2.10.4.2.4 Oracle Calendar Desktop Client
2.10.5 Wiki soItware
2.10.5.1 MediaWiki
2.10.5.1.1 ReCaptcha
2.10.5.2 Twiki
2.10.5.3 Moin Moin
2.10.5.4 TiddlyWiki
2.10.6 Development
2.10.6.1 Kompozer Web Development Editor
2.10.6.2 Quanta Plus (Web IDE)
2.10.6.3 Netbeans IDE
2.10.6.4 BlueFish Web Development Editor
2.11 Web Publishing
2.11.1 WordPress
2.11.2 Drupal (Web content publishing)
2.11.2.1 Installation quirks
2.11.2.1.1 libgd2-xpm
2.11.2.1.2 Exim vs. PostIix
2.11.3 Joomla (Web content publishing)
2.11.4 Scribus (Desktop publishing)
2.11.5 Plone (Content Management System)
2.12 Science, Technology, and Engineering Applications
2.12.1 Health applications
2.12.1.1 WorldVistA (Enterprise Electronic Health Record)
2.12.2 Mathematical solutions
2.12.2.1 Octave
2.12.2.2 Freemat
2.12.3 Amateur Radio applications
2.13 Utilities
2.13.1 Archiving Utilities
2.13.1.1 BChunk
2.13.1.2 HJSplit Files Joiner/Splitter
2.13.1.3 Rar
2.13.1.4 Unrar
2.13.1.5 7-Zip
2.13.2 Hard Drive Utilities
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2.13.2.1 KDiskFree (Hard drive properties monitor)
2.13.3 Clock Utilties
2.13.4 Screensavers
2.13.5 Partition Managers
2.13.5.1 GParted Partition Manager
2.13.6 Network Monitors
2.13.6.1 Netstat
2.13.6.2 Etherape (Network monitoring)
3 Ubuntu System Administration
3.1 Automating Tasks
3.2 Boot Menu
3.2.1 Login Menu settings
3.2.2 GRUB boot manager settings
3.3 DeIault Applications
3.4 Kill a process
3.5 Enabling NUM LOCK On Startup
3.6 System Backup and Recovery
3.6.1 Rsync
3.6.1.1 GRsync
3.6.1.2 Bacula
3.6.2 Keep (Backup and Recovery)
3.6.3 Partimage (Partition backup)
3.7 User Administration
3.7.1 Add New Users
3.7.2 ModiIy Users
3.7.3 Removing Users
3.7.4 Change your user groups
3.7.5 Timekpr (Parental controls)
3.7.6 Web content Iiltering
3.8 Working with Menus
3.9 Create an encrypted Iolder
3.10 Printers
3.10.1 Add a Printer
3.10.1.1 Use CUPS web interIace
3.11 Create a symlink Irom a Iile to another location
3.12 Assign a root password
3.13 Get a root prompt without using a root password
3.14 Use the File Manager as root
3.15 Manually Mount and Unmount a device
3.16 Windows Compatibility
3.16.1 Mounting NTFS Partitions (with read/write privileges)
3.16.2 Mounting FAT32 Partitions
3.17 Synchronize clock to network time server
4 Hardware
4.1 CPU
4.2 Graphics Card
4.2.1 Install nVidia/ATI drivers
4.2.1.1 Jaunty Repository nVidia drivers
4.2.1.2 Install latest nVidia driver
4.2.1.3 Install Avenard NVidia package
4.2.1.4 nVidia Driver Legacy instructions
4.2.1.4.1 xorg.conI Ior nvidia
4.2.2 Resolution changes
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4.2.3 KDE 4 Keeps Flickering on Intel graphics cards
4.2.4 Intel graphics
4.2.4.1 Fix Intel 915 resolution problem
4.2.4.1.1 Screen Keeps Flickering
4.2.5 ATI Driver
4.2.6 ReconIigure xserver-xorg
4.2.6.1 xorg.conI
4.3 Monitors / Displays
4.3.1 Turn oII power saving
4.3.2 ConIigure Dual Monitors with nVidia
4.4 Hard Drives and USB Storage
4.5 Optical Drives
4.6 Printers & Scanners
4.6.1 Hewlett Packard printers & scanners
4.6.2 Brother printers
4.6.3 Get Xsane to recognize a network printer/scanner
4.7 Sound
4.7.1 Pulse Audio
4.7.2 Airport Express
4.7.2.1 Airport Express with Pulse Audio
4.7.2.2 GSTransmit
4.7.2.3 raop-client
4.7.2.4 AirIoil
4.8 Mice
4.8.1 Activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox
4.9 Touchpad
4.10 Wacom Pen Tablets
4.11 Remote Controls
4.11.1 LIRC (InIrared Remote Controls)
4.12 Bluetooth
4.12.1 WiiMote
4.13 USB
4.13.1 Video Capture
4.13.1.1 DVC 100
4.13.1.1.1 Capture video using mencoder
4.14 Wireless Cards
4.14.1 Atheros Cards
4.14.1.1 Atheros AR242x
4.14.2 3G
4.14.2.1 he220r1
4.14.2.2 T-Mobile Option 225 (Web'N'Walk) Stick
4.14.2.3 Virgin Huawei e169
4.14.3 EVDO Cards
4.14.3.1 Sprint
4.14.3.2 Verizon
4.14.3.2.1 Tethering your PC to your Verizon cell phone
4.15 Digital Cameras
4.16 WebCams
4.16.1 EasyCam
4.16.2 iSight
4.16.3 Luvcview (USB webcam viewer)
4.16.4 Logitech Webcams
4.16.4.1 Logitech Notebook Deluxe Webcam
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4.17 Netbooks
4.17.1 Acer Aspire One
4.18 Palm
4.19 Other
4.19.1 Mobile Devices
4.19.2 GPS
5 Networking
5.1 Network Manager
5.2 Wicd Network Manager
5.3 Set a static IP address
5.4 Wireless
5.4.1 Network Manager
5.4.2 Manual conIiguration Irom the command-line
5.5 Internet connection sharing (DHCP server)
5.5.1 Using a nested wireless LAN router
5.5.2 Network InterIaces Bridging
5.6 Using Dynamic IP addresses Ior a webserver
5.7 Filesharing
5.7.1 NFS
5.7.2 Samba File Sharing
5.7.2.1 Samba client
5.7.2.2 Samba server
5.7.2.3 Change your Workgroup
5.7.2.4 Recognizing Win98 machines
5.7.3 Integrating into Mac OS X Network
5.8 Local Area Network
5.9 Modems / Dial-up
5.10 Remote Access
5.10.1 SSH
5.10.1.1 Connect to a remote SSH server
5.10.1.1.1 From the command-line terminal
5.10.1.1.2 Port Iorwarding through SSH
5.10.1.1.3 PuTTY
5.10.1.1.4 Connect using SSH Agent
5.10.1.2 Setup an SSH server
5.10.1.2.1 Limit authorized SSH users
5.10.1.2.2 OpenSSH Public Key Authentication
5.10.2 VNC
5.10.2.1 KrIb VNC server
5.10.2.1.1 How to use KrIb with SSH tunneling securely
5.10.2.1.2 X11VNC Server
5.10.2.1.3 Using VNC with SSH
5.10.2.2 Krdc VNC client
5.10.2.2.1 Using Krdc VNC client with SSH
5.10.2.3 XVNC4Viewer VNC Client
5.10.3 FreeNX
5.10.3.1 FreeNX Server
5.10.3.2 FreeNX Client
5.10.4 XDMCP
5.10.5 Telnet
5.10.6 VPN clients
5.10.6.1 VPN through Network Manager
5.10.6.2 Other VPN clients
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5.10.7 VPN servers
5.10.7.1 OpenVPN
5.10.7.2 Poptop (PPTP Server)
5.10.7.3 OpenSwan
5.10.8 LTSP (Thin client support)
5.10.9 iTALC (Thin client Ior Education)
5.10.10 Web meetings
5.10.10.1 DimDim
5.10.10.2 WebHuddle
5.10.11 Distance teaching
5.10.11.1 Moodle
5.10.11.2 Claroline
5.11 Security
5.11.1 Firewall
5.11.1.1 Firestarter
5.11.1.2 Guarddog
5.11.1.3 Uncomplicated Firewall
5.11.1.3.1 GuIw
5.11.2 Anti-virus
5.11.2.1 ClamAV
5.11.3 Anti-spam
5.11.3.1 Spam Assasin
5.11.4 Rootkit checkers
5.11.4.1 Chkrootkit
5.11.4.2 Rootkit Hunter
5.11.5 Security hardening
5.11.5.1 Nmap
5.11.5.1.1 Nmap GUI
5.11.5.2 Nessus
5.11.5.3 AppArmor
5.11.5.3.1 Disable AppArmor
5.11.5.4 SELinux
5.11.5.5 Iail2ban
6 Servers
6.1 LAMP server installation
6.2 Other servers
6.2.1 OpenSSH server
6.2.2 PostIix (Mail Server)
6.2.3 Bind9 (DNS server)
6.2.4 Apache Tomcat (Java server)
6.2.5 Xen virtual machine host
6.2.6 Print server
6.2.7 Apache2 Webserver with PHP and Perl support
6.2.8 OpenLDAP
6.2.9 DAViCal Calendar Server
6.2.10 Darwin Calendar Server
6.2.11 WebCalendar
6.2.12 Network Monitoring and Management
6.2.12.1 Nagios
6.2.12.2 Cacti Monitoring Server
6.3 Cluster (cloud) computing
6.4 Add the Ubuntu desktop to a server
6.5 Internet CaIe soItware
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6.5.1 OutKaIe
6.5.2 OpenKiosk
6.5.3 CaIePilot
6.5.4 Pessulus (Lockdown Editor)
6.6 Enterprise Network Firewall
6.6.1 IPCop
6.6.2 SmoothWall
6.6.3 Endian
7 Tips & Tricks
7.1 Run Command
7.2 Turn oII Hot Keys
7.3 Run Ubuntu LiveCD Irom a USB pendrive
7.3.1 Create a boot CD to allow booting Irom the USB drive
7.3.2 USB Creator
7.4 Associate deIault applications
7.5 Capture a screenshot
7.6 Run a KDE 4 desktop Irom Ubuntu
7.7 Run a KDE 3 desktop Irom Ubuntu
7.8 Kill (end) a process
7.9 View hidden Iiles
7.10 Alien
8 SoItware Troubleshooting
8.1 Permissions error on program startup
8.2 CD-ROM Troubleshooting
9 Licenses
9.1 GPL license
9.2 LGPL license
9.3 Proprietary licenses
10 Requests
General Notes
Ubuntuguide is unoIIicial and is not associated with Canonical Ltd.
Ubuntu allows a user to accomplish tasks Irom either a menu-driven Graphical User InterIace (GUI)
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GraphicaluserinterIace) or Irom a text-based command-line interIace
(CLI) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command-lineinterIace) . In Ubuntu, the command-line-interIace
terminal is called Terminal, which is started: Applications -~ Accessories -~ Terminal.
-r n-- r!- jn-y rr- o Lk- r!- -!uL o- ur nr r!- mmnLn- -nmnL
Many changes to the operating system can only be done by a User with Administrative privileges. 'sudo'
elevates a User's privileges to the Administrator level temporarily (i.e. when installing programs or making
changes to the system). Example:
-u o-!
'gksudo' should be used instead oI 'sudo' when opening a Graphical Application through the "Run
Command" dialog box. Example:
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jk-u j-r -rr-un--L-r
"man" command can be used to Iind help manual Ior a command. For example, "man sudo" will display
the manual page Ior the "sudo" command:
mn -u
While "apt-get" and "aptitude" are Iast ways oI installing programs/packages, you can also use the
Synaptic Package Manager, a GUI method Ior installing programs/packages. Most (but not all)
programs/packages available with apt-get install will also be available Irom the Synaptic Package
Manager. In this guide, when you see
-u rj-r n-rLL p-r-ja
you can search Ior package in Synaptic and install it that way.
"Applications" or "Menu" reIers to the bottom-leIt (or upper-leIt) button(s), akin to the Start button in
MicrosoIt Windows.
II you are using the 64-bit version, replace any "i386" with "amd64"
How to find out which version of Ubuntu you're using
Open the command-line Terminal and type:
L-on-L---
How to find out which kernel you are using
unm- n
Newer Versions of Ubuntu
Ubuntu has a six month release cycle, with releases in April and October.
Karmic Koala (9.10), scheduled Ior release in October 2009. This will not be an LTS version.
Lucid Lynx (10.04 LTS), scheduled Ior release in April 2010, will be the next LTS (Long-term support)
version.
Older Versions of Ubuntu
Intrepid Ibex (8.10) (supported until April 2010)
Hardy Heron (8.04 LTS) (Long Term Support version with desktop support until April 2011 and server
support until April 2013)
Gutsy Gibbon (7.10) (no longer supported)
Feisty Fawn (7.04) (no longer supported)
Dapper Drake (6.06 LTS) (Long Term Support Ior server until June 2011; desktop no longer supported)
Installing Ubuntu
Hardware requirements
Ubuntu Jaunty Jackalope runs well with as little as 384 Mb RAM. (The installer requires a minimum oI 256 Mb
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RAM, while the alternative installer can run using only 192 Mb RAM.) Netbooks can run Ubuntu Jaunty
Jackalope.
The install takes between 3-4 Gb hard drive space, and 8 - 10 Gb will be needed to run comIortably.
II you have an older computer with less memory than this, consider Xubuntu (http://www.xubuntu.org/) (iI
between 256 Mb and 512 Mb RAM) or PuppyLinux (http://www.puppylinux.org/) or DSL
(http://damnsmalllinux.org/) (iI less than 256 Mb RAM).
Issues: There are problems with integrated Intel graphics cards in the new Linux kernel supplied with
Jaunty. Please research this issue (http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?t 1130582) (iI you are
aIIected) prior to installing Jaunty, since they are not trivial to Iix. II you have an Intel graphics card,
consider Hardy, Intrepid, or Karmic.
Fresh Installation
Download the latest ISO image Irom Ubuntu 9.04 (http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/daily-live/current/) . See this
guide (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BurningIsoHowto) Ior burning the ISO image to a CD.
Use the CD Ior installation.
Dual-Booting Windows and Ubuntu
Rarely, a user may experience problems dual-booting Ubuntu and Windows. In general, a Windows OS should
be installed Iirst, because its bootloader is very particular. A Windows installation usually occupies the entire
hard drive, so the partition needs to be shrunk, creating Iree space Ior the Ubuntu partition. (You should clean
up unnecessary Iiles and deIragment the drive beIore resizing.) The Windows partition can be resized Irom
within Windows Vista/Windows 7 using the shrink/resize option in the Settings -~ Control Panel -~
Administrative Tools -~ Computer Management -~ Storage -~ Disk Management -~ Shrink Volume tool (but
see these caveats and this tutorial (http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/windows-vista/working-around-
windows-vistas-shrink-volume-inadequacy-problems/) ). II using Windows XP (or other Windows OS), use
GParted partition manager to shrink the Windows partition and thereby leave Iree space on the hard drive Ior
the Ubuntu partition.
AIter shrinking the Windows partition, you should reboot once into Windows prior to installing Ubuntu. This
allows the Windows system to automatically rescan the newly-resized partition (using chkdsk) and write changes
to its own bootup Iiles. (II you Iorget to do this, you may later have to repair the Windows partition bootup Iiles
manually using the Windows Recovery Console.)
II done this way, there is no problem installing Ubuntu as the second operating system and it is done
automatically Irom the Ubuntu LiveCD. Allow the Ubuntu LiveCD to install to "largest available Iree space."
A Windows partition should be at least 20 Gb (recommended 30 Gb), and a Ubuntu partition at least 10 Gb
(recommended 20 Gb). Obviously, iI you have plenty oI disk space, make the partition Ior whichever will be
your Iavoured operating system larger. For a perspective on other partitioning schemes, see this Psychocats
Guide to Partitioning (http://www.psychocats.net/ubuntu/partitioning) or this Ubuntu intro to alternative
partitioning (https://help.ubuntu.com/9.04/installation-guide/i386/apcs03.html) .
Alternatives include:
Wubi (http://www.wubi-installer.org/) (Windows-based Ubuntu Installer), an oIIicially supported dual-
boot installer that allows Ubuntu to be run mounted in a virtual-disk within the Windows environment
(which can cause a slight degradation in perIormance). Because the installation requires an intact
Iunctioning Windows system, it is recommended to install Ubuntu in this manner Ior short-term evaluation
purposes only. A permanent Ubuntu installation should be installed in its own partition, with its own
Iilesystem, and should not rely on Windows.
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EasyBCD (http://neosmart.net/dl.php?id 1) , a Iree Windows-based program that allows you to dual-
boot Windows Vista and Ubuntu (http://neosmart.net/wiki/display/EBCD/Ubuntu) (as well as other
operating systems) by conIiguring the Vista bootloader.
Installing multiple OS on a single computer
II you want to install more than 2 operating systems on a single computer, check out these tips.
Use Startup Manager to change Grub settings
Grub is the bootup utility that controls which OS to load by deIault and other bootup settings. You can change
Grub settings Irom the Startup Manager:
System -~ Administration -~ Startup Manager
II Startup Manager is not installed, install it:
-u rj-r n-rLL -rnrumnj-n
Note: You can also edit the Grub settings manually Irom the command-line interIace.
Dual-Booting Mac OS X and Ubuntu
Mac OS X has a similar structure to Linux (it is BSD Unix based). Dual-booting Mac OS X and Ubuntu
detailed instructions can be Iound here (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/MacBookPro1-11-2/Intrepid) .
Installing Mac OS X after Ubuntu
II you decide to dual boot with OS X, choose ext2 as your partition type during the Ubuntu installation.
(For this the Super Grub Disk CD is a useIul utility. You can download the Super Grub .iso image Iile at
Iorjamari.linex.org (http://supergrub.Iorjamari.linex.org) and burn the image to a CD-ROM.)
Once you have installed Ubuntu, edit the Grub start-up list:
-u nn orjnuom-nuL-r
and add the Iollowing lines:
rrL- O
nr !,
mk-rv-
!nL-n -
Reboot your Mac and go to the terminal in Max OS X (iI you have any issues booting, boot Irom your Mac OS
X DVD). Press F8 and enter -s. Enter:
r-k - -vn-k
rLj ` nr- r!r rLj ` - my nrrn numo-n r
jur
y
n-or
II are still unsure whether it is working correctly, use the Super Grub Disk CD and make grub active.
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Installing Ubuntu after Mac OS X
II you get an error message during boot such as HFSerror in the bootloader, you can also use the Super
Grub Disk Ior recovering Linux GRUB and the Windows MBR (Master Boot Record).
Once you have installed Ubuntu, edit the Grub start-up list:
-u nn orjnuom-nuL-r
and add the Iollowing lines:
rrL- O
nr !,
mk-rv-
!nL-n -
II you have issues with Mac OSX or Windows in GRUB, try changing the Mac OS X Grub entry
change root (hd0,0) to root (hd0,1)
This means you will boot into partition number 1. You can try any partition number until you get it right.
Upgrading Intrepid to 1aunty
II you are using an older version oI Ubuntu, you may wish to upgrade to Jaunty. A new installation is
recommended to prevent soItware bloat.
It is possible to do a distribution upgrade using Synaptic by clicking on the "Full Upgrade option."
Alternatively, use the update-manager (all editions):
-u rj-r n-rLL ur-mnj-n
-u ur-mnj-n
You can also use:
-u rj-r -rujn-
Screenshots oI the upgrade process are available at UbuntuGeek upgrade guide
(http://www.ubuntugeek.com/how-to-upgrade-ubuntu-810-intrepid-to-ubuntu-904-jaunty.html) .
Issues: 1) There are problems with integrated Intel graphics cards in the new Linux kernel supplied with
Jaunty. Please research this issue (http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?t 1130582) (iI you are
aIIected) prior to upgrading to Jaunty, since they are not trivial to Iix. 2) The sound system has changed
somewhat between Intrepid and Jaunty. Sound works better with a Iresh install oI Jaunty than aIter an
upgrade Irom Intrepid. II you have sound problems aIter an upgrade, consider a Iresh install.
Reinstalling applications after a fresh install
II you upgrade your Ubuntu system with a Iresh install, it is possible to mark the packages and services installed
on your old system (prior to the upgrade) and save the settings ("markings") into a Iile. Then install the new
version oI Ubuntu and allow the system to reinstall packages and services using the settings saved in the
"markings" Iile. For instructions, see this Ubuntu Iorum thread (http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?
t 1057608) . In brieI:
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On the old system: Synaptic Package Manager -~ File -~ Save Markings
Save the markings Iile to an external medium, such as USB drive.
Complete the backup oI your system's other important Iiles (e.g. the /home directory) beIore the Iresh
install oI the new system.
In the Ireshly installed new system, again open Synaptic Package Manager -~ File -~ Read markings and
load the Iile on your USB drive (or other external storage) previously saved.
Note: Many packages, dependencies, and compatibilities change between version oI Ubuntu, so this method
does not always work. Automated updates remains the recommended method.
Ubuntu Resources
Ubuntu Forums (http://ubuntuIorums.org/) has a large community Ior online solutions and speciIic help.
UbuntuGeek's Tutorials, Howto's and Tips (http://www.ubuntugeek.com) -- a collection oI random tips in
blog Iormat
Ubuntu Doctors Guild (http://ubuntudoctorsguild.dyndns.org/) -- a collection oI tips Ior using Ubuntu
Linux in health care environments
Gnome Project
Gnome (http://www.gnome.org/) is the deIault desktop in Ubuntu.
Ubuntu Screenshots and Screencasts
There are old screenshots available at:
Phorolinux Screenshots Gallery (http://phorolinux.com/ubuntu-810-intrepid-ibex-alpha-1-
screenshots.html)
New screenshots oI 9.04 Jaunty Jackalope:
ModiIied Ubuntu Theme screenshot
(http://1.bp.blogspot.com/XPprPZOMI5E/SPDLNizIXlI/AAAAAAAAAKs/4IlXHcRzzJQ/s1600-
h/Screenshot.png)
The Coding Studio Ubuntu Screenshots (http://thecodingstudio.com/opensource/linux/screenshots/?
linuxdistributionsm Ubuntu208.1020Intrepid20Ibex)
Ubuntu Videos at DailyMotion (http://www.dailymotion.com/tag/Ubuntu)
New Applications Resources
GetDeb (http://www.getdeb.net) - Features the latest versions oI soItware available Irom the oIIicial
repositories as well as soItware not available in the oIIicial repositories. Available in easy-to-install .deb
Iiles (see Apt and Package Basics).
Top 100 Open source Applications (http://ubuntulinuxhelp.com/top-100-oI-the-best-useIul-opensource-
applications/)
Daily Ubuntu Applications (http://thedailyubuntu.blogspot.com/)
Other `buntu guides and help manuals
Kubuntuguide (http://www.kubuntuguide.org)
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Xubuntu (http://www.xubuntu.org) -- Xubuntu can run with as little as 256
Mb RAM. It is better Ior older machines with limited resources.
Add Extra Ubuntu Repositories
SoItware packages and programs are Ireely available Ior download at multiple online sites with standardized
structures, called repositories. There are repositories oIIicially sanctioned and monitored by the Kubuntu/Ubuntu
developer community, while other repositories are independently provided, without oIIicial sanction or
supervision (and should be used with caution). Additional inIormation is available Irom the Ubuntu Repository
Guide (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Repositories/Ubuntu) .
Types of Repositories
There are Iour major package repository types in Ubuntu:
main - Supported by Canonical. This is the major part oI the distribution.
restricted - SoItware not licensed under the GPL
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNUGeneralPublicLicense) (or similar soItware license), but
supported by Canonical.
universe - SoItware licensed under the GPL (or similar license) and supported by users.
multiverse - SoItware not licensed under the GPL (or similar license), but supported by users.
There are also these additional types oI repositories:
jaunty-updates - Updates to oIIicial packages.
jaunty-backports - Current version soItware Irom Jaunty1 (Karmic) that have been backported
to Jaunty Jackalope.
jaunty-proposed - Proposed updates & changes (bleeding edge stuII).
Third party repositories
SoItware developers oIten maintain their own repositories, Irom which soItware packages can be downloaded
and installed directly to your computer (iI you add the repository to your list). Many oI these third party
repositories and soItware packages have never been reviewed by the (K)Ubuntu/Debian community and can
present a security risk to your computer. Trojans, backdoors, and other malicious soItware can be present at
any unregulated repository. When using repositories not endorsed by the (K)ubuntu/Debian community, make
sure you have utter conIidence in that site beIore enabling the repository and installing a soItware package Irom
it.
Add Repositories using Synaptic Package Manager
This is the preIerred method.
System -~ Administration -~ Synaptic Manager -~ Settings -~ Repositories.
Here you can enable the repositories Ior Ubuntu SoItware and Third Party SoItware.
For Third Party SoItware select Add -~ enter the repository's address. It will have a Iormat similar to:
-o !rrn!v-uounrumuounru unry mn n--rnr-
-o-n !rrn!v-uounrumuounru unry mn n--rnr-
Example. To add the Medibuntu repository, Add:
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-o !rrkj--m-ounrunj unry rn-- nnrn--
Download the repository key to a Iolder.
Example. The Medibuntu key can be downloaded Irom
http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg
Then add the key Irom:
System -~ Administration -~ Synaptic Manager -~ Settings -~ Repositories -~ Authentication -~
Import Key File...
(Alternatively, you can manually add the key Irom the command line Terminal. See Add
Repository keys.)
ReIresh the package list Irom the new repository:
Synaptic -~ Reload
Manually add repositories
Do this at your own risk. ModiIy the deIault Ubuntu sources.list only iI you understand what you're doing.
Mixing repositories can break your system. For more inIormation see the Ubuntu Command-line
Repository guide (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Repositories/CommandLine) .
Create a backup oI your current list oI sources.
-u -rr-un--L-r -rr-un--L-roku
Note: sudo - runs the command with root privileges. cp copy. -i prompt to overwrite iI a Iile already exists.
Edit the list oI sources:
-u nn -rr-un--L-r
or using a graphical editor:
jk-u j-r -rr-un--L-r
Note: To use your local mirror you can add "xx." beIore archive.ubuntu.com, where xx
your country code.
Example. deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty main restricted
universe multiverse indicates a repository Ior Great Britain (gb).
Here is a sample sources.list. At the end have been added repositories Ior Medibuntu and Google:
-o nmounru - unry kL- -L--- - `-` unry mn n--rnr-
-- !rr!-Luounrummmunryjn-r-- rn ! r ujn- r
n--n v-n-n- r r!- -rnourn
-o !rrjon!v-uounrumuounru unry mn n--rnr-
-o-n !rrjon!v-uounrumuounru unry mn n--rnr-
n ouj r ur-- nu- rr-n r!- rnL n-L--- r r!-
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-rnourn
-o !rrjon!v-uounrumuounru unryur-- mn n--rnr-
-o-n !rrjon!v-uounrumuounru unryur-- mn n--rnr-
-rrn- rnm r!- n--rny - P --O oy r!- ounru
r-m L-, L--- nr- r!r -rrn- n unv-n-- P O n--v- ny
n-v- n ur-- rnm r!- ounru --unry r-m
-o !rrjon!v-uounrumuounru unry unv-n--
-o-n !rrjon!v-uounrumuounru unry unv-n--
-o !rrjon!v-uounrumuounru unryur-- unv-n--
-o-n !rrjon!v-uounrumuounru unryur-- unv-n--
-rrn- rnm r!- n--rny - P --O oy r!- ounru
r-m, n my nr o- un-n rn-- L-n- -L--- -r-ry yun--Lr - r
yun nj!r- r u-- r!- -rrn- L-, L--- nr- r!r -rrn- n
muLrv-n-- P O n--v- ny n-v- n ur-- rnm r!- ounru
--unry r-m
-o !rrjon!v-uounrumuounru unry muLrv-n--
-o-n !rrjon!v-uounrumuounru unry muLrv-n--
-o !rrjon!v-uounrumuounru unryur-- muLrv-n--
-o-n !rrjon!v-uounrumuounru unryur-- muLrv-n--
nmm-nr r!- rLLnj r Ln-- r -rrn- rnm r!- oknr-
n--rny
-rrn- rnm r!- n--rny my nr !v- o--n r--r- -
-r-n-v-Ly - r!r nrn- n r!- mn n-L---, Lr!uj! r nLu--
n--n v-n-n- r -m- Lrn- !! my nv- u--ruL r-run--
L-, L--- nr- r!r -rrn- n oknr- P O n--v- ny n-v-
n ur-- rnm r!- ounru --unry r-m
-o !rrjon!v-uounrumuounru unryoknr- mn n--rnr- unv-n-- muLrv-n--
-o-n !rrjon!v-uounrumuounru unryoknr- mn n--rnr- unv-n-- muLrv-n--
nmm-nr r!- rLLnj r Ln-- r -rrn- rnm nnL-
nrn-n n--rny !- -rrn- - nr nr r ounru, our -
rr-n- oy nnL n r!- n---rv- v-nn- - --nv- r ounru
u--n-
-o !rrn!v-nnLmuounru unry nrn-n
-o-n !rrn!v-nnLmuounru unry nrn-n
-o !rr--unryuounrumuounru unry--unry mn n--rnr-
-o-n !rr--unryuounrumuounru unry--unry mn n--rnr-
-o !rr--unryuounrumuounru unry--unry unv-n--
-o-n !rr--unryuounrumuounru unry--unry unv-n--
-o !rr--unryuounrumuounru unry--unry muLrv-n--
-o-n !rr--unryuounrumuounru unry--unry muLrv-n--
-ounru ounru - unry kL-
-L--- n-nr ny ouj n !rr-ouj-Lun!n-rm-ounru
-o !rrkj--m-ounrunj unry rn-- nnrn--
-o-n !rrkj--m-ounrunj unry rn-- nnrn--
GjL- -rrn- n--rny
-o !rrLjjL-mLnu-o -roL- nnrn--
Download and add the repository keys to your keyring. See Add repository keys.
ReIresh the packages list Irom the new repositories:
-u rj-r ur-
Add repository keys
Download the gpg keys Ior the repositories and automatically add them to your repository keyring:
Example. To obtain and add the Medibuntu repository key:
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j-r ju-r !rrkj--m-ounrunjm-ounruk-yjj O -u rk-y
Example. To obtain and add the Google repository key:
j-r ju-r !rrLjjL-mLnuLnu-jnnjk-yuo O -u rk-y
Note: wget - retrieves a Iile Irom a network location. --quiet no output. -O Output downloaded item to
terminal. The , (pipe symbol) is used to capture the output Irom the previous command (in our case the screen)
and use it as an input Ior the piped command (i.e. apt-key, which adds it to the keyring).
Alternatively (and perhaps more easily), you can use apt-key directly:
-u rk-y v k-y--nv-n k-y--nv-nuounrum n-vk-y-
where KEY is the missing key code printed in apt-get output, e.g. EF4186FE247510BE.
Note: Key servers oIten use port 11371. Make sure your Iirewall allows port 11371 to be open.
Ubuntu Package Installation and Updates
Apt and Package Basics
Read General Notes
Read Add Extra Ubuntu Repositories
Most new users will use the Synaptic Package Manager to install packages. These instructions are Ior installing
packages Irom the command-line Terminal. Terminal can be started:
Applications -~ Accessories -~ Terminal
Install packages:
-u rj-r n-rLL p-r-jan-ma
Example.
-u rj-r n-rLL m -oku
Remove packages:
-u rj-r n-mv- p-r-jan-ma
To remove all dependencies:
-u rj-r urn-mv-
Example.
-u rj-r n-mv- m -oku
Search Ior packages:
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r!- --n! k-yn-
Examples.
r!- --n! u- -
r!- --n! -r rn
Update the apt package database aIter adding/removing repositories:
-u rj-r ur-
Upgrade packages:
-u rj-r ujn-
Upgrade the entire distribution (e.g. Irom Intrepid to Jaunty):
-u rj-r -rujn-
Installing .deb packages
Debian (.deb) packages are the packages that are used in Ubuntu. You can install any .deb package in your
system. .deb Iiles can generally be installed Irom your Iile manager (Nautilus) merely by clicking on them, since
Iile associations with the deIault installer is already set in Ubuntu. These instructions are Ior those who wish to
install packages Irom the command-line terminal (Terminal).
Install a downloaded Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb):
-u kj p-r-jan-ma-o
Remove a Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb):
-u kj n p-r-jan-ma
ReconIigure/Repair an installed Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb):
-u kjn-nrjun- p-r-jan-ma
*Example.
-u kjn-nrjun- m
Handling (Tar/GZip) and (Tar/Bzip2) archives
(Tar/GZip) archives end in ".tar.gz" and (Tar/Bzip2) archives end in ".tar.bz2". Bzip2 is the newer, more eIIicient
compression method. These Iiles can generally be automatically extracted by merely clicking on them Irom your
Iile manager (Nautilus), since Iile associations with the appropriate archival utilities are set by deIault in Ubuntu.
These instructions are Ior those who wish to use the command line Terminal.
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To extract:
rn vr p-r-jan-marnj
Note: tar is an application which can extract Iiles Irom an archive, decompressing iI necessary.
-x means extract.
-v means verbose (list what it is extracting).
-I speciIies the Iile to use.
Decompressing ".gz" Iiles
jun filaj
Decompressing ".bz2" Iiles
oun` filao`
Note: You can also decompress a package Iirst by using the command gunzip (Ior .gz) or bunzip2
(Ior .bz2), leaving the .tar Iile. You would then use tar to extract it.
To create a .gz archive:
rn vr p-r-jan-marnj rL-n
To create a .bz2 archive:
rn vr p-r-jan-marno` rL-n
Installing a package from source
Make sure you have all the necessary development tools (i.e. libraries, compilers, headers):
-u rj-r n-rLL ouL----nrL
-u rj-r n-rLL Lnu!--n-unm- n
Note: "uname -r" lists the current kernel you are using
Extract the archive that contains the source Iiles:
rn vr .:rafila-rnivarnj
Build the package using the package's script (in this case the conIigure script), compile the package
(make), and install the compiled package into your system (make install):
p-:n:.ax:r-:a.:rafila
nrjun-
-u mk-
-u mk- n-rLL
Note: typing ./ beIore a Iilename in the current Iolder allows the Linux shell to try and execute the
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Iile as an application even iI it is not in the path (the set oI Iolders which it searches when you type
a command name). II you get a "permission denied" error, the Iile is not marked as being
executable. To Iix this:
-u !m - filan-ma
Example. In the above instructions, conIigure is the shell script to build the package Irom source.
To be sure the conIigure script is executable:
-u !m - nrjun-
Create a .deb package from source files
II your build Irom source is successIul, you can make a Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb) Ior Iuture use:
Install package tools:
-u rj-r n-rLL !-kn-rLL
Rebuild package using "checkinstall":
p-:n:.ax:r-:ap-r-ja
nrjun-
-u mk-
-u !-kn-rLL
Keep the resulting ".deb" Iile Ior Iuture use. It can later be installed using:
-u kj p-r-jan-ma-o
Note: These are basic instructions that may not always work. Some packages require additional dependencies
and optional parameters to be speciIied in order to build them successIully. Also see these Ubuntu wiki
instructions (https://wiki.ubuntu.com/PackagingGuide/Basic?
action show&redirect HowToBuildDebianPackagesFromScratch) .
Aptitude
Aptitude is a terminal-based package manager that can be used instead oI apt-get. Aptitude marks packages
that are automatically installed and removes them when no packages depend on them. This makes it easy to
remove applications completely. To use Aptitude, replace apt-get with aptitude in the command line. Example:
-u rru- n-rLL p-r-jan-ma
-u rru- n-mv- p-r-jan-ma
-u rru- ur-
-u rru- ujn-
For an ncurses-based graphical user interIace, type
-u rru-
For more inIormation, see the aptitude documentation (http://people.debian.org/~dburrows/aptitude-doc/en/) .
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Synaptic Package Manager
While "apt-get" and "aptitude" are Iast ways oI installing programs/packages, you can also use the Synaptic
Package Manager (System -~ Administration -~ Synaptic Manager), a GUI method Ior installing
programs/packages. Most (but not all) programs/packages available with apt-get install will also be available
Irom the Synaptic Package Manager. This is the preIerred method Ior most desktop users. In this guide, when
you see
-u rj-r n-rLL p-r-ja
you can simply search Ior package in Synaptic and install it that way.
System -~ Administration -~ Synaptic Package Manager
Search Ior the name oI the program/package. You can also search Ior a word in its description.
Check the box "Mark Ior Installation"
Click the "Apply" button.
The selected program(s) will be automatically installed, along with its dependencies.
Add/Remove Programs
Not all packages available Irom apt-get, aptitude, and Synaptic Package Manager are available in Add/Remove
Programs. However, it is the easiest interIace Ior new users oI Ubuntu and directs them to preIerred packages.
Applications -~ Add/Remove Programs
Search Ior the sort oI program you want to add. Example: type MP3 to see a list oI mp3 soItware.
Check the box "Mark Ior Installation"
Click the "Apply" button.
The selected program(s) will be automatically installed.
Manual Updates
Read General Notes
Read Add Extra Ubuntu Repositories
Manually, Irom Terminal (command line interIace):
-u rj-r ur-
-u rj-r ujn-
or
Use Synaptic Package Manager:
System -~ Administration -~ Synaptic Package Manager -~ "Reload" then "Mark all upgrades"
II there are packages available Ior updating, you will be prompted whether to install them.
Automated Updates
Use Synaptic Package Manager:
System -~ Administration -~ Synaptic Manager -~ Settings -~ PreIerences -~ General -~
Reloading Outdated Package InIormation -~ Automatic
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Ubuntu Addon Applications
See our Iull list oI add-on applications.
Eye Candy Applications
Eye Candy Applications reIer to the decoration oI the graphical user interIace. These can be add-on icons,
themes, wallpapers, 3-D eIIects, etc.
Gnome Eye-Candy Resources
Gnome Look (http://www.gnome-look.org) has wallpapers, splash screens, icons, and themes Ior
windows managers (including Metacity and Compiz) and other applications.
Metacity
Metacity is the deIault desktop compositing manager in Gnome. It is lightweight, streamlined and does not have
many conIigurable options, but has multiple themes available at Gnome Look.
Compiz Fusion
Compiz Fusion is available as a separate Windows Manager, to allow advanced desktop eIIects such as the
rotating cube desktop. Many Ubuntu users choose to run Compiz, which is quite Iast in Ubuntu. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL m mnrj--rrnj-mnj-n mru-nLujn-mn mru-nLujn--rn -m-nL Lon-vj`mmn
To change to Compiz as the Window Manager:
Select Compiz ConIiguration:
System -~ PreIerences -~ CompizConIig Settings Manager
Note: You must logout and log back in Ior the change to take eIIect.
Fusion Icon
Fusion Icon is a tray icon that allows you to easily switch between window managers, window decorators, and
gives you quick access to the Compiz Settings Manager. This allows quick toggling oI 3-D desktop eIIects (that
may not be compatible with some applications).
-u rj-r n-rLL ru-nn
Applications -~ System Tools -~ Compiz Fusion Icon
You can then easily access CompizConIig Settings Manager Irom the icon.
Rotate the Compiz Cube
Set the CompizConIig Settings Manager to enable the "Desktop Cube" and "Rotate Cube" and "Viewport
Switcher" options. Click on the icon Ior each to customize settings. For example, to change the appearance oI
the cube, click on the Desktop Cube icon to access its settings. You can set the hotkey buttons Ior rotating the
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cube in the "Viewport Switcher" settings. Otherwise, hold down the CtrlAltLeIt mouse button and drag the
mouse (or touchpad) the direction you want to rotate the cube.
Remember, the cube rotates between desktops. It's not a cube unless you have at least 4 desktops running. You
will not get a cube iI you are only using 2 desktops (you will get a "plate"). You can still rotate the sides oI the
plate, oI course, but it will not be a cube. (Recent users Irom the Windows OS may have no experience with the
concept oI simultaneous desktops, but they are nice once you learn how to use them).
When running Compiz Iusion as the Windows Manager, you must change the deIault number oI desktops Irom
within CompizConIig Settings Manger. To enable 4 desktops:
CompizConIig Settings Manager -~ General -~ General Options -~ Desktop Size -~ Horizontal Virtual
Size -~ 4
When you start an application, you can assign it to any one oI the 4 desktops by right-clicking the upper leIt
corner oI the application window and choosing the "To Desktop..." option. Rotating the cube shows the diIIerent
desktops. You can also go to a desktop using the taskbar icon which shows the 4 desktops.
Emerald
Emerald is the theme engine Ior Compiz Fusion. Multiple themes are available. (These themes originated Irom
the Beryl project beIore it merged with Compiz to Iorm Compiz Fusion.) The Emerald Theme Manager Ior
Compiz Fusion can be installed:
-u rj-r n-rLL -m-nL
Ubuntu Wallpaper
Download Iree Earthenibex wallpapers
(https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Artwork/Incoming/Intrepid/Earthenibexwallpaper) .
Change USplash Boot Screen
This is the splash screen you see at bootup, when you are asked Ior a login and password. You can change the
USplash screen using the utility startupmanager. (Startup Manager can also be used to change GRUB bootup
settings iI you use multiple OS's on your computer). Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL -rnrumnj-n
Start:
System -~ Administration -~ Startup Manager
You could alternatively use a diIIerent splashscreen manager, Splashy (http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?
p 3440101#post3440101) , instead oI USplash. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL -L-!y -L-!yr!-m--
Google Desktop
Google Desktop Ior Linux (http://desktop.google.com/linux/index.html) is a proprietary suite oI widgets and
applications to give Google control over your computer and thereby allow you to use Google services. A .deb
package can be downloaded and installed Irom Google Linux Downloads
(http://desktop.google.com/en/linux/download.html) . For installation instructions, see Google Desktop Ior Linux
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Instructions (http://desktop.google.com/support/linux/bin/topic.py?topic 11377) .
Dock applications
Avant Window Manager, Cairo Dock, and Wbar are dock-like applications Ior Ubuntu Linux. A dock
represents running programs as icons at the bottom oI the screen (as is done on the Mac OS X desktop),
instead oI by toolbar panel segments (as is done in Windows and other Linux window managers). See this brieI
comparison oI dock applications (http://linuxowns.wordpress.com/2008/05/08/the-best-and-worst-docks-Ior-
ubuntu/) .
Avant Window Navigator
Avant Window Navigator (http://wiki.awn-project.org/) requires that a desktop composition manager
(such as Metacity, Compiz, Xcompmgr, KDE4 (Kubuntu), or xIwm4 (Xubuntu)) be installed and
running.
Install and upgrade proprietary nVidia or ATI graphics drivers so that the compositing manager Iunctions
properly.
Install AWN:
-u rj-r n-rLL vnrnnvjrn nmnj-n
(Note: II you are using Gnome (Ubuntu) and do not already have a compositing manager installed (such
as Compiz), Metacity will be installed as part oI the installation.)
Enable automatic startup oI AWN at bootup:
Menu -~ System -~ PreIerences -~ Sessions -~ Add...
vnrnnvjrn
Select which applets should run Irom the dock menu by deIault:
Menu -~ Applications -~ Accessories -~ Avant Window Navigator Manager
You can drag application icons onto the list, then activate or deactivate the applets Irom the list.
Cairo Dock
Cairo Dock (http://developer.berlios.de/projects/cairo-dock/) can be used either with a desktop compositing
manager (such as Metacity Ior Gnome, Compiz, or the KDE4 Window Manager) or without one. See the
Ubuntu installation instructions (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CairoDock) Ior details. It is available Irom
the repositories:
-u rj-r n-rLL nk nkLujn-
wbar
wbar (http://code.google.com/p/wbar/) is a quick-launch bar (not a dock) that has an appearance similar to
Avant Window Manager and Cairo Dock. It is GTK (Gnome) based but can work in all desktop environments.
It does not require a compositing manager to be installed and is thereIore quicker and more suitable Ior low-end
hardware systems. It is the deIault in the Google gOS desktop and is available as a .deb package Irom Google.
Download and install (Irom the command-line Terminal):
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j-r !rronjjL--mrL--on--o
-u kj on--o
Start wbar with custom start options (e.g. by pressing altF2). Here is an example:
on -- - orrm oLr on--- nnm ` ov---k
Here is another example:
on ov---k - orrm -- nnm on--- umr mr
For a Iull list oI command-line startup options, see:
on !-L
Tip: II you want the "wave" eIIect just increase the -nanim value. I like the icons to just pop up so I don't use it,
but with 9 icons 5 there is a nice "wave" eIIect.
Obviously, you could create a menu item with the command line options (similar to the examples above), or a
batch Iile that can be automatically started at system startup (as a cron event or startup session).
You can also change wbar startup options by editing the conIiguration Iile:
-u j-r u-n-!n-onron
See this example conIiguration Iile (http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?t 980565) . However, not all
options are able to be set Irom the conIiguration Iile and must be run Irom the command line. For more inIo see
this wbar guide (http://linux-guider.blogspot.com/2008/09/wbar-another-cute-dock.html) .
wbarconf
A simple wbar conIiguration utility (http://www.gnomeIiles.org/app.php/wbarconI) can be downloaded as a .deb
package and installed:
j-r !rrkrk-rj!-onnronnr`--o
-u kj onnr`--o
Virtualization
Virtualization allows a second operating system (OS), such as Windows or OS X, to be run Irom within Ubuntu.
This requires extra RAM (because both Ubuntu and the virtualized second OS require separate amounts oI
RAM) and a license Ior the second OS. II you wish to run a virtualized instance oI Windows XP, Ior instance,
you must have a license Ior Windows XP.
VirtualBox
VirtualBox (http://www.virtualbox.org/) is a Iast and complete virtualization solution owned and maintained by
Sun Microsystems. There is a Iree and Iully open-source edition available under the GNU GPL license.
Install pre-requisites:
-u rj-r n-rLL Lnu!--n-unm- n
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-u rj-r n-rLL ouL----nrL km-
Install the open-source edition:
-u rj-r n-rLL vnruLo-- vnruLo--ju--rurL- vnruLo---un-
Start VirtualBox:
Menu -~ Utilities -~ VirtualBox OSE PC virtualization solution
II you are using a server edition oI (K)ubuntu, make sure PAE/NX is enabled:
Virtualbox OSE -~ General -~ Advanced -~ Enable PAE/NX: (ticked)
For usage instructions, see the End-user documentation (http://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/End-
userdocumentation) .
QEMU
QEMU (http://www.qemu.org/) is a Iree open source virtual machine that can be either used as a Iull virtual
machine or to emulate speciIic processes. An accelerator is available. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL j-mu kj-mummn
KVM
KVM (http://www.linux-kvm.org/page/MainPage) is the Iree open source virtualization solution implemented
as a Linux kernel module (in the recent kernels) Ior computers whose processors contain virtualization
extensions (Intel VT or AMD-V). See the Ubuntu installation instructions
(https://help.ubuntu.com/community/KVM/Installation) . Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL kvm
Xen
Xen (http://www.xen.org/) is an eIIicient open-source virtualization ("hypervisor") platIorm which includes a
merge with QEMU. It is Iree open source under a GPL license. The latest desktop (and installation instructions)
is available Irom the website. (A commercial version is also oIIered by Citrix.) Implementation in Ubuntu
requires some modiIication, currently. For more inIo, see the Ubuntu community documentation
(https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Xen) . Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL -n!y-nv-n -n- nvnr
A Xen virtual machine host can also be installed automatically with certain 64-bit CPUs, using the 64-bit Ubuntu
Server LiveCD. (An Ubuntu desktop can then later be added -- see Ubuntu server).
VMWare
VMWare (http://www.vmware.com/) is a commercial virtualization platIorm that currently oIIers two Iree
products: VMWare Player and VMWare Server (http://www.vmware.com/download/server/) (the latter with a
Iree renewable yearly license). VMWare Player can play virtual appliances that have already been created,
whereas VMWare Server (which has a broader range oI Ieatures) allows the creation oI virtual machines. In
general, VMWare Server is recommended unless you only need to play an appliance. (Appliances will also run
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general, VMWare Server is recommended unless you only need to play an appliance. (Appliances will also run
in VMWare Server). Users that wish to run servers (or processes) that need to be available to a network Irom
within the virtual machine should use VMServer. II you wish to install a new OS within a virtual machine (other
than in an appliance), you will need VMWare Server.
VMWare Player
Installation instructions are on the website, or at the Ubuntu community wiki
(https://help.ubuntu.com/community/VMware/Player) . In brieI, to install the Iree VMWare Player:
Install pre-requisites:
-u rj-r n-rLL ouL----nrL Lnu!--n-unm- n
Get the binary package/installation script, give it executable privileges, then run the installation script:
j-r !rrnLvmn-m-rrn-vmLy-nVn--Ly-n`--ounL-
!m - Vn--Ly-n`--ounL-
-u Vn--Ly-n`--ounL-
Run:
Applications -~ System Tools -~ VMWare Player
VMWare Server
Install pre-requisites:
-u rj-r n-rLL ouL----nrL Lnu!--n-unm- n
Download the server source Iiles Ior your architecture (32-bit or 64-bit) Irom the VMWare Server
website (http://www.vmware.com/download/server/) and retrieve your license key by email.
Extract the Iiles, give execution privileges to the install script, and run the install script:
rn vr Vn---nv-n`-rnj
vmn---nv-n-rno
!m - vmn-n-rLLL
-u vmn-n-rLLL
VMWare Package
VMWare Appliances (that include an Ubuntu/Debian OS) can be created using VMWare Server and the
VMWare Package utility. These appliances can then be deployed to users who can play them using VMWare
Player. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL vmn-kj-
Keyboard errors in VMware guest
AIter installing VMWare 6.5, and installing a guest OS, the Function, arrow and Del/End/etc keys do not
Iunction. This is a bug with VMWares code. Add this line to ~/.vmware/conIig (create Iile iI necessary) to Iix
this issue:
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k-ymnk-y- rnu-
Virtual Machine Manager
Virtual Machine Manager (http://virt-manager.et.redhat.com/) is an application to allow viewing oI all instances
oI virtual machines on your system. It includes a secure implementation oI VNC. This and other virtual
management tools are available as an integrated package in Ubuntu. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL uounruvnrmjmr
Crossover for Linux
Codeweavers' Crossover OIIice Ior Linux (http://www.codeweavers.com/products/cxlinux/) is a subscription-
based commercial package that allows many Windows programs to be run on Ubuntu without the need Ior a
MicrosoIt OS license or a complete virtualization system. See the website Ior more inIo. Codeweavers releases
older versions oI this product into the Iree package Wine.
Wine
Wine (http://www.winehq.org/) is a Iree open-source package that is similar to (and implements many elements
oI) CrossOver Ior Linux. Like CrossOver Ior Linux, no MicrosoIt license or virtualization platIorm is required to
run Windows programs.
-u rj-r n-rLL n-
Also consider installing MicrosoIt's TrueType Ionts:
-u rj-r n-rLL m-rrn-rnr-
PlayOnLinux
PlayOnLinux is a Wine Irontend which simpliIies the installation and launch oI many Windows programs,
particularly games.
j-r !rrLynLnum-nrrL---LyOnnu-LyOnnu-o
-u kj -LyOnnu-o
Internet Explorer 6
Internet Explorer 6 can Iunction under Wine, albeit imperIectly. For most purposes, FireIox can be used (with
the User Agent Switcher plugin) to mimic Internet Explorer, but Ior those instances when it can't, IE6 may be
useIul. A beta implementation oI Internet Explorer 7 is also available Irom this package. For more inIo, see IEs 4
Linux (http://www.tatanka.com.br/) .
Make sure you have wine and cabextract packages:
-u rj-r n-rLL n- o-rnr
Download IEs 4 Linux and install:
j-r !rrrrnkmon--LnunL---LnuLr--rrnj
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rn vr --LnuLr--rrnj
--Lnu
--Lnu nju
Wine-doors
Wine-Doors (http://wddb.wine-doors.org/) is a Gnome-based package manager that aids the installation oI
several Windows programs (such as Internet Explorer 6, DirectX 9, Windows Media Player, Winamp 5, Total
Commander 7, IrIanView 4) that might require workarounds to Iunction well within Wine. The Windows
programs along with required package dependencies are installed Irom dedicated repositories at the Wine-
doors website. As with all private repositories, caution must be used. Use oI an anti-virus soItware such as
ClamAV is recommended whenever using any Windows programs. To obtain and install:
j-r !rron-n-nj-y-r-mrL--n-n-LL-o
-u kj n-n-LL-o
Transgaming Cedega
Cedega (http://www.transgaming.com/) is a commercial application (similar to CrossOver OIIice and Wine), Ior
installing and running some Windows applications, speciIically games, without the need Ior virtualization or a
MicrosoIt license. It provides 3D support, soItware acceleration support, and a high level oI DirectX support.
Installation instructions are Iound on the website.
Mono
Mono (http://www.mono-project.com/MainPage) is a Iree open source project sponsored by Novell to allow
.NET programs to Iunction in Linux (Ubuntu) and Mac OS X. The most recent version is available here
(http://www.mono-project.com/OtherDownloads) .
-u rj-r n-rLL mn`-v-L
Moonlight
Moonlight (http://www.mono-project.com/Moonlight) is part oI the Novell Mono project that is an open source
implementation oI Silverlight (the MicrosoIt multimedia presentation platIorm). It is based on FFMpeg. It is
made to work best with the FireIox 3 web browser, as a plugin. It is available here (http://www.go-
mono.com/moonlight/) .
Netflix under Moonlight
NetIlix streaming requires Silverlight 2.0. The current version oI Moonlight is 1.0 (corresponding to Silverlight
1.0). The Iinal version oI Moonlight 2.0 is anticipated (http://www.mono-project.com/MoonlightRoadmap) Ior
November 2009. A Beta-release preview oI Moonlight 2.0 (http://www.go-mono.com/moonlight-preview/) is
available now, however. Usage may require Internet Explorer 6 (see above) and ActiveX controls (in a Wine
environment) Ior DRM.
Edutainment Applications
There are many, many superb applications that can be installed with a single click.
Applications -~ Add/Remove SoItware -~ Edutainment.
Below are a Iew examples that can be installed Irom this menu:
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Stellarium (http://www.stellarium.org/) -- an astounding planetarium Ior the desktop
K3DSurI (http://k3dsurI.sourceIorge.net/) -- a program Ior modeling 3,4,5, and 6 dimensional models.
Bibletime (http://www.bibletime.inIo/) -- a Bible study tool Ior KDE.
Zekr (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zekr) -- an Islamic Quran study tool (available in Utilities instead oI
Edutainment)
Oregano -- a program Ior electrical engineering schematics
RlPlot (http://rlplot.sourceIorge.net/) -- a high quality graph generator
Mnemosyne (http://www.mnemosyne-proj.org/) -- a Ilash-card tool
Gramps (http://gramps-project.org/) -- map your Iamily-tree and co-operate with genealogy projects.
Google Earth
Google Earth (http://earth.google.com/) gives you an annotated eagle's eye view oI our planet. This is a Iree
proprietary package (you must accept the license to use this package).
-u rj-r n-rLL jjL--nr!kj-
mk-jjL--nr!kj- rn-
Doubleclick on the resulting .deb Iile.
-- or --
To install the latest Linux binary, download and save the GoogleEarthLinux.bin package Irom Google Earth
downloads (http://earth.google.com/intl/en/download-earth.html) . Then install:
!m - GjL-nr!nuon
GjL-nr!nuon
Run:
Applications -~ Internet -~ Google Earth 3D planet viewer
You should turn oII the Google Earth -~ View -~ Atmosphere setting, or you might see clouds everywhere and
the ground won't show up.
Troubleshooting
II Google Earth opens, shows the splash screen, and then crashes, you`re probably experiencing a common
issue. Running ~/google-earth/googleearth in a terminal will show this error: ./googleearth-bin: relocation error:
/usr/lib/i686/cmov/libssl.so.0.9.8: symbol BIOtestIlags, version OPENSSL0.9.8 not deIined in Iile
libcrypto.so.0.9.8 with link time reIerence
To Iix this, browse to the Iolder you installed Google Earth into. By deIault this will be google-earth in your
home Iolder. Find the Iile libcrypto.so.0.9.8 and rename it to something else, like libcrypto.so.0.9.8.bak. Google
Earth should now start correctly.
jjL--nr!
-u mv Lonyr-- Lonyr--ok
-u Ln - u-nLoLonyr-- jjL--nr!Lonyr--
(Note: You can also speciIy /home/user/google-earth instead oI ~/google-earth ).
For other issues, see the Ubuntu help pages on Google Earth (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/GoogleEarth)
.
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Uninstall Google Earth
To uninstall run the uninstall shell script located in the /home/user/google-earth Iolder (or whichever Iolder you
installed google-earth into).
Proprietary Applications
Proprietary soItware helps you maximize your Internet experience, but is not open source. The soItware
available includes Multimedia Codecs, Java Runtime Environment, and plug-ins Ior FireIox.
Restricted Extras
The Ubuntu Restricted Extras will install Adobe Flash Player, Java Runtime Environment (JRE) (sun-java-jre)
with FireIox plug-ins (icedtea), a set oI MicrosoIt Fonts (msttcoreIonts), multimedia codecs (w32codecs or
w64codecs), mp3-compatible encoding (lame), FFMpeg, extra Gstreamer codecs, the package Ior DVD
decoding (libdvdread4, but see below Ior inIo on libdvdcss2), the unrar archiver, odbc, and cabextract. It also
installs multiple "stripped" codecs and avutils (libavcodec-unstripped-52 and libavutil-unstripped-49). This is a
single command approach.
-u rj-r n-rLL uounrun--rnr--rn-
Note: Installation only works completely and properly when done Irom the command-line Terminal. The entire
package will not usually install completely Irom within a Package Manager.
Games Applications
There are some phenomenal games Ior Ubuntu Linux.
Best Linux Games Ior 2008 (http://whdb.com/2008/top-25-linux-games-Ior-2008/) .
Best 25 Linux Games oI 2007 (http://rangit.com/soItware/top-8-linux-games-oI-2007/) .
Ubuntu Gamers Arena (http://ubuntu-gamers-arena.org/) .
There are hundreds oI Iree, open-source games available in Ubuntu. Most (including the KDE Games collection
and the Gnome Games collection) can be accessed:
Applications -~ Add/Remove SoItware -~ Games
Examples are:
KMahjongg (http://games.kde.org/game.php?game kmahjongg) -- the solitaire Mahjongg tile-matching
game.
PouetChess (http://pouetchess.sourceIorge.net/wiki/index.php/MainPage) -- an excellent 3-D chess
game.
PokerTH (http://www.pokerth.net/) -- a very nice Texas Hold 'Em Poker
Planet Penguin Racer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TuxRacer) -- Penguin slides down a 3-D luge run,
catching Iish. (Extreme Tux Racer (http://extremetuxracer.com/) is a newer version, but works in 32-bit
only.)
KsirK (http://games.kde.org/game.php?game ksirk) -- play Risk against the computer or in a multiplayer
environment.
TORCS (http://torcs.sourceIorge.net/) -- the 3-D Car Racing game
Pingus (http://pingus.seul.org/) -- a Lemmings clone (similar to Super Mario Bros.) that uses penguins
instead oI lemmings.
Frozen Bubble (http://www.Irozen-bubble.org/) -- the award-winning, addicting, time-wasting, bubble-
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popping game.
Frets on Fire (http://IretsonIire.sourceIorge.net/) -- similar to Guitar Hero. You can import songs Irom
Guitar Hero (http://www.geetarIreaks.webs.com/Viva20La20Music.html) and Irom community sites
(http://IretsonIire.wikidot.com/custom-songs) .
Vdrift
VdriIt (http://vdriIt.net/) is a Iree open source 3-D racing game, similar to Need Ior Speed, with realistic physics,
multiple driIt tracks, and multiplayer games. Support Ior joysticks, mice and keyboard is included. A binary
package Ior Linux is available Irom the website.
Action
Incredible action games (including those Irom the Top 25) are available in Ubuntu. Many can be installed using:
Applications -~ Add/Remove SoItware -~ Games
Examples are:
Alien Arena (http://icculus.org/alienarena/rpa/about.html) -- a multi-player Iirst person shooter action
game with Iree servers. The repositories have version 7.0-1. For the current version 7.2 see the website.
OpenArena (http://www.openarena.ws/) -- an open-source multi-player Iirst person shooter action game,
with Iree servers. The repositories have version 7.7. For the current 8.1 version see the website.
Tremulous (http://www.tremulous.net) -- a Halo-like multiplayer Iirst person shooter action game. The
repositories have the current version.
Sauerbraten (http://sauerbraten.org/) - a multiplayer graphics-rich Iirst person shooter game evolved Irom
Cube.
Nexuiz
Nexuiz (http://www.alientrap.org/nexuiz/) is an open-source multi-player Iirst person shooter game with
Iree servers and tournaments.
The current version 2.4.2 is in the repositories.
-u rj-r n-rLL n-u n-umu-
You must have desktop eIIects turned oII (System -~ System Settings -~ Desktop). There are a Iew other
problems. See the Nexuiz Iorums (http://alientrap.org/Iorum/viewtopic.php?t 3926) . Some recommend running
Irom a shell:
-u n-uLnujL-!
or
-u n-uLnu-L-!
A 35 map community pack is available here (http://www.alientrap.org/nexuiz/downloads.php) . To install,
extract the map pack to /home/username/.nexuiz/data (or ~/.nexuiz/data ).
UrbanTerror
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UrbanTerror (http://www.urbanterror.net) is a multiplayer Iirst person shooter action game. It uses the open-
source quake 3 engine and Ieatures many real weapons and Iree-to-use servers Ior multi-player Iunctionality.
See the Installation instructions (http://www.urbanterror.net/page.php?6) at the website.
Alternative installation with a script:
UrbanTerror Installation Script 1 (http://89.106.68.26/linux/urbanterror4/urt40-linux-
installer.sh) or UrbanTerror Installation Script 2
(http://vlaai.snt.utwente.nl/pub/games/urbanterror/urt40-linux-installer.sh)
AIter downloading the script open Terminal into your download directory then make the
script executable with the Iollowing command:
-u !m - unrLnun-rLL-n-!
Now double click on the script to execute and Iollow the directions
The install will take a while, as the script executes a download oI the necessary Iiles which
are about 541MB
AIter the install you will have a nice UrbanTerror icon on your desktop (unless you installed as root)
Spring
The Spring Project (http://spring.clan-sy.com/) is a scripting engine platIorm to develop and play Iree multiplayer
games such as Star Wars Imperial Winter (http://www.imperialwinter.com/) and Complete Annihilation
(http://spring.clan-sy.com/wiki/CompleteAnnihilation#Introduction) . See these installation instructions
(http://spring.clan-sy.com/wiki/Ubuntuinstall#GraphicalInterIace) Ior adding the repository, then installing as a
package.
PlaneShift
PlaneShiIt (http://www.planeshiIt.it/) is a promising Iree Iull-immersion online Iantasy game (MMPORG). Client
downloads and patches are available here (http://www.planeshiIt.it/download.html) .
Make the downloaded binary installation Iile executable:
ira:.ry_vnara_.vnl.-a
!m - -Ln-!rrv`on
Run the executable binary as root (this must be done Irom the command line Terminal):
-u -Ln-!rrv`on
Follow the instructions Ior installation. When prompted whether to manually set permissions, answer "no."
During installation, most users have recommended installing this game to your /home directory as a single
user installation, instead oI to /opt Ior all users. This avoids permissions problems. I was able to install to
/opt, but it takes some eIIort.
Make sure your user belongs to the games group:
System -~ User Manager -~ user -~ Groups -~ check games
Download the updater patch psupdaterlinux64.zip and unzip it to your download directory.
Run the updater as root:
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!m - -ur-n
!m - -ur-non
-u -ur-n
Register Ior a Iree account at PlaneShiIt Registration (http://www.planeshiIt.it/register.html) .
II you installed the game to the menu, it will be in
Applications -~ Lost & Found -~ Client and Setup
To run it Irom the menu, I had to edit the menu entries by checking the box: "Run in terminal." Alternatively, run
it Irom the command-line Terminal:
-u r-Ln-!rr---ru
-u r-Ln-!rr-L-nr
Notes: This game ran very slowly Ior me on a 32-bit installation with a DSL connection and I gave up. The 64-
bit installation worked better, but there were still many Ireezes. This is a game very much in development, and is
still in alpha stage.
PrBoom - the classic Doom2 game
PrBoom (http://prboom.sourceIorge.net/) is a Iree open source port oI the original Iirst person shooter action
game, Doom (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DoomII) .
-u rj-r n-rLL nom rn--m rmry rmrynr-nr---rn
There are thousands oI extra maps (Wads) (http://www.doomworld.com/10years/bestwads/) available Ior this
game. It is easiest to keep a directory Ior your wads in your home directory:
mkn !m-:ar-
Place your doom2.wad, tnt.wad, or plutonia.wad (Irom your original game) into this Iolder. II you don't have
one, you can copy the Freedom version oI doom2.wad Irom /usr/share/games/Ireedoom into this Iolder. Place
any new .wad's you have downloaded Irom the Internet into this Iolder as well. Then run the game using both the
original iwad map as well as your new .wad map (you will only see the new map).
nom !m-:ar-m` rL- !m-:ar-nav_v-
Note: Only doom2.wad, tnt.wad, or plutonia.wad can be used as an iwad. You must have one oI these in
addition to any new wad you wish to use. When in doubt, use doom2.wad.
Note: this game can also be installed using Applications -~ Add/Remove SoItware -~ Games as
Freedoom, but you must also install timidity and timidity-interIaces-extra.
Wing Commander Privateer
The Linux version oI this Iree version oI Wing Commander (http://priv.solsector.net/) can be downloaded as a
binary here (http://sourceIorge.net/project/downloading.php?
groupname privateer&Iilename PrivateerGold1.02a.bz2.bin&usemirror superb-east) .
Graphics and Video Applications
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Graphics and Video Applications allow you to edit your Iavourite photos, create stunning 3D drawings, or
proIessionally edit your videos and movies.
Kino (Non-linear Video Editing Suite)
Kino (http://www.kinodv.org/) is a widely used GUI-based non-linear video editing suite Ior Linux.
-u rj-r n-rLL kn m-jrL-
Cinelerra (Non-linear Video Editing Suite)
Cinelerra Community Version (http://cinelerra.org/) is a complete high-end open source video editing suite that is
a derivative oI a similar commercial system. Follow the installation instructions Ior Ubuntu Intrepid
(http://cinelerra.org/gettingcinelerra.php#ubuntu) .
KdenLive (Non-linear Video Editing Suite for KDE)
Kdenlive (http://www.kdenlive.org/) is a GUI-based non-linear video editing suite Ior KDE based on FFmpeg
and the MLT video Iramework. It is optimised Ior KDE 4.
-u rj-r n-rLL k-nLv- m-jrL-
Dia (Diagram editor)
Dia (http://live.gnome.org/Dia) is a Iree open source GTK-based diagram creation program Ior Gnome. It is
similar to Visio.
-u rj-r n-rLL
Kivio (Diagram editor)
Kivio (http://www.koIIice.org/kivio/) is an open source Ilow-chart and diagram creation program that is part oI
the KOIIice Suite Ior KDE. It supports Dia stencils.
-u rj-r n-rLL kv
GIMP (Image Manipulator)
Gimp (http://www.gimp.org/) is a powerIul, Iull-Ieatured, Iree open-source graphics and image editor, similar to
Adobe Photoshop.
-u rj-r n-rLL jm
There is an extra set oI brushes, palettes, and gradients Ior The GIMP.
-u rj-r n-rLL jmr-rn-
Inkscape Vector Illustrator
Inkscape Vector Illustrator (http://www.inkscape.org/) is an open source drawing program similar to Illustrator
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and CorelDraw.
-u rj-r n-rLL nk--
recordMyDesktop (Desktop Session Recording)
recordMyDesktop (http://recordmydesktop.sourceIorge.net/about.php) is a desktop recording utility, which has
both pyGTK and a pyQT4 (http://sourceIorge.net/projects/recordmydesktop/Iiles/qt-recordMyDesktop/) GUI
Irontends available. Recordings are saved in Theora video/Vorbis audio Iiles. See this tutorial
(http://www.linuxplanet.com/linuxplanet/tutorials/6489/1/) . Also see this help video
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v CaJi580BAb8) to enable sound recording. To install with the GTK Irontend
(since the Qt-Irontend is not in the repositories):
-u rj-r n-rLL n-nmy--kr jrkn-ny--kr
Istanbul (Desktop Session Recording)
Istanbul (http://live.gnome.org/Istanbul) is a desktop recorder Ior the Gnome desktop. It records your session
into an OGG Theora video Iile.
-u rj-r n-rLL -rnouL
Wink (Presentation Editor)
Wink (http://www.debugmode.com/wink/) is a open source tutorial and presentation editor. It allows you to
capture screenshots and use them Ior presentations.
-u rj-r n-rLL nk
Note: The package is available Ior 32-bit systems only, although there are instructions Ior 64-bit installation here
(http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?t 938838) .
Digikam (Photo Organiser)
Digikam (http://www.digikam.org) is a comprehensive open source digital photo organiser and editor. Install it:
-u rj-r n-rLL jkm kLujn- jkm
Google Picasa (Photo Organiser)
Google Picasa (http://picasa.google.com/linux/) is a photo editor and organiser similar to Digikam. It allows
uploads to a Google web server Ior online exchange. For more inIo, see the Picasa Ior Linux FAQ
(http://picasa.google.com/linux/Iaq.html) . A selI-installing .deb Iile is available at Picasa 2.7 downloads
(http://picasa.google.com/linux/download.html#picasa27) .
Camorama (Web Cam)
Camorama (http://camorama.Iixedgear.org/) is a simple GTK-based (i.e. Gnome-based) interIace Ior webcams
using the v4l (video Ior linux) drivers.
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-u rj-r n-rLL mnm
Internet Applications
Internet applications enable you to make Iull use oI your Internet connection. Web browsers, Email clients,
Instant Messengers, and more are included in this category.
Web Browsers
Mozilla Firefox
Mozilla FireIox (http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/) is the ubiquitous web browser. Based on open source
components, it is trademarked and cannot be altered or re-distributed with any change that involves the name or
trademarks. Install the current version:
-u rj-r n-rLL rn-r
Firefox Plug-ins
Adblock pl ug-in (block ads in a web page)
Adblock Plus (http://adblockplus.org/en/) blocks ads that appear in web pages. You can subscribe to a Iree
Iilter service, and can add ads to block with a single click.
-u rj-r n-rLL mLLrn-roLk
You can also add this extension Irom FireIox -~ Tools -~ Add-ons -~ Get Add-ons -~ Browse All Add-
ons. (This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by FireIox.)
Noscri pt pl ug-in (control s scri pts)
The Noscript (http://noscript.net/) plugin is considered one oI the most important security measures Ior browsing
the Internet. Most viruses and trojans gain access to computers Irom the Internet through scripts. This plugin
allows you to choose which scripts to allow and blocks the rest.
-u rj-r n-rLL mLLn-nr
You can also add this extension Irom FireIox -~ Tools -~ Add-ons -~ Get Add-ons -~ Browse All Add-
ons. (This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by FireIox.)
User Agent Swi tcher plug-i n for Fi refox
The User Agent Switcher (http://chrispederick.com/work/user-agent-switcher/) plugin allows a browser to
masquerade as another browser, allowing (most oI the time) browser-speciIic content to be displayed.
You can add this extension Irom FireIox -~ Tools -~ Add-ons -~ Get Add-ons -~ Browse All Add-ons.
(This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by FireIox.)
Video Download Hel per plug-in for Firefox
The Video Download Helper (https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/IireIox/addon/3006) plugin allows the download
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oI videos (including Flash videos) Irom sites like YouTube.
You can add this extension Irom FireIox -~ Tools -~ Add-ons -~ Get Add-ons -~ Browse All Add-ons.
(This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by FireIox.)
Unplug Download Management
The UnPlug (https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/IireIox/addon/2254) add-on lets you save video and audio which
is embedded on a webpage.
You can add this extension Irom FireIox -~ Tools -~ Add-ons -~ Get Add-ons -~ Browse All Add-ons.
(This method will also ensure that automatic updates are installed by FireIox.)
1ava Runti me Environment (1RE) for Firefox plug-in
This package also installs the Java Runtime Environment. (JRE is also installed when OpenOIIice or ubuntu-
restricted-extras is installed.)
-u rj-r n-rLL -unvn- -unvLujn
Note: You must accept the license to use this product.
Adobe Acrobat Reader for Firefox Plug-in
This plugin is available Irom the Medibuntu repository. It allows you to view Adobe Acrobat Iiles within the
FireIox browser.
Add the Medibuntu repository to your repository list:
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ jaunty Iree non-Iree
Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL nn- mLLnn- nn-Lujn- nn-rnr-
Adobe Fl ash Player for Fi refox Plug-in
To install the oIIicial Adobe Flash plugin (Flash 10) Ior FireIox:
-u rj-r n-rLL o-rL-!Lujn
Gnash Plug-i n (Open source Flash Player replacement)
Gnash (http://www.gnashdev.org/) is available in a 64-bit version as well as a 32-bit version. It is the open
source replacement Ior Adobe Flashplayer.
-u rj-r n-rLL jn-!
AIter installing, change your web browser's PreIerences -~ Applications so that SWF and SPL Iiles use Gnash.
VLC plug-i n for Firefox
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This package allows the popular VLC player to play media within the FireIox browser.
-u rj-r n-rLL mLLLujnvL
Gecko MediaPl ayer Pl ug-in for Firefox
Gecko MediaPlayer (http://kdekorte.googlepages.com/gecko-mediaplayer) is a browser plugin Ior all Gecko-
based browsers (FireIox, SeaMonkey, IceApe, Opera) that allows Mplayer to play multimedia within the
browser. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL j-km-Ly-n
An alternative is to use the mplayer plugin Ior FireIox. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL mLLmLy-n
Kaffei ne Plug-i n for Fi refox
This package allows the KaIIeine media player (oIten used in KDE-based desktops) to play multimedia within
the FireIox browser.
-u rj-r n-rLL krr-n-mLL
Hel ix player plug-in for Firefox
This package installs the Helix player (https://helixcommunity.org/) (the open source player that plays Real
Player content in Linux) as well as the plugin that plays RealMedia within the FireIox browser.
-u rj-r n-rLL mLL!-LLy-n
FireFTP for Firefox
FireFTP (http://IireItp.mozdev.org/) is a FireIox extension Ior FTP transIers.
Firefox Widgets
Turn off browser bar drop-down list in Firefox
This is the most Irequently asked problem regarding FireIox. To turn oII the location browser bar drop-down list
(http://kb.mozillazine.org/Browser.urlbar.maxRichResults) (and thereIore not show your browsing history):
FireIox -~ about:conIig (in the location browser bar) -~ browser.urlbar.maxRichResults -~ right-click -~
ModiIy -~ set value to 0
IceCat
IceCat (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNUIceCat) is FireIox distributed without the Mozilla trademark
restrictions. It is endorsed by the Debian project (on which Ubuntu is based). It is Iormerly known as IceWeasel
and is also known as IceApe Browser. Install the current version:
-u rj-r n-rLL --on--n
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SeaMonkey
SeaMonkey (http://www.seamonkey-project.org/) is an open-source integrated internet application suite
(including web browser, IM (IRC) client, Email client, RSS/News reader, and web development tools). It is
based on the same components as the Mozilla products and shares the trademark and branding restrictions.
There are many plugins (https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/seamonkey/) , similar to those Ior Thunderbird and
FireIox. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL --mnk-y
IceApe
IceApe (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NamingconIlictbetweenDebianandMozilla) is an open-source
integrated internet application suite (including web browser, IM (IRC) client, Email client, RSS/News reader,
and web development tools). It is based on the same components as the Mozilla product SeaMonkey, but has
no restrictive trademark licensing, and is endorsed by the Debian project (on which Ubuntu is based). Install the
current version:
-u rj-r n-rLL --
Opera
Opera (http://www.opera.com/) is a proprietary browser and internet suite (currently Iree on PCs) also used in
some mobile devices and gaming consoles. It includes email, an address book, IRC chat, integrated BitTorrent,
and webIeeds. A limited number oI plugins are also available.
-u rj-r n-rLL -n
Download Managers
Downloader for X
Downloader Ior X (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DownloaderIorX) is a GTK-based Iree-standing download
manager utility. Still included in current repositories, the project appears dead. It is open-source, but does not
have a GPL license.
-u rj-r n-rLL
Email Clients
Evolution
Evolution (http://projects.gnome.org/evolution/) is the deIault Gnome-based email client in Ubuntu. II not
installed:
-u rj-r n-rLL -vLurn
Evolution and PGP
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Email messages can be encrypted in PGP and sent by email using Evolution. See this tutorial (http://support.real-
time.com/linux/email/client/evolutionpgp.html) Ior an example how to conIigure it.
KMail
KMail (http://kontact.kde.org/kmail/) (Kontact Mail) is the deIault email client included with Kontact in KDE
(Kubuntu). Kontact includes email, an address book, a calendar, reminders, pop-up notes, a link to the
Akregator News/RSS reader, time-tracking, and more. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL knrr
Thunderbird
Mozilla Thunderbird (http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/thunderbird/) is a licensed and trademarked Iree open-
source email client that is compatible with FireIox. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL mLLr!un-non
Lightning calendar extension
Lightning (http://www.mozilla.org/projects/calendar/lightning/) is the calendar extension Ior Thunderbird (with
Iunctionality similar to the stand-alone application Sunbird). Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL Lj!rnnj-r-n-n
Enigmail
Enigmail (https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/thunderbird/addon/71) is an add-on to Thunderbird that allows you
to easily encrypt your email using OpenPGP (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PrettyGoodPrivacy) , which is
included in the kernel by deIault. It also allows you to create and manage the encryption keys. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL -njmL
New Mail Icon for Thunderbird
"New Mail Icon" (https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/thunderbird/search?q newmailicon&cat all) is an
experimental tray add-on which notiIes you oI new mail. Download Irom the website. Install:
Thunderbird -~ Tools -~ Add-ons -~ Install -~ select downloaded Iile
Newsreaders
Akregator
Akregator (http://akregator.kde.org/) is the deIault news/RSS (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSS) reader
included with Kubuntu (KDE). Usage instructions are Iound in the Handbook
(http://akregator.kde.org/wiki/index.php/Handbook) . Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL kn-jrn
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RSSOwl
RSSOwl (http://www.rssowl.org/) is a Java-based RSS (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSS) , RDF , Atom
NewsIeed Reader. These installation instructions only work with RSSOwl version 123.
In order to use the internal browser, install Iirst the packages xulrunner and firefox , either via Synaptic
Manager or by typing this command into Terminal:
-u rj-r n-rLL rn-r uLnunn-n
Change to your "opt" directory:
r
Download the tar.gz-archive into your opt directory:
-u j-r !rro-Ln-rL-un-rnj-n-r-un-rnj-n--Ln--L`Lnuonrnj
Extract the archive and remove the extracted Iile:
-u rn vr n--L`Lnuonrnj ss -u nm n--L`Lnuonrnj
Make a startscript:
-u nn u-nonnunOL-!
and add the Iollowing lines to your starter-script Iile /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
-nr OPPV|O u-nLouLnunn-n
-nr P-| P-|,OPPV|O,,P-|,
rn--L`Lnuon
nun-!
Make the startscript executable:
-u !m u- u-nonnunOL-!
Now you always can start RSSOwl:
nunOL-!
AIter having started the application "RSSOwl":
Go to --~ View and enable "View Newstext in Browser".
Then go to --~ Tools --~ PreIerences... --~ General and enable in misc-section "Open any news automatically
in browser".
Go to --~ Tools --~ PreIerences... --~ Browser and enter the path to the executable (my path was
/usr/lib/IireIox/IireIox). Finally enable 'use external browser at the bottom.
Instant Messengers
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Pidgin
Pidgin (http://www.pidgin.im/) is an open source IM application. It is the deIault in the Ubuntu (Gnome)
desktop. You can access multiple services with it.
-u rj-r n-rLL jn
Kopete
Kopete (http://kopete.kde.org/) is the deIault Instant Messenger application Ior Kubuntu. You can access
multiple services with it. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL k-r-
Kopete Styles
Additional styles Ior Kopete (http://www.kde-look.org/index.php?xcontentmode 24x26) are available Irom
KDE-look. Install Irom:
Kopete -~ Settings -~ ConIigure -~ Chat Window -~ Style -~ Get New...
GoogleTalk on Kopete
Kopete can be conIigured to work with GoogleTalk (http://www.google.com/talk/about.html) Instant Messaging
(but not VOIP) using the Jabber protocol. See these GoogleTalk instructions
(http://www.google.com/support/talk/bin/answer.py?answer 57557) .
Konversation (IRC client)
Konversation (http://konversation.kde.org/) is the deIault Kubuntu Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client. It Iunctions
similar to the venerable mIRC. "A little less action and a little more Konversation." -- Elves Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL knv-n-rn
aMSN
aMSN is an MSN Messenger utility that Iunctions like the original client. It is not necessary iI you use Pidgin.
Install it:
-u rj-r n-rLL m-n
To enable Drag-and-Drop capabilities to aMSN Ior easy Iile transIer see Ubuntu Geek
(http://www.ubuntugeek.com/how-to-enable-drag-and-drop-capabilities-to-amsn.html) .
Emesene
Emesene (http://www.emesene.org/) is an MSN messenger client that uses a simpliIied interIace similar to the
original client. It is not necessary iI you use Pidgin. Install it:
-u rj-r n-rLL -m---n-
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Videoconferencing and VOIP
VideoconIerencing and voice over Internet (VOIP) applications are merging into integrated applications. Most
oI these applications now allow placing calls to non-Internet based telephones Ior a small Iee.
Ekiga
Formerly known as Gnomemeeting, Ekiga (http://www.gnomemeeting.org/) is a SIP compliant Iully Iunctional
open source integrated VOIP and videoconIerencing program.
-u rj-r n-rLL -kj
Skype
Skype (http://www.skype.com/) is a proprietary integrated VOIP and video conIerencing program similar to
Ekiga.
-u rj-r n-rLL -ky-
How to install Skype on a 64-bit system
The current version oI Skype Ior 64-bit systems is a masqueraded 32-bit module. To use on a 64-bit system
you might still need to install the needed packages:
-u rj-r n-rLL `Lo- Lo`-un` Lojrn- Lojrju
Then download and install the current Skype .deb package Irom the Skype website:
j-r O -ky-uounru``m-o !rr-ky-mjj-r-ky-Lnuuounrum
-u kj -ky-uounru``m-o
II the 64-bit version doesn't work Ior you, use the 32-bit version:
j-r O -ky--on``--o !rr-ky-mjj-r-ky-Lnuuounru
-u kj rn-n!r-run- -ky--on``--o
Wengophone
Wengophone (http://www.wengophone.com/index.php/mpdownloadwplin) is an integrated VOIP and
videoconIerencing client available on many platIorms. Wengophone was initially an open-source GPL-licensed
package ('Wengophone Classic'). Both the Classic version (available as a .deb Iile) and the current proprietary
binary version are available Irom the website. Wengophone Classic has now been rebranded as QuteCom
(http://www.qutecom.org/) , however. To install the current version as an Ubuntu/Kubuntu package, see these
instructions (https://edge.launchpad.net/~cavedon/archive/ppa) .
Download and install the older Wengophone Classic version (.deb package):
j-r !rrnL-njm-nj!n-n-nj!n--m--o
kj rn-n!r-run- -nj!n--m--o
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Gizmo5
Gizmo5 (http://www.gizmo5.com) is an Internet soIt-phone application, similar to Skype, that uses the SIP
protocol. Install (.deb package):
j-r !rrnLjmmGmnLjmn-rLo-r----o
kj rn-n!r-run- jmn-rLo-r----o
Asterisk VOIP PBX system
Asterisk (http://www.asterisk.org/) is an enterprise-grade, Iree open source PBX and telephony system Ior
VOIP.
-u rj-r n-rLL -r-n-k
Kiax
Kiax (http://www.kiax.org/) is an LGPL-licensed open source IAX (Inter-Asterisk eXchange) application. It is
used Ior making VoIP calls Irom an Asterisk PBX. The current version must be installed Irom source Iiles. See
the website Ior download and installation instructions, or see this Ubuntu Launchpad site
(https://launchpad.net/ubuntu/jaunty/package/kiax) .
FTP Clients
You might wish to use a dedicated FTP (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FileTransIerProtocol) client instead oI
the one in your browser.
Filezilla
Filezilla (http://Iilezilla-project.org/) is the ubiquitous Iree open-source FTP client and server Ior all platIorms.
-u rj-r n-rLL rL-LL
Filesharing / P2P
Do not share copyrighted material or content that is otherwise illegal to share.
Transmission (BitTorrent Client)
Transmission is the GTK-based deIault BitTorrent (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BitTorrent(protocol)) client in
Ubuntu (Gnome).
-u rj-r n-rLL rnn-m--n
KTorrent
KTorrent (http://ktorrent.org/) is the deIault BitTorrent client in Kubuntu. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL krnn-nr
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Be sure to have your Iirewall ports open (by deIault 6881 and 4444).
Azureus
Azureus (http://azureus.sourceIorge.net/howtolinux.php) is a Java-based BitTorrent client.
-u rj-r n-rLL un-u-
QTorrent
QTorrent is a PyQT-based BitTorrent Client that is supposed to be very Iast.
QTorrent (http://thegraveyard.org/qtorrent.php)
Apollon (P2P Filesharing)
Apollon (http://apollon.sourceIorge.net/index.html) is an older BitTorrent client oriented towards KDE. It uses
plugins Ior compatibility with multiple networks.
-u rj-r n-rLL LLn jrr
MLDonkey (P2P eMule/eDonkey2000)
MLDonkey is a P2P Iile sharing program (and network) that is able to use diIIerent network protocols. To
install the MLDonkey core server, Iollow these instructions (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/MLDonkey) .
MLDonkey GUI frontends
Install the Gnome GUI Irontend Ior MLDonkey:
-u rj-r n-rLL mLnk-yju
Another GUI is called Sancho (http://sancho.awardspace.com/) .
KMLDonkey (http://extragear.kde.org/apps/kmldonkey/) is the KDE (Kubuntu) Irontend Ior MLDonkey
(http://mldonkey.sourceIorge.net/MainPage) .
-u rj-r n-rLL kmLnk-y
Privacy
PGP (Message Encryption)
PGP (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PrettyGoodPrivacy) (OpenPGP and GnuPGP
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNUPrivacyGuard) ) is a tool to encrypt your messages (such as email) to be
unlocked only by someone who has a key to unlock it.
Seahorse
Seahorse (http://projects.gnome.org/seahorse/) is the GUI Ior Gnome to manage the key pairs and other options
oI GnuPGP (http://www.gnupg.org/) . It can also manage your SSH keys. For more inIo see this tutorial
(http://ubuntu-tutorials.com/2007/08/14/privacy-and-encryption-with-pgp-signing-and-encrypting-email-Iiles/) .
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Run:
Applications -~ Accessories --~ Passwords and Encryption Keys
Tor (Network Privacy)
Tor (http://www.torproject.org/) is a project to allow privacy while using the Internet and limit usage tracking.
Install using the download instructions here (https://wiki.torproject.org/noreply/TheOnionRouter/TorOnDebian)
then see the installation guide (http://www.torproject.org/docs/tor-doc-unix.html.en) . Note that the instructions
require port 11371 on your Iirewall to be open to use the gpg keyserver (and download the key Ior the debian
package).
You will also need to install privoxy:
-u rj-r n-rLL nvy
Install Tor by Iollowing the instructions here
(https://wiki.torproject.org/noreply/TheOnionRouter/TorOnDebian) . Note that the instructions require
port 11371 on your Iirewall to be open to use the gpg keyserver (and download the key Ior the debian
package). Then see the Tor installation guide (http://www.torproject.org/docs/tor-doc-unix.html.en) Ior
details.
Edit conIiguration Iiles.
Edit the privoxy conIiguration Iile:
-u nn -rnvynrj
Add the line
rnn-k- LL!-r
restart Privoxy:
-u -rnrnvy n--rnr
Edit the Tor conIiguration Iile:
-u nn -rrnrnn
Add the line
nrnL-nr
Comment out the line by adding a # at the beginning, so it looks like:
un--mn
un--mn
(This prevents the Tor daemon Irom automatically starting at bootup.)
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restart Tor
-u -rnrrn n--rnr
Tor GUIs
There are two main GUIs Ior Tor.
Vidalia (http://vidalia-project.net/) is a cross-platIorm Qt-based GUI Ior Tor. See these instructions
(http://www.tuxIeed.com/2008/03/22/howto-setup-vidalia-tor-gui-with-ubuntu/) to install it.
TorK (http://www.anonymityanywhere.com/tork/) is the KDE interIace, used in Kubuntu, but which can
run in Ubuntu (Gnome) as well.
-u rj-r n-rLL rnk
In addition, a Torbutton is available Ior FireIox, which toggles Tor usage. Install as a FireIox add-on or:
-u rj-r n-rLL rnourrn-r-n-n
Multimedia Applications
Multimedia applications include music and video playback, CD and DVD playback and recording, and Internet
TV as well as "terrestrial" (i.e. broadcast, satellite, and cable) TV viewing on your computer. Here
(http://maketecheasier.com/the-ultimate-guide-to-manage-your-audiovideo-Iiles-in-linux/2009/03/03) is a nice
review oI some oI the applications that enables conversion and handling oI these types oI Iiles.
CDs and DVDs
DVD Playback Capability
To play encrypted DVDs, the libdvdcss2 package is essential. libdvdcss2 is a simple library designed Ior
accessing DVDs like a block device without having to bother about the decryption. More inIormation about this
package can be Iound at VideoLAN (http://www.videolan.org/developers/libdvdcss.html) .
You can install libdvdcss2 as a 64-bit .deb package without installing the Medibuntu repositories:
j-r !rrkj--m-ounrunjLrn--LoLov--Lov--```m-ounrum-o
-u kj Lov--```m-ounrum-o
or a 32-bit .deb package:
j-r !rrkj--m-ounrunjLrn--LoLov--Lov--```m-ounru--o
-u kj Lov--```m-ounru--o
You can also use guidelines provided at Medibuntu (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Medibuntu) .
This will install the Medibuntu repositories on your system and then install the libdvdcss2 package:
-u j-r !rrm-ounrunj-un--L-runryL-r ururum-nr -rr-un--L-rm-ounruL-r
-u rj-r ur-
-u rj-r n-rLL m-ounruk-ynnj
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-u rj-r ur-
-u rj-r n-rLL Lov--`
You can also install 32 bit or 64 bit Windows multimedia codecs (iI you haven't already done so
using ubuntu-restricted-extras):
-u rj-r n-rLL `--
or
-u rj-r n-rLL --
Instead oI downloading directly Irom Medibuntu, you could also use the script included with the
libdvdread4 package to download and install libdvdcss2:
-u rj-r n-rLL Lovn-
-u u-n-!n-Lovn-n-rLL---!
K9copy DVD-Ripper
K9copy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K9copy) is the Iree open source DVD backup
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DVDripper) , copying, compression, and authoring utility that requires libdvdcss.
For other inIo, see this (http://www.dvd-guides.com/content/view/213/59/) or this (http://www.my-
guides.net/en/content/view/77/26/) guide. You can easily create MPEG-2. MPEG-4, or DVD videos with this
utility.
-u rj-r n-rLL ky
Tips: At times you may not be able to copy your DVD directly Irom DVD to DVD. This may because
you have a small imperIection in the DVD, or because the DVD was initially created with a non-standard
burning method. There are two methods that can help solve this problem:
Copy the VIDEOTS and AUDIOTS Iolders Irom your original DVD directly to your hard
drive. Then use k9copy to burn a DVD directly Irom these hard drive Iolders.
Use k3b (or Gnomebaker) to copy an .iso image Irom the original DVD to your hard drive. Then
use k9copy to extract Irom the hard drive .iso image and then burn a DVD directly Irom it.
dvd::rip
dvd::rip (http://www.exit1.org/dvdrip/) is a DVD backup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DVDripper) /copy
program, written in GTK-based perl, that uses the transcode (http://www.transcoding.org/cgi-bin/transcode)
video/audio processing and conversion tools. See the website Ior installation and oIIicial documentation. For
other inIo, see this dvd::rip tutorial (http://www.my-guides.net/en/content/view/136/26/) . Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL vn nn
DVD Fab DVD Ripper
DVD Fab (http://www.dvdIab.com) is the Iavoured DVD backup tool Ior today's DVD encryption methods. It
must be run in Wine (since it is a Windows application). It comes as a Iully Ieatured 30-day trial, but see these
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instructions (http://geek-out-blog.blogspot.com/2009/01/how-to-restart-dvdIab-trial-period.html) Ior Iine-tuning
the trial period.
Handbrake
Handbrake (http://handbrake.Ir/?article download) is a GPL-licenced open source tool Ior converting DVD to
MPEG-4 (iPod Iormat) that is an alternative to k9copy. A selI-installing .deb Iile is available Irom the website
Ior download.
FFMPEG video / audio conversion
FFMPEG is the swiss-army kniIe oI video and audio Iormat conversion. It succeeds when no other program
can. It is Iree and open source. II it not yet installed on your system as part oI another package (it is used by
many video/audio editors), then install it:
-u rj-r n-rLL rrm-j
To convert many diIIerent Iormats, read the FFMPEG documentation
(http://IImpeg.mplayerhq.hu/IImpeg-doc.html) . Also see this tutorial (http://howto-pages.org/IImpeg/) .
Example: To convert a saved Flash video (.Ilv) to an MPEG-2 Iormat playable on a DVD, convert:
rrm-j -mplavia.flv rnj-r nr-v -mplavia.mpj
Then use K3b (or Gnomebaker) to write the mpg Iile to a New DVD Data Project.
For PAL use -target pal-dvd. For widescreen, use -target Iilm-dvd. For other conversion tips, see
this Iorum (http://ubuntuIorums.org/archive/index.php/t-1006250.html) . (Note: Most Flash video
has very low resolution, with a screen size oI 360x270, Ior example. You may see a slight
diminishment in resolution iI you wish to convert it to 720x480 (which is the NTSC standard size)
or other screen size. You can keep the original screen size and resolution by omitting the -target
parameter.) II your original Iile is 16:9 widescreen and you desire a 4:3 letterbox output Ior playing
on an overscanned TV, you may need to pad the Iile so that the widescreen is not compressed
(see this Iorum (http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?t 1010648) ):
rrm-j -mplavia.flv rnj-r nr-v - - L-rr nj!r r - orrm -
You can also use the WinFF GUI and add the command (as above) as a "Preset," Ior subsequent use.
For example:
Video converter (WinFF) -~ Edit -~ Presets -~
Preset Name: Letterbox -~ Preset Label: 16:9 Widescreen to 4:3 Letterbox
Preset command: -target ntsc-dvd -s 648x364 -padleIt 36 -padright 36 -padtop 58 -padbottom
58
Ouput Iile extension: mpg -~ Category: DVD
-~ Add/Update -~ Save
To convert to MPEG-4 (mp4) Iiles, use
rrm-j -mplavia.flv .::p::via.mp
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FFMpeg requires that multiple restricted extra codecs be installed. This can be done in a single easy step
Irom the command-line Terminal:
-u rj-r n-rLL uounrun--rnr--rn-
FFMPEG GUI
WinFF (http://winII.org) is a Iree, GPL-licensed open source GUI Irontend Ior FFMPEG. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL nrr r-nm
Run:
Applications -~ Multimedia -~ Video converter (WinFF)
1oin video segments
Individual video segments (MPEG-2, Ior example) can easily be joined:
r -mplavia.mpj -mplavia.2mpj -mplavia.mpj -mplavia.2mpj
You can then write the resulting MPEG-2 Iile to a DVD and play it in most DVD players.
Save any streaming Flash video
An easy way is to install the Video Download Helper plug-in Ior FireIox.
Otherwise, most Flash videos download to the /tmp directory while you watch the video, creating a randomly-
named video Iile there (such as Flashuh4G6s). When you close the webpage, this Iile in the /tmp directory will
be erased. AIter the entire video has downloaded, but beIore you close the webpage, copy that Iile (such as
Flashuh4G6s) to your home directory (where it will not be erased). OI course, Ior this to work, you must
change your Flash (or Gnash) settings to allow an unlimited buIIer. While watching your Flash video, right click
to bring up the Flash -~ Settings window. Set the BuIIer to "Unlimited."
Once you have copied the Iile, rename it appropriately with the .Ilv added to the Iilename. You can then watch it
using VLC or Mplayer.
Here (http://ihatehate.wordpress.com/2009/03/30/how-to-download-save-streaming-video-Irom-the-internet-
using-linux/) is another method that involves making a symbolic link.
Convert Flash video audio to mp3
Once you have downloaded Ilash video content (.Ilv) Irom the Internet (using the Video Download Helper plug-
in Ior FireIox, Ior example), the audio component can be converted to an mp3 using this command (Irom the
command line Terminal). (This will work Ior any type oI video Iile, not just Flash.)
rrm-j n-ma.fvia.lipflv o k ` n vn n-ma.ffilamp
where -i indicates the input, -ab indicates the bit rate (in this example 160kb/sec), -vn means no video ouput, -
ac 2 means 2 channels, -ar 44100 indicates the sampling Irequency. See FFMPEG docs
(http://IImpeg.mplayerhq.hu/IImpeg-doc.html#SEC11) Ior more inIo.
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2ManDVD
2ManDVD (http://2mandvd.tuxIamily.org/) is a GUI utility Ior creating DVD videos. It is the successor oI
ManDVD. Choose the version Ior your architecture and install it Irom the 2ManDVD website
(http://www.getdeb.net/app/2ManDVD) . Click on the download link and select to open it with the GDebi
Package Installer (deIault). (II you have previously installed ManDVD you must uninstall it Iirst.) For a usage
tutorial, read this 2ManDVD guide (http://www.my-guides.net/en/content/view/170/26/) .
Run
Applications -~ Sound & Video -~ 2ManDVD
DeVeDe
DeVeDe (http://www.rastersoIt.com/programas/devede.html) is a program to create video DVDs and CDs
suitable Ior home players (i.e. VCD, sVCD or CVD) Irom any source video Iile that is supported by MPlayer.
Choose the version Ior your architecture and install it Irom the DeVeDe website
(http://www.getdeb.net/app/DeVeDe) . Click on the download link and select to open it with the GDebi
Package Installer (deIault). For a usage tutorial, read this DeVeDe guide (http://www.my-
guides.net/en/content/view/75/26/) .
Run
Applications -~ Sound & Video -~ DeVeDe
DVD Author
DVD author (http://dvdauthor.sourceIorge.net/) allows you to create menus and Iormat your MPEG-2 videos
onto a DVD disc so that you can play it in a commercial DVD player. DVD Author is a command line tool, but
several GUI's exist. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL vur!n
QDVDAuthor
QDVDAuthor (http://qdvdauthor.sourceIorge.net/) is a Qt-based GUI Ior DVD Author. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL jvur!n
Run:
Applications -~ Multimedia -~ QDVDAuthor
Follow instructions in the Quick-Start Guide:
QDVDAuthor -~ Help -~ Quick-Start Guide
For a tutorial on authoring DVDs, see this guide (http://womble.decadent.org.uk/talks/dvd-ukuug06/dvd-talk-
ukuug06-paper.html) .
Gnomebaker (CD/DVD burner)
Gnomebaker (http://sourceIorge.net/projects/gnomebaker) is the deIault CD/DVD burning application Ior the
Gnome desktop, installed by deIault in Ubuntu.
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K3b (CD/DVD burner)
K3b (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K3b) (KDE Burn Baby Burn) is the deIault KDE CD and DVD burning utility
included in Kubuntu, but can run well in Gnome. (Due to licensing requirements, mp3 capabilities must be
installed separately as the libk3b3-mp3 package). Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL ko Loko-rn--
Ripper X CD Ripper/Encoder
Ripper X (http://sourceIorge.net/projects/ripperx/) is a GTK-based (i.e. Gnome) open source utility to rip CD
audio tracks to OGG, MP3, or FLAC Iormats. It supports CDDB lookups.
-u rj-r n-rLL n-n
Asunder CD Ripper/Encoder
Asunder (http://littlesvr.ca/asunder/) is a GTK-based open source CD ripper/encoder which saves to Wav,
MP3, OGG, FLAC, or WavPack. SelI-installing .deb packages are available here
(http://www.getdeb.net/app.php?name Asunder) .
Audex CD Ripper/Encoder
Audex (http://www.kde-apps.org/content/show.php/Audex?content 77125) is a port to KDE4 oI the
KAudioCreator package used in KDE 3. It can create output Ior LAME (MP3-compliant), OGG Vorbis
(oggenc), FLAC and RIFF WAVE. It must be installed Irom source, currently (see the website).
EasyTag (ID3 Tag Editor)
EasyTag (http://easytag.sourceIorge.net/) is an open-source GTK-based ID3 Tag Editor Ior mp3 and other Iile
Iormats. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL --yrj
Run:
Applications -~ Sound & Video -~ EasyTAG
Audacity (Audio Editor and Recorder)
Audacity (http://audacity.sourceIorge.net/) is the leading cross-platIorm Iree open source (GPL-licensed) audio
recorder and editor. It can be used to record, splice, edit, and manipulate sound Iiles similar to tools Iound in
recording studios. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL ury
Music Players
Rhythmbox
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Rhythmbox (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhythmbox) is the deIault music player in Ubuntu (Gnome), relying on
the Gstreamer Iramework.
Amarok
Amarok (http://amarok.kde.org/) is the deIault music player in Kubuntu. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL mnk
Amarok themes
Amarok themes (http://www.kde-look.org/index.php?xcontentmode 55) can be downloaded Irom KDE Look
and installed.
Download the theme (ending in .tar.bz2) to your home directory (or chosen directory).
Amarok -~ Settings -~ Appearance -~ Install New Style
Select the downloaded Iile.
Audacious
Audacious (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AudaciousMediaPlayer) is a compact, Iast music player that is a Iork
oI XMMS. It resembles WinAmp and can use WinAmp and XMMS skins. It supports many plugins and is
ideal Ior streaming content. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL uu-
You can switch switch between the "PulseAudio Output Plugin" and the "ALSA Output Plugin" under
Audacious -~ PreIerences -~ Audio -~ Current output plugin.
Banshee Music Player
Banshee (http://banshee-project.org/) is a Gstreamer, Mono and Gtk-based music player Ior Linux and Mac
OS X. It supports multiple mp3 players (including the iPod).There are plugins Ior podcasts, internet radio, and
more.
-u rj-r n-rLL on-!--
Exaile Music Manager and Player
Exaile (http://www.exaile.org/) is a GTK-based music player that supports many Iormats, incorporates a
Shoutcast directory, a plugin Ior iPod, Last.FM support, tabbed playlists, and other Ieatures. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL -L-
Songbird Music Player
Songbird (http://getsongbird.com/) is an open source music player Irom Mozilla with an appearance meant to
resemble iTunes. It is in current development and does not yet have Iull support Ior mp3 players (such as the
iPod). It incorporates a Shoutcast internet radio interIace. The current beta version can be downloaded Irom the
website.
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Video and Music Players
Most current video multimedia players play many video Iormats, including the Flash video .Ilv Iormat.
MPlayer Multimedia Player
Mplayer (http://www.mplayerhq.hu/design7/inIo.html) is a video player with a wide range oI Iormats supported
(including RealMedia and Windows-codecs) and a wide variety oI outputs.
-u rj-r n-rLL mLy-n
SMPlayer
SMPlayer (http://smplayer.sourceIorge.net/) is an enhanced Irontend Ior MPlayer.
-u rj-r n-rLL -mLy-n
Dump a video stream to disc
You can dump a video stream to disc using Mplayer:
mLy-n um-rn-m :ra-m:rl
II you don't know the exact URL oI the stream you wish to save, you can discover it Irom the webpage it is
embedded in by using the FireIox add-on UnPlug. Do not save streams that are illegal to download.
VLC Multimedia Player
VLC (http://www.videolan.org/) is a cross-platIorm multimedia player that supports many Iormats without need
Ior additional codecs. It can not only receive video streams
(http://wiki.videolan.org/Documentation:StreamingHowTo/ReceiveandSaveaStream) (also see here
(http://tom.zickel.org/vlcmp4/) to convert it to mp4), but can act as a server Ior video streams, as well. It is one
oI the only players that can view and backup almost any DVD Iormat, no matter which copy protection is used.
See these tips (http://www.Ireedvdripper.net/guides/rip-dvd-convert-video-with-Iree-vlc-player.html) Ior using
VLC to backup/rip encrypted DVDs.
-u rj-r n-rLL vL vLLujnuL--
Playing VCD on VLC
How to play VCDs: Open Iile, In the Open Disc dialogue, click at Disc tab and chosing VCD at disc type gives
me this:
v-v! urnk
in the advanced options /dev/hdd is my CD-ROM drive, obviously. Remove x and change that to:
v-v! urnk
Xine-UI Multimedia Player
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Xine UI (http://xinehq.de/) is a multimedia player based, oI course, on the xine platIorm. It can also play
streamed video Irom the Internet and supports most Iormats, including some uncommon ones.
-u rj-r n-rLL n-u
Kaffeine Video Player
KaIIeine (http://kaIIeine.kde.org/) is the deIault video player in Kubuntu. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL krr-n-
RealPlayer 11 Multimedia Player
The Linux Realplayer is actually based on the open-source Helix player (https://player.helixcommunity.org/) .
Helix itselI can be installed as a package easily (read Helix plug-in) and used instead oI Realplayer. These
instructions are to install the proprietary version oI RealPlayer only.
Download Real Player oIIicial linux player (http://www.real.com/linux)
Open a terminal and cd to the directory you have downloaded realplayer's .bin Iile. Then issue the Iollowing
commands
!m - -L-Ly-nGOon
-u -L-Ly-nGOon
When it asks Ior installation path enter /usr/local/RealPlayer
For all other questions just choose deIault by pressing enter.
II you have installed mozilla-mplayer package you will need to delete the mplayer IireIox plugin Ior real player
videos. Other wise all real player Iiles will open with mplayer. For that please do this
u-nLorn-rLujn-
-u nm mLy-nLujnnm
Please remember to restart IireIox and when ever you click on a real player video choose the option open with
and use /usr/bin/realplay
Internet TV
Miro Player
Miro Player (http://www.getmiro.com/) (Iormerly Democracy TV Player) is an open-source Internet TV and
video player that allows you to watch Internet TV and videos. Unlike other video players, it contains a
structured guide that includes more than 2500 channels, has built-in BitTorrent, and has Ieatures that can
automatically save videos, such as Irom YouTube.
-u rj-r n-rLL mn
Myth TV
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See MythTV
Sopcast Internet TV
Sopcast (http://www.sopcast.org) is an interIace to play live P2P video streams through the VLC media player.
Install VLC Iirst. This is a Chinese program and most content is hosted in China and may not be legal in your
area. Please consult local regulations.
Download and install:
j-r !rr--rLy-njjL--mrL---ur!--o
j-r !rr--rLy-njjL--mrL----rLy-nuounru--o
-u kj -ur!--o --rLy-nuounru--o
For 64-bit systems, use:
j-r !rr--rLy-njjL--mrL---ur!m-o
j-r !rr--rLy-njjL--mrL----rLy-nuounrum-o
-u kj -ur!m-o --rLy-nuounrum-o
Run:
Applications-~Sound & Video-~SopCast Player
Zattoo
Zattoo (http://www.zattoo.com/) is a Iree Internet TV player that allows you to watch terrestrial television Irom
various countries in Europe. See the Zattoo Download (http://zattoo.com/en/download/linux) page Ior Iurther
instructions on installation. For screenshots and an alternate installation guide, see this UbuntuGeek guide
(http://www.ubuntugeek.com/watching-live-tv-on-your-ubuntu-desktop-with-zattoo.html) .
Install dependencies Iirst:
-u rj-r n-rLL LojrkjL-r o-rL-!Lujn
Download the latest .deb package Irom Zattoo Download (http://zattoo.com/en/download/linux) page.
j-r !rrrrmn-L---nL!
Install the downloaded .deb package:
-u kj -o
Run Zattoo:
K -~ Application -~ Multimedia -~ Zattoo Player
Note: you have to register Ior a Iree account when the player starts.
Media Centers and PVR (Personal Video Recorder)
There are a number oI open-source Media Centers Ior Linux, some oI which include personal video recorder
Iunctions. For a Iull list oI open-source media centers, see this guide
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(http://www.telematicsIreedom.org/en/project/14/Iloss-media-center-state-art) .
MythTV
MythTV (http://www.mythtv.org/) is a media center with PVR (personal video recorder) Ior retrieving,
recording, and playing broadcast and Internet TV and other multimedia content. It has many options and plugins
Ior expansion. To be useIul, you will need a compatible TV tuner card
(http://www.mythtv.org/wiki/index.php/TunerCard) . For setup tips, see this guide
(http://parker1.co.uk/mythtvubuntu.php) . Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL myr!rv
Mythbuntu
Mythbuntu (http://www.mythbuntu.org) is an integrated Ubuntu (Xubuntu) desktop optimised Ior MythTV
usage. In can be used instead oI adding MythTV to a Ubuntu desktop.
XBMC
XBMC (http://xbmc.org/) is a Iree, mature, open-source cross-platIorm media center. It does not have a PVR
capability nor as many Iunctions as MythTV, but has a very nice interIace.
Add these third party repositories:
-o !rrLun!n-rr-momnrn-uounru nrn- mn
-o-n !rrLun!n-rr-momnrn-uounru nrn- mn
Install:
-u rj-r ur-
-u rj-r n-rLL om
Boxee
Boxee (http://www.boxee.tv/) is an XBMC-like open source package to allow streaming video over the
Internet, including Irom YouTube and other sites. It is a Iork oI XBMC, and is still in alpha development and
testing stage. It is currently available Ior 32-bit systems only, and recommended Ior Hardy. A current version is
anticipated soon. (Note: Boxee does not run NetIlix on Linux, despite their ads). See these download
instructions (http://app.boxee.tv/download) .
Elisa
Elisa (http://elisa.Iluendo.com/) is a cross-platIorm media center that uses the Gstreamer multimedia Iramework.
Commercial plugins are available Irom Fluendo. It supports PVR and Music Jukebox . Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL -L-
LinuxMCE
See LinuxMCE.
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Multimedia Servers
MPD Multimedia Playing Server
MPD (http://mpd.wikia.com/wiki/WhatMPDIsandIsNot) is a music server meant Ior LAN usage. It can
be controlled Irom remote clients. It can also stream internet streams.
TiMidity++ MIDI Sound Server
TiMidity (http://timidity.sourceIorge.net/) is a MIDI soItware synthesizer required by several games and other
MIDI-dependent applications.
-u rj-r n-rLL rmry
uShare UPnP A/V Media Server
uShare (http://ushare.geexbox.org/) is a UPnP media server compatible with the Xbox360 and PS3.
-u rj-r n-rLL u-!n-
Also see: How-to: Run uShare at Startup (http://ubuntuguide.org/index.php?title How-
to:GettinguSharetorunatStartup) .
Multimedia Encoders
Gnac (GNome Audio Converter)
Gnac (GNome Audio Converter) (http://gnac.sourceIorge.net/) converts between all GStreamer supported
audio Iormats. It is not yet part oI the standard repositories. See these installation instructions
(http://launchpad.net/~gnac-team/archive/ppa) .
SOX (encodes/decodes audio)
SoX (http://sox.sourceIorge.net/) is a somewhat conIusing command-line utility to convert audio Iormats. See
this usage guide (http://sox.sourceIorge.net/sox.html) . Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL -
Run:
-
Internet Radio
Internet radio streams through diIIerent ports, so check your Iirewall iI you are not able to play the streams.
Last FM
LastFM (http://www.last.Im/) is a service Ior sharing music recommendations and individual radio streams. It is
included as an option in Amarok, or can be installed separately:
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-u rj-r n-rLL L-rrm
Shoutcast Internet Radio
Shoutcast (http://classic.shoutcast.org) is the Iirst and last Iree mp3 streaming service. Hundreds oI radio streams
can be played through Amarok, Audacious, or other multimedia player. Simply associate the .pls streams with
your Iavourite player (Audacious or XMMS2 recommended).
StreamTuner Stream Directory Browser
StreamTuner (http://www.nongnu.org/streamtuner/) lists streams available on the Internet through a GTK-based
interIace. It lists Shoutcast and Live365 streams, among others. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL -rn-mrun-n
BBC program recording
getiplayer (http://linuxcentre.net/getiplayer/) allows BBC streams (through their iplayer service) Ior UK
users, as well as Hulu streams Ior US users, to be recorded to mp4, wav and mp3 Iiles (depending on
content). See the website Ior usage.
iPlayer can be run in Wine using these instructions
(http://bbciplayerlinux.sourceIorge.net/index.php/MainPage) .
Home Automation / Home Theater / Home Security
Complete Systems
Linux MCE (Media Center Edition)
LinuxMCE (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LinuxMCE) is an integrated home theater/home security/home
automation/telephone PBX/intercom system Ior your home. It incorporates MythTV
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MythTV) , Pluto (http://plutohome.com/) home automation, Motion
(http://www.lavrsen.dk/twiki/bin/view/Motion/WebHome) security surveillance, Asterisk
(http://www.asterisk.org/) PBX, VDR (http://www.cadsoIt.de/vdr/) video disk recorder, and other home
automation/security/theater packages in an integrated platIorm. It is available in 32 and 64 bit versions.
LinuxMCE can run either as a standalone Home Theater PC or can co-ordinate a Iully networked home, using
the networking capabilities that are intrinsically part oI the Kubuntu Linux OS. For more inIo see the LinuxMCE
website (http://www.linuxmce.org) or wiki (http://wiki.linuxmce.org/index.php/MainPage) .
The most recent stable version runs on Kubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy). An alpha version Ior Kubuntu 8.10 (Intrepid) has
been released, and the Iull version is anticipated soon. LinuxMCE can be installed at the same time as the
Kubuntu OS (on a new PC with an nVidia graphics card), with a single DVD installation. Alternatively, Kubuntu
can be installed Iirst and LinuxMCE then installed Irom a 2 CD installation.
Home Security
Zoneminder surveillance system
Zoneminder manages surveillance cameras and stores images on the hard disk. Images can be viewed using a
(LAMP) server remotely. X10 devices can be triggered using built-in perl scripts. For more inIo see the
Zoneminder website (http://www.zoneminder.com/) .
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Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL n-mn-n rrm-j
Myth Zoneminder
MythZoneminder (http://mythtv.org/wiki/index.php/MythZoneMinder) allows you to view your security cameras
through Myth TV, essentially. It is a plugin that interIaces the two packages Zoneminder (which must be working
on your system) and Myth TV (which must also be working.) See the installation instructions
(http://mythtv.org/wiki/index.php/MythZoneMinder#InstallMythZoneMinder) .
It can be Iound in Synaptic as the mythzoneminder package.
-u rj-r n-rLL myr!n-mn-n
Productivity Applications
Office Suites
Open Office
Open OIIice (http://www.openoIIice.org) is installed by deIault in Ubuntu, with Writer (Word equivalent),
Presentation (PowerPoint equivalent), Calc spreadsheet (Excel equivalent), and Base relational database
(Access equivalent).
Open Word 2007 Documents in Open Office
The latest edition oI OpenOIIice opens .docx (i.e. Word 2007) documents by deIault.
KOffice
The KOIIice (http://www.koIIice.org/) suite is part oI the KDE project and is meant to provide the capabilities
oI the OpenOIIice suite without the licensing restrictions oI OpenOIIice. It can be used in any version oI Ubuntu.
Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL krr-
AbiWord
AbiWord (http://www.abisource.com/) is a Iast, collaboration-enabled word processor. For the most current
version see the AbiWord web site (http://abisource.com/wiki/InstallonUbuntu) . To install Irom the
repositories:
-u rj-r n-rLL on
Personal Information Managers
Kontact Personal Information Manager
Kontact (http://kontact.kde.org/) is the deIault PIM included with Kubuntu. Kontact includes email, an address
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book, a calendar, reminders, pop-up notes, a link to the Akregator News/RSS
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSS) reader, time-tracking, and more. Its many Iunctions resemble MS-Outlook.
Through connectors it interIaces with many groupware servers (http://kontact.kde.org/groupwareservers.php)
(such as Kolab and eGroupware). Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL knrr
Mozilla Sunbird (Calendar)
Sunbird (http://www.mozilla.org/projects/calendar/sunbird/) is a standalone group calendar in the Thunderbird
and FireIox Iamily oI applications, and is compatible with ICS, CalDAV (e.g. DAViCAL, and WCAP servers.
(It operates almost identically to the Lightning calendar extension oI Thunderbird.)
-u rj-r n-rLL -unon
A related (branded) package known as SeaMonkey Calendar can also be installed.
-u rj-r n-rLL mLLL-nn
A related (unbranded) package known as IceApe Calendar can also be installed.
-u rj-r n-rLL --L-nn
BasKet Note Pads
BasKet Note Pads (http://basket.kde.org/) is a personal note-taking application that resides on your computer
and can be used Ior creating "to-do" lists. It is great Ior centralising your thoughts in one place. Install it:
-u rj-r n-rLL o-k-r
Planner (Project planning & management)
Planner (http://www.simpleprojectmanagement.com/planner/) is an MS-Project
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MicrosoItProject) -like planning and management tool.
-u rj-r n-rLL Lnn-n
Time Tracker
You can keep track how long you use an application with TimeTracker. Keep records Ior billing or simply limit
your Internet usage.
Financial Software
For a brieI introduction, see this list oI 10 Linux Iinancial tools (http://ubuntudoctor.com/content/news/10-linux-
Iinancial-tools) .
GnuCash (Personal Finance Management)
GnuCash (http://www.gnucash.org/) is a Iree, open source GPL-licensed personal Iinance manager that uses
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double entry accounting like proIessional accountants. It is GTK-based (Gnome 2). The current version can be
installed Irom source Iiles (see the website Ior installation instructions), or the package version can be installed:
Applications -~ Add/Remove Programs -~ OIIice -~ GnuCash Finance Management
or Irom the command-line terminal:
-u rj-r n-rLL jnu-!
KMyMoney (Personal Finance Management)
KMyMoney (http://kmymoney2.sourceIorge.net/index-home.html) is a personal Iinance manager that uses
double entry accounting, the method proIessional accountants use. It is similar to MS-MyMoney and Intuit
QuickBooks. It is designed Ior the KDE desktop. Install:
Applications -~ Add/Remove Programs -~ OIIice -~ KMyMoney
or Irom the command-line terminal:
-u rj-r n-rLL kmymn-y`
Moneydance (Personal Finance Management)
Moneydance (http://moneydance.com/) is a commercial cross-platIorm Java-based personal Iinance manager
similar to KMyMoney that sells Ior $40 per license.
SQL-Ledger (Enterprise Finance Management)
SQL-Ledger ERP (http://www.sql-ledger.org/) is a Iree, open-source, platIorm independent double-
accounting-method system and enterprise resource planner (inventory, work and purchase orders, taxes, etc.)
that uses the SQL database server (PostgreSQL/Oracle/Mysql databases). It uses a web browser Ior an
interIace and be accessed remotely. It is extremely comprehensive and is available in many languages. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL -jLL-j-n
WebERP (Enterprise Finance Management)
WebERP (http://www.weberp.org/) is a Iree, open-source enterprise resource planner and accounting suite
similar to SQL-Ledger that uses a web browser as an interIace. It runs on the LAMP server. It is somewhat
diIIicult to implement and use, but conIorms to strict accounting guidelines. Set up your LAMP server Iirst, then
install using the web site instructions.
Phreebooks (Enterprise Finance Management)
Phreebooks (http://www.phreebooks.com/) is a Iree open-source enterprise resource planner and accounting
suite similar to WebERP. It also runs on a LAMP server. It is in active development in 2008. A demo is
available at the website.
Quasar (Enterprise Finance Management)
Quasar (http://www.linuxcanada.com/) is a proprietary Linux-based accounting suite similar to Quickbooks. For
a single user without point-oI-sale or networking needs, it is Iree. For other users it costs CA$500 per seat. An
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installer Ior KDE-based systems is here (http://outkastsolutions.co.za/outkast/index.php?
option comdocman&task docdetails&gid 14&Itemid 31) .
Groupware
Groupware solutions include shared calendars, group email servers, groups address lists, group projects, and
internal messaging. They require (one or more) servers with LAMP or similar server stacks.
Groupware Servers
Groupware servers are meant to operate on a server platIorm. You must install the server version oI
Ubuntu/Ubuntu Iirst. Read Servers.
Kolab
Kolab (http://www.kolab.org/) is the most comprehensive open-source groupware solution available and is
distributed as a multi-platIorm solution. (It integrates easily with both Ubuntu (including Evolution) and
KDE/Kubuntu (including Kontact).) It is Iree and open source with a GPL license (unlike other groupware
solutions), yet enterprise support is also available. It is scalable to large organizations and is Outlook (MS-
Exchange) and Mozilla compatible. This is a German package, however, and documentation in English can
occasionally be limited. The Kolab website provides its own instructions Ior installation Irom source
(http://wiki.kolab.org/index.php/Kolab2Installation-Source) (currently v. 2.2
(http://www.kolab.org/pipermail/kolab-announce/2009/000083.html) ). Version 2.2 includes the Horde web
interIace. In brieI:
Install the compiler and other necessary stuII:
-u rj-r n-rLL ouL----nrL
Make a directory Ior the Kolab installation and make it universally accessible:
-u
-u mkn kLo
-u !m kLo
Optional. II you wish to mount kolab in its own partition, then create a new partition (using Gparted, Ior
example). Figure out the device name oI your extra partition:
-u r-k L
It should be something like /dev/sda3.
Mount /dev/sda3 (or whatever your partition is) as /kolab by editing /etc/Istab:
-u nn -rr-ro
and adding the line:
-v- kLo -r -ruLr-,n
then reboot and make sure there are no errors.
Make a directory into which to download kolab:
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rm
mkn kLorm
Download all the current Kolab Iiles:
rmkLorm
j-r n L n nn-nr !rrrL--kLonj--nv-nn-L---kLo--nv-n```-un--
Install Kolab (as root using sudo -s):
-u -
-! n-rLLkLo-! `s r-- kLon-rLLLj
Reboot your system.
Stop Kolab services and run the conIiguration utility:
-u kLoon-nkj n LL -r
-u kLo-onkLoor-rn o
Obviously, you should know all your details, such as your Iully qualiIied host name (which you can
determine Irom hostname -I), domain details, etc., beIore doing this step. II you are not Iamiliar with
OpenLDAP (http://www.openldap.org/) and LDAP (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LDAP) basics, you
should learn about it, as Kolab uses the slapd OpenLDAP server daemon.
Restart all Kolab services:
-u kLoon-nkj n LL -rnr
Login to the web administrator interIace using "manager" and the password you set at bootstrap
conIiguration:
!rr-yun!-ryunmnnm-mn
Kol ab Ubuntu package
There is an Ubuntu/Kubuntu package Ior the new version oI Kolab (v. 2.2), but no documentation
support Ior it yet exists. I have not tried this new package. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL kLo
Notes: Kolab uses its own server components, and it is best to run Kolab on a dedicated server. However, it is
possible to run other servers on the same machine, as long as you choose alternate ports iI the server modules
conIlict.
Citadel
Citadel (http://www.citadel.org/) is a turn-key Iully open source groupware solution (that is also Kolab
compliant) with a structure rooted in bulletin-board systems, and is thereIore user Iriendly. Installation
instructions are Iound at the website.
eGroupware
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eGroupware (http://www.egroupware.org/) is a robust and stable Iree open source groupware solution (with
GPL license) based on the LAMP stack (the deIault server stack included with Ubuntu Server) and the PostIix
mail server (both oI which should be installed Iirst). There is a new version recently available, with a new
corporate sponsor in Germany and a commercial enterprise version. Compatibility with many clients has been
improved. Egroupware provides the easiest installation and quickest setup time oI all groupware solutions. Much
oI the documentation Ior the current version, unIortunately, is not in English.
-u rj-r n-rLL -jnun-
Open-Xchange
Open-Xchange (http://www.open-xchange.com/wiki/index.php?
title QuickinstallguideIortheServerEditionUbuntu8.04) is a proprietary groupware solution (meant as
an MS-Exchange replacement) that has released a "community edition" based on commercial versions. The
latest .deb package is Ior Hardy Heron 8.04. It is compliant with many diIIerent types oI clients, including
Kontact, Outlook, and Palm PDAs. Installation instructions are at the website and are not trivial.
OpenGroupware
OpenGroupware (http://www.opengroupware.org/) is a groupware solution based on the postgreSQL
database. There is an enterprise version and a limited open source version, and development appears to have
been stagnant in 2008. Installation must be Irom source, as packages are very outdated. See the website Ior
details.
Zarafa
ZaraIa (http://zaraIa.com/?q en/content/community-0) is the leading European MS-Exchange
replacement/groupware solution. It is proprietary, but a GPL-licensed (except Ior trademarks) Iree open-source
community edition was released in 2008. Download instructions are available Irom the website.
Zimbra
Zimbra (http://www.zimbra.com/community/downloads.html) is a proprietary groupware solution that oIIers an
open source "community edition". Although currently Iree, the community edition is limited in Ieatures and does
not have a GPL license. All submitted modiIications and contributions become the property oI Yahoo.
The latest version is Ior Hardy Heron 8.04 LTS and can be downloaded as a .tar.gz Iile Irom the website.
SugarCRM Server
SugarCRM (http://www.sugarcrm.com/crm/) is a commercial customer relationship management (CRM)
platIorm and groupware server (sales, marketing, support, project management, calendaring) system with a
community edition. It supports MySQL and MS SQL databases. For more inIo see SugarCRM Server Setup
(http://www.ubuntugeek.com/install-sugarcrm-community-edition-in-ubuntu-810-server.html) .
SchoolTool
SchoolTool (http://www.schooltool.org/) is a Iree open source groupware solution Ior use in primary and
secondary schools which includes calendaring, gradebooks, attendance records, and student inIormation
databases. It was created with the help oI the Shuttleworth Foundation (which also sponsors Ubuntu). See these
installation instructions (http://book.schooltool.org/htmlhelp/install.html) .
Groupware Clients
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Many groupware solutions have connectors to interIace with clients such as Kontact/KMail and Mozilla
Thunderbird (or SeaMonkey).
Kontact Personal Information Manager
The Kontact Personal InIormation Manager, included in Ubuntu by deIault, interIaces with many groupware
servers (http://kontact.kde.org/groupwareservers.php) .
KDE Groupware Wizard
Kubuntu provides a wizard (script) to help clients (such as Kontact/Kmail) connect to a groupware server.
Currently supported groupware servers are Kolab, eGroupware, SUSE Linux Openexchange, and Novell
Groupwise.
Yahoo!zimbra Desktop in Ubuntu 8.04
Zimbra Desktop is a desktop that collaborates with Zimbra servers. For more inIo see Yahoo!zimbra Desktop
Installation Guide (http://www.ubuntugeek.com/how-to-setup-yahoozimbra-desktop-in-ubuntu-804-hardy.html)
.
Oracle Calendar Desktop Client
The Oracle Calendar Desktop Client
(http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/cs/userinIo/ocalendar/desktopindex.html) is proprietary
calendaring soItware Ior use with Oracle groupware/database systems.
Download Oracle Calendar Desktop Client:
j-r !rrk-rr--unrr-!L-nnnL-L-nr---krL-nr-nuLLnurnj
Extract:
rn vr LLnurnj
Change into the extracted Iiles directory:
OnL-L-nnn-r
Prepare the Iiles:
mv LLnu LLnuok r LLnuok -- --nr nr LLnu nm LLnuok
Change permissions:
!m - jun-rLL-! LLnu
Start the GUI installer:
-u -! jun-rLL-!
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Wiki software
Wiki soItware allows an organization to have a manual that can be edited by a number oI collaborators.
Wikipedia is the best known example.
MediaWiki
MediaWiki (http://www.mediawiki.org) is the Iree, open source server soItware that Wikipedia uses. It is
scalable to very large uses. It runs on the LAMP server stack (which uses the MySQL database and is available
as an installation option with the (K)ubuntu server), or it can be used with a postgreSQL database. Installation
instructions are here (http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Manual:RunningMediaWikionUbuntu) . Also see these
tips. Install (version 1.13) Irom the repositories:
-u rj-r n-rLL m-k
Edit the conIig Iile so it recognizes MediaWiki:
-u nn -rm-k!-nr
Uncomment (remove the #) the line:
L- m-k vnLom-k
Restart apache2:
-u -rnr!-` n--rnr
Run/install MediaWiki by logging into:
!rrLL!-rm-k
You will be prompted Ior conIiguration variables to be set. The trickiest is the MySQL user/password.
HopeIully you remember your MySQL superuser that you set at the time oI LAMP (or MySQL)
installation.
Copy your local settings conIiguration Iile to /etc/mediawiki (and make a backup oI the original):
-u vnLom-knrjL-rrnj-! -rm-k
-u mv vnLom-knrjL-rrnj-! vnLom-knrjL-rrnj-rn-rLL!
Edit your conIiguration variables there:
-u kr- -rm-kL-rrnj-!
II you are using a virtual host server, make a symbolic link (named in this example mvwiki) Irom your
/usr/share/mediawiki installation Iolder to your /var/www Iolder:
-u Ln - u-n-!n-m-k vnmyviri
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then make sure you have an apache2 virtual hosts conIiguration Iile (in /etc/apache2/sites-available) that points to
/var/www/mvwiki as the DocumentRoot. Make a symbolic link Irom your virtual host conIiguration Iile in
/etc/apache2/sites-available to /etc/apache2/sites-enabled to enable it. Restart apache2 aIter enabling the sites.
(Warning: MediaWiki is not secure at installation and can be easily hacked by new users. Do not publish your
wiki to the Internet beIore reading all the instructions and changing the conIiguration Iile (LocalSettings.php) so
that it is more secure.) You would then access the database at:
!rrmyvnruLk!-rnj
ReCaptcha
ReCaptcha (http://recaptcha.net/learnmore.html) is a webservice CAPTCHA
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAPTCHA) module to present a text challenge Ior user-input that is unreadable by
computer bots, lessening the chance oI automated input (spam and vandalism). This can be used Ior wikis and
Ior other uses.
A reCaptcha plugin Ior MediaWiki is available here (http://recaptcha.net/plugins/mediawiki/) (and instructions
are repeated below).
Download and install:
vnLom-k-r-n-n-
-u j-r O unn-nrn-r! !rrn-r!jjL--mrL--n-r!m-k
-u un unn-nrn-r!
-u nm unn-nrn-r!
Sign up Ior a private/public key pair Irom the ReCaptcha (https://admin.recaptcha.net/accounts/login/?
next /recaptcha/createsite/3Fapp3Dmediawiki) website.
Edit the Mediawiki LocalSettings.php Iile (assuming you put it in /etc/mediawiki):
-u nn -rm-kL-rrnj-!
and add the Iollowing lines:
n -r!
n-jun-n- P--r-n-n-n-r!-r!!
jn u rn r!--- r !rrn-r!n-rj-rk-y
n-r!uoLk-y xyxyxyxyxyxyxyxyx
n-r!nvr-k-y -o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-
where xvxvxvxvxvxvxvxvx is the public key obtained in the previous step and
ababababababababa is the private key.
Now ReCaptcha should appear automatically Ior new user sign-ups, anonymous edits that contain new external
links, and brute-Iorce password cracking attempts.
Twiki
Twiki (http://twiki.org) is an open source wiki engine used by many small to medium size companies internally. It
has an active development team with multiple plugins. See the website Ior installation instructions. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL rk
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Moin Moin
Moin Moin (http://moinmo.in/) is Iree, open source (GPL-licensed) wiki soItware written using Python, with a
large community oI users, including the Apache, Debian, and Ubuntu wikis. See these Ubuntu installation
instructions (https://help.ubuntu.com/9.04/serverguide/C/moinmoin.html) . Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL yr!nmnmn
TiddlyWiki
TiddlyWiki (http://www.tiddlywiki.com/) is an open source personal wiki. It is ideal Ior creating a list oI things to
do, note taking, or as a collaboration tool Ior a small team. It is a single HTML Iile that can reside on your
computer or can even be uploaded to a web server and be used as a simple website. It is developed using a
FireIox browser as an interIace. Installation instructions are on the website.
Development
Kompozer Web Development Editor
Kompozer (http://kompozer.net/) is a Gecko-based web authoring system that combines web page editing with
web Iile management in a WYSIWYG manner. I supports XML, CSS, and JavaScript in an XUL architecture.
-u rj-r n-rLL km-n
Quanta Plus (Web IDE)
Quanta Plus (http://quanta.kdewebdev.org/) is an integrated development environment integrated with the KDE
desktop. It allows webpage development, database design, and XML design and scripting, Ior example, using
multiple development tools. The latest stable version is 3.5, however, and integrates with the KDE 3.5
environment (Ubuntu Hardy Heron). You should thereIore use Ubuntu Hardy Heron with this product. (There is
also a commercial version (Quanta Gold), also oriented towards KDE 3).
-u rj-r n-rLL junr kmn- k-Loj -nv-
Netbeans IDE
Netbeans (http://www.netbeans.org/Ieatures/) is a Iree open-source integrated development environment used
to create applications using Ajax, Ruby, pHp, Groovy, Java, Javascript, C, and other scripting tools.
-u rj-r n-rLL n-ro-n-
BlueFish Web Development Editor
BlueFish (http://blueIish.openoIIice.nl/) is a GTK-based (Gnome-oriented) editor to write websites, scripts and
programming code. It supports perl, Python, pHp, CSS, XML, Java, Javascript, C, SQL, and other Iormats.
-u rj-r n-rLL oLu-r-!
Web Publishing
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WordPress
WordPress (http://wordpress.org/) is a popular Iree open source web content manager that started as a blog
tool and now incorporates many publishing elements. For bloggers and small to medium-sized websites,
WordPress provides the Iastest installation and customization process with many modules. WordPress requires
an installation oI a LAMP server stack Iirst. Then install:
-u rj-r n-rLL nn---
Make a symbolic link Irom your Apache2 www Iolder to your installation Iolder and install a new
MySQL database named localhost to use with WordPress:
-u Ln - u-n-!n-nn--- vnnn---
-u o-! u-n-!n-nn----mL----rumy-jL n nn--- l.-ln.:
Note: II you already know the name oI your (virtual) host URL Ior WordPress, then use it as the name oI your
database instead oI localhost. For example, my URL is mvsitex.homeserve.org so my command is:
-u o-! u-n-!n-nn----mL----rumy-jL n nn--- myi:a_xn.maarva.rj
II you will access your WordPress server through a virtual host, then create your virtual host conIiguration
Iile in the /etc/apache2/sites-available Iolder. Once you have edited the Iile, make a symbolic link Irom it
to the /etc/apache2/sites-enabled Iolder. Restart apache2:
-u -rnr!-` n--rnr
Install WordPress through a browser:
http://localhost/wordpress
or, iI you are using a virtual host:
http:/mvsitex.homeserve.org/wordpress
Note: The Jaunty repositories contain version 2.7.1, which is subject to a security worm
(http://wordpress.org/development/) . II you install this version, please update
(http://codex.wordpress.org/UpgradingWordPress) immediately to the current version Irom the Tools -~
Upgrade menu. (Alternatively, install the current source version Irom the website.)
For the automatic updater to work, all the WordPress Iiles, Iolders, and subIolders must be owned by www-
data (which is also the owner oI the apache2 process) prior to updating.
-u !n r u-n-!n-nn---
Drupal (Web content publishing)
Drupal (http://drupal.org/) is a leading open-source package Ior website creation and content collaboration Ior
large-scale websites. A modular approach to website building, Irom simple out-oI-the-box websites to complex
sites, is possible with a short learning curve. Get more inIo on how to get started (http://drupal.org/getting-
started) . Drupal requires an installation oI a LAMP server stack; iI you have not already installed LAMP, it will
be installed along with Drupal 6. I have Iound it easier to use the MySQL (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MySQL)
database (the "M" in LAMP), but Drupal6 can also integrate with PostgreSQL
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postgresql) iI you have it installed. Drupal is available as a package, or Irom the
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command-line terminal:
-u rj-r n-rLL nuL
AIter everything is installed (and the problems below sorted out), restart the apache2 server:
-u -rnr!-` n--rnr
Finish installation through your browser:
!rrLL!-rnuLn-rLL!
You can then also see these tips Ior installation through the browser. A Drupal/Ubuntu users group is Iound at
Drubuntu (http://groups.drupal.org/drubuntu) .
Installation quirks
libgd2-xpm
When I installed my Ubuntu server, it installed libgd2-noxpm (http://packages.ubuntu.com/jaunty/libgd2-noxpm)
. This is a graphics library (without X pixmap (XPM) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XPixMap) or Iont
conIiguration (IontconIig) support). However, Drupal requires libgd2-xpm
(http://packages.ubuntu.com/jaunty/libgd2-xpm) , which is used instead oI libgd2-xpm. Removing libgd2-xpm
doesn't appear to be trivial, however. I could not remove it using Adept or KPackageKit.
However, both apt (Irom the command line) and Synaptic Package Manager appear to remove libgd2-noxpm
successIully, and then libgd2-xpm is correctly installed.
Exim vs. Postfix
Exim (http://www.exim.org/) and PostIix (http://www.postIix.org/) are mail handlers. I had installed PostIix at the
time I installed my Ubuntu server (but was not using it). But Drupal uses Exim and thereIore removes PostIix at
installation and installs Exim instead. ThereIore, it is better not to use Drupal on a mail server that uses PostIix.
1oomla (Web content publishing)
Joomla (http://www.joomla.org/) is a powerIul open source website creation and content management tool that
allows website creation Ior use in every arena Irom the simple to complex corporate environments. InIo Ior
beginners (http://docs.joomla.org/Beginners) is a good place to start.
Scribus (Desktop publishing)
Scribus (http://www.scribus.net/) is an open-source package that provides proIessional-appearing desktop
publishing.
-u rj-r n-rLL -nou-
Plone (Content Management System)
Plone (http://plone.org/) is a Iree, open source (GPL-licensed) multi-platIorm content management system used
by many large organizations around the world. It is available with an integrated installer here
(http://plone.org/products/plone) . Some users have had some diIIiculties in Jaunty, due to changes in Python.
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Science, Technology, and Engineering Applications
What .. you thought Ubuntu was just Ior play?
Health applications
WorldVistA (Enterprise Electronic Health Record)
WorldVistA (http://worldvista.org) is the largest and most robust CCHIT-approved electronic health record
platIorm in the public domain. It is GPL licensed, is based on the US Veterans Administration health record
system, and can be installed as an integrated database, server, and client system on Linux systems. (A Windows
interIace is available Ior networked Windows users.) Download and installation instructions are here
(http://worldvista.org/SoItwareDownload/worldvista-ehr-auto-installers) .
Apache2 is required. It can be installed individually (sudo apt-get install apache2) or as part oI a LAMP
(Linux, Apache2, MySQL5, PHP) installation.
The OpenSSH server is required.
A beta .deb package called Astronaut WorldVistA EHR (Ior clinics) is available here
(http://sourceIorge.net/project/platIormdownload.php?groupid 255113) . See this post
(http://groups.google.com/group/Hardhats/browsethread/thread/288b85582d62184I?hl en) Ior
installation instructions.
Install prerequisites:
-u rj-r n-rLL n-r !-
Obtain and install Astronaut WorldVistA:
j-r !rr-u-no--rL-un-rnj-n-r-un-rnj-nLv-rur-rnnurv--nv-no-r-o
-u kj -rnnurv--nv-no-r-o
Note: It is recommended to install WorldVistA on a dedicated server. Apache and other server settings will be
altered by the installation, which may alter your ability to run other servers on the same machine.
Open incoming port 9260 in your Iirewall. II behind a router, Iorward this port to the computer acting as
the server.
Note: This installation installs the WorldVistA database and server on Ubuntu only. The CPRS user client
Ior WorldVistA is written in Delphi Ior Windows (and works imperIectly in Wine). Most health care
organizations use many Windows-based PC's, however, and the CPRS client is usually installed onto
those PCs (or even onto USB Ilashdrives). These CPRS clients then connect through the network to the
WorldVistA server (located on the Ubuntu Linux-based PC).
(It is also possible to install a virtual machine appliance that integrates a Linux OS-based server, the GT.M
database, and WorldVistA modules on a Windows PC. By installing this "SemiViva" server appliance as well as
the CPRS user client on the same Windows-based PC, a selI-contained EHR can be created. Details on this are
at the WorldVistA website.)
Mathematical solutions
Scilab (http://www.scilab.org/) , Octave, and Freemat are three open source solutions Ior solving complex
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Scilab (http://www.scilab.org/) , Octave, and Freemat are three open source solutions Ior solving complex
mathematical equations.
Octave
Gnu Octave (http://www.gnu.org/soItware/octave/about.html) is a Iree, open source (GPL licensed) platIorm Ior
solving linear and non-linear equations, similar to (and mostly compatible with) Matlab. It interIaces well with
Gnuplot (http://www.gnuplot.inIo/) . For troubleshooting tips, see this thread
(http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?t 1034174) . Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL rv-
Also recommended:
-u rj-r n-rLL LorL-jro-- jnuLr jrrv-
Note: QTOctave (https://Iorja.rediris.es/Irs/?groupid 60&releaseid 299) is a GUI Ior Gnuplot or Easyplot
1.1, and and the ATLAS library is an algebra-soItware-optimization set oI utilities.
EasyPlot 1.1 (http://www.amion.com/ep/eplot.html) is an alternative to GnuPlot, with a version
(https://Iorja.rediris.es/Irs/?groupid 60&releaseid 299) that can be used with QTOctave. It must be installed
Irom source.
An older GUI Ior Octave/Gnuplot is qgIe (http://www.xm1math.net/qgIe/) (available as the package qgIe).
Freemat
Freemat (http://Ireemat.sourceIorge.net/) is a Iree, open source (GPL licensed) platIorm Ior solving linear and
non-linear equations, similar to (and mostly compatible with) Matlab. Install Irom Add/Remove Programs
(Edutainment) or
-u rj-r n-rLL rn--mr
Amateur Radio applications
Fldigi (http://www.w1hkj.com/Fldigi.html) is a Iree, open-source (GPL) application Ior digital-mode amateur
radio communications using a sound card. Enable "Community Maintained SoItware (universe)" in SoItware
Sources; then install either Irom Add/Remove Programs under (Amateur Radio) or by typing
-u rj-r n-rLL rLj
Utilities
Utilities Iacilitate everyday tasks, such as keeping the clock up to date, archiving utilities, and more.
Archiving Utilities
BChunk
BChunk is a command-line utility that allows you to convert .cue and .bin Iiles into an .iso Iile (so that they can
be opened and manipulated in Ubuntu). Warning: If the bin/cue image has audio tracks, they will be lost.
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Get BChunk
-u rj-r n-rLL o!unk
To convert .cue and .bin Iiles, navigate to the Iolder and run this command (replacing Iilenames with your own):
o!unk nurrL-nm-on nurrL-nm-u- ururrL-nm--
AIter the Iile is converted into ISO you can mount it using:
-u munr L ururrL-nm-- m-urur
Navigate to /media/output and you should see all the content there. You can then copy it anywhere.
To unmount:
-u umunr m-urur
H1Split Files 1oiner/Splitter
HJSplit Ior Linux (Java version).
Make sure you have Java Runtime Environment installed:
-u rj-r n-rLL -unvn-
Download the HJSplit JAR Iile:
j-r !rrrn--oyr-mnL!-Lr!-Lrjn
Create the directory Ior HJSplit:
-u mkn r!-Lr
Move the Iile to an appropriate directory:
-u mv !-Lrjn r!-Lr
Run:
r!-Lr ss v n !-Lrjn
Note: You could also make a terminal shortcut (menu item) in K Menu Editor.
Rar
Rar archives Iiles into the proprietary .rar Iormat.
-u rj-r n-rLL nn
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This application is a 40-day trial.
Unrar
Unrar extracts Iiles archived with the proprietary .rar Iormat. This application is Iree Ior noncommercial use. It is
installed with the ubuntu-restricted-extras package. II not, install:
-u rj-r n-rLL unnn
7-Zip
The open-source 7-Zip archive Iormat was originally designed Ior Windows (and DOS) but is also available Ior
Ubuntu. The GNU/Linux version oI 7-Zip does not come with a GUI, but Ark can hook into 7-Zip to handle 7z
archives. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL ruLL
Hard Drive Utilities
KDiskFree (Hard drive properties monitor)
KDiskFree (http://docs.kde.org/stable/en/kdeutils/kdI/using-kdI.html) is a KDE utility Ior monitoring Iree disk
space, etc.
-u rj-r n-rLL kr
Clock Utilties
Screensavers
Partition Managers
GParted Partition Manager
Gparted (http://gparted.sourceIorge.net/) is a GTK (Gnome)-based partition manager that can also be used with
KDE.
This utility works best as a LiveCD. Download the Gparted .ISO image here
(http://sourceIorge.net/project/showIiles.php?groupid 115843&packageid 271779) . Follow these
instructions (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BurningIsoHowto) to burn the .ISO image to CD. Use
the GParted LiveCD as your partition manager.
You can also install the package:
-u rj-r n-rLL jnr-
Network Monitors
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There are two types oI network monitors: those that monitor your own system's network settings and those that
monitor network traIIic. The latter includes security tools that can also be used as hackers tools. While we don't
espouse the latter, it is worthwhile to know about these tools so you are aware oI security risks to your network.
A list oI available tools is at Top Ubuntu Security Tools (http://www.ubuntu-unleashed.com/2008/06/top-
security-tools-in-ubuntu.html) .
Netstat
Netstat (http://www.Iaqs.org/docs/linuxnetwork/x-087-2-iIace.netstat.html) is the Linux command-line tool to
monitor network status and Iunctions. There are many usage parameters. See the manual Ior help.
n-r-rr
Etherape (Network monitoring)
EtherApe (http://etherape.sourceIorge.net/) is a graphical utility that allows you to see (in real-time) where
connections are being made on your network, or between your network (or computer) and the Internet. II you
are experiencing unexpected network activity on your computer or LAN and wish to see where the activity is
occurring, this is an easy tool to use. Both "local" user and "root user" installations are created; in general you
must use the root user installation to see all your network traIIic.
-u rj-r n-rLL -r!-n-
Ubuntu System Administration
Automating Tasks
Tasks (cron events) can be automated/scheduled using a GUI interIace.
System -~ Administration -~ Task Scheduler
Boot Menu
Login Menu settings
You can change the Login menu settings Irom the GUI interIace:
System -~ Administration -~ Advanced -~ Login Manager
You can choose an integrated theme or select individual components oI the login screen/process.
GRUB boot manager settings
II you have multiple operating systems (OS) on your computer, you are likely using a GRUB boot
manager to select which one to start at bootup. You can edit the options Ior GRUB Irom a GUI interIace:
System -~ Administration -~ Advanced -~ GRUB Editor
To edit the settings manually Irom the command line Terminal:
-u nn orjnuom-nuL-r
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An alternative GUI interIace (Ior the KDE desktop) useIul Ior editing GRUB settings is kgrubeditor
(http://sourceIorge.net/projects/kgrubeditor/) :
-u rj-r n-rLL kjnuo-rn
Default Applications
You can choose which program to use as your deIault program Ior a speciIic task.
System -~ Administration -~ DeIault Applications
Kill a process
Sometimes a program (or "process") just Ireezes. To "kill" (or end) the program/process:
System -~ Administration -~ System Monitor -~ highlight the errant process -~ Kill process
From the command-line Terminal, iI you know the name oI the process:
-u kLLLL pr.a
Enabling NUM LOCK On Startup
System -~ Administration -~ Keyboard & Mouse -~ Keyboard -~"turn on Numlock on Startup"
System Backup and Recovery
Rsync
Rsync (http://rsync.samba.org/) is the directory backup and transIer tool Ior Linux. It is installed by deIault in
Ubuntu. It can provide any type oI backup, and options are extensive. Several GUI Irontends Ior Rsync are
listed here (http://www.debianhelp.co.uk/rsyncweb.htm) .
GRsync
GRsync (http://www.opbyte.it/grsync/) is a GTK-based GUI Iront-end Ior Rsync. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL jn-yn
Bacula
Bacula (http://www.bacula.org/) is the most widely-used GTK-based open source (GPL-licensed) network
backup utility that is used in both server and desktop installations. A catalogue oI backups can be maintained
using MySQL, PostgreSQL, or SQLite. For more inIo see the Ubuntu documentation
(http://doc.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/serverguide/C/bacula.html) . Both text-based and GUI Irontends are available.
Install the MySQL version:
-u rj-r n-rLL ouL
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Keep (Backup and Recovery)
Keep (http://jr.Ialleri.Iree.Ir/keep/wiki/Home) is a backup utility that was used in previous versions oI Ubuntu. It
has not been recently updated and is no longer included in Ubuntu by deIault. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL k--
Run:
System -~ Keep (Backup System)
Backup:
Click "Add a Directory to Backup"
Select directories you wish to backup
Select a location to place the backup
Set how oIten you wish the backups to take place, and how long to keep them
Click "Backup Now"
Select the directory groups you wish to backup.
Recover:
Click "Restore a Backup"
Select the directory groups you wish to restore.
Partimage (Partition backup)
Partimage (http://www.partimage.org/) is a Iree open-source utility to back up an entire partition into an .iso
image. It can be used across a network, as well. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL nrmj-
User Administration
1. System -~ Administration -~ User Management -~ Administrator Mode
Add New Users
1. "New" button
2. Change the "Login Name" to the desired username
3. Click the "Passwords and Security" tab
4. Enter the desired password
Modify Users
1. Select the user you wish to modiIy
2. Click the "ModiIy" button
Removing Users
1. Select the user you wish to remove
2. Click the "Delete" button
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Change your user groups
It is quite oIten necessary to have extra privileges to do certain tasks. These privileges are assigned to your user
by belonging to certain groups. The tasks are allowed to be perIormed by any user belonging to the group
associated with that task.
Example. a "sudoer" is a user who can perIorm certain administative tasks, such as updating the system.
To become a "sudoer" a user must belong to the "sudo" group.
Applications menu -~ System -~ User Manager -~ user -~ Groups --~ check sudo
To become an administrator, you must belong to the adm, admin, and sudo groups. To be a virtualbox user, you
must belong to the virtualbox group. To change printer settings you must belong to lpadmin. To use the cdrom,
you must belong to cdrom. To use hot-pluggable devices, you must belong to plugdev. To share Samba Iolders
(on a Windows-based network), you must belong to sambashare. To access NTFS Iiles using the virtual
Iilesystem Iuse, you must belong to the Iuse group. To use many games, you must belong to the games group.
The list is long, and not always obvious.
UnIortunately, while this is the Ieature that gives Linux such a high-level oI security, it can also take diligence to
remember to add your user to certain groups. It is not uncommon Ior programs and Iunctions on your system
not to work merely because you don't have privileges to do so because you Iorgot to add your user to the
appropriate group(s).
OI most importance, you must already be an administrator in order to change membership in groups. ThereIore,
iI you create a new user and intend to give that user administrative privileges (by assigning the user to the
administrative groups), you must do so Irom your original administrator account (the one you set up at
installation) or Irom another administrative user account.
Timekpr (Parental controls)
Timekpr (http://timekpr.blogspot.com/) is a program to track and control the computer usage oI user accounts.
II updating, remove any prior versions:
-u kj unj- rm-kn
Add the timekpr third-party repositories:
-o !rrLun!n-rn-o-njuounru unry mn
-o-n !rrLun!n-rn-o-njuounru unry mn
Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL rm-kn
When prompted which deIault display manager to use, select "gdm"
Start:
System -~ Administration -~ Timekpr Control Panel
Web content filtering
DansGuardian (http://dansguardian.org/) provides web Iiltering capability, similar to NetNanny. It is useIul Ior
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limitng objectionable content in publicly accessible workstations, or Ior Iiltering objectionable content Ior
younger users. It integrates with ClamAV, and uses several criteria Ior Iiltering websites (which is diIIicult to
modiIy). It is used with Tinyproxy (https://www.banu.com/tinyproxy/) (best Ior individual users) or the Squid
(http://www.squid-cache.org/) proxy (best Ior a network server). Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL n-junn rnyny
or
-u rj-r n-rLL n-junn -ju
See these installation instructions (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Servers/DansGuardian) Ior setup details.
In brieI,
Edit the dansguardian conIiguration Iile:
-u nn -rn-junnn-junnnr
comment out the UNCONFIGURED line:
OPG
II using tinyproxy instead oI Squid, change the proxyport to 8888:
nynr ----
Reinstall dansguardian:
-u rj-r n-rLL n-n-rLL n-junn
Set your browser to use the localhost:8080 proxy. For example, in FireIox:
FireIox -~ Edit -~ PreIerences -~ Advanced -~ Network -~ Settings
Manual proxy conIiguration -~ HTTP proxy: localhost -~ Port: 8080
A Webmin module (http://sourceIorge.net/projects/dgwebminmodule) is available to administer settings.
Also, a GUI (http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?t 207008&page 8) to change Dansguardian
settings called Webstrict (http://www.ubuntume.com/webstrict) is in development.
A GUI Ior use with IPCop (http://www.dageek.co.uk/ipcop/addonz/dansgui.htm) (based on the webmin
module) is also available.
Working with Menus
Create an encrypted folder
With Ubuntu, you can create a Iolder whose contents are encrypted. See these instructions
(https://help.ubuntu.com/community/EncryptedPrivateDirectory) .
Printers
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The new CUPS interIace recognizes many printers. SpeciIic printers not recognized can oIten be installed using
instructions Iound at the Linux Foundation OpenPrinting database (http://www.openprinting.org/printerlist.cgi) .
Add a Printer
System -~ Administration -~ Printing -~ New Printer -~ New Printer
Most oI the time, your printer (iI connected and turned on) will be detected automatically.
My network printer with its own IP address at 192.168.0.124 was correctly installed at
socket://192.168.0.124:9100.
You can also choose printers on a Windows system via Samba and other types oI networked printers, in
addition to directly connected printers.
Use CUPS web interface
From any web browser, go to the URL:
http://localhost:631
Create a symlink from a file to another location
Ln - r!r-un- r!r--rnrn
II /path/to/destination require superuser rights, use:
-u Ln - r!r-un- r!r--rnrn
This is similar to, but more powerIul than, creating Shortcuts, with which Iormer Windows users may be Iamiliar.
Assign a root password
To be able to log in as root directly, you must assign a root password. This can be done with:
-u -- nr
AIterwards, you can use
-u
to get a root prompt. You would then use the root password.
Get a root prompt without using a root password
II you have not set a root password (or don't know it), you can obtain root user privileges anyway. From the
command-line Terminal:
-u -
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or
-u -u
or
-u o-!
You will use your own user password instead oI a root password.
You could also get a prompt to become any other user on the computer by typing:
-u -u u--nnm-
Use the File Manager as root
jk-u nurLu-
Manually Mount and Unmount a device
To manually mount a device:
munr -v!
replace /dev/hda with the location oI the device.
To manually unmount a device:
umunr -v!
replace /dev/hda with the location oI the device.
Windows Compatibility
Mounting NTFS Partitions (with read/write privileges)
Find out the name oI your ntIs partition:
-u r-k L
Method 1: In this example, the NTFS drive is listed by Idisk as /dev/sda2, but yours may diIIer.
Make a mount point Ior the drive:
-u mkn m-n-
Edit Istab:
-u nn -rr-ro
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Comment out the automatically added lines by Ubuntu installation:
-v-` ur nu--n,rm-,nur,n,n-v,n--,n-u
-v-` mnr ur u--n,rm-,nur,n,n-v,n--,n-u
and instead add the line:
-v-` mnrn- nrr-j ju-r,-ruLr-,n
Note: There are many ways to mount the drive, depending on your needs. The Istab
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fstab) Iile controls this process. See How to edit and understand Istab
(http://www.tuxIiles.org/linuxhelp/Istab.html) and Intro to using Istab (http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?
t 283131) .
In this example, I indicated that the Iile system was an ntIs-3g Iilesystem, so did not use the auto option (which
detects the Iilesystem automatically). I used rw to speciIy read/write privileges Ior all users, but umask 0 and
umask 000 are accepted by some kernels.
Method 2: Edit Istab:
-u nn -rr-ro
When Ubuntu installation Iinishes, it mounts all ntIs partitions automatically with ntIsprogs, adding a line similar to
the Iollowing to Istab:
P -`-` m-- nrr- -ruLr-,j
Change this line to:
P -`-` m-- nrr-j -ruLr-,nL- urr-,LL- !-,n,j
In this example, I have a Chinese-language Windows installation on my Iirst partition, so I set the locale
parameter (locale zhCN.UTF-8) so that my Chinese documents can display correctly. Setting rw (same as
umask 0 or umask 000) lets me read/write the partition without sudo. gid 46 speciIies that the drive will
belong to the group oI hot-pluggable devices (plugdev) and is not necessary unless your ntIs drive is a hot-
pluggable one (such as an external USB drive). nls utI8 is the deIault and is optional Ior most ntIs users, but
there are other options Ior Chinese (and other specialized character-set users).
Mounting FAT32 Partitions
Follow the above instructions, but use vIat instead oI ntIs-3g.
In other words, iI you have made a mount point directory /mnt/WindowsFAT32 and your FAT32 drive is
/dev/sda3, then edit the /etc/Istab Iile to include the line:
-v- mnrn-` vrr ju-r,-ruLr-,n
Synchronize clock to network time server
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The Network Time Protocol (NTP) allows time synchronization oI your computer to time servers on the
Internet.To enable it:
Applications menu -~ System Settings -~ Date & Time
Check the "Set date and time automatically" option
Choose an ntp time server near you.
Hardware
CPU
Graphics Card
Install nVidia/ATI drivers
1aunty Repository nVidia drivers
Upon initial installation and aIter the Iirst reboot, you may be prompted whether to use the current proprietary
nVidia drivers (Irom the repositories). II you wish to use them, Iollow the prompts. However, unless you have
the prerequisites installed, installation will likely Iail.
Install prerequisites:
-u rj-r n-rLL ouL----nrL Lnu!--n-unm- n
(Optionally,) you can make sure the driver modules are installed:
-u rj-r n-rLL nvjL- nv-mL--- nvk-nn-Lmmn
(You may have to reboot aIter this step).
Return to the new hardware drivers activation screen:
Menu -~ System -~ Hardware Drivers -~ NVIDIA accelerated graphics driver (version 180) -~
Activate
Reboot (as instructed)
Install latest nVidia driver
Install prerequisites:
-u rj-r n-rLL ouL----nrL Lnu!--n-unm- n
The latest 64-bit Linux drivers (185.18.36), supplied directly by Nvidia
(http://www.nvidia.com/object/linuxdisplayamd64185.18.36.html) , can then be installed according to
the instructions in this thread (http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?p 7853897) .
Install Avenard NVidia package
Note: This is a private .deb packaging oI the latest Nvidia drivers. (Note: All private repositories and packages
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not oIIicially sanctioned by Canonical (and/or Debian) can provide an element oI security risk.)
Install prerequisites:
-u rj-r n-rLL ouL----nrL Lnu!--n-unm- n
Add Avenard's repository key (see this thread (http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?
t 1129280&page 2) Ior more inIo):
j-r !rrv-nnnjrL--uounrun--uounrun--k-y ss -u rk-y uounrun--k-y ss nm uounrun--k-y
Add Avenard's repository to your system:
Menu -~ System -~ Synaptic Package Manager -~ Settings -~ Repositories -~ Third party soItware -~
Add
-~ APT line:
-o !rrv-nnnjrL--uounrun-- unry n-L---
-~ Add source
-~ Reload -~ Mark All upgrades -~ Apply
Make sure the packages are installed:
-u rj-r n-rLL nvjL- nv-mL--- nvk-nn-Lmmn
(You may have to reboot aIter this step).
Activate the new hardware drivers:
Menu -~ System -~ Hardware Drivers -~ NVIDIA accelerated graphics driver (version 180) -~
Activate
Reboot (as instructed)
nVidia Driver Legacy instructions
Here are alternate instructions Ior Intrepid, which should no longer be needed in Jaunty, but are included
Ior reIerence.
II you have problems with nVidia drivers aIter upgrading, check this UbuntuGeek guide
(http://www.ubuntugeek.com/common-problems-and-solutions-Ior-nvidia-restricted-drivers-aIter-ubuntu-810-
intrepid-ibex-upgrade.html) Ior solutions to common problems with nVidia.
Here are alternate manual instructions.
Please make a backup oI xorg.conI beIore Iollowing this method.
-u -rnjnr -rnjnrok
Install the nvidia-settings package:
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-u rj-r n-rLL nv--rrnj-
Download the nVidia driver:
j-r O VPPnu-kjnun !rrnvmnLn--Lnj -nu-
-u -! VPPnu-kjnun
and choose yes to any verbose response. AIter you install the driver, reboot your computer.
xorg.conf for nvidia
-rn n--n
P-nrr-n -ruLr n--n
-v- nrjun- V- -v-
nrn nrjun- nrn
uo-rn -Ly
-r!
-- `-` `-
Orn GGV-uL- nu-
nuo-rn
Orn GGV-uL- nu-
-ruLr-r! `
n-rn
-rn uL-
jL
Gn-
vL
n-rn
-rn -v-
P-nrr-n nrjun- V- -v-
nnm- v--
u- -P
nv-n nv
n--n
n-rn

-rn -v-
P-nrr-n -v-
nm- G-n-n G-rn-
nv-n nv
V-nnnm- VPP nnrn
Orn uL|-
Orn !
Orn -L-
Orn nV- nu-
Orn nV-On-nrrn j!rOr
Orn --n-j- nu-
Orn -rm-- `-,`-
Orn ---Ly-v- -
n-rn

-rn -v-
P-nrr-n V-n
nv-n nv
V-nnm- VPP nnrn
nm- G-n- G
n-rn

-rn Pnur-v-
P-nrr-n G-n-n -yon
nv-n ko
Orn kouL-- nj
Orn ko-L
Orn koyur u-
n-rn
-rn Pnur-v-
P-nrr-n nrjun- u--
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nv-n mu--
n-rn
-rn -nv-nyur
P-nrr-n -ruLr yur
-n--n -ruLr n--n
n-rn

-rn r-n-n-
Orn m-r- noL-
n-rn
Resolution changes
II your resolution keeps changing, use the KRAndRTray Screen Size and Rotate utility to change your settings:
K menu -~ System -~ KRAndRTray Screen Size and Rotate
AIter changing to your desired resolution, it will run in the Panel bar and maintain your resolution aIter rebooting.
KDE 4 Keeps Flickering on Intel graphics cards
II you have an Intel Corporation Mobile 915GM/GMS/910GML card, your screen may Ilicker every 5-10
seconds. To prevent this:
K Menu -~ Applications --~ System --~ System Settings -~ Advanced -~ Service Manager
Uncheck "Detect RANDR (monitor) changes"
Intel graphics
The new Intel graphics drivers have bugs in them and do not work reliably in (K)Ubuntu Jaunty. See this Iorum
post (http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?t 1130582) Ior solutions.
Fix Intel 915 resolution problem
-u rj-r n-rLL n--Lurn
Screen Keeps Flickering
II you have an Intel Corporation Mobile 915GM/GMS/910GML card, your screen may Ilicker every 5-10
seconds. To prevent this:
System -~ Administration -~ Advanced -~ Service Manager
Uncheck "Detect RANDR (monitor) changes"
ATI Driver
II you have problems with ATI drivers aIter upgrading, check this link
(http://wiki.cchtml.com/index.php/UbuntuJauntyInstallationGuide) Ior solutions to common problems with
ATI.
Reconfigure xserver-xorg
-u kjn-nrjun- --nv-nnj
xorg.conf
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BeIore installing any driver Ior ATI or nvidia, please make backup xorg.conI beIore Iollowing this method.
-u -rnjnr -rnjnrok
II you have edited this Iile but would like it to be automatically updated again, run the Iollowing command:
-u kjn-nrjun- !j! --nv-nnj
II you want to try this xorg.conI aIter installing the driver, you must back up your xorg.conI as Iollowing. And
then, edit /etc/X11/xorg.conI in text editor. Add or modify this xorg.conI sample.
Monitors / Displays
Turn off power saving
Even when on AC power, the power saver Ieature oI Ubuntu sometimes changes the screen brightness to the
battery setting on laptops. This was a problem with the ACPI power management module in the past, but should
now be Iixed. II not, change the settings:
To access the Guidance Power Manager module, click on the power icon on the desktop taskbar.
Change the brightness setting Ior "Battery powered" to maximum.
You can also turn oII power management settings (invoked when the computer is idle):
System -~ Administration -~ Display -~ Power Control -~ uncheck "Enable display power management"
Configure Dual Monitors with nVidia
Make sure that the nVidia driver has been installed and is Iunctioning properly on your Iirst screen. Also,
make sure both monitors are connected.
Open the command-line terminal Konsole and type:
-u nv--rrnj-
Select "X Server Display ConIiguration".
You should see 3 boxes (2 iI your card doesn't have an S-Video out). From here you can
conIigure all oI your card's outputs.
Check the "(Disabled)" box.
Select "ConIigure...".
The most common choice is TwinView. Select it.
Setup the desired screen resolutions and positions oI your two active displays.
The new display will likely have resolution set to "Auto" to match your Iirst. Change this iI
you wish.
Leave the Iirst screen's position as "Absolute" and set your second display's position relative
to that.
"Clone" means the same output on both.
Once you are satisIied with your settings, hit Apply to test them.
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Note: iI your displays are side-by-side, the kicker may extend across both screens as well
as any maximized applications. This will be corrected when the X server is restarted.
II everything else is ok, hit "Save to X ConIiguration File". Now hit CtrlAltBackspace to
restart X. You now have 2 screens!
(The NVIDIA X Server Settings application can be also Iound in K -~ System Settings to change settings
later, but this does not always work because settings need to be changed as the root user.)
Troubleshooting: iI the X server Iails to reload you can recover your old X conIiguration. In a terminal:
-u -rnjnroku -rnjnr
Hard Drives and USB Storage
Optical Drives
Printers & Scanners
The new CUPS interIace recognizes many printers. SpeciIic printers not recognized can oIten be installed using
instructions Iound at the Linux Foundation OpenPrinting database (http://www.openprinting.org/printerlist.cgi) .
Hewlett Packard printers & scanners
For Hewlett Packard printers / scanners, install hplip and hplip-gui:
-u rj-r n-rLL !L !Lju
Add the printer (and scanners):
Menu -~ Applications -~ System -~ HP Toolbox
For scanning, ensure sane is installed.
-u rj-r n-rLL -n- -n-
Run:
Menu -~ Applications -~ Graphics -~ Xsane image scanning
Brother printers
Most Brother printers are auto-detected or can be installed directly Irom the CUPS interIace. For inIormation
on a speciIic model, see the Linux OpenPrinting site (http://www.openprinting.org/printerlist.cgi?
make Brother) .
Get Xsane to recognize a network printer/scanner
From the command-line Terminal:
-n- !n-r-nnr-nnm- nnr-n
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II this is successIul you can edit the menu with the same command line parameter.
Sound
Many programs require ALSA sound. II you are not hearing sound, try selecting ALSA as the deIault sound
system:
System -~ Administration -~ System Settings -~ Sound
In Jaunty, only your soundcard may be listed. Try selecting that.
Also check your program's preIerences section to make sure ALSA is selected. This is necessary Ior many
multimedia packages, Ior example.
Pulse Audio
Jaunty has Pulse Audio version 0.9.14 and Pulse Audio Volume control 0.97 in the repositories. On my system
I had to install them:
-u rj-r n-rLL uL--u vunrnL -v!--n
I then had to enable my user to belong to the pulseaudio groups:
System -~ User Manager -~ user -~ Groups -~
check pulse pulse-access and pulse-rt
ConIigure Pulse Audio:
System -~ Settings -~ PulseAudio PreIerences Sound Audio preIerences
I also had to set PulseAudio as my deIault sound system:
System -~ System Settings -~ Multimedia -~ Device PreIerence
Note: UnIortunately, not all programs like PulseAudio. Many programs require special plugins Ior
PulseAudio. YMMV. Pulse Audio still has many bugs. Installing PulseAudio disables ALSA Ior
many soundcards. You may end up with no sound at all iI you install PulseAudio. II this happens
you may have to uninstall it.
Airport Express
Airport Express with Pulse Audio
The Airport Express (AEX) is a network device with an audio output jack that can be connected to speakers or
an ampliIier. You can stream audio over the network (wired or wirelessly) to (or Irom) this device.
These capabilities require the newest version 0.9.15 oI Pulse Audio and Pulse Audio Volume Control 0.98, as
well as pulseaudio-module-raop (Ior Airport Express). Instead oI (or aIter) installing the deIault 0.9.14
packages Irom the Jaunty repositories, obtain them by adding the repositories Irom this Launchpad site
(https://launchpad.net/~themuso/archive/ppa) :
-o !rrLun!n-rr!-mu-uounru unry mn
-o-n !rrLun!n-rr!-mu-uounru unry mn
then download the GPG key here (http://keyserver.ubuntu.com:11371/pks/lookup?
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op get&search 0x0B47F0A6B88A1AA8)
and save it as themuso.gpg.
then install the repository key and update:
-u rk-y r!-mu-jj
-u rj-r ur-
then install:
-u rj-r n-rLL uL--u -v!--n uL--umuL-n uL--umuL--nnr
Then conIigure Pulse Audio:
Menu -~ Settings -~ PulseAudio PreIerences Sound Audio preIerences -~ Network Access
and check both:
Make discoverable network sound devices available locally
Make discoverable Apple Airtunes devices available locally
Note: Make sure your Iirewall is not blocking ports 5353, 5000, and 6000.
My AEX is discovered, but I got no sound through it until I selected it as the deIault sink (output) by one oI two
methods:
From the PulseAudio Volume Control:
Menu -~ Multimedia -~ PulseAudio Volume Control -~ Output Devices
then click the arrow and set the AEX device as deIault
From the PulseAudio Device Chooser:
Menu -~ Multimedia -~ PulseAudio Device Chooser -~ Manager -~ Devices -~ Sinks
I then noted the name oI my Airport Express device to be raop.Base-Station-e60157.local, so I
entered that as the sink:
PulseAudio Device Chooser -~ DeIault sink -~ Other -~ raop.Base-Station-e60157.local
Now, any devices (or multimedia players) setup to play through PulseAudio will play through the stereo attached
to the Airport Express.
GSTransmit
GSTransmit (http://www.el-tunes.com/) is a tool to allow GStreamer-based utilities to stream output to an Apple
AirTunes Device (such as the Airport Express), without using Pulse Audio. It is available as a selI-installing .deb
Iile Irom the website.
raop-client
Another method to stream audio to the Airport Express without Pulse Audio uses raop-client, a tool written in
Ruby. See inIormation here (http://mriou.wordpress.com/) .
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Airfoil
You can stream media Irom a PC running Windows or Mac OS X that is connected to an Airport Express
network to your Ubuntu Linux desktop, using AirIoil (http://www.rogueamoeba.com/airIoil/) . (UnIortunately
you cannot send media output Irom Ubuntu to the Airport Express network, only receive Irom it.) This can be
useIul in a distributed multimedia system, Ior example, in which your Ubuntu PC is connected to a media center.
You must be running Mono. You can download the .deb package at Rogue Amoeba
(http://www.rogueamoeba.com/airIoil/linux/speakers.php) . Installation instructions are at Rogue Amoeba Linux
support (http://getsatisIaction.com/rogueamoeba/topics/airIoilcantconnecttolinuxairIoilspeakers) .
Mice
Activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox
Adding two lines to xorg.conI will activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox.
This should work with most brands oI the 5-button mouse. Here is a list oI mice that worked with this
instruction.
Logitech MX310
Logitech MX510
Logitech MX518
Logitech MX700
Logitech MX Revolution
Intellimouse Explorer (Iirst edition)
Razer Copperhead
Backup X.org conIiguration Iile
-u -rnjnr -rnjnrok
ModiIy the X.org conIiguration Iile
k--u kr- -rnjnr
Find the Input Device section Ior your mouse and add two lines as shown below.
You may also increase the number oI buttons iI your mouse has more than 7 -- just Iix the
rest oI the section based upon the number oI buttons.
Note: "back/Iorward", "wheel click" & "tilt leIt/right" all count as buttons
Change:
-rn Pnur-v-
P-nrr-n nrjun- u--
nv-n mu--
Orn n--nr-n
Orn -v- -vnurm-
Orn -nrL Ln-n-`
Orn -nj
Orn muLr-urrn- rnu-
n-rn
to:
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-rn Pnur-v-
P-nrr-n nrjun- u--
nv-n mu--
Orn n--nr-n
Orn -v- -vnurm-
Orn -nrL Ln-n-`
Orn -nj
Orn muLr-urrn- rnu-
Orn urrn-
Orn urrnnj `
n-rn
Touchpad
For Synaptics Touchpads:
-u rj-r n-rLL j-ynr-
For more inIo, see the Ubuntu help wiki (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/SynapticsTouchpad) .
Wacom Pen Tablets
Support Ior the Wacom pen tablet is integrated into Jaunty by deIault, including Ior hotplugging. For more inIo,
see the Ubuntu documentation (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Wacom) .
Remote Controls
LIRC (Infrared Remote Controls)
LIRC (http://www.lirc.org/) (Linux InIrared Control) allows you to use most inIra-red remote controls
(http://lirc.sourceIorge.net/remotes/) . This can be installed Irom Applications -~ Add/Remove Packages -~
Settings -~ InIrared Remote Control
or
-u rj-r n-rLL Ln
Bluetooth
BlueZ (http://www.bluez.org/) is the package that allows Bluetooth connectivity in Ubuntu Linux. This package
is included within the current kernel oI Ubuntu. To add utilities to check whether your Bluetooth adapter's
Iirmware is current, install:
-u rj-r n-rLL oLu-urL- oLu-rnmn-
then run
-u rurL
WiiMote
The Wiimote (Wii Remote Control) uses both Bluetooth and InIra-red technology. It communicates with Ubuntu
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Linux using the incorporated BlueZ Bluetooth drivers and/or LIRC drivers. (It can Iunction with Bluetooth alone,
however.) You will need a Bluetooth receiver on your PC (such as a Bluetooth USB stick or built-in Bluetooth
receiver, Ior example). (Note: not all Bluetooth receivers will work with the Bluez drivers. Check this list
(http://www.wiili.org/index.php/CompatibleBluetoothDevices) or test yours Iirst.)
Install the cwiid (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CWiiD) Wiimote controller package and the lswm
Wiimote discovery package:
-u rj-r n-rLL mnur L-m
Install the drivers (or just reboot):
mno- unur
Note: You can also add uinput to the modules Iiles so it loads automatically at bootup:
-u -! unur -rmuL--
Run (while pressing button 1/2 on the Wiimote):
-u mnur
For more inIo, and to learn how to enable the inIra-red Iunctions, see this guide
(http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?t 993376) .
USB
Video Capture
DVC 100
The Pinnacle Dazzle DVC 100 is an inexpensive digital converter that records any video input and outputs it to
your USB port. You can capture the resulting video stream using VLC (or other stream capture soItware). The
drivers Ior the dvc100 are included in the Linux kernel used Ior Jaunty. For older kernels, see this Ubuntu
Iorums thread (http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?t 1101788) . The DVD100 uses OSS sound.
Capture video using mencoder
See this link (http://dougsland.livejournal.com/70990.html) .
Wireless Cards
Atheros Cards
Atheros Wireless cards should work automatically with the new kernel by installing the proprietary driver. At
installation, aIter the Iirst reboot, you will be prompted whether to use the proprietary drivers.
It should no longer be necessary to install the Iollowing package:
-u rj-r n-rLL mrrL-
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These instructions Ior the Atheros 802.11 b/g integrated card are here Ior reIerence only (or iI you wish to install
them manually instead):
Download the latest 'snapshot' driver Irom MadwiIi (http://snapshots.madwiIi-project.org/) . When I was
doing it, the version was:
mr!Lunn-nrrnj
Extract the Iiles
Make sure your linux headers and build-essential packages are installed:
-u rj-r n-rLL ouL----nrL
-u rj-r n-rLL Lnu!--n-unm- n
Unload any drivers already running.
-u rnrj r! n
-u rnrj r n
Change to the directory where you extracted the driver.
n-rny!-n-nv-nun-
From that directory, run the installation scripts:
-nr-
-u mrunL
-u rnmrmuL---! unm- n

Complete the installation by compiling the source and installing it.
-u mk-
-u mk- n-rLL
Add the installed drivers to your system.
-u mno- r!
Following this, Network Manager was able to see the wireless card and I was able to conIigure everything else
(WEP / WPA key, etc.) Irom there.
Complete instructions are available at MadWiIi UserDocs (http://madwiIi-
project.org/wiki/UserDocs/FirstTimeHowTo) .
Atheros AR242x
Alternate instructions Ior installing the Atheros AR242x card are here (http://madberry.org/2008/11/how-to-get-
atheros-ar242x-to-work-on-810-intrepid-ibex/) .
3G
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3G protocols (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3G) allow wide area cellular communications that include not only
cellphone voice transmission but also integrated broadband internet connections. This can be integrated into a
single device, or communications can be received through an EVDO adapter. Examples oI 3G radio interIaces
include Mobile WiMax, CDMA-2000, TD-CDMA, EDGE, and DECT. For inIo using 3G with the Ubuntu
Network Manager, see this page (https://wiki.ubuntu.com/NetworkManager/Hardware/3G) . For additional inIo
on using 3G with Ubuntu, see this guide (https://wiki.ubuntu.com/NetworkManager/Hardware/3G/Probing) .
he220r1
he220r1 (http://huaweie220.blogspot.com/) is a (K)ubuntu driver package Ior the Huawei e220 USB modem. It
has also been Iound to work with other 3G devices, such as Nokia, Sony Ericsson, and Motorola. See the
website Ior download and installation instructions.
T-Mobile Option 225 (Web'N'Walk) Stick
This website (http://www.relst.nl/site/index.php/handleidingen/200-make-your-t-mobile-web-n-walk-stick-
option-225-work-with-ubuntu.html) oIIers a driver optimised Ior the T-Mobile Web'n'Walk Stick/Option 225.
Virgin Huawei e169
See this Ubuntu Iorum solution (http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?t 1014221) :
-u j-r -rrn-
Iind the line that says:
!
and uncomment it (delete #)
!
this (I think) disables CHAP authentication
I also had to change the APN to VirginBroadband instead oI VirginInternet which was the deIault, and now it's
happy.
Or!-n --rrnj-
umo-n
nm- yun vnjn u--nnm-
- yun vnjn --n
EVDO Cards
EVDO cards include USB modems and adapters to receive wide-area cellular broadband Internet connections.
Sprint
Sprint EVDO cards can be used most easily through KPPP. For instructions, read the Sprint Mobile
Broadband Setup Guide
(http://www4.sprint.com/pcsbusiness/downloads/SprintMobileBroadbandSetupGuide.pdI) . Also see the
EVDO Forums (http://www.evdoIorums.com/thread5925.html) .
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Verizon
See this Crystal Networking guide (http://www.crystalnetworking.net/?p 17) .
Tethering your PC to your Verizon cell phone
This is a per-minute plan in which you can use Verizon broadband services through your cell phone (such as the
Motorola RAZR) connected to your PC via a USB cable. See this guide (http://www.aselabs.com/articles.php?
id 224) .
Digital Cameras
WebCams
See the Ubuntu webcam guide (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Webcam) Ior more inIo. Many webcams
that worked in Hardy Heron may not work in Intrepid Ibex. This may be due to a migration Irom v4l (video Ior
Linux) to v4l2. See this discussion (http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?t 983574) .
EasyCam
EasyCam2 (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/EasyCam) is a utility Ior Iinding and installing drivers Ior your
webcam. See these installation instructions (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/EasyCam) .
iSight
Linux drivers Ior the digital iSight camera (connected by FireWire), using ALSA Ior sound, are here
(http://sourceIorge.net/projects/lisight/) . The video component is already supported by current kernels (see here
(http://lisight.sourceIorge.net/) Ior more inIormation).
Luvcview (USB webcam viewer)
Luvcview can be used to view your USB webcam to test it. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL Luvv-
View your webcam:
Luvv- r yuv
Logitech Webcams
Logitech Notebook Deluxe Webcam
The audio Irom this webcam does not work with Linux (although the video does) and there is no Iix. Do not
purchase this webcam. Other Logitech webcams are supported in Linux, but not this one.
Netbooks
Ubuntu can be installed on netbooks. (See this this page Ior laptop and netbook compatibility reviews
(https://wiki.ubuntu.com/LaptopTestingTeam) .) At this time the Ubuntu Netbook Remix (or equivalent) is
preIerred to the standard Gnome-based desktop, especially Ior new users. Ubuntu Netbook Remix
(https://wiki.ubuntu.com/UNR) is provided to several individual netbook manuIacturers (such as Asus and Acer)
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to be optimised Ior that device. (You can contact your speciIic netbook manuIacturer Ior speciIic details on this
product.) II you already have Ubuntu Netbook Remix (or eeebuntu Netbook Remix) installed, you can choose
to add the Iull Ubuntu (Gnome) desktop, iI you wish:
-u rj-r n-rLL uounru--kr
Asus eeePC 1000H
Reduce Iont size one or two sizes, and set the screen DPI to 120.
eeebuntu Netbook Remix (http://www.eeebuntu.org/index.php?page nbr) is available Ior
this device.
Dell Mini 9
Ubuntu Netbook Remix runs on this device well. See this guide
(http://www.ubuntumini.com/2008/10/ubuntu-810-intrepid-ibex-on-dell-mini-9.html) .
HP Mini 1000 Mi
A custom edition oI Ubuntu is installed on this version oI this device
(http://www.hp.com/united-states/campaigns/mini1000/hpmini1000mie.html) . No
additional conIiguration is necessary.
Another method is to install Ubuntu onto your netbook Irom scratch using a USB Ilashdrive LiveCD.
Acer Aspire One
There are several Ubuntu-based and other Linux-based OS's specially customised Ior the Acer Aspire One.
Some oI them are:
DebianAcerOne (http://wiki.debian.org/DebianAcerOne)
Kuki Linux (http://www.kuki.me/)
Linux4One (http://www.linux4one.it/)
Lord-Linux (http://ubuntuaceraspireone.nireblog.com/post/2009/04/21/lord-linux-stable-rev2-acer-
aspire-one)
eeebuntu Netbook Remix (http://www.eeebuntu.org/index.php?page nbr) is available Ior this device as
well. See this article
(http://osnews.com/story/20743/Eeebuntu20SDCardInstallationontheAspireOne) Ior the
necessary tweaks.
Also see the Ubuntu website (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/AspireOne) Ior detailed tweaks and Iixes.
More useIul inIormation can be Iound in the Ubuntu Linux sub-Iorum
(http://www.aspireoneuser.com/Iorum/viewIorum.php?I 28) at aspireoneuser.com
Palm
Other
Mobile Devices
Ubuntu Linux oIIers an operating system Ior Mobile Devices (such as the Samsung Q1 Ultra or Elektrobit
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MIMD) with a unique and simpliIied interIace. For more inIormation see the Ubuntu MID Edition
(http://www.ubuntu.com/products/mobile) site.
GPS
Tux Mobil (http://tuxmobil.org/linuxgpsnavigationapplications.html) has a list oI Linux applications Ior use
with GPS devices, and compatible hardware. Two GPS packages are available Irom the Ubuntu/Kubuntu
respositories:
Viking (http://viking.sourceIorge.net/mediawiki/index.php/MainPage) is a Iree open source package to
view GPS data in maps, and to plot co-ordinates. This has been reviewed
(http://www.Isckin.com/2008/04/06/review-Iour-linux-gps-packages/) as the best Linux GPS mapping
program.
-u rj-r n-rLL vknj
GPS Drive (http://www.gpsdrive.de/) is a Iree navigation soItware package that displays your position on
a zoomable map using your GPS device. It is GTK-based but can be used in Kubuntu. It uses the gpsd
(http://gpsd.berlios.de/) daemon that interIaces with a variety oI GPS hardware
(http://gpsd.berlios.de/hardware.html) . A .deb package (http://www.gpsdrive.de/download.shtml) oI the
current version is also available Irom the website. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL j-nv-
tangoGPS (http://www.tangogps.org) is a beautiIul, lightweight GPS mapping program that uses map data
Irom the Openstreetmap (http://www.openstreetmap.org/) project. Is is a GPL-licensed open source
project. A .deb package can be Iound here (http://www.tangogps.org/gps/cat/Download) .
Networking
Network Manager
Network Manager (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NetworkManager) is the deIault network manager in Ubuntu. It
has a tray applet that allows you to switch between Internet connections (such as wireless APs or wired
connection).
Wicd Network Manager
Wicd (http://wicd.sourceIorge.net/) is a GTK-dependent networking manager written in Python that can be used
in all variants oI Ubuntu. Some users report it to be Iaster and more stable than Network Manager. To avoid
networking conIlicts, Wicd requires the removal oI Network Manager prior to installation.
-u rj-r n-rLL
Set a static IP address
I couldn't get Network Manager to accept my static IP address settings manually. Here's the alternative method:
Edit the /etc/network/interIaces Iile:
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-u j-r -rn-rnknr-nr--
and replace the line
r- -r! n-r !
with the Iollowing lines (using your own LAN settings, oI course):
r- -r! n-r -rr
n--- `-
n-rm-k ```
n-rnk `-
on-r `-`
jr-y `-
Then restart networking:
-u -rnrn-rnknj n--rnr
Check to see iI your settings are now correct:
rnrj
Wireless
Network Manager
Network Manager has been redesigned Ior Ubuntu and now works quite well. You should not require other
network managers, and, in Iact, more than one network manager can cause conIlicts.
It can be accessed Irom the tray icon.
Manual configuration from the command-line
3 steps Ior WEP:
-u nrj -r! --- P
-u nrj -r! k-y n--rnr- --O
-u !L-nr
WPA is more complicated:
-u
mkn -r-uLnr
-r-uLnr
-! n-rnk , -uLnrnr
-! -- P -uLnrnr
-! k-ymjmr -- -uLnrnr
-! -k -| -uLnrnr
-! , -uLnrnr
-rn-rnk
vm nr-nr--
Now add aIter "auto eth|N| ..." & "iIace eth|N| .." (press 'i'):
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nv-n -r n !r-v-n nv-n yun n-rnk n n---
nr -r-uLnr-uLnrnr
Save the Iile ('Esc', ':x', 'Enter') and restart your system.
Internet connection sharing (DHCP server)
In most LANs, an inexpensive router is used to provide DHCP
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DynamicHostConIigurationProtocol) Iunctions (internet connection sharing).
However, DHCP services can also be provided by a single host computer on your LAN
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Localareanetwork) iI it is directly connected to the Internet. (This is useIul, Ior
instance, iI you have a 3G or other wireless EVDO connection to your computer which you want to share with
the other computers on your LAN). Other client computers on your LAN would then connect to the Internet
through your host computer's Internet connection. The host computer now essentially perIorms the DHCP
Iunctions oI a router.
All "client" computers on the LAN ought to be connected to a central LAN switch or router. (II using a router, it
should have its own DHCP Iunctions disabled -- you shouldn't have 2 DHCP servers on a LAN unless you
know how to nest LANs). They should all be set up to obtain DHCP-assigned dynamic IP addresses and use
the same LAN subnet settings (which in the example below is LAN IP range 10.0.0.1 - 10.0.0.250 with
netmask 255.255.255.0 and gateway 10.0.0.1). The host computer to be used as the gateway/DHCP server is
then connected (through its own ethernet port) either to one to the ports oI the switch (iI used), or to a LAN
port oI a router (don't use the WAN port). The host computer then connects directly to the Internet (WAN
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wideareanetwork) ) through a second port (which in the example below will be
a wireless (wiIi) port (wlan0)).
(Note: This setup is easiest iI you connect all computers on the LAN with Ethernet cables to the central switch
or router. But also see using a nested wireless LAN router below.)
(Note: II you want your LAN to use the same subnet as your WAN, see network interIace bridging.)
Install the DHCP server and Iirewall programs:
-u rj-r n-rLL !--nv-n rn--rnr-n
Rename the startup command (through a symbolic link) Ior the DHCP server. This is required or
Firestarter will not know where to Iind it:
-u Ln -r -rnr!--nv-n -rnr!
Edit the DHCP server conIiguration Iile:
-u nn -r-ruLr!--nv-n
Change the line
P
to
P -r!
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Restart the DHCP server:
-u ! n--rnr
Right click on Network-Manager -~ Edit Connections... -~ Wired -~ Add
-~ Connection name: Shared internet connection
-~ IPv4 Settings -~ Method: Manual -~ Add
-~ Address: 10.0.0.1 -~ Netmask: 255.255.255.0 -~ Gateway: 0.0.0.0
-~ Available to all users: |x|
Attach the ethernet cable to (eth0).
Network-Manager -~ Wired Networks -~ Shared internet connection
Adjust your Iirewall to allow the internet connection sharing. Start Firestarter:
-u rn--rnr-n
Tell the Iirewall which port is your direct Internet Connection:
Firestarter -~ PreIerences -~ Firewall -~ Network Settings -~ Internet connected network device: (wlan0)
-~ IP address is assigned by DHCP: |x|
Tell the Iirewall which port is Ior the LAN, and speciIy the details Ior the LAN:
Firestarter -~ PreIerences -~ Firewall -~ Network Settings -~ Local network connected device: (eth0)
-~ Enable internet connection sharing: |x|
-~ Enable DHCP Ior the local network: |x|
-~ DHCP server details -~ Create new DHCP conIiguration -~ Lowest IP address to assign:
10.0.0.2
-~ Highest IP address to assign: 10.0.0.250 -~ Name server: dynamic~
Note: Use your own desired LAN settings (internal DHCP-assigned dynamic IP
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/StaticIP#StaticanddynamicIPaddresses) address range), oI course. In
this example I don't use the Iull IP range 10.0.0.2 - 10.0.0.255 Ior dynamic IP addresses because I want
to reserve some LAN addresses (10.0.0.251 - 10.0.0.255) to be used as static IP addresses).
Notes:
II you wish to use this setup all the time, make the "Shared internet connection" proIile your
deIault connection proIile in Network Manager.
Using a nested wireless LAN router
Many users will already have an established LAN that uses an existing wireless router and has client computers
that are setup to connect wirelessly to the router. Here's how to maintain this setup and still use the internet
connection sharing method oI a single host computer as described above. This method is known as nested
LANs. The wireless router will serve as a nested LAN Ior its wireless clients (only), but in turn will appear as a
single device to the main LAN. The two LANs must have diIIerent IP ranges. For example, the main LAN may
have an IP range 10.0.0.1 - 10.0.0.255 (with netmask 255.255.255.0), as in the above example. The router's
nested wireless LAN must then use a diIIerent IP range (Ior example 192.168.0.1 - 192.168.0.255 with
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netmask 255.255.255.0).
Do not use your wireless router's WAN (Internet) port.
Connect the host computer (to be used as your main LAN gateway/router) to a LAN port (not the
WAN/Internet port) oI the wireless LAN router.
ConIigure your wireless router's LAN so that it appears to be a single device to the main LAN:
Setup your wireless router so that the Internet Connection type is "Static IP" (oIten in the "Internet
Setup" section). ConIigure the settings so that its "Internet IP address" is within the static IP
address range oI your main LAN (e.g. 10.0.0.254), and make sure the subnet mask matches the
one you chose Ior your main LAN (e.g. 255.255.255.0). The gateway setting should be set to
match the IP address oI your host computer oI the main LAN (e.g. 10.0.0.1 in the example oI the
preceding section). Now the wireless router will appear to the host computer as just another
device on the main LAN.
II your wireless LAN is already Iunctioning, you probably don't have to change any settings, but
double-check to make sure the schema are compatible. ConIigure the wireless router's settings Ior
the nested wireless LAN. This is done by enabling the router's DHCP server Iunctions (in
"Network Setup" or some similar conIiguration section oI the router). The router ought to have as
its own wireless LAN gateway address a "local IP address" (or "LAN IP address") oI
192.168.0.1 (Ior the IP address range used in this example), and a "starting IP address" (Ior the
DHCP-assigned dynamic IP address range to be used Ior the wireless clients) to be 192.168.0.2
or greater. (Some routers ask you to speciIy the entire range (such as 192.168.0.2 -
192.168.0.255.)
Make sure all your wireless client computers are set to obtain their DHCP-assigned dynamic IP
addresses Irom the wireless router (gateway IP 192.168.0.1) instead oI Irom the main LAN gateway.
Now all communications Irom the wireless client computers will be routed to the wireless LAN router
Iirst, which will then in turn route them to the host computer (which is acting as the main LAN
gateway/router), which will then in turn route them to the Internet (WAN).
Note: The host computer Ior the main LAN must have a static IP address (e.g. 10.0.0.1 as in the
example oI the preceding section) and it must match the gateway IP address conIigured in the wireless
LAN router settings.
Network Interfaces Bridging
Install bridge-utils to be able to create network bridges:
-u rj-r n-rLL onj-urL-
Edit /etc/network/interIaces:
-u nn -rn-rnknr-nr--
The interIaces Iile should look like this aIter editing it:
ur -r!
r- -r! n-r mnuL

ur on
r- on n-r !

onj-nr- -r! Ln

!- Lok n-rnk nr-nr-


ur L
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r- L n-r Lok
Restart networking with:
-u -rnrn-rnknj n--rnr
Using Dynamic IP addresses for a webserver
Normally, domain name servers (DNS) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DomainNameSystem) that are used
publicly on the Internet match a web server's URL name with the IP address oI the server's host computer. II
your computer has a static IP address, then you can publish your own web server's URL as belonging to the
static, unchanging IP address oI your computer.
However, iI your IP address is dynamic (always changing) because you use an ISP (Internet Service Provider)
that constantly changes your IP address (using DHCP), then you will need a DNS service to constantly keep
track oI your dynamically changing IP address and match it to oI your web server's URL. Fortunately, there are
a Iew DNS services that will do this Ior you, either Ior a small Iee or even Ior Iree. For more inIo, see this
Ubuntu help article (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DynamicDNS) .
For speciIic tips on setting up this service, see this article.
Filesharing
NFS
NFS is the deIault networking protocol Ior network Iile sharing in *nix systems (including Ubuntu Linux).
Samba File Sharing
Samba client
Samba is a networking protocol that allows compatibility with Windows-based networks. The Samba client is
installed by deIault in Ubuntu Jaunty and should work seamlessly (unless you have have a Iirewall blocking the
ports).
Samba server
The Iollowing instructions are to install a Samba server (which is not installed by deIault). This allows you to
share your Iiles over a Samba (Windows) network to other Samba clients.
Install Samba:
-u rj-r n-rLL -mo -morL- -y-r-mnrj-mo
Note: samba-tools and system-conIig-samba are optional.
ModiIy Samba settings.
Method 1:
System -~ Administration -~ Advanced -~ Samba
(Note: this is available only iI you installed system-conIig-samba.)
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It is recommended that your user be a member oI the sambashare group, as well.
Method 2:
Enable File Sharing Server With User Login (Very Reliable Method)
Do the Iollowing on the machine that has the Iiles to be shared:
Add current user to Samba:
-u -mo-- u--nnm-
(replacing username with your login username)
Open the samba conIig Iile:
-u nn -r-mo-monr
Add the directories to be added (right at the end) in the Iollowing Iormat:
-run--
r! !m-u--nnm-rL-nro--!n-
(Replace username with your username and Ioldertobeshared~ with the Iolder you want to
share)
Press CTRLX and then Y to save.
Restart Samba
-u -rnr-mo n--rnr
On Windows access the Iolder in the Iollowing Iormat in Windows Explorer:
`-
(replace 192.168.x.x with the actual IP address oI your server which is serving the Iolder)
On Linux type the Iollowing in Konqueror or Nautilus:
-mo`-
(replace 192.168.x.x with the actual IP address oI your server serving the Iolder)
Note: II you use Sharing in KDE's System Settings panel, be aware that there is a small bug, reported here
(https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/source/kdenetwork/bug/95452) . In brieI, you need to comment out/delete
any instances oI these two lines in /etc/smb.conI :
-- --n-rv-
m-r- ny
Change your Workgroup
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To change your Samba (Windows network) workgroup:
-u nn -r-mo-monr
Look Ior the line:
nkjnu OGO-
and change the setting to whatever your LAN workgroup is.
Recognizing Win98 machines
MicrosoIt networking is extremely quirky. To enable recognition oI PCs with Windows 98, edit your Samba
conIiguration Iile:
-u nn -r-mo-monr
Then add the Iollowing lines to the Iile:
jLoL
| P
L-nr Lnmn ur! y--
L-nr nrLmv` ur! n
Integrating into Mac OS X Network
See this guide (http://www.zaphu.com/2008/04/30/Iive-guides-on-how-to-integrate-ubuntu-into-a-mac-os-x-
network/) Ior inIormation on integrating Ubuntu into an existing Mac OS X Appletalk network.
Local Area Network
Modems / Dial-up
GPPP is the deIault modem dialing application.
Applications -~ Internet -~ GPPP Internet Dial-up
Remote Access
There are several methods oI remote access. VNC sharing allows you to view and control a remote computer's
desktop. (Windows users use a similar proprietary protocol called remote desktop protocol (RDP)). XDMCP
allows a complete remote X-windows based login. Remote connections are hazardous unless proper security
precautions are taken to prevent unauthorized logins and to ensure encryption oI transmitted data.
SSH
Secure Shell or SSH is a network protocol that allows data to be exchanged over a secure channel (or "tunnel")
between two computers. Encryption provides conIidentiality and integrity oI data. SSH client is installed by
deIault in Ubuntu so you can connect to another computer that is running a SSH server.
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Connect to a remote SSH server
From the command-line terminal
Install the OpenSSH (https://help.ubuntu.com/8.10/serverguide/C/openssh-server.html) client (iI not already
installed):
-u rj-r n-rLL -n--!L-nr
From the command-line Terminal type:
--! u--nnm-mur-n nm- n P- n---
Note: The -C option indicates compression, which speeds up transmission through the tunnel.
For example:
--! -n-mr-mur-ny
or:
--! mk-`-
or
--! `- L mk-
Note: -l speciIies the login id.
II the SSH server is listening on a port other than port 22 (the deIault), you can speciIy that in your connection
(with the -p option). For example, iI the SSH server is listening on port 11022, connect:
--! -rnyn-mr-mur-ny``
or
--! n-mr-mur-ny `` L -rny
II you have made a public/private key using ssh-keygen, the private key must be stored in /home/user/.ssh. The
key should be accessible only to user
-u !m !m-:ar--!-nrry
or
-u !m !m-:ar--!n-
To login with the key:
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--! n-mr-mur-ny `` L -rny
Note: You can run the command as a menu item, but the command must be "run in terminal."
Port forwardi ng through SSH
See Using SSH to Port Forward (http://ubuntuguide.org/wiki/Ubuntu:Feisty#UsingSSHtoPortForward) Ior
Iull details.
In brieI, use
--! n-mr- | runn-L nr LL nrn-mr- mur-nn-mr- nr L u--n
This speciIies that any communications Irom your computer (localhost) going out through local port~ will be
transmitted securely through the the SSH tunnel port. To use VNC through the tunnel, you would use an
application like Krdc or Vinagre:
kn vnLL!-rLL nr
Note that Ior VNC, the deIault local port~ is 5900. In general, a remote VNC server (such as KrIb) is also
listening on the deIault remote port~ 5900 as well. The deIault SSH tunnel port~ is 22, as discussed above.
All these can be changed, however, iI you desire greater security.
For me, I noticed that I had to set remote computer~ to be the internal LAN IP address oI the remote
computer (such as 192.168.1.155) instead oI the remote router's IP address, which is speciIied in remote IP~.
(II the remote computer has a static IP address (i.e. is directly connected to the Internet without an intervening
router), then remote computer~ and remote ip~ would be the same.)
Example: For extra security, my SSH Server uses SSH tunnel port~ 11022. I want to VNC to a remote
computer on a remote LAN with a router whose IP address is remote ip~ 244.205.123.123. The remote
computer to which I want to connect has a static IP address within the remote LAN oI remote computer~
192.168.1.155. I have set up a KrIb VNC server on this computer that is listening on remote port~ 6912
(instead oI the deIault 5900). I setup port Iorwarding on the router oI this remote LAN to Iorward port 6912 to
this server computer. I want to VNC to this remote computer Irom my laptop, through the Internet. My laptop
VNC client (Krdc) will use the deIault local port~ 5900. My name is user~ joe.Iriday. This is my story.
--! ```` `` `-` L -rny
kn vnLL!-r
II you have set up a private/ public key pair with a passphrase, or iI your SSH server requires a passphrase, oI
course, you will be prompted Ior the passphrase aIter issuing the SSH command.
Note: Port Iorwarding assumes that the ports are also Iorwarded through the router(s) and through any Iirewalls.
See the documentation Ior your router(s) and Iirewall to learn how to do this. The advantage oI SSH tunneling is
that only the SSH tunnel port~ needs to be open and Iorwarded by a router. All encrypted communications
will go through your router using this single port. This is what makes the communications secure.
PuTTY
PuTTY (http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/) is a GTK-based GUI client-interIace Ior SSH
connections and eases the setup Ior port Iorwarding, SSH public key authentication, and automated login.
-u rj-r n-rLL urry
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A user would run Putty to create the SSH tunnel (instead oI the ssh command) and then run Krdc. Note that
PuTTY security keys are not generally compatible with SSH security keys. I was not able to get PuTTY to
work with Krdc.
Connect using SSH Agent
With SSH Agent you can automate the use oI public key authentication and open an XDM or VNC session
using a script. See this tutorial (http://kimmo.suominen.com/docs/ssh/#ssh-agent) .
Setup an SSH server
Install the OpenSSH (https://help.ubuntu.com/8.10/serverguide/C/openssh-server.html) server:
-u rj-r n-rLL -n--!--nv-n
Note: The OpenSSH server can also be installed when doing a server installation as an option Irom the LiveCD.
Note: An OpenSSH server can also be set up on a Windows server using Cygwin. See these instructions
(http://pigtail.net/LRP/printsrv/cygwin-sshd.html) .
Limit authorized SSH users
See How to limit the user accounts that can connect through SSH
(http://ubuntuguide.org/wiki/Ubuntu:Feisty#Howtolimittheuseraccountsthatcanconnectthroughsshremotely)
.
OpenSSH Publ ic Key Authentication
See this OpenSSH Public Key Authentication Tutorial (http://sial.org/howto/openssh/publickey-auth/) .
In brieI, it is necessary to generate a public / private key pair. On your client machine, generate the pair:
--!k-yj-n
A prompt asks Ior a passphrase. II you wish to use SSH without a password Irom a secure client (to which no
one but you has access), leave the passphrase blank. II you enter a passphrase, you will be asked Ior this
passphrase each time you use the SSH client. By deIault, a 2048-bit RSA key pair is generated and stored in
the /home/user/.ssh Iolder. The private key is named idrsa and is meant to stay in that Iolder. The public key is
idrsa.pub and is meant to be copied to the SSH server. On the SSH server, there is a similar Iolder
/home/user/.ssh (Ior whichever user is hosting the SSH server). In that Iolder is a Iile called authorizedkeys2.
The contents oI idrsa.pub must be copied into that authorizedkeys2 Iile. (You can use a text editor or can
concatenate the Iiles with the cat command).
To keep keys private, they should be accessible only to user, the owner oI the Iile. For example,
!m !m-:ar--!n-
This makes the Iile only accessible to user. You could also make the entire .ssh Iolder accessible only to user:
!m !m-:ar--!
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VNC
Virtual Network Computing (VNC) mirrors the desktop oI a remote ("server") computer on your local ("client")
computer (it is not a separate remote login, as is XDMCP). A user on the remote desktop must be logged in
and running a VNC server (such as KrIb or Vino). Keyboard and mouse events are transmitted between the
two computers. VNC is platIorm-independent - a VNC viewer on one operating system can usually connect
to a VNC server on any other operating system.
Krfb VNC server
KrIb is the deIault VNC server in Kubuntu/KDE (use Vino in Ubuntu/Gnome). It can be started Irom:
Applications menu -~ Internet -~ KrIb
You can change the listening port in the Network section. Your router must Iorward this port to your
computer (or you must use an SSH tunnel). A user trying to connect must know the listening port as well
and explicitly speciIy it during the VNC connection.
You can accept uninvited connections in the Security section. You can require a password Ior these
connections.
A user can connect using Krdc or any other VNC client.
How to use Krfb with SSH tunneli ng securely
It is less secure to leave KrIb's listening port open to the Internet, even with a password. (This can expose you
to password cracking attempts.)
It is more secure to use SSH to tunnel your VNC connection. Under SSH port Iorwarding, KrIb's listening port
is the remote port~. To increase security, this listening port can be changed Irom the deIault 5900. Only the
KIrb server and the SSH client need to speciIy the remote port~ in a secure connection.
X11VNC Server
To install an X11VNC server to share your desktop with other computer, type each oI these commands
in order:
-u rj-r n-rLL vn
mkn vn
vn -rn--- O-O vnvn--
-! u-nonvn nrour! vnvn-- vnvnLj Loj -Ly k-ur-rnrvn-!
!m - k-ur-rnrvn-!
You can test the server by running the shell script:
k-ur-rnrvn-!
and aIter restarting KDE, the script should start the VNC server automatically.
For customization oI x11vnc server, edit the commands in the x11vnc.sh Iile enter aIter viewing
"man:/x11vnc" in Konqueror, where a description oI parameters Ior x11vn is given.
See Ubuntu help on VNC (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/VNC#krIb) Ior more inIo on other VNC
servers.
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Using VNC with SSH
See Using VNC
(http://ubuntuguide.org/wiki/Ubuntu:Feisty#HowtoRunaWindowsmachineIromUbuntusecurelyusingVNC)
Ior additional inIormation.
Krdc VNC client
Krdc is the deIault VNC client in Kubuntu. Use Vinagre in Ubuntu/Gnome.
K-Menu -~ Internet -~ Krdc
To connect to a VNC server, simply type
kn vnn-mr- P-
II the remote (KrIp) VNC server is using a remote port~ other than the deIault 5900 port, use
kn vnn-mr- P-n-mr- nr
Krdc can also connect to a Windows server using RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol).
kn nn-mr- P-n-mr- nr
The deIault port Ior RDP is 3389. Make sure this port is open (outgoing) in your Iirewall.
Using Krdc VNC client with SSH
See this howto (http://jeltsch.org/node/209) Ior an automated setup using a script (it did not work Ior me, but it
might Ior you).
In brieI, you would initiate an SSH tunnel with port Iorwarding using Putty or the command line:
--! n-mr- | runn-L nr LL nrn-mr- mur-nn-mr- nr L u--n
then you would start Krdc:
kn vnLL!-rLL nr
local port~ will usually be the deIault 5900, in which case you could simply use
kn vnLL!-r
XVNC4Viewer VNC Client
You can also install XVNC4Viewer (iI you preIer it over Krdc) using:
-u rj-r n-rLL vnv--n
FreeNX
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FreeNX (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/FreeNX) is a remote desktop display server/client solution that
natively incorporates SSH tunneling (unlike VNC). It is thereIore more secure than VNC (unless VNC is
coupled with SSH tunneling).
FreeNX Server
The Free server .deb package can be downloaded Irom No Machine Iree server downloads
(http://www.nomachine.com/select-package.php?os linux&id 1) .
Alternatively, add the Iollowing repositories:
-o !rrLun!n-rrn--nr-muounru unry mn
-o-n !rrLun!n-rrn--nr-muounru unry mn
Install the package:
-u rj-r ur-
-u rj-r ujn-
-u rj-r n-rLL rn--n
FreeNX Client
Download the selI-installing .deb Iile Irom No Machine Client downloads (http://www.nomachine.com/select-
package-client.php) .
XDMCP
XDMCP (http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/XDMCP-HOWTO/index.html) allows a separate remote login by an
authorized user. This login is separate Irom the local user.
XDMCP is not secure over the Internet and should only be used within a LAN. It cannot be tunnelled
through SSH. It is turned oII by deIault in Ubuntu. To enable it, edit the conIiguration Iile:
j-r -rjmjmnr
Find and change the line Irom Ialse to true so that it reads:
m
noL- rnu-
Telnet
VPN clients
A VPN (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtualprivatenetwork) (Virtual Private Network) allows a secure
encrypted connection ("tunnelling") over the Internet between a client (either standalone or on a separate LAN)
and a home or corporate LAN server.
VPN through Network Manager
The deIault Network Manager in Ubuntu/Kubuntu has a VPN client available. This includes support Ior
IPSec and Cisco-compliant VPN connections. Install:
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-u rj-r n-rLL n-rnkmnj-nvn
To connect to a VPN network using OpenVPN (SSL), install the plugin:
-u rj-r n-rLL n-rnkmnj-n-nvn
To connect to a VPN network using PPTP (MS Windows servers), install the plugin:
-u rj-r n-rLL n-rnkmnj-nr
ConIigure:
Network Manager icon (in system tray) -~ VPN Connections -~ ConIigure VPN
Other VPN clients
Standalone VPN clients based on protocol are available (but not necessary iI using Network Manager):
vpnc (http://www.debuntu.org/how-to-connect-to-a-cisco-vpn-using-vpnc) , grml-vpn
(http://grml.org/online-docs/grml-vpn.8.html) -- Ior Cisco-compliant (IPSec) VPN networks
openswan (http://www.openswan.org/) -- Ior IPSec (OpenSwan) VPN networks
pptp-linux (http://pptpclient.sourceIorge.net/) -- Ior PPTP (MS Windows-compliant) VPN
networks
openvpn (http://openvpn.net/) , gadmin-openvpn-client -- Ior OpenSSL (OpenVPN) VPN
networks
VPN servers
OpenVPN
OpenVPN (http://openvpn.net/) is a Iree, GPL-licensed open-source cross-platIorm VPN solution based on
OpenSSL (not IPSec). Install the server (then see the website Ior Iurther installation instructions):
-u rj-r n-rLL -nvn onj-urL-
A GUI conIiguration utility (GTK-based) is available:
-u rj-r n-rLL jmn-nvn--nv-n
Poptop (PPTP Server)
Poptop (http://www.poptop.org/) is a Iree open-source PPTP-based VPN server compatible with MS-
windows PPTP clients. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL r
OpenSwan
OpenSwan (http://www.openswan.org/) is the open source implementation oI IPSec-based VPN connections
Ior Linux (and is a successor to FreeSwan). Install:
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-u rj-r n-rLL -n-n Lnur!-n-n
LTSP (Thin client support)
LTSP (http://www.ltsp.org/) (the Linux Terminal Server Project) adds thin-client
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thinclient) support to Linux servers. The package is Iree, GPL-licensed, and the
client can be used to run programs on either Linux or Windows LTSP servers. Installation instructions are here
(https://help.ubuntu.com/community/UbuntuLTSP/LTSPQuickInstall) . The alternate LiveCD can also be used
to install a terminal server, as indicated in these instructions
(http://www.ubuntu.com/products/whatisubuntu/serveredition/technologies/ltsp) .
iTALC (Thin client for Education)
iTALC (http://italc.sourceIorge.net/) is a Iree, open source (GPL-licensed) thin client solution that supports both
(K)Ubuntu Linux and Windows XP. It has been used widely in educational settings to monitor, share, and
control multiple workstations. See the website Ior download and installation instructions.
Web meetings
Web meeting soItware allows video conIerencing among many clients, with one server as host.
DimDim
DimDim OpenSource Edition
(http://www.dimdim.com/opensource/dimdimopensourcecommunityedition.html) is a Iree community
version oI a commercial product oI the same name. Like GoToMeeting, Iree online group meetings Ior up to 20
users is available through any browser. A Iree open source host server Ior group meetings (unlimited users) is
also available in a community edition, but desktop sharing is not yet available Ior Linux desktops (in any edition).
(Scheduling and recording to notes are also not available in the community edition, although the other enterprise
Ieatures are). At this time, a .deb package Ior the host server is not yet available, and installation must be Irom
source (http://sourceIorge.net/projects/dimdim/Iiles/Dimdim20v4.520Release/) (Ior which there are no
instructions provided). However, a VMWare appliance Ior use within VMWare Player (or Server) is available
here (http://sourceIorge.net/projects/dimdim/Iiles/Dimdim20v4.520Release/) , and can be used aIter
installing VMWare Player.
WebHuddle
WebHuddle (https://www.webhuddle.com/) is a Iree, open source Java-based browser client (and server) Ior
web meetings. To install the server, Iirst install pre-requisites, including Java, JBOSS Application Server, and
xvIb.
-u rj-r n-rLL -unvn- o--- vro
Distance teaching
Moodle
Moodle (http://moodle.org/) is a Iree open source platIorm Ior hosting online learning courses. It can be
integrated with webinar soItware. A LAMP server installation is required. See these Ubuntu Hardy installation
tips (http://docs.moodle.org/en/Step-by-stepInstallGuideIorUbuntu) Ior an overview. Install:
-u rj-r mL-
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Claroline
Claroline (http://www.claroline.net/) is a Iree open source platIorm Ior hosting e-learning courses and online
student collaboration. A LAMP server installation is required. Installation is Irom source Iiles available at the
website, with instructions Iound here (http://www.claroline.net/documentation/tutorials.html) .
Security
Ubuntu by deIault is a Iairly saIe system. However, iI you intend to use Ubuntu as a server, or Ior critical
applications in which loss oI data (by accident or by malicious intrusion) would be disastrous, you should learn
how to make Ubuntu more secure. A good introduction to Ubuntu Security Best Practices
(http://www.psychocats.net/ubuntu/security#bestpractices) is available.
Firewall
Network communications go through "channels" called ports. You can restrict which ports are available ("open")
Ior network communications, creating a barricade to unwanted network intrusion. Firewalls do this job Ior you.
But I guarantee that iI you install one beIore you know how to use it that one or more networking programs on
your system will stop working. Read every bit oI documentation about a Iirewall beIore installing it -- you won't
regret the time invested. All oI these packages modiIy iptables (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iptables) , which is
the set oI rules that controls network access in and out oI your computer. (You can modiIy iptables manually
Irom the command line, as well, but iI you are that much oI an expert, you probably don't need this guide.)
Firestarter
Firestarter (http://www.Is-security.com/) is an intuitive Iirewall manager used to set the iptables values which
provide Iirewall capabilities in Linux (including Ubuntu). It has a very easy-to-use GUI.
-u rj-r n-rLL rn--rnr-n
Guarddog
Guarddog (http://www.simonzone.com/soItware/guarddog/) is a GUI Iirewall conIiguration utility that has been
used Ior KDE. It has a complex array oI conIiguration, and is diIIicult to use Ior some beginners.
-u rj-r n-rLL junj
Uncomplicated Firewall
Uncomplicated Firewall (https://launchpad.net/uIw) is installed in Ubuntu Intrepid Ibex by deIault, but is disabled
by deIault. It is conIigurable through the command-line interIace (i.e. Konsole). See this Iorum thread
(http://ubuntuIorums.org/showthread.php?t 823741) , or this usage tutorial (http://www.ubuntu-
unleashed.com/2008/05/howto-take-use-setup-and-advantage-oI.html) Ior tips on how to set up and use it. II
not installed, it can be installed:
rj-r n-rLL ur
Gufw
GuIw (http://guIw.tuxIamily.org/index.html) is a graphical user interIace Ior Uncomplicated Firewall. Install:
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-u rj-r n-rLL jur
Anti-virus
II you are running a Iile server, interIace Irequently with Windows drives, or use virtualization, you will want a
virus checker Ior your Windows Iiles.
ClamAV
ClamAV (http://www.clamav.net/) is the open source virus tool Ior Linux. To install ClamAV with a KDE
Irontend:
-u rj-r n-rLL kLmv
Anti-spam
Spam Assasin
SpamAssasin (http://spamassassin.apache.org/) is written in perl, and is mostly Ior use with a server (such as a
groupware server or Apache).
Rootkit checkers
Rootkits (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rootkit) are malicious trojan
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trojanhorse(computing)) -like programs to allow an intruder to become a root
user and thereIore have complete administrative control over the system. There aren't many rootkits in the wild
Ior Linux. Still, this is a growing security problem (especially in other operating systems) and it is a matter oI time
beIore more rootkits appear in Linux. Checking Ior rootkits isn't always successIul Irom a system that is already
inIected. Your rootkit checker should thereIore be run Irom another system, or a USB pendrive with a Ubuntu
LiveCD installation. See the rootkit checker manuals Ior instructions how to do this. II you are inIected with a
rootkit, you must backup all your Iiles and re-install your system. (Thank goodness this is easy with Ubuntu,
unlike with other operating systems).
Chkrootkit
Chkrootkit (http://www.chkrootkit.org/) checks locally Ior signs oI a rootkit. See the chkrootkit manual
(http://www.chkrootkit.org/README) Ior usage instructions.
Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL !knrkr
Run:
-u !knrkr
Rootkit Hunter
Rootkit Hunter (http://www.rootkit.nl/projects/rootkithunter.html) is compatible with (K)ubuntu systems. See
the usage instructions (http://sourceIorge.net/docman/displaydoc.php?docid 35179&groupid 155034) .
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Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL nk!unr-n
Run:
-u nk!unr-n
Security hardening
Nmap
Nmap (http://nmap.org/) is a Iree open source utility Ior network exploration (including showing open ports and
running services) and security auditing. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL nm
Scan your own PC:
nm LL!-r
(Once you have Iound out which ports are open, use a Iirewall to close the ones you don't want open.)
Nmap GUI
Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL nmr-
Or you can try
Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL -nm
Nessus
Nessus (http://www.nessus.org) is a proprietary comprehensive vulnerability scanning suite that is Iree Ior
personal, non-enterprise usage. See the website Ior details.
AppArmor
AppArmor (http://en.opensuse.org/AppArmor) is a set oI security enhancements developed by Novell Ior
SUSE Linux. It is installed in (K)ubuntu by deIault.
Disable AppArmor
AppArmor can prevent some services Irom running as expected. To disable it:
-rnrnmn -r
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ur-n r nmn n-mv-
rj-r n-mv- nmn nmnurL-
SELinux
SE Linux (http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/inIo/Iaq.cIm) (Security Enhanced Linux) is an NSA (US National Security
Administration) recommended set oI tools Ior enhanced security in Linux systems. It enIorces strict access
controls (privileges) and is meant Ior mission-critical installations. It is not suitable Ior the casual desktop user. It
was Iirst available in Hardy Heron and is being updated Ior Intrepid Ibex. It is not compatible with AppArmor
(which must Iirst be removed).
-u rj-r n-rLL --Lnu
fail2ban
Iail2ban (http://www.Iail2ban.org/wiki/index.php/MainPage) will block IP addresses that Iail password
authentication multiple times in a row. This is useIul to limit brute Iorce password cracking attempts. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL rL`on
Servers
You can have a GUI desktop with an Ubuntu Server. II you intend such as setup (or want to use packages that
require server capabilities, such as Drupal with Apache, etc.), then it is best to install Ubuntu Server edition Iirst
and then install the Ubuntu (Gnome) desktop aIterwards. For complete inIormation see the Ubuntu Server
Guide (https://help.ubuntu.com/8.10/serverguide/C/index.html) .
Note that Jaunty Jackalope is not a long-term support version, and there are many changes Irom Hardy Heron
to Jaunty Jackalope, including some new bugs in the Jaunty Jackalope desktop. Unless new Ieatures, such as
Xen (virtualization) support or the Tomcat (Java) server, are desired, many users strongly recommend Hardy
Heron's stability (with a KDE 3.5 desktop), especially iI a server/desktop combination is intended.
Download the latest Ubuntu Server ISO image Irom Ubuntu downloads
(http://www.ubuntu.com/GetUbuntu/download) .
See this guide (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BurningIsoHowto) Ior burning the ISO image to a CD.
Use the CD Ior installation oI the server.
Many types oI servers can be added to an existing desktop installation using the tasksel command. For a list oI
servers that can be installed easily as a one-step task:
-u r-k--L L-rr-k-
LAMP server installation
During server installation, you will have the option oI installing a LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, pHp) server
stack. Many (but not all) open source servers use this integrated server stack. Drupal, Ior example, needs to
have a LAMP server installed. II you intend to install a groupware server, however, make sure it is compatible
with a LAMP server stack beIore choosing this option. Many groupware servers will install LAMP (or their
own variation) automatically, so you do not need to install the LAMP stack. Others will install and use
postgreSQL instead oI MySQL, so you would not need to install a LAMP server. II you did not install a LAMP
server stack at initial installation, you can do it at any time:
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-u r-k--L n-rLL Lm--nv-n
Other servers
During server installation, you can choose other servers to install, as well. These include a Mail server (PostIix
with Dovecot), a DNS server (bind9), the OpenSSH server, a print server, a Tomcat Java web server, a
Samba Iile server (https://help.ubuntu.com/8.10/serverguide/C/samba-Iileserver.html) (Ior use with Windows
networks), and a virtual machine host (Xen). Again, iI you are using a groupware solution, you should be careIul
about installing these services, as they may conIlict with similar (but competing) servers which the groupware
solution will install by deIault.
OpenSSH server
OpenSSH allows encrypted communications through a designated secure port. The OpenSSH server can be
installed as an option during the Ubuntu Server LiveCD installation. Also see setting up an SSH server.
Postfix (Mail Server)
PostIix (http://www.postIix.org/) is a Iree open source mail server. It can be installed as the "Mail server" option
when installing the Ubuntu server Irom the LiveCD. It interIaces directly to Dovecot (http://www.dovecot.org/) ,
the Iree open source IMAP (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InternetMessageAccessProtocol) and POP3
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PostOIIiceProtocol) server.
Bind9 (DNS server)
BIND (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIND) DNS servers are the most commonly used on the Internet. Bind9 is
the current edition and is installed by selecting the "DNS server" option when installing Ubuntu server Irom the
LiveCD. See the usage instruction here (http://www.bind9.net/manual/bind/9.2.5/Bv9ARM.html) , and also reIer
to the Ubuntu wiki (https://help.ubuntu.com/9.04/serverguide/C/dns.html) or Ubuntu help page
(https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BIND9ServerHowto) . You can install it at any time:
-u r-k--L n-rLL n---nv-n
Apache Tomcat (1ava server)
Tomcat (http://tomcat.apache.org/) is a Iree open source platIorm Irom Apache which provides a "pure Java"
HTTP web server environment Ior Java code to run (see here (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apachetomcat) Ior
more inIo).
It is not part oI the Apache2 web server. Installation can be done by checking the "Install Tomcat server" option
at the time oI the initial Ubuntu server installation Irom LiveCD.
Xen virtual machine host
Xen (http://www.xen.org/) is a Iree open source virtualization platIorm that allows the host to run "guest"
operating systems simultaneously (see here (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xen) Ior more inIo). Xen
implementation in the (K)ubuntu server is based on integration with KVM (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernel-
basedVirtualMachine) , the kernel-based virtualization platIorm in Linux. KVM integrates with QEMU
(http://bellard.org/qemu/about.html) components, which have been merged with Xen.
Note: KVM requires a 64-bit processor with a virtualization extension, i.e. an Intel VT
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X86virtualization#IntelVirtualizationTechnology.28IntelVT.29) or AMD-V
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X86virtualization#AMDvirtualization.28AMD-V.29) CPU, thereIore this
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package currently is successIul only with the 64-bit Ubuntu server installation and on those CPUs.
Installation can be done by checking the "Install virtual machine host" option at the time oI the initial Ubuntu
server installation Irom LiveCD.
Print server
Ubuntu uses the CUPS print server, which is integrated into the desktop. Installing a print server in Ubuntu
Server is necessary only iI you do not intend to use a desktop (i.e. you intend a "headless" server). Because this
guide is orientated towards users who will install a Ubuntu desktop on top oI the server, please see Ubuntu
server documentation (https://help.ubuntu.com/8.10/serverguide/C/cups.html) Ior this option.
Apache2 Webserver with PHP and Perl support
To install an Apache webserver (but not the entire LAMP stack) with both PHP and Perl CGI support, see this
guide (http://www.ubuntugeek.com/how-to-install-apache2-webserver-with-phpcgi-and-perl-support-in-
ubuntu-server.html) .
OpenLDAP
OpenLDAP (http://www.openldap.org/) is a community-based LDAP
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LightweightDirectoryAccessProtocol) server that allows directory querying
over TCP/IP, generally Ior organizations arranged by domain. Ubuntu uses the slapd daemon Ior the
OpenLDAP server. See the oIIicial Ubuntu documentation
(https://help.ubuntu.com/9.04/serverguide/C/openldap-server.html) Ior more inIormation about installation and
setup.
DAViCal Calendar Server
DAViCal (http://wiki.davical.org/w/MainPage) is a CalDAV (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CalDAV) ,
postgreSQL, Apache and php-based shared Calendar server that works with Mozilla
Thunderbird/Lightning/Sunbird, Evolution, Kontact, and other calendar clients. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL vL
Then see these detailed installation instructions.
Darwin Calendar Server
Darwin Calendar Server (http://trac.calendarserver.org/) is an open-source port oI Apple's CalDAV
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CalDAV) -based calendar server that works with Mozilla
Thunderbird/Lightning/Sunbird, Evolution, and other calendar clients. Install version 1.2 Irom the repositories
(then see the website Ior usage instructions):
-u rj-r n-rLL L-nn--nv-n
WebCalendar
WebCalendar (http://www.k5n.us/webcalendar.php?topic About) is an ICS
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ICalendar) -based server Ior group calendars that can use many diIIerent databases
as the backend, is written in PHP, and is compatible with clients such as Sunbird/Thunderbird (Lightning), Apple
iCal, and Evolution. The newest version can also be viewed using RSS (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSS)
clients. See the website and the wiki (http://www.k5n.us/wiki/index.php?title MainPage) Ior installing the
newest (1.2) version. Install the older (1.05) version Irom the repositories:
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-u rj-r n-rLL -oL-nn
Network Monitoring and Management
Monitor your network or datacenter with a Iramework oI utilities. Comparable to IBM Tivoli (which can cost
thousands oI dollars), these solutions are generally available as either community or enterprise editions.
Hyperic (http://www.hyperic.com/products/open-source-systems-monitoring.html) is an open-source
network monitoring Iramework that can be used in either a datacenter or a cloud environment (it is used
Ior Amazon Cloud). Both a Iree community version and a subscription enterprise version are available.
Groundwork OpenSource (http://www.groundworkopensource.com/community/community-edition.html)
oIIers a community edition that integrates other packages such as Nagios, Nmap, and others. There is a
subscription enterprise version as well. It has its roots in a university setting.
OpenQRM (http://www.openqrm.com/) is the GPL-licensed, Iree open-source community successor to
the very popular network monitoring solution Qlusters. It is available
(http://sourceIorge.net/project/showIiles.php?groupid 153504) as a Debian/Ubuntu package. See the
website Ior details.
Canonical oIIers the Landscape (http://www.canonical.com/projects/landscape) network management
service Ior $150 per node, with a Iree trial available.
Zenoss (http://www.zenoss.com/) is a commercial network monitoring subscription package (about
$150/node) with a limited Iree "core" edition also available.
Nagios
Nagios (http://www.nagios.org/) is a Iree open source network monitoring solution. It is available as a package
installation in Ubuntu (http://packages.ubuntu.com/search?
keywords nagios&searchon names&suite intrepid&section all) . It is administered Irom a web interIace
(http://localhost/nagios) and is expandable using a large number oI available plugins. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL nj-
Cacti Monitoring Server
Cacti (http://www.cacti.net/) is a complete, Iree open source network graphing solution designed to harness the
power oI RRDTool (http://oss.oetiker.ch/rrdtool/) `s data storage and graphing Iunctionality. Cacti provides a
Iast poller, advanced graph templating, multiple data acquisition methods, and user management Ieatures out oI
the box. It uses MySQL and PHP (part oI the LAMP server stack). All oI this is wrapped in an intuitive, easy to
use interIace that makes sense Ior LAN-sized installations up to complex networks with hundreds oI devices.
For more inIo see Cacti Server Setup (http://www.ubuntugeek.com/install-and-conIigure-cacti-monitoring-tool-
in-ubuntu-810-intrepid-ibex-server.html) .
Cluster (cloud) computing
Eucalyptus (http://eucalyptus.cs.ucsb.edu/) is a project Irom University oI CaliIornia Santa Barbara to Iacilitate
cluster computing on Ubuntu servers that have Xen enabled. It has been included in the Jaunty Jackalope server
edition, but is very much in development. It is not meant Ior mission-critical deployments at this time. See the
website Ior details.
Add the Ubuntu desktop to a server
Once you have completed installation oI your Ubuntu server, you can add an Ubuntu desktop to it. This can
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only be done as root.
Login with the administrator login/password which you created during Ubuntu Server installation.
Create a root user password
-u -- nr
and enter the password you intend to use Ior root
Login with root user privileges
-u -
(Note: To use this command, your user must be part oI the sudo group. Use your user's password, not the root
password.)
Update your server
rj-r ur-
rj-r ujn-
Install the Ubuntu desktop
rj-r n-rLL uounru--kr
Go get some coIIee. And some lunch. Perhaps a movie. Come back later. When you get back to the command
line prompt aIter installation is complete, reboot. Now you will have an Ubuntu server with a GUI desktop
interIace.
Internet Cafe software
Internet CaIe (or CyberCaIe) soItware is specialized LAN-administration soItware that includes time usage
monitoring, billing, and administration. It can also be used in schools, libraries, and organizations with multiple
monitored workstations requiring usage limits.
OutKafe
OutKaIe (http://outkastsolutions.co.za/outkast/index.php?option comopenwiki&id outkaIe) is a Iree, open-
source, GPL-licensed cybercaIe solution based on a postgreSQL database server stack. It is run on hundreds
oI sites. It is GTK-based.
OpenKiosk
OpenKiosk (http://openkiosk.sourceIorge.net/) is a Iree open source multi-platIorm server/client solution Ior
administering and monitoring groups oI workstations, such as in libraries, school labs, and internet caIes.
Installation is Irom source Iiles. See the website Ior details.
CafePilot
CaIePilot (http://www.dijitanix.com/) is a Iree multi-platIorm Java-based server/client solution Ior real-time
monitoring and billing oI CybercaIe workstations. A complete custom Ubuntu-based LiveCD server/multiple-
client solution (including OS and many applications Ior unlimited workstations) is available Ior $100 here
(http://www.dijitanix.com/index.php/cucci) .
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Pessulus (Lockdown Editor)
Pessulus is a GTK (Gnome)-based utility that allows an a computer administrator to restrict acccess to several
administrative Iunctions, including the command-line Terminal and many other Iunctions. This is useIul on public
kiosk PCs, Ior example. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL ---uLu-
Enterprise Network Firewall
IPCop
IPCop (http://www.ipcop.org) is a Iree open source (GPL-licensed) Iirewall solution Ior use as an independent
appliance (on a dedicated PC) in an enterprise network. It allows remote management and can protect multiple
servers, including web and email servers. IPSec-based OpenVPN is supported. The CD image .iso and other
Iiles can be downloaded here (http://sourceIorge.net/project/showIiles.php?
groupid 40604&packageid 35093) . Installation instructions are on the website.
SmoothWall
SmoothWall Express (http://www.smoothwall.org/) is an award-winning, Iree, open source (with a GPL license)
Iirewall solution Ior use as an independent appliance (on a dedicated PC) in an enterprise network. Download
the installation CD .iso image here (http://www.smoothwall.org/get/) (server OS included), burn onto a CD, and
install on a new, dedicated PC. Many Ieatures, however, such as VPN server, database access authentications,
and content Iiltering are only implemented in a commercial version, however, and are not available in the
community version.
Endian
Endian (http://www.endian.com/en/community/about/) is a very robust, Iree, open source universal threat
management appliance similar to IPCop and Smoothwall. It also incorporates OpenVPN. Like Smoothwall,
Dansguardian is used Ior content Iiltering (and is included in the community edition). Commercial and hardware
versions with some additional Ieatures, automatic updates, and proIessional support are available. See the
website Ior details.
Tips & Tricks
Run Command
You can run any application in your path using the Run Command. Use AltF2.
Turn off Hot Keys
This is the most evil option on any operating system, in my opinion. A mis-stroke enables any number oI random
events. UnIortunately, this problem is pervasive in operating systems and is diIIicult to turn oII.
System -~ Administration-~ Advanced -~ Input Actions -~ General Settings -~ check "Disable
KHotKeys daemon"
System -~ Administration-~ Advanced -~ Input Actions -~ Gestures Settings -~ check "Disable
mouse gestures globally"
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II you wish to be selective about it (this doesn't oIten work, however), start by disabling unnecessary desktop
hotkeys.
System -~ Administration-~ Advanced -~ Keyboard & Mouse -~ Keyboard Shortcuts
Also, you may want to deactivate linking gestures to sticky and slow keys:
System -~ Administration -~ Accessibility -~ Activation Gestures -~ uncheck "Use gestures Ior activating
sticky keys and slow keys"
Note: You probably will have to disable hotkeys in many applications, as well.
Hotkeys Irom the Synaptics Touchpad can be selectively turned oII using this inIormation Irom the Ubuntu
documentation (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/SynapticsTouchpad#Ubuntu) .
Run Ubuntu LiveCD from a USB pendrive
The Ubuntu LiveCD can be installed on and run Irom a USB pendrive. Settings can be "persistently" saved (but
the LiveCD kernel modules can not be upgraded). Programs can be installed and run, however, and Iiles saved
to the USB drive. (The installed programs will remain installed). See these Pendrivelinux instructions
(http://www.pendrivelinux.com/2008/10/15/ubuntu-810-persistent-Ilash-drive-install-Irom-live-cd/) . An Ubuntu
Live CD is needed to do the install.
The USB "LiveCD" can also be used to install Ubuntu on computers (including netbooks) that do not have CD-
ROM/DVD drives.
USB pendrives to be used to run Ubuntu should have a minimum oI 2 Gb (preIerably 4 Gb). II you wish to
install a Iast, Iully Iunctional Linux system on a pendrive that has less memory than that, use PuppyLinux
(http://www.puppylinux.org/) .
Create a boot CD to allow booting from the USB drive
Many computers do not allow booting Irom a USB drive (but they do allow booting Irom the CD-ROM). You
can create a CD-ROM using these Pendrivelinux instructions (http://www.pendrivelinux.com/2008/11/23/usb-
boot-cd-Ior-ubuntu-810/) and set your BIOS to boot Irom this CD-ROM. When you boot Irom this CD-
ROM, it will use the bootup Iiles on the Ubuntu USB drive you previously created (in the step above).
USB Creator
You can make a "LiveCD" on a USB pendrive using USB Creator and either a LiveCD or an .iso version oI the
LiveCD stored on your hard drive. See these instructions (http://www.ubuntumini.com/2008/10/make-
liveusb.html) or these PendriveLinux instructions (http://www.pendrivelinux.com/ubuntu-810-install-using-the-
built-in-usb-installer/) . Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL u-on-rn
Associate default applications
To assign the deIault DVD player (make sure you have enabled DVD playback capability Iirst:
System -~ Administration-~ Advanced -~ File Associations -~ x-content -~ video-dvd -~ Applications
PreIerence order -~ Add...
then choose your Iavourite media player. There are similar options Ior Blu-Ray (video-bluray) and HD
DVD (video-hddvd). Set each individually.
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To assign the deIault player Ior playing mpegs (or other video Iormats):
System -~ Administration-~ Advanced -~ File Associations -~ video -~ mpeg -~ Applications
PreIerence order -~ Add...
then choose your Iavourite media player. You can do this Ior a host oI video Iile Iormats, including .wmv
(x-ms-wmv, or MicrosoIt WMV Iormat), .Ilv (x-Ilv, or Flash video), quicktime, and so on.
To assign .pls audio streams to play through Audacious:
System -~ Administration-~ Advanced -~ File Associations -~ audio -~ x-scpls -~ Applications
PreIerence order -~ Move Audacious to the top (or Add... it).
Make sure *.pls appears in the Filename Patterns section.
Capture a screenshot
See this tutorial (http://tips.webdesign10.com/how-to-take-a-screenshot-on-ubuntu-linux) .
Run a KDE 4 desktop from Ubuntu
It is possible to install the KDE4-based desktop (the deIault in Kubuntu) in Ubuntu.
rj-r n-rLL kuounru--kr
There is a risk oI soItware bloat and some incompatibilities between modules when doing this. At login, you can
choose (as an option) whether to start the KDE (Kubuntu) desktop or the Gnome (Ubuntu) desktop.
Nevertheless, when there are two modules trying to perIorm the same Iunction (one Irom each desktop), it is
possible to have conIlicts.
Run a KDE 3 desktop from Ubuntu
You can also install the older KDE 3 desktop on Jaunty, or almost any KDE3 application.
Add these lines to your /etc/apt/sources.list Iile:
-o !rrLun!n-rk-mnrn-n-uounru unry mn
-o-n !rrLun!n-rk-mnrn-n-uounru unry mn
-o !rrLun!n-rk-mnrn-n-uounru nrn- mn
-o-n !rrLun!n-rk-mnrn-n-uounru nrn- mn
Add the GPG signing key:
j-r !rrr-n-nmurnjn-ruoLjj
-u rk-y uoLjj
Install KDE 3.5 desktop:
-u rj-r ur-
-u rj-r n-rLL kuounru--krk-
To install any KDE3 app, append "-kde3" suIIix to package name. See Pearson Computing
(http://apt.pearsoncomputing.net/) Ior additional details.
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Kill (end) a process
There are many tricks to try to Iix a Irozen PC. Press AltF2, and use killall to end the Irozen application.
Example:
kLLLL mnk
kLLLL rn-r
Another trick to try is pressing AltGrSysRqK (RightAltPrintScreenK). This will log you out. But, what
happens iI this does not work? Try pressing CtrlAltF1,login, enter your password and run:
-u kLLLL jm
-u -rnr
View hidden files
In the Nautilus Iile manager, press:
rnL- |
Alien
Alien (http://kitenet.net/~joey/code/alien/) is a method Ior converting (Red Hat) .rpm packages into (Debian)
.deb packages. It is not reliable and converted packages must be tested extensively Ior Iunctionality, with line
changes oIten required. It is oIten more reliable to create (Debian) .deb packages Irom source, and even the
Alien soItware maintainers do not recommend using Alien Ior important packages. To keep alien Irom changing
the version number, use the Iollowing command
L-n k nmrL-nm-nm
Convert the package.rpm into a package.deb
L-n kj-nm-nm
Convert the package.rpm into a package.deb, and install the generated package
L-n kj-nm-nm
To convert .rpm to debian
-u L-n k nm
Software Troubleshooting
Permissions error on program startup
II you get a permissions error, try the Iollowing:
-u !n :ar !m-:ar
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Note: Replace user with the actual username. This command changes the owner oI the Iolder
/home/user to user. -R means "recursively", i.e. including all subIolders.
CD-ROM Troubleshooting
II you receive the "cdrecord has no permission to open the device" error while burning using a CD burner, open
a terminal and type:
-u !m -v-
Note: replace "/dev/scd0" with your own device.
Note: chmod 777 is the universal option Ior granting Iull permission to a Iolder. The 777 mask
indicates that read, write, and execute permission is given to all users.
Licenses
Linux is largely a community oI volunteers and as such represents one oI the largest altruistic eIIorts on earth.
This includes companies who decide to contribute their own soItware into the public domain Ior Iree use. The
continued success oI sharing depends on licenses that keep soItware Iree and usable Ior anyone who wants to
use it. However, there must be a method Ior Linux users and developers to make money, as well. Licensing
helps protect each oI these eIIorts. See the Wikipedia Free SoItware Licensing article
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free-soItwarelicense) and the GNU operating system licensing page
(http://www.gnu.org/licenses/licenses.html) Ior more complete inIormation.
GPL license
The GPLv3 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNUGeneralPublicLicense) license (and the AIIero GPLv3
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIIeroGeneralPublicLicense) license Ior network-based soItware) intends that
the soItware module or package is Iree to use in any environment, and Iurthermore, any soItware that relies on
that GPLv3-licensed module must in turn also be completely Iree. Commercial and proprietary soItware
packages can't use or incorporate GPLv3-licensed modules.
LGPL license
The Lesser GPL (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNULesserGeneralPublicLicense) license intends that the
soItware module or package is Iree to use in any environment, including in commercial and proprietary soItware
packages. This allows companies to develop proprietary packages which includes LGPL-licensed modules,
Irom which they can make a proIit. The disadvantage is that their products (which beneIit Irom the LGPL-
licensed modules) are not required to be in the public domain in turn. (Many companies oIten later donate their
entire package into the public domain, however, aIter they no longer make a proIit Irom them.)
Proprietary licenses
There is a vast array oI proprietary licenses, all diIIerent. You never know what your limitations Ior soItware are
unless you read every word. Most are attempts by lawyers to have an opportunity to create a lawsuit in the
Iuture. Some may be called "Iree" licenses but have many limitations which you will not be aware oI until you are
in the middle oI a lawsuit. No license outside oI the GPLv3 license is recommended. Be careIul when committing
your organization to a mission-critical soItware package with a proprietary license. Also see this outstanding
article on the Open Source Enterprise Trap (http://www.h-online.com/open/The-Open-Source-Enterprise-
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Trap--/Ieatures/112992) .
Requests
Place your requests here.
How can I contribute?
Retrieved Irom "http://ubuntuguide.org/wiki/Ubuntu:Jaunty"
This page was last modiIied on 24 September 2009, at 14:52.
Content is available under GNU Free Documentation License 1.2.
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Rootkit Hunter
Rootkit Hunter (http://www.rootkit.nl/projects/rootkithunter.html) is compatible with (K)ubuntu systems. See
the usage instructions (http://sourceIorge.net/docman/displaydoc.php?docid 35179&groupid 155034) .
Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL nk!unr-n
Run:
-u nk!unr-n
Security hardening
Nmap
Nmap (http://nmap.org/) is a Iree open source utility Ior network exploration (including showing open ports and
running services) and security auditing. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL nm
Scan your own PC:
nm LL!-r
(Once you have Iound out which ports are open, use a Iirewall to close the ones you don't want open.)
Nmap GUI
Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL nmr-
Or you can try
Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL -nm
Nessus
Nessus (http://www.nessus.org) is a proprietary comprehensive vulnerability scanning suite that is Iree Ior
personal, non-enterprise usage. See the website Ior details.
AppArmor
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AppArmor (http://en.opensuse.org/AppArmor) is a set oI security enhancements developed by Novell Ior
SUSE Linux. It is installed in (K)ubuntu by deIault.
Disable AppArmor
AppArmor can prevent some services Irom running as expected. To disable it:
-rnrnmn -r
ur-n r nmn n-mv-
rj-r n-mv- nmn nmnurL-
SELinux
SE Linux (http://www.nsa.gov/selinux/inIo/Iaq.cIm) (Security Enhanced Linux) is an NSA (US National Security
Administration) recommended set oI tools Ior enhanced security in Linux systems. It enIorces strict access
controls (privileges) and is meant Ior mission-critical installations. It is not suitable Ior the casual desktop user. It
was Iirst available in Hardy Heron and is being updated Ior Intrepid Ibex. It is not compatible with AppArmor
(which must Iirst be removed).
-u rj-r n-rLL --Lnu
fail2ban
Iail2ban (http://www.Iail2ban.org/wiki/index.php/MainPage) will block IP addresses that Iail password
authentication multiple times in a row. This is useIul to limit brute Iorce password cracking attempts. Install:
-u rj-r n-rLL rL`on
Servers
You can have a GUI desktop with an Ubuntu Server. II you intend such as setup (or want to use packages that
require server capabilities, such as Drupal with Apache, etc.), then it is best to install Ubuntu Server edition Iirst
and then install the Ubuntu (Gnome) desktop aIterwards. For complete inIormation see the Ubuntu Server
Guide (https://help.ubuntu.com/8.10/serverguide/C/index.html) .
Note that Jaunty Jackalope is not a long-term support version, and there are many changes Irom Hardy Heron
to Jaunty Jackalope, including some new bugs in the Jaunty Jackalope desktop. Unless new Ieatures, such as
Xen (virtualization) support or the Tomcat (Java) server, are desired, many users strongly recommend Hardy
Heron's stability (with a KDE 3.5 desktop), especially iI a server/desktop combination is intended.
Download the latest Ubuntu Server ISO image Irom Ubuntu downloads
(http://www.ubuntu.com/GetUbuntu/download) .
See this guide (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BurningIsoHowto) Ior burning the ISO image to a CD.
Use the CD Ior installation oI the server.
Many types oI servers can be added to an existing desktop installation using the tasksel command. For a list oI
servers that can be installed easily as a one-step task:
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servers that can be installed easily as a one-step task:
-u r-k--L L-rr-k-
LAMP server installation
During server installation, you will have the option oI installing a LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, pHp) server
stack. Many (but not all) open source servers use this integrated server stack. Drupal, Ior example, needs to
have a LAMP server installed. II you intend to install a groupware server, however, make sure it is compatible
with a LAMP server stack beIore choosing this option. Many groupware servers will install LAMP (or their
own variation) automatically, so you do not need to install the LAMP stack. Others will install and use
postgreSQL instead oI MySQL, so you would not need to install a LAMP server. II you did not install a LAMP
server stack at initial installation, you can do it at any time:
-u r-k--L n-rLL Lm--nv-n
Other servers
During server installation, you can choose other servers to install, as well. These include a Mail server (PostIix
with Dovecot), a DNS server (bind9), the OpenSSH server, a print server, a Tomcat Java web server, a
Samba Iile server (https://help.ubuntu.com/8.10/serverguide/C/samba-Iileserver.html) (Ior use with Windows
networks), and a virtual machine host (Xen). Again, iI you are using a groupware solution, you should be careIul
about installing these services, as they may conIlict with similar (but competing) servers which the groupware
solution will install by deIault.
OpenSSH server
OpenSSH allows encrypted communications through a designated secure port. The OpenSSH server can be
installed as an option during the Ubuntu Server LiveCD installation. Also see setting up an SSH server.
Postfix (Mail Server)
PostIix (http://www.postIix.org/) is a Iree open source mail server. It can be installed as the "Mail server" option
when installing the Ubuntu server Irom the LiveCD. It interIaces directly to Dovecot (http://www.dovecot.org/) ,
the Iree open source IMAP (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InternetMessageAccessProtocol) and POP3
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PostOIIiceProtocol) server.
Bind9 (DNS server)
BIND (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIND) DNS servers are the most commonly used on the Internet. Bind9 is
the current edition and is installed by selecting the "DNS server" option when installing Ubuntu server Irom the
LiveCD. See the usage instruction here (http://www.bind9.net/manual/bind/9.2.5/Bv9ARM.html) , and also reIer
to the Ubuntu wiki (https://help.ubuntu.com/9.04/serverguide/C/dns.html) or Ubuntu help page
(https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BIND9ServerHowto) . You can install it at any time:
-u r-k--L n-rLL n---nv-n
Apache Tomcat (1ava server)
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Ubuntu:1aunty
From
Ubuntu 9.4 (1aunty 1ackalope)
Introduction
Languages:
This guide is currently maintained at the
University oI Latvia
Please help test and perfect this guide. To edit pages you need to
Contents
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Ubuntu:1aunty
From
Ubuntu 9.4 (1aunty 1ackalope)
Introduction
On April 23, 2009 Ubuntu 9.04 was released.
It is code named Jaunty Jackalope and is the successor to Intrepid Ibex (8.10) (Intrepid1).
Jaunty Jackalope is NOT an LTS (Long Term Support) release. It will be supported with security
updates until October 2010.
Languages:
AIrikaans - -
(Bengali) Catalu
() esky Deutsch Espa ol
English Estonian Filipino Fran ais
Hindi Hrvatski Kurd
Lietuvi kai Latvie u tulkojums Indonesian
Bahasa Malaysia
(http://melayubuntu.blogspot.com/) Italiano
()
Nederlands Norsk
Traditional Chinese Rom n
Suomi T rk e Svenska Slovak
Wersja
polska Portugu s Portugu s do Brasil
Shqip Slovenski Srpski (
)

Vi t
edit (http://ubuntuguide.org/index.php?
title Template:JauntyJackalopeLanguageBar&action edit)
This guide is currently maintained at the Linux Center (http://linux.edu.lv/index.php?newlang english) oI the
University oI Latvia (http://www.lu.lv/eng/) .
Please help test and perfect this guide. To edit pages you need to register.
Contents
1 Ubuntu 9.04 (Jaunty Jackalope)
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