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@What are the Impact of Shrimp cultivation on our environment ?

By Morsalin

Introduction: Bangladesh is a developing country. Her economic development depends on agriculture and industry. Previously agriculture contributes 50% of our total GDP. There are some important sectors which lead the contribution of agriculture. First and most important leading subsector in agriculture is fisheries and shrimp played an important role for this contribution. Geographically Bangladesh has coastal areas, tropical climate, ample water and fertile soil. From this geographical benefit, commercial shrimp farming began in 1970 and production grew steeply, particularly to match the market demand of USA, Japan and Europe. Cultivation of shrimps in a controlled and enclosed water body is described as

shrimp culture or in general the cultivation of shrimp. Both saline and fresh water are used for the cultivation of shrimps. It is a form of aquaculture. Shrimp become a major export earning industry by mid 1980s. Currently Bangladesh Produces 4.1% of global production of shrimps and presently ranked sixth in global shrimp production countries. Coastal shrimp and aquaculture policy: Shrimp holds a special position in the economy. Among the non-traditional export commodities, fish and fisheries products are the first. Of the fish and fisheries products shrimp alone constitutes about 86%. Presently, more than 0.14 million hectares of land are being used by the shrimp sector. But the production is only about 200-kg per hector. In order to ensure higher production through advanced technology, the following policies will be adopted according to Section 8 of National Fisheries Policy, 1998 as: 8.1 There will be a thana. district, division and national committee. This Committee will take care of the development of shrimp production, implement laws related to shrimp culture and mitigate other concerned problems. This committee will be run by the policies of the government. 8.2 Measures will be taken to conserve biodiversity in the coastal region and necessary steps will be taken to culture fish/shrimp along with rice crop, either in rotational or concurrent phases. 8.3 Arrangements will be established within the polders (embankment) and flood control projects to conserve wild life. Each polder will be coupled with arrangements for fish/shrimp culture with rice either in concurrent or in rotational system. 8.4 Improved-extensive culture will be encouraged. However, semi-intensive culture systems may be encouraged in controlled and feasible areas. Expansion of shrimp culture in mangrove forest or destruction of mangrove forest will be completely banned. In order to ensure ecological balance, tree plantation will be encouraged in shrimp culture area. 8.5 Demonstration shrimp farms will be established in the private sector with government assistance. Farmers will be given proper training. 8.6 Shrimp farming will be considered an exportable industry and like other such industries, shrimp industry will be given proper facilities. 8.7 Proper training will be given to the fry catchers to reduce mortality of fry or larvae during exploitation and transportation period. Adequate infrastructure facilities will also he established.

8.8 Private entrepreneurs will encourage establishing commercial shrimp hatcheries in order to reduce tile dependency oil shrimp post-larvae. 8.9 Shrimp harvesting during, shrimp breeding season will be banned. Some selected breeding grounds of the sea will be declared as shrimp sanctuaries. 8.10 Private entrepreneurs will be given priority to establish shrimp and prawn hatcheries. 8.11 Infrastructure Facilities-will developed in the shrimp-hatcheries with the co-operation of the Government moreover, appropriate security measure will be developed during the period of shrimp harvest and marketing. 8.12 Emphasis will be given to increase shrimp production by developing appropriate technology. Big farms will be encouraged to convert farms into smaller more manageable units through the development of water supplies and drainage facilities. 8.13 8.14 period. 8.15 Training programs will be taken for the concerned workers to keep healthy conditions Using local food ingredients will produce shrimp food. Ingredients, such as fishmeal, Hygienic conditions will be ensured during farm management and in the post harvest vitamin, mineral premix, food binder etc. will be imported, wherever necessary.

in the post harvest period for shrimp. Other relevant infrastructure facilities will also be expanded. 8.16 8.17 In order to get a good foreign market, marketing sectors will be strengthened. Facilities for Quality Control Laboratories will be expanded. Facilities of these

laboratories will be modernized to ensure quality to exportable fish and shrimps. 8.18 The Central Shrimp Cell will be expanded up to the field level in order to provide

services to the shrimp farms. 8.19 Different facilities along with the trained personnel will be expanded to ensure better

service from the shrimp cell. 8.20 Consultation will be made with the Ministry for Environment and Forests to ensure

increased shrimp production and maintain the ecological balance. 8.21 Coastal areas will be selected for shrimp farming.

8.22

Combined efforts with other foreign countries will be made to achieve environment

friendly semi-intensive shrimp culture. 8.23 Insurance system will be adopted in fish and shrimp culture.

Objectives of the National Fisheries Policy, 1998


Enhancement of the fisheries production and Fulfill the demand for animal protein, Poverty alleviation through creating self-employment and improvement of socio- economic conditions of the fishers: Achieve economic growth through earning foreign currency by exporting fish and fisheries products; Maintain ecological balance, conserve biodiversity, ensure public health provide recreational facilities.

National Environmental Policy, 1992


The Bangladesh National Environmental Policy sets out the basic framework for environmental action together with a set of broad sectoral action guidelines. Key elements of the policy are: Maintenance of the ecological balance and overall progress and development of the country through protection and improvement of the environment; Protection of countrys assets, properties and resources against natural disasters; Identification & regulation of all activities which pollute and degrade environment; Ensuring sustainable utilization of all natural resources;

Promoting

active

association

with

all

environment

related

international initiatives.

The Environmental Policy requires the following specific actions with respect to the Industrial sector: To phase in corrective measures in polluting industries; To conduct Environmental Impact Assessment (EIAs) for all new public and private industrial developments;
To ban, or find environmentally sound alternatives for, the production

of goods that cause environmental pollution; and to minimize waste and ensure sustainable use of resources by industry.

Under the National Environmental Policy, Department of Environment is mandated to review and approve all Environmental Impact Assessments.

Impact of shrimp cultivation on environment:


Though shrimp played an important role in our economy, then some environmental Laws which directly or indirectly violated by shrimp cultivation as follows1. The Bangladesh Environment Conservation act, 1995 2. The Environment Conservation Rules,1997

3. National environment Policy, 1992 4. The Bangladesh Wild Life ( Preservation) Order, 1973

Section 2 of The Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act, 1995 defines environment as "environment" means the
inter-relationship existing between water, air, soil and physical property and their relationship with human beings, other animals, plants and micro-organisms.

Impact of shrimp cultivation on Soil and agriculture:


For shrimp cultivation they increasing soil salinity levels (up to 500%) In non-saline area that hamper crop cultivation seriously. This saline water degrades our soil. But according to Rule 3(6) of The Environment Policy, 1992, to protect our soil from erosion we should keep our soil away from salinity. Beside this pathogens settle into the muck of shrimp waste and unconsumed fodder pesticiding a pond against further use. The irony is that even when the water has been released, salt and poison has spilled out in the surface land and vast area has become unfit for any types of cultivation. Beside this it pollutes our environment. According to section (2) of The Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act 1995, "pollution" means the contamination or alteration of the physical, chemical or biological properties of air, water or soil, including change in their temperature, taste, odor, density, or any other characteristics, or such other activity which, by way of discharging any liquid, gaseous, solid, radioactive or other substances into air, water or soil or any component of the environment, destroys or causes injury or harm to public health or to domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural, recreational or other useful activity, or which by such discharge destroys or causes injury or harm to air,

water, soil, livestock, wild animal, bird, fish, plant or other forms of Life. Due to pollution and poisoning salt water occurs huge lose for peasant. Income loses occurred from decline in rice productivity, erosion of homestead vegetable and social forestry. Beside this jackfruit and mango trees of coastal area destroying rapidly. Beside this, this poison water flows over local cannel which has been destructive for our local fish varieties.

Impact of shrimp cultivation on Livestock:


Livestock populations have decreased due to loss of common resources for grazing. The rate of decreasing grazing land is 64% than last twenty years. The reasons of decreasing grazing lands are shrimp culture expansion. Low lying land where people used to grow only one crop a year was previously used as common grazing land for much of the year. As a result, the number of cattle and goats has fallen. CARE International, 1999 shows average number of cow per household decrease significantly. In 1980, data shows 81.7% households have cows but in 1999 data shows 49.3% households have cows. Statistic shows that average number of goats per household was 3.3nos in 1980 but in 1999 it decreased at 1.3nos. It hampers our ecology and also damages our environmental balance.

Impact of shrimp cultivation on Mangrove forest:


Section 2 of The Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act, 1995 define ecosystem as "ecosystem" means the inter-dependent and balanced complex association of all components of the environment which can support and influence the conservation and growth of all living organisms. Mangroves play an important role in ecology of coastal areas. With the rapid expansion of shrimp farming the mangrove has greatly affected. Shrimps farmer are destroying mangroves to make room for more ponds. They eradicate natural mangrove vegetation

which destroys our ecosystem. That so why, wild animals like tigers, deer, wild cats, monkeys etc are decreasing. But according to Rule 3(7) of The Environment Policy, 1992, for natural environmental balance we should preserve forest and wild animal. Beside this unplanned and unscientific shrimp cultivation has drastically reduced the stock of indigenous fish varieties and destroyed many mangrove species of flora and fauna.

Impact of shrimp cultivation on Biodiversity:


Biodiversity is impacted in several ways by shrimp aquaculture, including: The loss of important spawning and nursery grounds affects local fisheries resulting in reducing yields for local fisheries. Many coral reef species spend a portion of their lifecycle in mangrove forests. The practice of catching post-lava shrimp results in losses of other species as by catch. The use of important post-larva shrimps from other countries to seed production ponds can result in introduction of alien.

Conclusion:
Shrimp cultivation has ecological impact in terms of salinity increase, destroying marine species and loss of biodiversity. In spite of the negative impact on ecology, the economic importance of shrimp cannot be overlooked for a developing country like Bangladesh. Proper management and planning can give a sustainable growth and benefit of shrimp cultivation. Pollution, destruction of sensitive coastal habitats, threats to aquatic biodiversity and significant socio-economic coasts must be balanced against the direct economic benefits or earning from the shrimp cultivation.