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Road Geometry Handbook

(incorporating Amendment No. 1)

October 2002

St. Martins House, Waterloo Road, Dublin 4. Tel:+353 1 660 2511 Fax +353 1 668 0009 Email : info@nra.ie Web : www.nra.ie

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Summary : This Handbook has been prepared by the Roughan & ODonovan-FaberMaunsell Alliance under the guidance of the Steering Group which was established by the National Roads Authority to implement the UK Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (DMRB) for use on national road schemes in Ireland. The Handbook contains extracts from those Standards contained in the December 2000 version of the National Roads Authority Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (NRA DMRB) that relate to the Geometric Design of Roads. The information has been selected to represent the most frequently used sections of the Standards. The user should, therefore, be aware that the information may be out of date and that additional information is available in the full Design Manual. The Handbook also contains guidance prepared by the Department of the Environment and Local Government on the use of this Handbook in the design of non-national roads.

Published by the National Roads Authority, Dublin 2002

October 2002

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Amendment No. 1

National Roads Authority ROAD GEOMETRY HANDBOOK AMENDMENT No. 1 October 2002
The NRA Road Geometry Handbook dated December 2000 is amended as follows. The amendments correct the procedure for referring decisions concerning the application of standards to non-national roads. Reference is also made to the June 2001 Amendment to NRA TD 9/00 and the June 2001 NRA Addendum to TD 42/95, but the amendments introduced by those documents are not included.

1. The Flysheet and Pages 3 to 6 of the Introduction (Paragraphs 1 to 15) dated December 2000 are replaced with the revised Flysheet and Pages 3 to 6 dated October 2002 as enclosed. The Summary on the inside of the Flysheet, Paragraphs 5, 12 and 13 and Tables 1 and 2 have been revised. 2. This Amendment shall be implemented forthwith. 3. All technical enquiries or comments on this Amendment, the Road Geometry Handbook or the Standards contained therein should be sent in writing to: Head of Project Management and Engineering National Roads Authority St Martins House Waterloo Road Dublin 4

.................................................................................. E OCONNOR Head of Project Management and Engineering

October 2002

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Amendment No. 1

INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE 1. Remove existing Flysheet and Pages 3 to 6. 2. Insert the replacement pages as enclosed. Insert this Amendment sheet between the contents page and the Flysheet.

October 2002

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

CONTENTS Page No. INTRODUCTION PART A : ROAD LINK DESIGN (NRA TD 9/00)
0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Foreword Design Speed Sight Distance Horizontal Alignment Vertical Alignment Climbing Lanes Introduction to Coordinated Link Design Single 2 Lane Carriageway Roads Dual Carriageways Harmonic Mean Visibility TD 9/3 TD 9/5 TD 9/11 TD 9/13 TD 9/19 TD 9/23 TD 9/33 TD 9/35 TD 9/49 TD 9/51-52

3-6

Annex A

PART B : CROSS SECTIONS AND HEADROOM (NRA TD 27/00)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction Design Principles Cross-Sections on Open Roads Cross-Sections at Structures Headroom at Structures Cross Sections For Non-National Roads (As Part of a National Road Scheme) TD 27/3 TD 27/5 TD 27/7 TD 27/13 TD 27/19 TD 27/23-24

Annex A

PART C : GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF MAJOR/MINOR PRIORITY JUNCTIONS (TD 42/95)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7. 8. Introduction Form of Major/Minor Priority Junctions Siting of Major/Minor Priority Junctions Safety Road Users Specific Requirements Geometric Design Features Assembly of Design Elements Design of Channelising Islands TD 42/3 TD 42/7 TD 42/13 TD 42/15 TD 42/17 TD 42/19 TD 42/49 TD 42/53-56

Annex 2

PART D : VEHICULAR ACCESS TO ALL-PURPOSE NATIONAL ROADS (TD 41/95)


1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Geometric Standards for Direct Access Road Users Specific Requirements Other Considerations TD 41/3 TD 41/5 TD 41/19 TD 41/21-22 R/14

REFERENCES

December 2000

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

December 2000

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Introduction

INTRODUCTION
1. This Handbook has been prepared as a convenient reference for the design of at-grade rural roads with priority junctions. Full details of the design standards to be used for national roads are contained in Volume 6, Road Geometry, of the UK Highways Agencys Design Manual for Roads and Bridges as implemented by the National Roads Authoritys Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (the NRA DMRB). Much of this Handbook has been produced by selecting the most relevant sections of the NRA DMRB from NRA TD 9/00, Road Link Design, NRA TD 27/00, Cross Sections and Headroom, TD 42/95, Major/Minor Priority Junctions and TD 41/95, Vehicular Accesses. It also contains a section on nonnational roads, prepared by the Department of the Environment and Local Government. The Handbook is intended to be used by experienced road engineers who are fully conversant with the content of the various original documents but who may wish to have an easily accessible guide at their desk. Additionally, it is envisaged that the Handbook will only be used for routine designs and, for this reason, very little detail relating to unusual circumstances has been included. Users of the Handbook should note that replacement pages will not be issued whenever the Standards on which it is based are revised. Sections may, therefore, have been superseded by subsequent revisions to the Standards. However, complete revised editions will be published should the need arise. It is, therefore, incumbent on users to ensure that they are using the latest edition of the Handbook and that any subsequent amendments to the Standards are incorporated. This Handbook consists of extracts from: NRA TD 9/00 Road Link Design dated December 2000 (NOT including NRA Amendment No 1, dated June 2001); Cross Sections and Headroom dated December 2000; Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions, as implemented by the NRA Addendum dated December 2000 (NOT including the revised NRA Addendum dated June 2001); Vehicular Access to All-Purpose Trunk Roads, as implemented by the NRA Addendum dated December 2000.

2.

3.

4.

5.

NRA TD 27/00 TD 42/95

TD 41/95

6.

The extracts have been chosen to provide the information most commonly required when designing atgrade roads for national road schemes. In general, the text and figures are identical to those in the original Standards. Paragraphs are numbered as in the originals to make cross referencing simpler; thus, Paragraph 4.16 in the TD 9 section of the Handbook is the same of Paragraph 4.16 in NRA TD 9/00. Where whole paragraphs of the original have been omitted, the numbering jumps accordingly. Where text has been omitted from a paragraph, this is indicated by dots: . In some cases, however, the wording has been paraphrased or abbreviated: such text is shown [in square brackets and in italics]. This Handbook has no status within the National Roads Authority Design Manual for Roads and Bridges. Consequently, where the text in this Handbook varies from that in the original Standards, the meaning of the original documents shall prevail. If in doubt, the user should consult the full Design Manual.

7.

October 2002

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Introduction

8.

In the text there are references to other documents, including Standards (TD) and Advice Notes (TA) which form part of the Design Manual for Roads and Bridges. These references are listed in full at the end of the Handbook.

National Road Schemes 9. This Handbook is intended for use on national road schemes in the design of at-grade rural roads with a design speed of 50km/h or more. Advice is included on the design of side roads which are not national roads but which are diverted or improved as part of a national road scheme.

Non-National Road Schemes 10. The Department of the Environment and Local Government has provided the following guidance on the use of this Handbook in the design of non-national road schemes. This Handbook and, where appropriate, NRA DMRB documents may be used for the design of nonnational road schemes subject to the following amendments:

11.

Text used in Road Geometry Handbook and in NRA DMRB documents

Interpretation of this text when these documents are being used in the design of Non-National Roads

"national road"

"non-national road"

"all-purpose national road"

"all-purpose non-national road"

"National Roads Authority" (in the context of references to design documents and other publications)

"National Roads Authority"

"National Roads Authority" (in the context of decisions on design options, Mandatory Sections, Relaxations and Departures from Standard)

(a) "National Roads Authority" in cases where the non-national road is part of a NRA funded road scheme (b) "The Department of the Environment and Local Government" in cases where the DOELG Memorandum on Grants for Non-National Roads current at the time requires DOELG approval of the contract documentation of the road scheme (c) "The Road Authority" in all other cases

Table 1: Interpretation of Text for Use on Non-National Road Schemes

October 2002

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Introduction

Scope 12. This Handbook does not contain information on the design of roundabouts, traffic signal junctions, grade separated junctions or pedestrian subways. For these and other features, the Standards of Volume 6 of the Design Manual for Roads and Bridges should be consulted together with the relevant NRA Addenda. A list of the documents of Volume 6 of the NRA DMRB (as at October 2002) which have been implemented for use in Ireland is given in the following table. Volume 6 of the UK DMRB also contains other Advice Notes (not listed) which have not been implemented for use in Ireland.

DMRB Part

Number

Title

Section 0: Introduction Section 1: Links 6.1.1 6.1.1A 6.1.2 NRA TD 9/00 * NRA TA 43/00 * NRA TD 27/00 * Road Link Design * [and NRA Amendment No. 1, June 2001]* Guidance on Road Link Design * [and NRA Amendment No. 1, June 2001]* Cross Sections and Headroom * 6.0.A * NRA Introduction to Volume 6 *

Section 2: Junctions 6.2.1 6.2.3 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.2.6 6.2.7 TD 22/92 TD 16/93 TD 50/99 TD 39/94 TD 40/94 TD 42/95 TD 41/95 Layout of Grade Separated Junctions [and NRA Erratum No.1, June 2001] Geometric Design of Roundabouts The Geometric Layout of Signal-Controlled Junctions and Signalised Roundabouts The Design of Major Interchanges Layout of Compact Grade Separated Junctions Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions Vehicular Access to All-Purpose Trunk Roads

Section 3: Highway Features 6.3.1 6.3.2 TD 36/93 TA 66/95 Subways for Pedestrians and Pedal Cyclists: Layout and Dimensions Police Observation Platforms on Motorways

Note: NRA Standards and Advice Notes complete documents which replace the equivalent UK DMRB documents are indicated by *. NRA TA 43 is an additional Advice Note which does not have a current UK equivalent. The other documents are DMRB Standards and an Advice Note which should be read in conjunction with the relevant NRA Addenda. Table 2: Documents of NRA DMRB Volume 6, Road Geometry, Available for Use in Ireland

October 2002

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Introduction

Mandatory Sections 13. Sections of the text in Parts B, C and D (NRA TD 27, TD 42 and TD 41) are highlighted by being contained in boxes. These represent the standards which the National Roads Authority expects in the design of national road schemes. They are the sections with which the Design Organisation must comply, or with which they must have agreed a suitable Departure from Standard with the National Roads Authority. The remainder of these Parts contains advice and enlargement which is commended to designers for their consideration.

Relaxations within Standard 14. In difficult circumstances, the Designer may relax a standard to that relating to the next lowest design speed step. The Designer shall record the fact that a Relaxation has been used in the design and the corresponding reasons for its use. The record shall be endorsed by the Design Organisations senior engineer responsible for the scheme. The Design Organisation shall report all Relaxations incorporated into the design as part of the project report at the end of each project management phase (refer to the National Roads Project Management Guidelines).

Departures from Standards 15. In exceptional situations, the National Roads Authority may be prepared to agree to a Departure from Standard where the standard, including permitted Relaxations, is not realistically achievable on a national road scheme. Design Organisations faced by such situations and wishing to consider pursuing this course shall discuss any such option at an early stage in design with the National Roads Authority. Proposals to adopt Departures from Standard on national road schemes must be submitted by the Design Organisation to the National Roads Authority and formal approval received before incorporation into a design layout.

October 2002

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

PART A : ROAD LINK DESIGN


(Based on NRA TD 9/00)

December 2000

TD 9/1

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

December 2000

TD 9/2

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

0. FOREWORD
Introduction 0.1 [Standard NRA TD9/00] states the basic principles to be used for co-ordinating the various elements of the road layout, which together form the three dimensional design of the road. Definitions 0.3 For the definitions of the general road terms used in this Standard, such as components of the road (central reserve, verge, hard shoulder and hard strip, etc.), see BS 6100: Subsection 2.4.1. 0.4 Particular terms used in this Standard are defined as follows:

All purpose road:- A road for the use of all classes of traffic (e.g. not a motorway). Central reserve:- The area which separates the carriageways of a dual carriageway road. Note that this includes any offside hard strips. D2AP or D3AP:- Dual two-lane (or dual three-lane) all-purpose road. S2:- Two-lane single carriageway road with lane widths of up to 3.75m. Verge:- the part of a road cross-section alongside a carriageway but not including embankment or cutting slopes. Note that this includes hard strips but not hard shoulders. WS2:- Two-lane wide single carriageway, normally with lane widths of 5.0m. Scope 0.10 A major objective of this Standard is to ensure that designs achieve value for money without any significant effect on safety. The design systems that have been developed in relation to both Design Speed and the related geometric parameters will result in greater flexibility to achieve economic design in difficult circumstances. In addition, detailed attention is given to the design of single carriageway roads, where the previous recommendations have been considerably extended to allow greater flexibility for design, with particular emphasis upon the coordination of design elements to improve safety and overtaking conditions. Overall, the greater flexibility for design introduced by this Standard will enable more economic design, reducing both the construction costs and the impact of new roads and road improvements on the environment.

December 2000

TD 9/3

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

December 2000

TD 9/4

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

1. DESIGN SPEED
General 1.1 The road alignment shall be designed so as to ensure that standards of curvature, visibility, superelevation, etc. are provided for a Design Speed which shall be consistent with the anticipated vehicle speeds on the road. A relatively straight alignment in flat country will generate higher speeds, and thus produce a higher Design Speed, than a more sinuous alignment in hilly terrain or amongst dense land use constraints. There is, therefore, always an inherent economic trade-off between the construction and environmental costs of alternative alignments of different Design Speeds, and their user benefits. Factors Affecting Speed 1.2 Speeds vary according to the impression of constraint that the road alignment and layout impart to the driver. This constraint can be measured by the three factors given in Paragraphs 1.3 to 1.5. 1.3 Alignment Constraint, Ac: This measures the degree of constraint imparted by the road alignment, and is measured by: Dual Carriageways: Single Carriageways: where: B = Bendiness (total angle the road turns through), degrees/km; VISI = Harmonic Mean Visibility, m (see Annex A). 1.4 Layout Constraint, Lc: This measures the degree of constraint imparted by the road cross section, verge width and frequency of junctions and accesses. Table 1 shows the values of Lc relative to cross section features and density of access, expressed as the total number of junctions, laybys and commercial accesses per km, summed for both sides of the road, where: L = Low Access numbering 2 to 5 per km; M = Medium Access numbering 6 to 8 per km; H = High Access numbering 9 to 12 per km. 1.5 Mandatory Speed Limits: On rural derestricted roads, i.e. with national speed limits of: mph Motorways Single and Dual Carriageways 70 60 km/h 112 96 Ac = 6.6 + B/10 Ac = 12 - VISI/60 + 2B/45

vehicle speeds are constrained only by the physical impression of the road alignment, as described by Ac and Lc. The use of mandatory speed limits (together with more confined urban cross-sections), however, restricts speeds below those freely achievable, and will act as a further constraint on speed in addition to that indicated by Lc.

December 2000

TD 9/5

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

Road Type Carriageway Width (ex. hard strips) Degree of Access and Junctions With hard shoulders Without hard shoulders: With 3.0m Verge With 1.5m Verge With 0.5m Verge (29) (26) 25 6m

S2 7.0m 7.3m

WS2 10m

D2AP Dual 7.0m Dual 7.5m

D3AP Dual 10.5m or 11.25m L L

D2M

D3M

Dual Dual Dual 7.0m 7.5m 10.5m or


11.25m

21

19

17

15

10

23

(23)

(21)

(19)

(17)

(12)

(11)

(10) (9) (6)

(31)

(28)

(27)

(25)

(25)

(23)

( ) : Non-standard cross-section

(33)

(30)

There is no research data available for 4 lane Single Carriageway roads between 12 and 15m width (S4). In the limited circumstances for their use described in this document, Design Speed should be estimated assuming a normal D2AP with a Layout Constraint of 15 - 13km/h

Table 1 : Layout Constraint, Lc km/h

Selection of Design Speed 1.6 New Rural Roads: Design Speed shall be derived from Figure 1, which shows the variation in speeds for a given Lc against Ac. The Design Speeds are arranged in bands, i.e. 120, 100, 85 km/h etc., within which suffixes A and B indicate the higher and lower categories of each band. 1.6A An initial alignment to a trial Design Speed should be drawn up, and Ac measured for each section of the route demonstrating significant changes thereof, over a minimum length of 2 km. The Design Speed calculated from the ensuing Ac and Lc should be checked against the initial choice, to identify locations where elements of the initial trial alignment may be relaxed to achieve cost or environmental savings, or conversely where the design should be upgraded, according to the calculated Design Speed. If any changes to road geometry result, then the Design Speed should be recalculated to check that it has not changed. 1.7 Existing Rural Road Improvements (including short diversions or bypasses up to about 2 km in length): Design Speed shall be derived in a similar manner to Paragraphs 1.6 and 1.6A above, with Ac measured over a minimum length of 2 km incorporating the improvement, provided there are no discontinuities such as roundabouts. The strategy for the contiguous sections of road, however, must be considered when determining Ac and the cross-sectional design. It might be unnecessary to provide a full standard cross-section for a minor re-alignment within a low standard route, unless it represented an initial stage of a realistic improvement strategy.

December 2000

TD 9/6

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

Figure 1 : Selection of Design Speed (Rural Roads)

1.8 Urban Roads: Low speed limits (30-40 mph) may be required due to the amount of frontage activity, but also where physical restrictions on the alignment make it impractical to achieve geometry relative to a higher Design Speed. Design Speeds shall be selected with reference to the speed limits envisaged for the road, so as to permit a small margin for speeds in excess of the speed limit, as shown in Table 2.

SPEED LIMIT mph km/h 30 48 40 64 50 80 60 96

DESIGN SPEED km/h 60B 70A 85A 100A

Table 2 : Design Speeds for Mandatory Speed Limits

Design Speed Related Parameters 1.9 The Design Speed bands 120, 100, 85 km/h etc dictate the minimum geometric parameters for the design, according to Table 3, which shows Desirable Minimum values and values for certain Design Speed steps below Desirable Minimum. Desirable Minimum values represent the comfortable values dictated by the Design Speed.
December 2000 TD 9/7

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

DESIGN SPEED (km/h)


STOPPING SIGHT DISTANCE m Desirable Minimum One Step below Desirable Minimum Two Steps below Desirable Minimum HORIZONTAL CURVATURE m Minimum R* without elimination of Adverse Camber and Transitions Minimum R* with Superelevation of 2.5% Minimum R with Superelevation of 3.5% Desirable Minimum R with Superelevation of 5% One Step below Desirable Min R with Superelevation of 7% Two Steps below Desirable Min R with Superelevation of 7% VERTICAL CURVATURE - CREST Desirable Minimum* Crest K Value One Step below Desirable Min Crest K Value Two Steps below Desirable Min Crest K Value VERTICAL CURVATURE - SAG Desirable Minimum Sag K Value One Step below Desirable Min Sag K Value Two Steps below Desirable Min Sag K Value OVERTAKING SIGHT DISTANCES Full Overtaking Sight Distance FOSD m. FOSD Overtaking Crest K Value

120
295 215 160

100
215 160 120

85
160 120 90

70
120 90 70

60
90 70 50

50
70 50 50

V2/R

2880 2040 1440 1020 720 510

2040 1440 1020 720 510 360

1440 1020 720 510 360 255

1020 720 510 360 255 180

720 510 360 255 180 127

510 360 255 180 127 90

5 7.07 10 14.14 20 28.28

182 100 55

100 55 30

55 30 17

30 17 10

17 10 6.5

10 6.5 6.5

53 37 26

37 26 20

26 20 13

20 13 9

13 9 6.5

9 6.5 6.5

N/A N/A

580 400

490 285

410 200

345 142

290 100

Notes * Not to be used in the design of single carriageways (see Paragraphs 7.25 to 7.30) The V2/R values simply represent a convenient means of identifying the relative levels of design parameters, irrespective of Design Speed. K Value = Curve length divided by algebraic change of gradient %. See Paragraph 4.5. Table 3 : Design Speed Related Parameters

Relaxations 1.15 [NRA TD9/00 .] defines a sequence of parameter values in the form of a hierarchy of geometric design criteria related to Design Speeds. This three tier hierarchy enables a flexible approach to be applied to a range of situations where the strict application of Desirable Minimum standards would lead to disproportionately high construction costs or severe environmental impact upon people, properties or landscapes. Designs with at least Desirable Minimum standards will produce a high standard of road safety and should be the initial objective. However, the level of service may remain generally satisfactory and a road may not become unsafe where these values are reduced. This second tier of the hierarchy is termed a Relaxation. 1.16 The limit for Relaxations is defined by a given number of Design Speed steps below a specific benchmark, usually the Desirable Minimum. Relaxations vary according to the type of road - motorway or all-purpose - and whether the Design Speed is band A or band B. Details for sight distance are given in Chapter 2, for horizontal alignment in Chapter 3, and for vertical alignment in Chapter 4. 1.17 Relaxations may be introduced at the discretion of the Designer. The Design Organisation shall record the fact that a Relaxation has been used and the corresponding reason for its use... [see also the introduction to this Handbook].

December 2000

TD 9/8

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

1.20 The Designer should consider whether, and to what degree the site of the proposed Relaxation is: isolated from other Relaxations; isolated from junctions; one where drivers have Desirable Minimum stopping sight distance; subject to momentary visibility impairment only; one that would affect only a small proportion of the traffic; on straightforward geometry readily understandable to drivers; on a road with no frontage access; one where traffic speeds would be reduced locally due to adjacent road geometry (eg uphill sections, approaching roundabouts and major/minor junctions where traffic has to Yield or stop etc), or speed limits.

1.23 Values for sight distance, horizontal curvature and vertical curvature shall not be less than those given in Table 3 for each Design Speed and the appropriate number of Design Speed steps. 1.24 Only stopping sight distance, horizontal curvature, vertical curvature, superelevation and gradient shall be subject to Relaxations. Stopping sight distance Relaxations of up to 1 Design Speed step below Desirable Minimum may be coincident with horizontal curvature Relaxations of up to 1 Design Speed step below Desirable Minimum. All other combinations of Relaxations are not permitted and shall be treated as Departures. 1.25 Relaxations are not permitted for either of the overtaking sight distance parameters given in Table 3. 1.26 The Relaxations below Desirable Minimum described in Paragraphs 2.8 to 2.13 inclusive and 4.9 to 4.17 inclusive are NOT permitted on the immediate approaches to junctions. [T]he immediate approaches to a junction shall be: a. For at grade major/minor junctions without diverge and merge tapers, those lengths of carriageway on the minor roads between a point 1.5 times the Desirable Minimum Stopping Sight Distance upstream of the Stop line or Yield line and the Stop line or Yield line itself, and those lengths of carriageway on the mainline between a point 1.5 times the Desirable Minimum stopping sight distance from the centre line of the minor road and the centre line itself. b. For roundabouts, those lengths of carriageway on the approach to the roundabout between a point 1.5 times the Desirable Minimum stopping sight distance from the Yield line and the Yield line itself. c. For diverges, that length of carriageway from a point 1.5 times the Desirable Minimum stopping sight distance upstream of the start of the diverge taper to the back of the diverge nose. d. For merges, that length of carriageway from a point 1.5 times the Desirable Minimum stopping sight distance upstream of the back of the merge nose to the end of the merge taper. Departures 1.27 In situations of exceptional difficulty which cannot be overcome by Relaxations, it may be possible to overcome them by adoption of Departures, the third tier of the hierarchy. Proposals to adopt Departures from Standard must be submitted to the National Roads Authority for approval before incorporation into a design layout to ensure that safety is not significantly reduced.
December 2000 TD 9/9

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

December 2000

TD 9/10

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

2. SIGHT DISTANCE
Stopping Sight Distance 2.2 Stopping sight distance shall be measured from a minimum driver's eye height of between 1.05m and 2.00m, to an object height of between 0.26m and 2.00m both above the road surface, as shown in Figure 3. It shall be checked in both the horizontal and vertical planes, between any two points in the centre of the lane on the inside of the curve (for each carriageway in the case of dual carriageways).

Figure 3 : Measurement of Stopping Sight Distance Full Overtaking Sight Distance 2.3 Table 3 shows for each Design Speed the Full Overtaking Sight Distance (FOSD) required for overtaking vehicles using the opposing traffic lane on single carriageway roads. Sufficient visibility for overtaking shall be provided on as much of the road as possible, especially where daily traffic flows are expected to approach the maximum design flows. 2.4 FOSD shall be available between points 1.05m and 2.00m above the centre of the carriageway as shown in Figure 4, and shall be checked in both the horizontal and vertical planes.

Figure 4 : Measurement of FOSD Obstructions to Sight Distance 2.7 Care shall be taken to ensure that no substantial fixed obstructions interrupt the sightlines, including road furniture such as traffic signs. However, isolated slim objects such as lamp columns, sign supports, or slim footbridge supports of width 550mm or under can be ignored Relaxations 2.8 In the circumstances described in Paragraphs 1.15 to 1.26, Relaxations below the Desirable Minimum stopping sight distance values may be made at the discretion of the Designer. The number of Design Speed steps permitted below the Desirable Minimum are normally as follows: all-purpose bands A and B

2 steps

December 2000

TD 9/11

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

However, in the circumstances listed in Paragraphs 2.9, 2.10, 2.11 and 2.12, the scope for Relaxations shall be extended or reduced as described, provided that the resultant Relaxations do not exceed 2 Design Speed steps. 2.9 For band A roads where the stopping sight distance is reduced by momentary obstructions, the scope for Relaxations may be extended by 1 Design Speed step. 2.10 [Low objects on horizontal curves (eg safety fences) may obscure stopping sight distance to the 0.26m object height. For band A roads where the appropriate stopping sight distance to the 1.05m high object is available over the fence or parapet, the scope for Relaxation of stopping sight distance for sight lines passing in front of the obstruction to the 0.26m object height may be extended by one Design Speed step.] 2.11 On or near the bottom of long grades on dual carriageways steeper than 3% and longer than 1.5km the scope for Relaxations shall be reduced by 1 Design Speed step. Conversely, at or near the top of up gradients on single carriageways steeper than 4% and longer than 1.5 km, the scope for Relaxation may be extended by 1 step due to reduced speeds uphill. 2.12 The scope for Relaxations shall be reduced by 1 Design Speed step immediately following an Overtaking Section on single carriageway roads (see Paragraphs 7.5 to 7.16). 2.13 Relaxations below Desirable Minimum are not permitted on the immediate approaches to junctions as defined in Paragraph 1.26.

December 2000

TD 9/12

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

3. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT
Road Camber 3.1 On sections of road with radii greater than that shown in Table 3 for Minimum R without elimination of adverse camber & transitions (ie. V/R < 5), the crossfall or camber should be 2.5%, normally from the centre of single carriageways or from the central reserve of dual carriageways to the outer channels. At junctions other than roundabouts, the cross-section of the major road shall be retained across the junction, and the side road graded into the channel line of the major road. On horizontal curves, adverse camber shall be replaced by favourable crossfall of 2.5% when the radius is less than that shown in Table 3 for Minimum R without elimination of adverse camber & transitions (ie. V/R > 5). However, it will frequently be necessary to eliminate adverse camber on larger radii for aesthetic or drainage reasons. 3.1A On minor roads where the quality of road pavement laying is unlikely to be high, the minimum crossfall should be 3%. Superelevation 3.2 On radii less than those shown in Table 3 for Minimum R with superelevation of 2.5% (ie V/R > 7.07), superelevation shall be provided, such that: V S= 2.828 x R Where : V = Design Speed, km/h R = Radius of Curve, m S = Superelevation, %. In rural areas superelevation shall not exceed 7%. In urban areas with at-grade junctions and side accesses, superelevation shall be limited to 5%. Figure 5 shows the appropriate superelevation for the range of Design Speeds.

2.5% FAVOURABLE CROSSFALL

Figure 5 : Superelevation of Curves

December 2000

TD 9/13

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

Relaxations 3.4 [Relaxations of up to 2 Design Speed steps below the Desirable Minimum values may be made at the discretion of the Designer for all road types subject, for band B roads, to the following two paragraphs.] 3.5 On or near the bottom of long grades on dual carriageways steeper than 3% and longer than 1.5km the scope for Relaxations shall be reduced by 1 Design Speed step. Conversely, at or near the top of up gradients on single carriageways steeper than 4% and longer than 1.5 km, the scope for Relaxations may be extended by 1 step due to reduced speeds uphill. 3.6 The scope for Relaxations shall be reduced by 1 Design Speed step immediately following an Overtaking Section on single carriageway roads (see Paragraphs 7.5 to 7.16). Appearance and Drainage 3.7 Superelevation shall not be introduced, nor adverse camber removed, so gradually as to create large almost flat areas of carriageway, nor so sharply as to cause discomfort or to kink the edges of the carriageway. A satisfactory appearance can usually be achieved by ensuring that the carriageway edge profile does not vary in grade by more than about 1% from that of the line about which the carriageway is pivoted, and by ample smoothing of all changes in edge profile. However, in some difficult areas even the above requirements can lead to drainage problems, eg. where the superelevation is applied against the longitudinal gradient. It may be necessary to either modify the horizontal alignment to move the superelevation area, increase the variation in grade of the edge profile, or apply a rolling crown. Areas susceptible to such drainage problems should be identified at an early stage in the design process, before the horizontal alignment is fixed. Application of Superelevation 3.8 Progressive superelevation or removal of adverse camber shall be achieved over or within the length of the transition curve from the arc end. On existing roads without transitions, between and 2/3 of the cant shall be introduced on the approach straight and the remainder at the beginning of the curve. Widening on Curves 3.9 Pavement widening at curves on links and on the main line through junctions is required for carriageways of less than standard width and for low radius curves of standard width to allow for the swept path of long vehicles. 3.10 For carriageways of standard width (with lane widths of 3.5m, 3.65m or 3.75m), each lane shall be widened to 3.95m when the radius is between 90m and 150m. 3.10A For carriageways of standard width, the minimum lane width shall be 3.65m when the radius is between 150m and 1000m. 3.11 For carriageways less than the standard widths, widening shall be: 0.6m per lane where the radius is between 90m and 150m subject to maximum carriageway widths of 7.9m, 11.9m and 15.8m (for 2, 3 and 4 lanes respectively). 0.5m per lane where the radius is between 150m and 300m, subject to maximum carriageway widths of 7.9m, 11.9m and 15.8m (for 2, 3 and 4 lanes respectively). 0.3m per lane, where the radius is between 300m and 400m subject to maximum carriageway widths of 7.9m, 11.9m and 15.8m (for 2, 3 and 4 lanes respectively).

December 2000

TD 9/14

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

3.12 Radii less than 90m on the mainline are Departures from standard. For these and all other junction elements, widening should be in accordance with TD 42 3.13 The extra width should be applied uniformly along the transition curve. In the improvement of existing curves the widening should generally be made on the inside of curves. Lane Width Reductions at Pinch Points 3.14 At points of particular difficulty on Wide Dual Carriageways, where full lane widths cannot be achieved, a reduction from 3.75m to 3.50m is permitted as a Relaxation provided that the radius of curvature exceeds 1000m. Points where such a Relaxation are likely to be most applicable are around the urban fringe, and at sites with difficult topography or in historic or conservation areas. This Relaxation shall not apply on new single carriageway roads. Transitions 3.15 Transition curves shall be provided on curves the radius of which are less than that shown in Table 3 for Minimum R without elimination of adverse camber & transitions (ie. V/R <5). 3.16 Length of Curve: The basic transition length shall be derived from the formula: V L = 46.7 x q x R Where: L = V = q = R = Length of transition (m) Design Speed (km/h) Rate of increase of centripetal acceleration (m/sec3) travelling along curve at constant speed V(km/h) Radius of curve (m)

q should normally not exceed 0.3m/sec3, although in difficult cases, it may be necessary to increase the value of q up to 0.6 m/sec3. On curves which are sub-standard for the appropriate Design Speed, the length of transition should normally be limited to (24R) metres. 3.17 Application of Superelevation: Super-elevation or elimination of adverse camber shall generally be applied on or within the length of the transition curve from the arc end. The basic transition appropriate to the Design Speed, however, will often result in insufficient transition length to accommodate superelevation turnover, and in such cases longer transitions should be provided to match the superelevation design. The Effect of Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves 3.18 Stopping Sight Distance: When the road is in a cutting, or at bridge crossings, it may be necessary to widen verges or increase bridge clearances to ensure that the appropriate stopping sight distance is not obstructed. Figure 6 shows the maximum central offset required with varying horizontal curvature, in order to maintain the Design Speed related stopping sight distances. It can be seen that extensive widening of verges and structures, or central reserves with safety fence or safety barriers, would be required to maintain Desirable stopping sight distances on horizontal radii below Desirable Minimum. Where a road is on embankment, however, visibility will be available across the embankment slope. However, it must be ensured that the sight distance is not obscured by landscape planting. 3.19 Full Overtaking Sight Distance: Figure 7 shows the maximum central offset required with varying horizontal curvature, in order to maintain the Design Speed related FOSDs. It can be seen that the higher requirements of FOSD result in extensive widening of verges for all but relatively straight sections of road.
December 2000 TD 9/15

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

2 Steps below desirable minimum V2/R = 28.28 1020 1440 2040 desirable minimum 2 V /R = 14.14
20
h m/ 0k 10

255

90 127 180

360

510

30

25

CENTRAL OFFEST Xm

20
h m/ 0k 12

15

10 7.325 5

720

/h km 85

/h km 70 /h km 60 m/h 50k

10

7.07

0 0 500 1000 1500 2000

Standard Rural S2 3.0 m Verge + 2.5 m Hard Shoulder + Half 3.65m Lane Width

RADIUS Rm
The values of X shown are the maxima and apply where SSD < curve length. Land for visibility should be checked from the plans.

SSD

er ld ou sh ay rd ew er Ha ag ld rri ou Ca sh rd H a ge r Ve

Central Offset Xm

Figure 6 : Verge Widening for Desirable Minimum Stopping Sight Distance

Ra di us Rm

December 2000

TD 9/16

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

1020

1440

2040

2880

4080

30
7.07

5760

360

510 720

CENTRAL OFFEST Xm

25
70 km

V2 R
10 0
50 km/h
60 km /h

m /h 85 k

km

/h

/h

5.0
20

15

3.53

2 MAX V 2 R FOR O/TAKING SECTION

10 9.15

2.5

1.76

5 Standard Rural S2 3.0 m Verge + 2.5 m Hard Shoulder + 3.65m Lane Width 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

RADIUS Rm
The values of X are the maxima and apply where FOSD < curve length. Land for visibility should be checked from the plans.

FOSD

Central Offset Xm

er ld ou sh ay rd ew er Ha ag ld rri ou Ca sh rd Ha ge r Ve

Ra

Figure 7 : Verge Widening for FOSD

diu sR m

December 2000

TD 9/17

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

December 2000

TD 9/18

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

4. VERTICAL ALIGNMENT
Gradients 4.1 Maximum Gradients: The Desirable Maximum gradient for design shall be: Desirable Max Grade Motorways AP Dual Carriageways AP Single Carriageways 3% 4% 5%

However, in hilly terrain steeper gradients will frequently be required, particularly where traffic volumes are at the lower end of the range. 4.2 [Effects of Steep Gradients: In hilly terrain slightly steeper gradients may be permitted as Relaxations although departures from standards will be required for any proposals to adopt gradients steeper than the following:] Max Grade with Relaxation Motorways AP Dual Carriageways AP Single Carriageways 4% 5% 6%

4.3 Minimum Gradients: For effective drainage with kerbed roads, a minimum gradient of 0.5% should be maintained wherever possible. In flatter areas, however, the vertical alignment should not be manipulated by the introduction of vertical curvature simply to achieve adequate surface water drainage gradients. Drainage paths must be provided by false channel profiles with minimum gradients of 0.5%. False channels may be avoided by using over-edge drainage (to filter drains or surface channels or ditches) where kerbs are inappropriate, eg. in rural areas. Vertical Curves 4.4 [General: Vertical curves shall be provided at all changes in gradient. Stopping sight distance should always be checked because the horizontal alignment of the road, presence of crossfall, superelevation or verge treatment and features such as signs and structures adjacent to the carriageway will affect the interaction between vertical curvature and visibility.] 4.5 K Values: Curvature shall be derived from the appropriate K value in Table 3. The minimum curve lengths can be determined by multiplying the K values shown by the algebraic change of gradient expressed as a percentage, ie. +3% grade to -2% grade indicates a grade change of 5%. Thus for a Design Speed of 120 km/h, the length of a crest curve would be:Desirable Min = 5 x 182 = 910m One step below Des Min = 5 x 100 = 500m
December 2000 TD 9/19

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

4.6 Crest Curves: There are two factors that affect the choice of crest curvature, visibility and comfort The Desirable Minimum crest curves are based upon visibility criteria. 4.6A The use of crest curves in the range from Desirable Minimum up to FOSD Overtaking Crest on single carriageway roads is a Departure from Standards (see Paragraph 7.19). 4.7 Sag Curves: Daytime visibility at sag curves is usually not obstructed unless overbridges, signs or other features are present; this also applies to night-time visibility on roads that are lit. However, sag curvature does affect nighttime visibility on unlit roads. The Desirable Minimum sag curves are based on a conservative comfort criterion (0.21 m/sec3 maximum rate of vertical acceleration); the resultant sag curves approximate to those using headlamp visibility criteria assuming a 1.5o upward spread of the light beam. The sag curves for 1 Design Speed step below Desirable Minimum are based on the conventional comfort criterion of 0.3 m/sec3 maximum rate of vertical acceleration. The adoption of this approach results in the sag curve K values being less than or equal to the equivalent crest curve K values at all the Design Speeds in Table 3. 4.8 Grass Verges: Where, at crests, the sight line crosses the verge, consideration shall be given to the design of a lower verge profile in order to allow for an overall height of grass of 0.5m. Relaxations 4.9 Crest Curves: In the circumstances described in Paragraphs 1.15 to 1.26, Relaxations below the Desirable Minimum values may be made at the discretion of the Designer. The number of Design Speed steps permitted below the Desirable Minimum are normally as follows: all-purpose roads bands A and B

2 steps

However, in the circumstances listed in Paragraphs 4.10, 4.11 and 4.12 the scope for Relaxations shall be extended or reduced as described, provided that the resultant Relaxations do not exceed 2 Design Speed steps. 4.10 At or near the top of up gradients on single carriageways steeper than 4% and longer than 1.5 km, the scope for Relaxations may be extended by 1 step due to reduced speeds uphill. 4.11 The scope for Relaxations shall be reduced by 1 Design Speed step immediately following an Overtaking Section on single carriageway roads (see Paragraphs 7.5 to 7.16). 4.12 For band A roads when the crest curve is within a straight section the scope for Relaxations may be extended by 1 Design Speed step. 4.13 Relaxations below Desirable Minimum are not permitted on the immediate approaches to junctions as defined in Paragraph 1.26. 4.14 Sag Curves: In the circumstances described in Paragraphs 1.15 to 1.26, Relaxations below the Desirable Minimum values may be made at the discretion of the Designer. The number of Design Speed steps permitted below the Desirable Minimum are normally as follows: all-purpose roads bands A and B

2 steps

However, in the circumstances listed in Paragraph 4.16, the scope for Relaxations shall be extended or reduced as described, provided that the resultant Relaxations do not exceed 2 Design Speed steps.

December 2000

TD 9/20

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

4.16 The scope for Relaxations shall be reduced by 1 Design Speed step immediately following an Overtaking Section on single carriageway roads (see Paragraphs 7.5 to 7.16). 4.17 Relaxations below Desirable Minimum are not permitted on the immediate approaches to junctions as defined in Paragraph 1.26.

December 2000

TD 9/21

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

December 2000

TD 9/22

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

5. CLIMBING LANES
Single Carriageways 5.2 Criteria for Provision: On single carriageways without hard shoulders, an additional uphill climbing lane shall be provided, if it can be economically or environmentally justified, on hills with gradients (G = 100H/L) greater than 2% and longer than 500m. The solid curves in Figure 8 show the height risen, H, of a hill required to justify economically the provision of a climbing lane, according to the design year traffic forecast, based upon a standard cost of provision of a climbing lane in relatively easy terrain. On single carriageways with hard shoulders, the climbing lane should replace the hard shoulder, with little or no additional width (see Paragraph 5.6). As the cost of provision of the climbing lane in such cases will be small, climbing lanes should generally be provided wherever the risen height (H) exceeds 15m. This is shown by the dashed line in Figure 8. In both cases, the height risen (H) and length (L) shall be calculated between two standard points on the hill as illustrated in Figure 9. On single carriageways without hard shoulders, where there are high cost elements involved such as heavy earthworks, bridgeworks or environmental effects, (which would invalidate the average cost assumptions of Figure 8), it may be uneconomic or undesirable to make full provision. It may be preferable to adopt a Departure from Standards, by providing the climbing lane partially within the normal verge width/marginal strip to reduce the high cost implications, rather than omit the climbing lane altogether.

160 140

H (Metres) Height Risen

120
Climbing Lanes

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 4000
No Climbing Lanes 5% HCV 10% HCV 15% HCV 30% HCV

8000

12000

16000

20000

24000

Design Year Traffic Flow Two-Way (AADT)

Figure 8 : Single Carriageway Climbing Lanes

December 2000

TD 9/23

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

Point where instantaneous gradient falls to 2%

Gradient H G= % L L
Point where instantaneous gradient falls to 2%

Figure 9 : Layout of Climbing Lanes

5.4 Climbing Lanes on Wide Single Carriageways: On wide single carriageways (WS2) the normal 2 wide lanes can be reduced, so as to provide an additional climbing lane within the normal cross-section. Whilst the criteria for the provision of climbing lanes at Paragraph 5.2 above serves as a useful guide for the installation of a climbing lane in this way, climbing lanes should be provided wherever their use would be of advantage in permitting slow moving climbing traffic to be overtaken. 5.5 Length of Climbing Lanes: Climbing lane road markings tend to confine downhill traffic to a single lane, unless there is ample forward visibility unobstructed by slow moving vehicles in the climbing lane. Where the length of a climbing lane exceeds about 3 km therefore, it is important that some sections are provided with a straight or large radius right hand curvature in order to provide an Overtaking Section for downhill traffic (see Paragraph 7.13). 5.6 Lane Widths: The cross-sections of single carriageways including climbing lanes shall be as shown in Figures 11(a), (b) and (c). 5.7 Layout at Start of Climbing Lane: The full width of the climbing lane shall be provided at a point S, 100m uphill from the 2% point of sag curve, and preceded by a taper of 1/70, as shown in Figure 12. The length of the taper shall be such that traffic in the lane which is required to experience the greatest lateral shift over the length of the taper does so at 1/70. The alignment at the commencement of the climbing lane shall encourage drivers to follow the nearside channel unless overtaking. The taper shall therefore provide a smooth transition, by utilising the road curvature to develop the extra width, wherever possible. Where the curvature is used in this way, the length of taper may be reduced to 1/40 as a Relaxation. Specific signing of the climbing lane will not be necessary.

December 2000

TD 9/24

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

3.50m 0.50m

3.50m

3.50m 0.50m

3.70m 1.00m

3.65m

3.65m 1.00m

(a) : On Reduced Single Carriageway

(b) : On Standard Single Carriageway

3.70m 1.50m

3.65m

3.65m 2.50m

(c) : On Wide Single Carriageway

Notes: 1. 2. For standard road cross-sections, see NRA TD 27 . The overall width of paved surface in case (c) should be equal to that without a climbing lane but including hard shoulders.

Figure 11 : Climbing Lanes on Single Carriageways


December 2000 TD 9/25

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

Taper 1/70

S RS2

Taper 1/70

S2

Taper 1/70

WS2

100m

S 2%

Figure 12 : Start of Climbing Lane

December 2000

TD 9/26

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

5.8 Layout at end of climbing lane: The carriageway width shall be tapered back to the normal two-lane width at a taper of 1:70 prior to a point F, as shown in Figure 13. The location of point F shall be 400m beyond the 2% point of the crest curve or 200m beyond the summit of the crest curve, whichever gives the shorter length of climbing lane. On a reduced single carriageway, the full width of the paved surface (including hard strips) shall be maintained up to point F. A 200m length of hard shoulder shall be provided on the climbing lane side of a reduced S2, followed by a taper of 1:70 to the normal paved width. The taper shall provide a smooth transition in the same manner as that at the start of the climbing lane. Where the road curvature is used to provide a smooth transition, the lengths of tapers may be reduced to 1:50 as a Relaxation.

Double Solid White Line 100m 100m 20m Taper Angle 1/70 200m Taper Angle 1/70 50m

Reduced S2
400m

F
Double Solid White Line

2%

100m 100m

Taper Angle 1/70 20m

50m

Point F should be calculated for both the illustrated cases. The case that gives the shorter length of climbing lane should be adopted. "Road Narrows" sign

200m

S2

0% F
Double Solid White Line 100m 100m Taper Angle 1/70 20m 50m

WS2

400m

F P o in t F s h o u ld b e c a lc u la te d fo r b o th th e illu s tra te d c a s e s . T h e c a s e th a t g iv e s th e s h o rte r le n g th o f c lim b in g la n e s h o u ld b e a d o p te d .


200m

2%

"R o a d N a rro w s " s ig n

0% F

Figure 13 : End of Climbing Lane


December 2000 TD 9/27

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

5 0 0 m M in i m u m

Figure 14a : Crest Curve Between Two Climbing Lanes

Double Solid White Line Taper Angle 1/70 50m

50

Taper Angle 1/70

0%

Figure 14b : Crest Curve Between Climbing Lanes 5.9 Layout of crests: Where there are climbing lanes on both sides of the hill, and profile conditions would lead to a conventional road layout between ends of tapers of less than 500m in length (see Figure 14a), the climbing lanes shall be extended to provide a length of four lane road over the summit: the detailed layout of a four lane crest is shown in Figure 14b. The treatment of hard shoulders and hard strips should follow Figures 11 and 13 for the appropriate carriageway standard: the overall paved surface width at the summit (which should comprise two uphill parts of the relevant Figure 11) including hard shoulders or hard strips should be maintained between points M on Figure 14b. 5.10 Layout at Sags: Where there are climbing lanes either side of a sag curve, and profile conditions would lead to a conventional 2 lane road layout between tapers of less than 500m in length, the climbing lanes shall be extended downhill until they meet, with a road marking as illustrated in Figure 15.
December 2000 TD 9/28

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

The treatment of hard shoulders and hard strips should follow Figure 11 for the appropriate carriageway standard: the overall paved surface width of the climbing lane sections (which should comply with the relevant Figure 11) including hard shoulders or hard strips should be maintained between points N on Figure 15.

Double Continuous White Lines

Double Continuous White Lines

Double Continuous White Lines With Hatching 50m Taper Angle 1/70 100m Taper Angle 1/70 50m

0%

Figure 15 : Sag Between Two Climbing Lanes

5.11 Sight Distance requirements with climbing lanes: Climbing lanes do not require FOSD, but a stopping sight distance which is not more than one Design Speed step below Desirable Minimum stopping sight distance shall be provided throughout. Care should be taken, however, in the design of the crest curve. If vehicles on the crest approaching the downhill section are provided with a high visibility crest curve, there is a possibility of subsequent abuse of the priority rule. The crest curve should be designed to a K value of (or slightly more than) one Design Speed step below Desirable Minimum K value. A double continuous line marking should be provided as in Figure 13 to establish clearly the climbing lane priority. If sight distance increases beyond the crest, the marking should then become continuous/broken to permit some overtaking in the downhill direction. Dual Carriageways and Motorways 5.13 Criteria for Provision: On motorways, an additional uphill climbing lane shall be provided, if it can be economically or environmentally justified, on hills with gradients (G = 100H/L) greater than 2% and longer than 500m. The solid curves in Figure 16 show the height risen, H, of a hill required to justify economically
December 2000 TD 9/29

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

the provision of a climbing lane, according to the design year traffic forecast, based upon a standard cost of provision of a climbing lane in relatively easy terrain. On dual carriageways with hard shoulders at least 2.5m wide, the hard shoulder should be replaced by a 3.5m climbing lane with a 1.0m nearside hard strip. The resultant 10.5m carriageway width (on a Wide Dual 2 Lane Carriageway with a climbing lane) shall be marked as three 3.5m lanes. As the cost of provision of the climbing lane in such cases will be small, climbing lanes should generally be provided wherever the risen height (H) exceeds 15m. This is shown by the dashed line in Figure 16. In both cases, the height risen (H) and length (L) shall be calculated between two standard points on the hill as illustrated in Figure 9.
160 140 120 100
Climbing Lanes

H (Metres) Height Risen

80 60
5% HCV

40 20
No Climbing Lanes 10% HGV 15% HCV 30% HCV

0 0 4000 8000 12000 16000 20000 24000

Design Year Traffic Flow

Figure 16 : Dual Carriageway and Motorway Climbing Lanes

5.16 Lane Widths: In general, an overall additional full lane width shall be provided, although in difficult areas, where structural or environmental costs are high, the cross-section may be reduced by using narrow lanes down to 3.25m, ie. carriageway width of 9.75m (D2), or 13.00m (D3). Such reductions shall be considered as Departures. 5.17 Layout at Start of Climbing Lane: The full width of the climbing lane shall be provided at a point S in a similar manner to that described for single carriageway roads (Paragraph 5.7), as shown in Figure 17. Wherever possible the additional width should be developed by utilising the road curvature to provide a smooth transition. 5.18 Layout at End of Climbing Lane: The carriageway width shall be tapered back to the normal two lane width at a taper of 1:70 prior to a point F, in a similar manner to that described for single carriageway roads (Paragraph 5.8). A smooth transition should be used wherever possible, as shown in Figure 18. 5.19 Signing of Climbing Lanes: To distinguish the commencement of a climbing lane from a change of carriageway standard, Slow Lane signing should be provided in accordance with the Traffic Signs Manual. 5.20 Sight Distance Requirements with Climbing Lanes: As the speeds of vehicles utilising the climbing lane will be considerably less than those on the rest of the carriageway, the climbing lane should be disregarded in respect of provision of stopping sight distance, which shall be checked from the centre of the inside lane of the original carriageway.

December 2000

TD 9/30

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

Figure 17 : Start of Dual Carriageway Climbing Lane

Taper Angle 1/70 100m 20m

200m

Taper Angle 1/70

High Quality D2

Taper Angle 1/70 100m 20m

Taper Angle 1/70

Wide D2

Taper Angle 1/70 100m 20m

200m

Taper Angle 1/70

F Motorway

Figure 18 : End of Dual Carriageway Climbing Lane

December 2000

TD 9/31

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

December 2000

TD 9/32

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

6. INTRODUCTION DESIGN
General

TO

COORDINATED

LINK

6.1 The various elements detailed in [NRA TD 9/00] this Standard shall be coordinated, together with cross-section and junction layouts, so as to ensure that the three dimensional layout as a whole is acceptable in terms of traffic safety and operation, and economic/environmental effects... Rural Roads 6.2 A general guide to the layout features appropriate for various types of road is given in Table 4. The table recommends edge treatments, access treatments and junction types that would be suitable in broad terms for each type of road. For details of the standard road cross-sections, see NRA TD 27 .

December 2000

TD 9/33

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

Category

Type of Road 1

Capacity (AADT) for Level of Service D with Level Terrain 8,600

Edge Treatment

Access Treatment

Minor Road Treatment

Major Junction Treatment

Reduced Single (7.0m) Carriageway S2

0.5m hard strips. Pedestrian footways where required

Minimise number of accesses to avoid standing vehicles and concentrate turning movements As 1

Priority junctions, with ghost islands where necessary.

Ghost islands.

2/3A

Standard Single (7.3m) Carriageway S2 Wide Single 3 (10m) Carriageway WS2

11,600

2.5m hard shoulders

Priority junctions with ghost islands where necessary

Ghost islands or roundabouts. 2

3B/4

13,800

2.5m hard shoulders. Pedestrian usage minimised.

As 1

Ghost islands. Some side roads stopped up. Occasional bridges at higher end of traffic range. Priority junctions. No other gaps in the central reserve.

At-grade roundabouts. 2

Standard At Grade Dual 2 Lane (7.0m) Carriageways. All Purpose D2AP

2.5m hard shoulders

Minimise number of accesses to avoid standing vehicles and concentrate turning movements. No gaps in the central reserve. No access.

At-grade roundabouts. Grade separation if economically justified.

5A

Standard Grade Separated Dual 2 Lane (7.0m) Carriageways. All Purpose D2AP Wide Dual 2 Lane (7.5m) Carriageways All Purpose D2AP 44,100

2.5m hard shoulders

Left in/left out only. No gaps in the central reserve.

Full grade separation.

3m hard shoulders

Minimisation of access numbers severely enforced. No gaps in the central reserve.

Restricted number of priority junctions. No other gaps in the central reserve.

At grade roundabouts at lower end of range. Otherwise full grade separation. Full grade separation.

7A

(Wide) D2AP

44,100

3m hard shoulders

No access.

Left in/left out only. No gaps in the central reserve. None

7B

Standard Dual 2 Lane (7.0m) Motorway D2M Wide Dual 2 Lane (7.5m) Motorway D2M

52,000

2.5m hard shoulders

Motorway Regulations

Motorway standards

7C

55,500

3m hard shoulders

Motorway Regulations

None

Motorway Standards

Notes: 1. For details of the standard road cross-sections, see NRA TD 27 . 2. Single lane dualling may be appropriate in some situations, but would be regarded as a Relaxation (see TD42). 3. The approval of the National Roads Authority is required for schemes which will create more than 2km of Wide Single Carriageway.

Table 4 : Recommended Rural Road Layouts


December 2000 TD 9/34

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

7. SINGLE 2 LANE CARRIAGEWAY ROADS


General Principles 7.1 Single 2 lane carriageways up to 10m wide (running width) shall be designed with the objectives of safety and uncongested flow in mind. This Chapter gives methods of achieving these objectives. Although they are to some extent related, for instance frustrated traffic tends to lead to unsafe conditions, it is important to identify some other aspects which if not taken into account in the design may lead to a higher than average proportion of serious accidents. Amongst these are: a. b. Continuous flowing alignments, (Paragraphs 7.25 and 7.28); Treatment of grade separation on single carriageways (Paragraph 7.35);

c. Single carriageway alternating with dual carriageway (Paragraphs 7.16, 7.36, 7.39, 7.40 and 7.41); d. Staged construction (Paragraphs 7.37, 7.38, 7.47 and 7.48).

7.2 Clearly identifiable Overtaking Sections for either direction of travel are required to be provided frequently throughout the single carriageway, so that vehicles can maintain the Design Speed in off-peak conditions. In peak conditions overtaking opportunities will be rare; nevertheless steady progress will be possible for the majority of vehicles if junctions are carefully designed, and if climbing lanes are provided wherever the forecast traffic demand is sufficient to justify a climbing lane according to Paragraph 5.2. 7.3 In easy terrain, with relatively straight alignments, it may be economically feasible to provide for continuous overtaking opportunity by means of consistent provision of Full Overtaking Sight Distance (FOSD). Where significant curvature occurs or the terrain becomes increasingly hilly, however, the verge widening and vertical crest requirements implicit in this design philosophy will often generate high cost and/or environmentally undesirable layouts. The alternative philosophy of clearly identifiable Overtaking Sections, including climbing lanes, interspersed with clearly Non-overtaking Sections, will frequently result in a more cost effective design provision. The trade-off between alternative alignments of the construction and user costs, including accidents, should be tested by cost/benefit analyses. 7.4 In the coordination of vertical and horizontal alignments, many of the principles contained in Paragraph 8.7 (Category 5A and 7A dual carriageways) are equally applicable to the design of single carriageway roads. However, the overriding need to design for adequate overtaking will frequently supersede the general desirability for full coordination of vertical and horizontal alignments, with design concentrating upon the provision of straight Overtaking Sections. At sags and crests, however, designs should still be checked to ensure that the road in perspective does not take on a disjointed appearance. Overtaking Sections 7.5 ...Overtaking Sections comprise: a) b) c) d) Two-lane Overtaking Sections Climbing Lane Overtaking Sections Downhill Overtaking Sections at Climbing Lanes Dual or S4 Overtaking Sections

7.6 The method of measurement described in the following paragraphs is based upon curvature/visibility relationships for S2 roads. Whilst the additional road width of a WS2 provides much greater flexibility for overtaking, largely independent of curvature, the following design rules should still be used to achieve an optimal overtaking design.
December 2000 TD 9/35

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

7.7 Two-lane Overtaking Sections: Two-lane Overtaking Sections are sections of single two lane carriageways, with normal centre of carriageway road markings providing clear opportunities for overtaking. They consist of straight or nearly straight sections affording overtaking in both directions (with horizontal radius of curvature greater than that shown in Table 5) and right hand curves, the commencement of which are provided with at least FOSD. The section, which is shown in Figure 19, is measured as follows: 7.8 Commencement: At the point on a straight (or nearly straight) or right hand curve where FOSD is achieved, either within or without the road boundary. 7.9 Termination: a) b) c) At a point FOSD/4m prior to the tangent point or centre of transition of a left hand curve The point on a right hand curve where sight distance has reduced to FOSD/2m A point FOSD/4m prior to an obstruction to overtaking (see Paragraph 7.18).
Design Speed km/h Minimum Radius of Straight or nearly Straight sections (m) 100 85 70 60 50

8160

5760

4080

2880

2040

Table 5: Minimum Radii for Two-lane Overtaking Sections

OVERTAKING SECTION FOSD 2

FOSD

For details of road markings at non-overtaking curves see Paragraph 7.43 Tangent point or centre of transition

Overtaking Section FOSD 4

Figure 19 : Two-lane Overtaking Sections

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TD 9/36

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

7.10 Climbing Lane Overtaking Sections: Climbing Lane Overtaking Sections are sections where priority uphill overtaking opportunities are provided by means of two uphill lanes, separated from the opposing downhill lane by means of a double line, (either double continuous or continuous/broken). The section, which is shown in Figure 20, is measured as follows: 7.11 Commencement: A point in the centre of the commencing taper. 7.12 Termination: A point FOSD/4m prior to the centre of the finishing taper. However, if the following section is an Overtaking Section, it should be assumed to be contiguous with the climbing lane section.

For Details of Road Markings at

O VER TA KIN G SECTIO N

FO SD 4

TAPER

TAPER

Figure 20 : Climbing Lane Overtaking Sections 7.13 Downhill Overtaking Sections at Climbing Lanes: Downhill Overtaking Sections at Climbing lanes are sections of a single downhill lane, opposite a climbing lane, constrained by a continuous/broken double line, where the combination of visibility and horizontal curvature provide clear opportunities for overtaking when the opposing traffic permits. They consist of straight or nearly straight sections, and right hand curves with radii greater than those shown in Table 6.
Design Speed km/h Minimum Radius 100 2880 85 2040 70 1440 60 1020 50 720

Table 6: Minimum Radii of Right Hand Curve Downhill Overtaking Sections at Climbing Lanes The sight distance naturally occurring within the normal road boundaries at the radii shown in Table 6 will be sufficient for downhill overtaking, and thus, for Downhill Overtaking Sections at Climbing Lanes, verges shall not be widened to give FOSD. However, these sections should only be considered as Overtaking Sections on straight grades or sag configurations, ie. when the road surface is not obscured by a vertical crest curve within: FOSD, or the horizontal sight distance available around the curve.
December 2000 TD 9/37

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

The section, which is shown in Figure 21, is measured as follows: 7.14 Commencement: The point where the right hand curve radius achieves the requisite value from Table 6. 7.15 Termination: A point FOSD/4m prior to the end of the requisite radius.

Figure 21 : Downhill Overtaking Sections at Climbing Lanes

7.16 Dual Overtaking Sections: Dual Overtaking Sections are sections with dual carriageways, which provide overtaking opportunities throughout their length. They should, however, only be provided in cases where the most economic method of improvement of a section of existing single carriageway is to provide a second carriageway alongside the first. Dual Overtaking Sections within otherwise single carriageway roads shall be subject to the same overtaking length criteria as climbing lane sections shown at Paragraph 7.10. S4 Overtaking Sections (where space is limited) should be considered equivalent to Dual Overtaking Sections in terms of assessment of overtaking. Non-overtaking Sections 7.17 Non-overtaking sections are all left or right hand curves on level sections or single downhill lanes opposite climbing lanes that do not conform with the requirements of Paragraphs 7.7 to 7.16 (see also Nonovertaking crests, Paragraph 7.19). Obstructions to Overtaking 7.18 At Grade Junctions: Major/minor junctions with ghost islands or single lane dualling and roundabouts should be considered as obstructions to overtaking if they are sited within an otherwise Overtaking Section. The Overtaking Section shall terminate at a distance of FOSD/4m prior to the nose of the ghost or physical island, or the roundabout Yield line, as shown in Figure 22. Similarly, the Overtaking Section shall commence at the end of the nose of the ghost or physical island at a priority junction. The commencement at a roundabout shall be in accordance with the requirements for a two-lane Overtaking Section (see Paragraph 7.8). Simple junctions and accesses, however, with no central ghost or physical islands can be ignored for the purpose of determining Overtaking Sections.

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook


Note: a simple priority junction with no ghost island layout can be ignored for the purposes of determining Overtaking Sections.

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

Overtaking Section

FOSD 4

NOSE OF ISLAND

Overtaking Section

a.

Approach to Priority Junction (with ghost or solid island).

b.

Approach to Roundabout.

Figure 22 : Obstructions to Overtaking

Non-overtaking Crests 7.19 A crest with a K value less than that shown in Table 3 for FOSD Overtaking Crest K Value should be considered as a Non-overtaking Section. The Overtaking Section within which it occurs should be considered to terminate at the point at which sight distance has reduced to FOSD/2, as shown in Figure 23. However, the use of Desirable Minimum crest K values will result in a continuous sight distance only slightly above FOSD/2, and thus, theoretically, the Overtaking Section will be continuous over the crest. The use of crest K values in the range from Desirable Minimum up to FOSD Overtaking Crest is not, therefore, recommended for single carriageway design (see Paragraphs 7.30 and 7.31) and is considered to be a Departure from Standards..

December 2000

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

Figure 23 : Non-overtaking Crest

Overtaking Value 7.20 The minimum Overtaking Values for the different road types that are thought to provide a reasonably safe road in most circumstances are given in Table 7. [Overtaking Value = Overtaking Sections for each direction (m) x 100 length of the road improvement (m)] Road Type (Table 4) Category 1 Categories 2 and 3A Categories 3B and 4 Overtaking Value 15% 30% 40%

Table 7: Overtaking Value The table applies to new construction and new schemes exceeding 2km. Overtaking sections should be distributed along a length of road such that no Non-overtaking Section exceeds 3km. The results of the sight distance analysis should be plotted on the engineering drawings, with the system of road markings to be adopted along the route included below the plot, see Paragraphs 7.7, 7.10, 7.13, 7.19, 7.29, 7.30 and 7.43 7.21 [In some instances it may be suitable to use a few long Overtaking Sections, whilst in other cases more frequent shorter sections, linked with Non-overtaking Sections, would provide the most economic strategy. Alternative designs should be tested by cost benefit analyses.] 7.22 [The Overtaking Values shown shall be regarded as a minimum level of provision that will provide a satisfactory single carriageway design. Any additional measures to increase Overtaking Values beyond the requisite levels, such as the provision of additional climbing lanes, straightening route sections, or elimination of junctions, should be justified in economic/environmental terms.]
December 2000 TD 9/40

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

7.23 Schemes Less Than 2km in Length: Schemes less than 2km in length shall be integrated with the contiguous sections of existing road to provide the best overtaking opportunities that can economically be devised. Where contiguous sections afford little or no overtaking opportunity, it is essential that the requisite Overtaking Value be achieved for the scheme. On short bypasses this will result in the need to provide at least one Overtaking Section in either direction. However, where contiguous sections provide good overtaking opportunities, a check on the Overtaking Value for a length of, say, 3km including the bypass may relieve the necessity to provide the requisite Overtaking Value for the bypass. 7.24 Means of Improving Overtaking Value: As well as ensuring sufficient overtaking opportunities, the method also controls the spacing of junctions. If the criteria are not met initially for any alignment it may be necessary to: a) b) c) Modify the junction strategy by stopping up, bridging or diverting some side roads. Adjust the alignment to produce more straight sections. Introduce climbing lanes on hills previously not considered justified because of low traffic flow.

d) Introduce roundabouts at the more heavily trafficked priority junctions to create sharper changes of direction and improve Overtaking Section lengths. e) Introduce lengths of Standard S2 or WS2 road with hard shoulders at suitable locations. Whilst this will not improve the Overtaking Value according to the formal methods described in Paragraphs 7.5 to 7.16, such sections will nevertheless, by the extra road width, increase flexibility and reduce frustration. f) Introduce more extensive sections of S4 or dual carriageways.

Alternative means of improving Overtaking Values should be tested by cost/benefit analyses to determine their economic implications. The extra cost of provision of extra road width to provide a climbing lane at a hill previously considered unjustified (or a section of wider road cross-section on a constrained level road alignment) may be justified on the total balance of advantage. As the wider road will also provide some improved benefits, the resulting loss of NPV may only be minor and thus a small price to pay for the unquantifiable benefits to traffic of improving the Overtaking Value. Horizontal Curve Design 7.25 The use of mid-large radius curves is counter productive, inhibiting the design of clear Overtaking Sections. They produce long dubious overtaking conditions for vehicles travelling in the left hand curve direction, and simply reduce the length of overtaking straight that could otherwise be achieved. Figure 24 shows a curve selection chart for horizontal curves, which illustrate the bands of radii (relative to Design Speed) and their applicability in the design of single carriageways. 7.26 Wherever possible, level Overtaking Sections and climbing lanes shall be provided as straight or nearly straight sections (Band A), thus providing an Overtaking Section for both directions of travel (V/R < 1.25).

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

8160 5760 4080 2880 V2 R

A
Straight & Nearly Straight o/Taking sections (both directions)

B
2040 1.25 RHC Overtaking section

CURVE RADIUS m.

1440 1020

C
720 510 360 255 180 127 90 20.0 3.53 Radii NOT Recommended (see paragraphs 7.25 to 7.29)

D
10.0 Non-overtaking Sections with continuous lines (see paragraph 7.43)

100

85

70

60

50

DESIGN SPEED Kph

* Note: Verge widening may be necessary. See Paragraph 7.27.

Figure 24 : Horizontal Curve Design 7.27 Where straight sections are not possible, lower radii will result in right hand curve (RHC) Overtaking Sections: On level sections following the achievement of FOSD (see Figure 19); and On single lane downhill sections opposite climbing lanes (see Figure 21). The lower limit of Band B (V/R = 3.53) shown for RHC Overtaking Sections should be considered as the minimum radius for use in designing Overtaking Sections. At this level visibility for left hand curve (LHC) traffic has deteriorated significantly, and a maximum verge width of 8.45m (plus the 2.5m hard shoulder) would be required on a Standard Single Carriageway to maintain FOSD within the road cross-section for RHC traffic. Left hand curves with radii in Band B should not be considered to be part of Two-Lane Overtaking Sections or Downhill Overtaking Sections at climbing lanes. 7.28 The use of radii in Band C (V/R = 3.53-10) is not recommended, as they, in common with Band B, provide long sections with dubious overtaking conditions for LHC traffic. Where visibility is constrained within the road cross-section, either excessive verge widening would be required to maintain FOSD for RHC traffic, or the natural visibility without verge widening at these radii would result in dubious overtaking
December 2000 TD 9/42

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

conditions for the RHC traffic also. It is a paramount principle, therefore, that design should concentrate only on Bands A and B for clear Overtaking Sections, and Band D for clear Non-overtaking Sections. The use of radii in Band C is a Departure from Standards (see Paragraph 1.27). 7.29 Non-overtaking Sections should be designed using the radii shown in Band D (V/R = 10-20), where the radius is sufficiently small to represent a clearly Non-overtaking Section. Radii of Non-overtaking Sections should be chosen around the centre of Band D (V/R = 14) to strike a balance between providing clear Non-overtaking Sections and avoiding steep superelevation. Vertical Curve Design 7.30 The vertical alignment shall be coordinated with the horizontal alignment to ensure the most efficient overtaking provision. On level Overtaking Sections, the vertical curvature shall be sufficient to provide for FOSD in accordance with Paragraphs 2.3 to 2.5. However, for Non-overtaking Sections and climbing lanes, the use of large crest curves is quite unnecessary and is not recommended. Unless a vertical curve can have a large enough K value to provide FOSD (thus forming an Overtaking Section) a long section of dubious visibility will result (see Paragraph 7.19). Therefore, the K value on a crest on a Non-Overtaking Section or a climbing lane should not be greater than that for one Design Speed step below Desirable Minimum Stopping Sight Distance. The use of crest K values in the range from Desirable Minimum up to FOSD Overtaking Crest is not recommended for single carriageways, and is considered to be a Departure from Standards. The use of crest curves in that range would be counter productive, simply increasing costs, increasing the length of dubious crest visibility, and reducing the length of clear Overtaking Sections that could otherwise be achieved. 7.31 Horizontal and vertical visibility shall be carefully coordinated to ensure that sight distance at curves on crests is correlated. For example, it would be unnecessary to acquire additional verge width to provide for Desirable Minimum stopping sight distance in the horizontal sense, when the crest only provides a stopping sight distance of one Design Speed step below Desirable Minimum. Junction Strategy 7.32 The aim should be to provide drivers with layouts that have consistent standards and are not likely to confuse them. On lengths of inter-urban road, sequences of junctions should not therefore involve many different layout types. For example, a length of route containing roundabouts, single lane dualling, ghost islands, simple priority junctions and grade separation would inevitably create confusion and uncertainty for drivers and cause accidents on that account. The safest road schemes are usually the most straightforward ones that contain no surprises for the driver. 7.33 Major/minor junctions with ghost islands or local single lane dualling and roundabouts represent an obstruction to overtaking. To achieve maximum overtaking efficiency, therefore, straight Overtaking Sections should be located wherever possible between junctions, which can be located in Non-overtaking Sections. Visibility to the junction shall be a minimum of Desirable Minimum Stopping Sight Distance. 7.34 Use of a roundabout will enable a change of alignment at a junction, thus optimising the Overtaking Sections either side. As an alternative to continuing large radius curves into the roundabout with only unidirectional overtaking, it is preferable to utilise a straight section followed by a non-overtaking radius as the final approach, in order to optimise the use of two directional overtaking straights, as shown in Figure 25. 7.35 Designs involving grade separation of single carriageway roads should be treated with caution. Some grade separated crossings will be necessary for undesirable side road connections and for agricultural purposes. Experience has shown that frequent overbridges and the resulting earthworks create the impression of a high speed road, engendering a level of confidence in the road alignment that cannot be justified in single carriageways, where opposing traffic travels on the same carriageway. The provision of regular at grade junctions with ghost islands, local dualling or roundabouts will maintain the impression of a single carriageway road. Where crossing flows are high, or local topographical conditions would suggest the need for a grade separated junction, the single quadrant link with a conventional ghost island junction, as shown in
December 2000 TD 9/43

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

Figure 26, will maintain the impression of a single carriageway road, with conventional single carriageway turning movements and minimise the disruptive right turn movement onto the major road. The link should be located in the quadrant that will ensure the larger turning movements become left turns onto and right turns off the major road. With the highest levels of traffic flow, it may be necessary to provide roundabouts at one or both ends of the link road. The use of slip merges can be confusing on single carriageways and create problems with merging into a single lane. They destroy the overall impression of a single carriageway, and shall not be used. Changes in Carriageway Width 7.36 Changes from dual to single carriageways are a potential hazard situation and the aim in new construction should be to provide continuity of road type, either single or dual carriageway layout, on any major section of a route which carries consistently similar traffic, subject to satisfactory economic and environmental assessments. Exceptions are described below. Where it is not possible to achieve an adequate Overtaking Value by means of level Overtaking Sections or climbing lanes, the impression of a single carriageway road shall be maintained by utilising Standard S2 or WS2 sections with hard shoulders at suitable locations (see Paragraph 7.24), or short sections of S4, rather than introducing sections of dual carriageway. Where it is appropriate to change from dual to single carriageway, careful consideration should be given to the use of a roundabout as a terminal junction to indicate to drivers the significant change in road standard.

December 2000

TD 9/44

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

Figure 25 : Use of Roundabout to Change Alignment


1 3

STOP

2
Major Movements Siting of Loop

Figure 26 : Single Quadrant Link


December 2000 TD 9/45

STOP

or

Quadrant 1 or 4

or

Quadrant 2 or 3

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

7.37 Single carriageways of a type containing wide verges and extensive earthworks prepared for eventual dualling create the illusion of driving on a dual carriageway, which leads to abnormally high serious accident rates. Where staged construction is part of the design or there are safety problems at existing sites, provision shall be made to avoid giving drivers an illusion that they are on a dual carriageway rather than on a single carriageway such as a) Fencing of a permanent appearance at a verge width (normally 3.0m) from the channel of the constructed carriageway on the side reserved for the future carriageway. b) Clear signing and marking indicating the existence of two way traffic.

c) Where a changeover occurs at a roundabout, a narrow physical splitter island not less than 50 metres long on the single carriageway side of the roundabout followed by hatching. 7.38 Where there is an overbridge designed for an eventual second carriageway, the illusion of a second running carriageway shall be removed by planting and earth mounds as shown in Figure 27.

Figure 27 7.39 Where a lighter trafficked bypass occurs within an otherwise dual carriageway route, a single carriageway may be acceptable provided the terminal junctions such as roundabouts give a clear indication to drivers of changed Standards (see Figure 28, Paragraph 7.36 and Paragraph 7.37 b and c).

Figure 28 7.40 In circumstances where a length of new carriageway alongside an existing single carriageway provides the most suitable and economic means of achieving a dualled Overtaking Section and where such a dual carriageway returns to single carriageway width or in any other case, the change in width shall be made abundantly clear to drivers by:
December 2000 TD 9/46

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

a)

Signing and marking indicating the existence of the single carriageway

b) Providing a length of central reserve in advance of the taper such that drivers approaching the single carriageway can see across it, to have a clear view of the approaching traffic moving on to the dual carriageway. 7.41 If lengths of dual carriageway within a generally single carriageway road or vice-versa are unavoidable they shall be at least 2km in length and preferably 3km, and major/minor junctions shall be avoided within 1 kilometre of the end of the central reserve on either type of carriageway, see Paragraph 7.39. Road Markings 7.43 At non-overtaking horizontal curves, and crests (see Paragraph 7.30), where double continuous line markings would normally be required, the markings may be strengthened with a hatched marking as shown in Figure 29, especially following Overtaking Sections, in order to make clear to drivers the presence of undesirable overtaking conditions, in accordance with the Traffic Signs Manual. Existing Single Carriageway Improvements 7.44 The design standards contained in the preceding paragraphs apply generally to lengths of new single carriageway construction, from short bypasses and diversions to extensive new single carriageway routes. When dealing with existing rural roads, the need for improvements will frequently be dictated by evident dangerous bends, junctions, narrow sections, hills, etc. for the improvement of which the standards shown in Chapters 1 to 5, Elements of Design, will be applicable. 7.45 Where, however, the need for improvement arises from congested conditions, or from a restricted alignment providing an unsatisfactory regime of flow, attention should be focused upon the provision of adequate Overtaking Sections, as in Paragraphs 7.20 to 7.24. One of the most economic methods of improving Overtaking Value is the provision of climbing lanes (or a second carriageway added to the first) on hills, where slow moving vehicles create severe congestion and consequent delays, instead of a major realignment to create a Two-Lane Overtaking Section elsewhere.

Figure 29 : Hatched Road Marking at Non-overtaking Curves and Crests Staged Construction 7.47 Where a single carriageway is being considered as a first stage of an eventual dual carriageway improvement, the single carriageway shall be designed in accordance with the coordinated design aspects shown in Chapter 7. This will ensure that the impression of an essentially at-grade single carriageway road is maintained. Where it is economic to carry out some earthworks or bridgeworks for the dual carriageway in the first stage, care must be taken to ensure that the wider formation and bridges do not create the illusion of a dual carriageway. At bridges, such an illusion can be avoided by the methods described in Paragraph 7.38, and generous planting can reduce the overall impression of space.
December 2000 TD 9/47

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

7.48 The overriding requirements for clear Overtaking Sections in the first stage design will mean that the flowing alignment requirements for dual carriageways (as shown in Paragraph 8.7) will not be possible or desirable. However, first stage designs should be checked to ensure that the horizontal and vertical alignments are phased sufficiently to eliminate any areas where misleading visual effects in perspective might occur, for example, broken back alignments.

December 2000

TD 9/48

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

8. DUAL CARRIAGEWAYS
General Principles 8.1 All purpose dual carriageways and motorways shall be designed to permit light vehicles to maintain the Design Speed. Unlike single carriageways there is no limitation upon the use of horizontal or vertical curves in excess of the values for one Design Speed Step below Desirable Minimum values, and the coordination of design elements will mainly involve the design and optimisation of aesthetic alignments. 8.2 In the coordination of vertical and horizontal alignments, the principles contained in Paragraph 8.7 (Category 5A and 7A dual carriageways) are generally desirable for all dual carriageway designs. However, for the lower categories of design, with consequently lower traffic flows, a high standard of aesthetic design may frequently not be justifiable, particularly where the dual carriageway represents an alternative to a single carriageway. All Purpose Dual Carriageways 8.3 Category 5 (Table 4): This is the lowest category of dual carriageway which will normally represent an alternative layout option to single carriageway types S2 or WS2. 8.4 The vertical alignment should follow the topography closely, with the horizontal alignment phased to match. Junctions should generally be at-grade, with roundabouts at the more heavily trafficked intersections, although where economically/ environmentally feasible, grade separated solutions should be provided. 8.5 Major/Minor junctions on dual carriageways are a source of accidents, but collecting together side roads or increased provision of grade separation are costly alternatives that may not be economically justified. Furthermore, where the dual carriageway is being assessed as an alternative option to a single carriageway, the additional costs of higher standards of junction or alignment provision, together with the resulting higher overall earthworks and structural implications, may well cause the dual carriageway option to be so costly as to be uneconomic, in spite of its inherently superior performance in terms of link accidents and user costs. A category 5 dual carriageway, therefore, should be designed essentially as an at-grade alternative to an at-grade single carriageway, and elements of design, such as junctions, should be enhanced only if there is economic or environmental justification for doing so. In this way, dual carriageways will frequently demonstrate superior economic performance to a single carriageway at flows well below the upper limits of single carriageway demand flows. 8.6 Category 6 (Table 4): In this category, minor side roads shall be stopped up, or collected together to reduce the number of gaps in the central reserve. Major intersection types, which may include roundabouts, will be determined by site conditions, traffic demand, and economic/environmental effect. The combined vertical/horizontal alignments should follow the topography as much as possible, without purposely achieving a motorway type of flowing alignment. 8.7 Categories 5A and 7A (Table 4): These are the highest categories of all-purpose road, where all intersections, both major and minor, should be grade separated. A smooth flowing alignment is required for sustained high speeds. The following are the principles to be followed in securing a satisfactory alignment: a) Care should be taken to ensure that embankments and cuttings do not make severe breaks in the natural skyline. b) When negotiating a ridge in cutting or passing through a broad stretch of woodland, the road should be on a curve whenever possible so as to preserve an unbroken background. c) Short curves and straights should not be used. Adjacent curves should be similar in length.

December 2000

TD 9/49

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

d) Small changes of direction should not be made, as they give the perspective of the road ahead a disjointed appearance. e) Curves of the same or opposite sense which are visible from one another should not be connected by a short straight. It is better to introduce a flat curve between curves of the same sense, or to extend the transition curves to a common point between curves of the opposite sense. f) Changes in horizontal and vertical alignment should be phased to coincide whenever possible. This is very important with horizontal curves sharper than 2,000m radius and vertical curves of less than 15,000m radius. g) Flowing alignment can most readily be achieved by using large radius curves rather than straights. h) The profile of the road over bridges must form part of the easy flowing alignment.

i) At the start of horizontal curves superelevation must not create large flat areas on which water would stand. j) Horizontal and vertical curves should be made as generous as possible at interchanges in order to enhance sight distances. k) Sharp horizontal curvature should not be introduced at or near the top of a pronounced crest. This is hazardous especially at night because the driver cannot see the change in horizontal alignment. l) The view of the road ahead should not appear distorted by sharp horizontal curvature introduced near the low point of a sag curve.

December 2000

TD 9/50

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

ANNEX A : HARMONIC MEAN VISIBILITY


A1 The Harmonic Mean Visibility VISI shall be measured over a minimum length of about 2km in the following manner. Measurements of sight distance shall be taken in both directions at regular intervals (50m for sites of uneven visibility, 100m for sites with good visibility) measured from an eye height of 1.05m to an object height of 1.05m, both above the centre line of the road surface. Sight distance shall be the true sight distance available at any location, taking into account both horizontal and vertical curvature, including any sight distance available across verges and outside the road boundary wherever sight distance is available across embankment slopes or adjoining land, as shown in Figure A1.

Figure A1 : Measurement of Harmonic Mean Visibility A2. Harmonic Mean Visibility is the harmonic mean of individual observations, such that: n 1 + 1 + 1 . + 1 V1 V2 V3 Vn

VISI =

where:n V1 = = number of observations sight distance at point 1, etc.

A3. For existing roads, an empirical relationship has been derived which provides estimates of VISI given in bendiness and verge width (applicable up to VISI = 720m) i.e. Log10 VISI = 2.46 + VW/25 - B/400 where: VW = Average width of verge, plus hard shoulder where provided (m, averaged for both sides of the road) Bendiness (Degrees per km, measured over a minimum length of about 2 km)
TD 9/51

B =

December 2000

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Road Link Design (NRA TD 9/00)

This relationship is valid for most existing roads. However, on long straight roads, or where sight distance is available outside the road boundary, significant underestimates of VISI will result. A4. For preliminary route analysis, where detailed measurements of sight distance are not available, the following typical values should be used: a) On long virtually straight roads, or where the road is predominantly on embankment affording high visibility across embankment slopes or adjoining level land: VISI = 700m b) If a new road is designed with continuous overtaking visibility, with large crest K values and wide verges for visibility: VISI = 500m c) Where a new road is designed with frequent Overtaking Sections, but with stopping sight distance provision at all sharp curves: VISI = 300m d) Where an existing single carriageway contains sharp bends, frequent double continuous line sections, narrow verges etc. VISI = 100 to 200m although the empirical formula shown in A3 above can be used if Bendiness is available.

December 2000

TD 9/52

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Cross-Sections and Headroom (NRA TD 27/00)

PART B : CROSS-SECTIONS AND HEADROOM


(Based on NRA TD 27/00)

December 2000

TD 27/1

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Cross-Sections and Headroom (NRA TD 27/00)

December 2000

TD 27/2

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Cross-Sections and Headroom (NRA TD 27/00)

1. INTRODUCTION
General 1.1 [NRA TD 27/00 ] outlines the design principles and factors which should be considered by designers in selecting road cross-sections and headroom. The process of design is described together with an approach to developing options. Scope 1.3 This Standard gives details of the cross-sections and headroom clearances to be used for national roads, including motorways, both on open roads and at structures. 1.4 This Standard is not applicable to road tunnels.

1.5 For details of pedestrian and cycle subway dimensions see TD 36 (DMRB 6.3.1), for footbridges see BD 29 (DMRB 2.2). Advice on equestrian subways and for agricultural crossings is given in TA 57 (DMRB 6.3). Definitions 1.7 For the definitions of the general road terms used in this Standard such as components of the road (central reserve, verge, hard shoulder, and hard strip, etc.) see BS 6100: Subsection 2.4.1. 1.8 Particular terms used in this Standard are defined as follows:

All-purpose road: - A road for the use of all classes of traffic (e.g. not a motorway). Bridge Length: - is the length of bridge parapet. Long underbridges are those exceeding 100m. Bridleway: - Road (surfaced or unsurfaced) for use on foot or horseback. Central reserve: - The area which separates the carriageways of a dual carriageway road. Note that this includes any offside hard strips. Connector Road: - A collective term for slip roads, interchange links and loop roads. Cross-section: - The road cross-section incorporates all elements between the boundaries including carriageways, the central reserve, separation zones, hard shoulders, hard strips, verges including any footway, cycle track or bridleway, cutting or embankment slopes, berms and work space. All dimensions are measured square to the line of the road (see Figures [6] to 7 and Table 2). Cycle Lane: - A separate part of the carriageway for use by pedal cycles. Cycle Track: - A separate part of a road for use only by pedal cycles and by pedestrians where permitted. D2AP: - Dual two-lane all-purpose road (i.e. a dual carriageway with two traffic lanes in each direction). Interchange: - A grade separated junction that provides free flow of traffic from one mainline carriageway to another. Interchange Link: - Refer to TD 22 (DMRB 6.2.1). Loops: - Refer to TD 22 (DMRB 6.2.1).
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Mainline: - The carriageway carrying the main flow of traffic (generally traffic passing straight through a junction or interchange). Maintained Headroom: - The minimum headroom which shall be preserved at all times. New Construction Headroom: - The headroom which includes an allowance for resurfacing. Overbridge: - A bridge that spans the road under consideration. Pedestrian Access Provision: - That part of the verge on all-purpose roads provided to enable pedestrian movement through or over a structure. Road Tunnel: - A road tunnel enclosed for a length of 150m or more. A shorter enclosed length is an overbridge. Roads: Urban and Rural: - An Urban Road is a road which is in a built-up area and has either a single carriageway with a speed limit of 40mph or less, or has a dual carriageway (including motorways) with a speed limit of 50mph or less. All other roads are Rural Roads. S2: - Two-lane single carriageway road with lane widths of up to about 3.65m (i.e. a Standard Single Carriageway or a Reduced Single Carriageway). Slip Road: - Refer to TD 22 (DMRB 6.2.1). Subway: - Underground passageway or tunnel for use by pedestrians, cyclists and sometimes equestrians. Underbridge: - A bridge that carries the road under consideration. Verge: - The part of a road cross-section alongside a carriageway but not including embankment or cutting slopes. Note that this includes any hard strips but not hard shoulders. Work Space: - The strip of land between the top of cutting or toe of embankment and the road boundary. WS2: - Two-lane wide single carriageway road, normally with lane widths of 5.0m (i.e. Wide Single Carriageway).

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2. DESIGN PRINCIPLES
General 2.1 This section describes the principles to be followed when designing road cross-sections for new and improved all-purpose national roads and motorways. The underlying principle is that designers are given the maximum choice, so that there is flexibility to develop layout options that will meet the National Roads Authoritys objectives. 2.3 The designer is not given choices over the widths of running lanes, hard shoulders and hard strips for a particular type of road. 2.4 The designer does, however, have some flexibility over the width of work space, berms, side slopes, verges and central reserves, although a reduction of verge or central reserve width below desirable minimum will require a Relaxation. 2.5 The verge width on either side of the paved area may be a factor affecting the severity of accidents where vehicles run off the carriageway. Details of when to provide safety fences or safety barriers in verges and central reserves to protect against collisions between vehicles and roadside objects or features are given in TD 19 (NRA DMRB 2.2). 2.6 The width between the back of the verge and the road boundary will depend on the terrain, the need to accommodate environmental mitigation measures, the engineering or geotechnical measures used to accommodate changes in ground levels, and any need to include differing types and widths of drain and other services in the work space. Design Process 2.8 For the purposes of developing initial layouts, the designers objective should be to determine the appropriate width for the road cross-section, and any variation in width required. Features included in the cross-section can affect the choice of width. Some features, safety fences for example, can have a significant effect on the cross-section width whilst other features, road signs for example, are usually accommodated within the side slopes and work space. 2.9 The preferred locations for features in verges and the central reserve may often coincide or overlap, and the designer should be aware of the potential for such conflicts. Generally, there is far more below the surface of verges and central reserves than is apparent on the surface, and some underground features must be readily accessible for routine maintenance purposes. Engineering solutions can usually be designed to overcome conflicts where space is limited, but these may increase costs. The sizes and extents of features above and below ground in the verge and central reserve of rural roads can vary widely. Therefore, details are best designed individually for each situation. Visibility 2.11 On curved alignments and approaches to junctions, it may be necessary to widen the cross-section, particularly verges and central reserves, to ensure that drivers and other road users can see the appropriate distances, and that the layout meets the visibility requirements. Refer to NRA TD 9 .

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3. CROSS-SECTIONS ON OPEN ROADS


General 3.1 Figures [6 to 10a] show the locations of the elements within the road cross-section and Table [3] give[s] detailed dimensions for each element. The information covers rural all-purpose roads, together with associated interchange links, loops and on and off slip roads. 3.2 The cross-section of a side road, which is not a national road and is diverted or improved on-line as part of a national road scheme, should be agreed with the National Roads Authority and the relevant Road Authority. A suggested cross-section is illustrated in Annex A. Pavement Width 3.3 The width of the paved elements of the cross-section, i.e. carriageways, hard shoulders and hard strips, shall normally be in accordance with the requirements of this Standard. Any reduction or increase in the width of these elements is a Departure from Standard, unless the increase results from the requirements of Paragraph 3.6. Traffic Lane Widths 3.4 Traffic lane widths shall be as detailed in Figures [6] to 7.

3.6 Traffic lanes shall be widened on curves of low radius to allow for the swept path of long vehicles. See NRA TD 9 and TD 42. Changes of Carriageway Edge Treatment 3.7 Where slip roads, interchange links and loop roads join or leave main carriageways, the edge detail may change from hard shoulder to hard strip or carriageway edge. 3.8 Transitions between different edge details should take place over the length of the taper.

Work Space, Side Slope, Verge and Central Reserve Widths 3.11 Work space and side slope widths should be chosen to match the local situation. For verges and central reserves, however, the widths given in Table [3] should be the first option considered, although other dimensions may be used in circumstances where this would be preferable. These circumstances might range from a need to minimise landtake to a requirement to accommodate a large amount of equipment and features in a location where land is not so limited. 3.13 There may be benefits in using dimensions less than the desirable widths for verges or central reserves, and these cases shall be regarded as Relaxations. The requirements of other Standards may limit the scope for width reductions. For example, space may be needed for roadside features and the safety fences to protect them. 3.14 Variations of verge and central reserve widths in close succession should be avoided. The designer should consider how the scheme will integrate with adjacent highway sections and the route as a whole. 3.15 Provision for pedestrians and cyclists should be made were a local need has been identified. The width and location of such provision should have the agreement of both the local Road Authority and the National Roads Authority.

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Verge 2.00

Hard Shoulder 2.50 3.50 0.15 Edge Line 0.10 Lane Line 7.00 Carriageway 3.50 0.15 Edge Line

Central Reserve 2.60 min Hard Strips 1.00 1.00

Hard Shoulder 7.00 Carriageway 3.50 0.15 Edge Line 0.10 Lane Line 3.50 0.15 Edge Line 2.50

Verge 2.00

C L

Standard Dual Carriageway (D2AP)

Verge 3.00

Hard Shoulder 3.00 3.75 0.15 Edge Line

7.50 Carriageway Hard Strip 1.00

Central Reserve 9.00 3.75 Hard Strip 1.00 C L 0.15 Edge Line

0.10 Lane Line

0.15 Edge Line

Wide Dual Carriageway (D2AP)


Notes 1. All dimensions are in metres. 2. See Table 3 for dimensions of cross-section elements 3. For details of road markings see the Traffic Signs Manual. 4. Width of central reserve for a Standard Dual Carriageway is determined by the type of safety fence or barrier: see TD 19 (DMRB 2.2). It is suggested that a width of 3.00m be assumed for preliminary designs.

FIGURE 6 LANE WIDTHS AND CARRIAGEWAY MARKINGS: RURAL ALL-PURPOSE ROADS (MAINLINE)

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Verge 3.00 3.50 Hard Strip 0.50 0.10 Edge Line 0.15 Centre Line 7.00 Carriageway 3.50 0.10 Edge Line

Verge 3.00

Verge 3.00

Hard Shoulder 2.50 3.65

7.30 Carriageway 3.65 0.15 Centre Line

Hard Shoulder 2.50

Verge 3.00

Hard Strip 0.50

0.15 Edge Line

0.15 Edge Line

Reduced Single Carriageway (S2)

Standard Single Carriageway (S2)

Verge 3.00

Hard Shoulder 2.50 5.00 0.15 Edge Line

10.00 Carriageway 5.00 0.15 Centre Line

Hard Shoulder 2.50

Verge 3.00

0.15 Edge Line

Wide Single Carriageway (WS2)

Verge 4.00 Hard Strip 1.00 11.00 Carriageway Climbing Lane 3.70 0.15 Edge Line Notes 1. All dimensions are in metres. 2. See Table 3 for dimensions of cross-section elements 3. For details of road markings see the Traffic Signs Manual. 4. For lane widths of climbing lane sections on WS2 and reduced S2 see NRA TD9 (NRA DMRB 6.1.1). 0.10 Lane Line 3.65 0.15 0.15 Double Line 3.65 0.15 Edge Line

Verge 4.00 Hard Strip 1.00

Climbing Lane Section on Standard S2

FIGURE 6A LANE WIDTHS AND CARRIAGEWAY MARKINGS: RURAL ALL-PURPOSE ROADS (MAINLINE)
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Nearside Verge 4.50 Hard Strip 1.50 4.00 Carriageway Offside Verge 3.50 Hard Strip 0.50

Cross-Sections and Headroom (NRA TD 27/00)

0.15 Edge Line

0.15 Edge Line

Slip Roads, Interchange Links and Loops : 1 Lane

Nearside Verge 4.00 Hard Strip 1.00 3.00 3.00 6.00 Carriageway

Offside Verge 3.50 Hard Strip 0.50

0.15 Edge Line

0.10 Lane Line

0.15 Edge Line

Diverge Slip Roads Only : 2 Lane

Nearside Verge 4.00 Hard Strip 1.00 0.15 Edge Line 3.65

7.30 Carriageway 3.65 0.10 Lane Line 0.15 Edge Line

Offside Verge 3.50 Hard Strip 0.50

Slip Roads, Interchange Links And Loops : 2 Lane


Notes 1. All dimensions are in metres. 2. See Tables 2 and 3 for dimensions of cross-section elements. 3. For details of road markings see the Traffic Signs Manual.

FIGURE 7 LANE WIDTHS AND CARRIAGEWAY MARKINGS: RURAL MOTORWAY AND ALL-PURPOSE SLIP ROADS, INTERCHANGE LINKS AND LOOPS
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Table 3 Dimensions of Cross-Section Elements for Rural All-Purpose Roads Including Slip Roads, Interchange Links and Loops Verge 1,4 MAINLINES Reduced Single (S2) Standard Single (S2) Wide Single (WS2) Standard Dual Carriageway (D2AP) Wide Dual Carriageway (D2AP) Nearside Hard Strip 2 Hard Shoulder2 Carriageway2 Offside Hard Strip2 Verge1,4

Central Reserve1,4 2.60 min5 9.00

3.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 3.00

0.50 -

2.50 2.50 2.50 3.00

7.00 7.30 10.00 7.00 7.50

1.00 1.00

-3 -3

SLIP ROADS, INTERCHANGE LINKS AND LOOPS: MERGES AND DIVERGES 1.50 4.00 1 Lane 4.50 4.00 1.00 7.30 2 Lane SLIP ROADS: DIVERGE ONLY 2 Lane 4.00

0.50 0.50

3.50 3.50

1.00

6.00

0.50

3.50

Notes:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Verge and central reserve dimensions are desirable values: any reduction is a Relaxation. Carriageway, hard shoulder and hard strip dimensions are fixed values: any alternative is a Departure. For details of offside verges at divided structures, see Paragraph 4.12 and Table 6. Where a hard strip is present, the corresponding verge or central reserve dimension includes the hard strip. However, where a hard shoulder is present, the corresponding verge dimension does not include the hard shoulder. Width of central reserve on Standard Dual Carriageway is determined by the type of safety fence or barrier. See TD 19 (DMRB 2.2). It is suggested that a width of 3.00m be assumed for preliminary designs. For guidance on selection of slip roads and interchange link and loop roads, see TD 22 (DMRB 6.2.1). All dimensions are in metres.

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4. CROSS-SECTIONS AT STRUCTURES
General 4.1 The cross-sections detailed in Figures 8 to [10A] and Table 6 assume a straight horizontal alignment of the carriageway. If this is not the case the verges and central reserve may require widening to give the stopping sight distances required in accordance with NRA TD 9 . 4.2 Variations of cross-section provision at bridges in close succession shall be avoided except where sight distance requirements dictate otherwise. The verge and central reserve widths appropriate for the longest structure shall be used. Individual cases shall be treated on their merits. 4.3 The requirements of this Standard are not applicable to road tunnels.

Non-National Side Roads 4.4 The cross-section at a structure of a side road, which is not a national road and is diverted or improved on-line as part of a national road scheme, should be agreed with the National Roads Authority and the relevant Road Authority. See Annex A for general guidance. Traffic Lane Widths 4.5 Lane widths shall be maintained through or over a structures.

Hard Shoulders and Hard Strips 4.7 Where hard shoulders or hard strips are provided adjacent to the edges of the carriageway they shall be continued at the same width through or over the structure.

Central Reserves 4.8 The width of central reserve applicable to the adjacent open road section should be continued through or over the structure, except in the case of long underbridges, where the width may be reduced to a minimum of 2.6m. 4.10 On all-purpose road overbridges, underbridges, elevated roads and viaducts, the nearside verge will need to provide a clear width for pedestrian access. The width can be varied depending upon the overall length of the structure and the likely pedestrian flows as indicated in Paragraphs 4.10A to 4.13C. Provision may also need to be made for pedal cyclists. 4.10A Regular pedestrian usage on an all-purpose road occurs where there is a clearly defined local need with a predicted maximum flow of more than 25 pedestrians per hour and/or footways are provided, or are to be provided, on contiguous sections of road. Occasional pedestrian usage occurs at other locations. 4.11 Verge widths may need to be increased to allow adequate visibility, particularly where a bridge is located on a horizontal curve. Verges at Underbridges 4.12 On underbridges the part of the verge adjacent to the bridge parapet shall be raised with a maximum kerb height of 75mm. The widths given in Table 6 for the raised verge should be the first option considered. Any reduction in width shall be regarded as a Relaxation.

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Verges at Overbridges 4.13 At overbridges the verge width shall be not less than 2.0m and shall also comply with the following arrangements where applicable. 4.13A At overbridges where an abutment is adjacent to the carriageway: a) the distance from the edge of road pavement to the face of the abutment shall be not less than 4.50m. where there is regular pedestrian verge, a paved footway of 1.65m minimum clear width shall be provided on the nearside verge behind any safety fence.

b)

4.13B At overbridges where a pier is adjacent to the carriageway: a) the distance from the edge of road pavement to the face of the pier shall be determined to suit the safety fence set-back and working width. Working width is the distance from the traffic face of the safety fence to the maximum dynamic deflected position of the fence after impact. where there is regular pedestrian usage, a paved footway of 1.65m minimum clear width shall be provided on the nearside through the span away from the main carriageway. In cuttings it may be necessary to introduce a small retaining wall alongside the footway, to avoid the need to widen the cutting.

b)

4.13C Provision may also be needed for pedal cyclists, in which case this should normally be located alongside the footway. Safety Fences, Safety Barriers and Bridge Parapets 4.14 Safety fences, safety barriers and bridge parapets shall be positioned in accordance with the requirements of TD 19 (DMRB 2.2) and BD 52 (DMRB 2.3.3).

Road Type

Location

Pedestrian Usage (see Paragraph 4.10A)

Bridge Length m

Raised Verge Width m

Motorway

Nearside Offside

All All

0.60 0.60

All-Purpose Road

Nearside

Regular Regular Occasional

100 > 100 All

2.00 1.50 1.50

Offside

All

All

0.60

Table 6 : Verge Widths at Underbridges

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Work Space

Slope

Verge 3.00

Hard Shoulder 3.00

Carriageway 7.50

Central Reserve 9.00

Carriageway 7.50

Hard Shoulder Verge 3.00 3.00

Slope

Work Space

Boundary

Hard Strip 1.00

Hard Strip 1.00 Boundary ON EMBANKMENT OPEN ROAD SECTION

IN CUTTING

Verge Hard Strip 4.50 min

Carriageway

Verge Carriageway Hard Strip 4.50 min Hard Shoulder Carriageway Hard Strip Carriageway Hard Strip 4.50 min

Pedestrian Access Verge on all purpose dual carriageway Pedestrian Access on all purpose DETAIL FOR SLIP ROADS dual carriageway (NEAR SIDE)

Safety Fence/ Safety Barrier OVERBRIDGE

Central Reserve

DETAIL FOR SLIP ROADS INTERCHANGE LINKS AND LOOP ROADS (OFF SIDE)

Raised Verge Hard Shoulder Pedestrian Access on all purpose dual carriageway

Carriageway

Central Reserve Safety Fence/ Safety Barrier

Carriageway

Hard Strip

Hard Strip

UNDERBRIDGE NOTES: 1. See Figure 6 for lane widths, edge and lane line 2. See Table 3 for dimensions of cross-sectional elements. 3. All dimensions are in metres.

FIGURE 8 CROSS SECTION ELEMENTS OF WIDE RURAL MOTORWAYS AND WIDE DUAL CARRIAGEWAYS

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Hard Shoulder Work Space Slope Verge 2.00 Boundary Hard Strip 1.00 IN CUTTING Hard Strip 1.00 2.50 Carriageway 7.00 Central Reserve 2.60 min Carriageway 7.00

Hard Shoulder Verge 2.50 2.00

Slope

Work Space

Safety Barrier

Boundary ON EMBANKMENT OPEN ROAD SECTION

Verge Hard Strip

Carriageway Hard Shoulder Verge Carriageway Hard Strip Carriageway Hard Strip

Verge Carriageway Hard Strip

Pedestrian Access on all purpose dual carriageway DETAIL FOR SLIP ROADS (NEAR SIDE)

Pedestrian Access on all purpose dual carriageway

Safety Fence

Central Reserve DETAIL FOR SLIP ROADS INTERCHANGE LINKS AND LOOP ROADS (OFF SIDE) Central Reserve

OVERBRIDGE Raised Verge Hard Shoulder

Carriageway

Carriageway

Pedestrian Access on all purpose dual carriageway

Hard Strip

Hard Strip

UNDERBRIDGE NOTES: 1. See Figure 6 for lane widths, edge and lane line details. 2. See Table 3 for dimensions of cross-sectional elements. 3. All dimensions are in metres.

Safety Barrier

FIGURE 9 CROSS SECTION ELEMENTS OF RURAL STANDARD MOTORWAYS AND STANDARD DUAL CARRIAGEWAYS

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Work Space

Slope

Verge 3.00

Hard Shoulder 2.50

Carriageway 7.30

Hard Shoulder 2.50

Verge 3.00

Slope

Work Space

Boundary Boundary IN CUTTING ON EMBANKMENT

OPEN ROAD SECTION

Raised Verge

Hard Shoulder

Carriageway

Hard Shoulder

Raised Verge

Hard Verge Shoulder 4.50 min

Carriageway

Hard Shoulder Verge 4.50 min

Pedestrian Access width Pedestrian Access width Pedestrian Access width

Pedestrian Access width

UNDERBRIDGE

OVERBRIDGE

FIGURE 10
NOTES: 1. See Figure 6A for lane widths, edge and lane line details. 2. See Table 3 for dimensions of cross-sectional elements. 3. All dimensions are in metres.

CROSS SECTION ELEMENTS OF RURAL STANDARD SINGLE CARRIAGEWAY ROADS

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Work Space

Slope

Verge 3.00

Carriageway 7.00

Verge 3.00

Slope Work Space

Cross-Sections and Headroom (NRA TD 27/00)

Boundary Hard Strip 0.50 IN CUTTING ON EMBANKMENT Hard Strip 0.50 Boundary

OPEN ROAD SECTION

Verge 4.50 min Verge Hard Strip Carriageway Hard Strip Verge

Carriageway

Verge

4.50 min

Hard Strip

Hard Strip

Pedestrian Access width

Pedestrian Access width

Raised Verge/ Pedestrian Access width

Raised Verge/ Pedestrian Access width

UNDERBRIDGE

OVERBRIDGE

NOTES: 1. See Figure 6A for lane widths, edge and lane line details. 2. See Table 3 for dimensions of cross-sectional elements. 3. All dimensions are in metres.

FIGURE 10A CROSS SECTION ELEMENTS OF RURAL REDUCED SINGLE CARRIAGEWAY ROADS

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5. HEADROOM AT STRUCTURES
General 5.1 Dimensional standards are given in Table 8 for new construction headroom and maintained headroom at overbridges and at other structures over a road.

Type of Structure

New Construction Headroom (m) 5.30

Maintained Headroom (m) 5.03

Overbridges

Footbridges and Sign/Signal Gantries

5.70

5.41

Free Standing Temporary Structures

N/A

5.41

All Permanent Structures over High Load Routes

6.45

6.18

Table 8:
Standard Headroom At Structures

5.2 The headroom provision at underbridges shall be agreed with the relevant Road, Railway or Water Authority. 5.3 The headrooms given are the minimum; where it is economical and/or environmentally acceptable, greater headroom should be provided. Dimensional Requirements 5.5 Headroom shall be measured at right-angles to the surfaces of the carriageway, hard shoulder, hard strip, verge or central reserve, at the point where it is a minimum. 5.6 (a) (b) (c) (d) The relevant standard headroom in Table 8 shall be provided: Over the paved carriageway, hard shoulder or hard strip; Over the full verge width, except where (e) applies; Over the central reserve of a dual carriageway, except where (e) applies; Between the carriageway and the pier or abutment face where such a support is located within 4.5m of the edge of the road pavement, except where (e) applies;

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(e)

Up to the back of the working width of a safety fence, when installed (see Figure 13). The working width is the distance from the traffic face of the safety fence to the maximum deflected position of the fence after impact. The headroom to be provided at a structure on a high load route shall be as given in Table 8.

5.7

Compensation for Vertical Sag Curvature and Deflection 5.10 Where the road passing underneath a structure is on a sag curve, the headrooms in Table 8 shall be increased in accordance with Table 9. The sag radius is measured along the carriageway over a 25m chord.

Sag Radius (m)

Additional Clearance (mm) 80 70 55 45 25 15 Nil

1000 1200 1500 2000 3000 6000 >6000

Table 9 : Sag Radius Compensation

5.11 Allowances shall be made for the deflection of structures. The minimum headroom shall be maintained for the serviceability limit state under the action of load combination 1 specified in BD 37 (DMRB 1.3). Utilities Companies and Other Authorities Apparatus 5.12 Greater headroom than that determined from Paragraphs 5.1 to 5.11 may be required by a Utility Company or other Authority. Any increase in the headroom dimension shall be agreed with the National Roads Authority.

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Working Width

Headroom

Carriageway Face of Safety Fence/Barrier

Working Width

Headroom

Carriageway Face of Safety Fence/Barrier

FIGURE 13 HEADROOM AT STRUCTURES

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ANNEX A : CROSS-SECTIONS FOR NONNATIONAL ROADS (AS PART OF A NATIONAL ROAD SCHEME)
A1 Figure A1 illustrates a suggested range of cross-sections for use on rural non-national roads which are diverted or improved on-line as part of a national road scheme. The use of these cross-sections should be agreed with the relevant Road Authority and the National Roads Authority in each case.

Verge 3.0m

Carriageway 5.5m to 7.5m


C L

Verge 3.0m

Cut

Fill

FIGURE A1 RURAL REGIONAL OR LOCAL ROAD

Verge Widths at Structures

A2

A raised verge should normally be provided adjacent to the parapet at an underbridge or adjacent to the abutment or pier at an overbridge. It is recommended that the raised verge have a minimum width of 0.60m. Provision may also be needed on one or both verges for pedestrians and/or pedal cyclists. The recommended minimum width of clear pedestrian access is 2.0m (included within the verge), except where the predicted two-way traffic flow is less than 2,500 vehicles Annual Average Daily Traffic and Occasional pedestrian usage is anticipated, when a width of 1.5m is recommended. Occasional pedestrian usage is defined in Paragraph 4.10A.

A3

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Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

PART C : GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF MAJOR/MINOR PRIORITY JUNCTIONS


(Based on TD 42/95 with NRA Addendum)

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Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

1. INTRODUCTION
Scope 1.6 [TD 42/95 together with its NRA Addendum ] defines the main types of major/minor priority junction which can be used on new and improved national roads. 1.7 Advice is also given on the choice between the different types if major/minor priority junction, and on the siting of such junctions. 1.8 Key safety issues are outlined, as are those particular design issues relating to landscaping and the specific requirements of road users. 1.9 Further recommendations are given on the geometric design of the important elements of the major/minor priority junction, and the way in which the individual components can be brought together to produce a good overall design. Definitions 1.11 The major road is the road to which is assigned a permanent priority of traffic movement over that of the other road or roads. 1.12 A minor road is a road which has to give priority to the major road. 1.13 The three basic types of major/minor priority junction on single carriageways are defined in the following paragraphs. 1.14 Simple Junction. A T- or staggered junction without any ghost or physical islands in the major road, and without channelising islands in the minor road approach (Fig 1/1). 1.15 Ghost Island Junction. An at-grade junction, usually a T or staggered junction, within which an area is marked on the carriageway, shaped and located so as to direct traffic movement (Fig 1/2). 1.16 Single Lane Dualling. An at-grade junction, usually a T or staggered junction, within which central reservation islands are shaped and located so as to direct traffic movement (Fig 1/3). 1.17 In addition, there are four basic configurations. 1.18 Crossroads. An at-grade junction of two roads that cross approximately at right angles (Fig 1/4). 1.19 T-Junction. An at-grade junction of two roads, at which the minor road joins the major road approximately at right angles (Fig 1/1). 1.20 Skew or Y-Junction. An at-grade junction of two roads, at which the minor road approaches the major road at an oblique angle and terminates at the junction (Fig 1/5). 1.21 Staggered Junctions. An at-grade junction of three roads, at which the major road is continuous through the junction, and the minor roads connect with the major road so as to form two opposed T-junctions (Fig 1/6).

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2. FORM JUNCTION
General

OF

MAJOR/MINOR

PRIORITY

2.1 Major/minor priority junctions are the most common form of junction control. Traditionally, these junctions have been controlled by Yield signs and road markings, with the traffic on the minor road giving way to the traffic on the major road. However, for future national road schemes, these junctions shall be designed with Stop signs and road markings in place of the Yield signs. Refer to the Road Traffic (Signs) Regulations. Design Procedure 2.4 Junction design is a key element of the overall design process for national road schemes. The flow chart shown in Fig 2/1 outlines the design process for major/minor priority junctions in a series of interrelated design steps. Choice of Major/Minor Priority Junction 2.11 Table 2/1 shows the major/minor priority junction forms considered suitable for various major road carriageway types in both urban and rural situations. This Table should be used as a starting point in choosing the most appropriate type of major/minor priority junction to use at a particular site.
Carriageway Type Simple Standard S2 Location Urban Rural WS2 Urban Rural D2 D3 Junction Type Ghost Island Dualling

Yes Yes No No No No

Yes Yes No No No No

Maybe Maybe No No No No

Yes Yes Yes Yes No No

Yes Yes Yes Yes No No

No No Yes No No No

Yes (D1) Maybe* (D1) Yes (D1) Maybe* (D1) Yes (D2) No

Yes (D1) Maybe* (D1) Yes (D1) Maybe* (D1) Yes (D2) No

No

No No No No No

T-Junction

Staggered Junction

Crossroads

* The use of single lane dualling is not normally recommended and will be regarded as a Relaxation (see Paragraph 2.23).

Table 2/1 : Possible Junction Types for Different Major Road Carriageway Types

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2.12 Figure 2/2 may be useful to designers when considering further the options for a site. For single carriageway roads it shows approximately the various levels of T-junction which may be applicable for different combinations of flows. The information takes into account geometric and traffic delays, entry and turning traffic flows, and accident costs. (However, it must be noted that Fig 2/2 gives the starting point for junction choice and there are other factors such as those indicated in para 2.6 to be considered before a final decision is made.)

* The use of single lane dualling is not normally recommended and will be regarded as a Relaxation (see Paragraph 2.23).

Figure 2/2: Approximate Level of Provision of T-junctions on New Single Carriageway Roads for Various Major and Minor Road Design Year Traffic Flows (para 2.12 ) Simple 2.15 Simple junctions are appropriate for most minor junctions on single carriageway roads, but must not be used for wide single carriageways or dual carriageways. For new rural junctions they shall only be used when the design flow on the minor road is not expected to exceed about 300 vehicles 2-way AADT, and that on the major road is not expected to exceed 13,000 vehicles 2-way AADT. 2.16 At existing rural, and at urban junctions the cost of upgrading a simple junction to provide a right turning facility will vary from site to site. However, upgrading should always be considered where the minor road flow exceeds 500 vehicles 2-way AADT, a right turning accident problem is evident, or where vehicles waiting on the major road to turn right inhibit the through flow and create a hazard.
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Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

2.17 In those instances where the flow levels are not great enough to justify the provision of a right turning facility, and a right turning problem remains, consideration may be given to the use of a low cost remedial measure. Two such measures include a nearside passing bay, to allow through vehicles to pass those right turners waiting in the centre of the major road, albeit at a reduced speed, or a left hand diverging lane loop, which allows right turners to wait off the major road, and to make the crossing movement at right angles. These are shown in Fig 2/3 and 2/4. 2.18 The decision to provide a right turning facility shall be made in accordance with the warrants given in paras 2.15 and 2.16. The type of right turn facility to be used, however, will depend on the particular site characteristics.

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Ghost Island 2.19 The use of ghost islands on unrestricted rural single carriageway roads can, in certain circumstances, pose safety problems. In situations where overtaking opportunity on the major road on either side of the junction is restricted, the presence of a widened carriageway, albeit with hatch markings, could result in overtaking manoeuvres which may conflict with right turns into and out of the minor road. 2.20 Ghost islands shall be used on a new single carriageway roads, or in the upgrading of existing junctions to provide right turning vehicles with a degree of shelter from the through flow. 2.21 Ghost islands shall not be used where overtaking opportunities on adjacent links are restricted or where traffic turning right out of the minor road would need to make this manoeuvre in two stages. Single Lane Dualling 2.23 The use of single lane dualling on rural lengths of national road schemes is not normally recommended and will be regarded as a Relaxation (see NRA TD 9, ). 2.23A Single lane dualling may be appropriate on rural single carriageway roads that have good overtaking opportunities on adjacent links. It may also be appropriate on such roads as an alternative to ghost islands where overtaking opportunities on adjacent links are restricted and where traffic turning right out of the minor road would need to make the manoeuvre in two stages. Single lane dualling may also be appropriate on schemes where the alternative would be a series of roundabouts at relatively close spacing. Dual Carriageway Junctions 2.26 Major/minor priority junctions may also be used on dual carriageways, but should never be provided on D3AP roads. The upper limit for minor road flows in rural areas should be taken as about 3,000 vehicles AADT 2-way. However, short lengths of full dualling (D2AP) just to incorporate a junction on otherwise single carriageway roads shall not be provided. 2.27 On continuous dual carriageways, major/minor priority junctions are formed by widening the central reserve to provide an offside diverging lane and waiting space for vehicles turning right from the major road into the minor road (Fig 2/5). 2.28 Where a long stretch of motorway or all-purpose carriageway with full grade separation becomes a D2AP with at-grade junctions, a roundabout should always be used at the first major junction in order to emphasise to drivers the changed character of the road. This has been found to reduce accidents. In addition, major/minor priority junctions should not be provided at locations where a dual carriageway section reduces to single carriageway standard, such as at the end of a town bypass, since the merging manoeuvres resulting from such a layout may lead to an increase in accident potential. There should be at least 500 metres between the end of the junction and the signs announcing the end of the dual carriageway. Crossroads 2.29 Crossroads are considered suitable only as simple junctions in urban and rural locations where the minor road flows do not warrant a ghost island or single lane dualling. Staggered junctions are safer than crossroads where a significant proportion of the flow on the minor roads is a cross movement.

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Staggered Junctions 2.30 Staggered junctions comprise of a major road with opposed T-junctions on either side, separated by a short section of road. Right/left staggers (where minor road traffic crossing the major road first turns right, proceeds along the major road and then turns left) are preferred to left/right staggers because traffic turning between the minor roads is less likely to have to wait in the centre of the major road.

Figure 2/5 : Dual Carriageway T-junction (para 2.27)

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3. SITING OF JUNCTIONS
General

MAJOR/MINOR

PRIORITY

3.1 On new single carriageways where overtaking opportunity is limited, ghost island and single lane dualling junctions should be sited on non-overtaking sections, as defined in NRA TD 9. On existing single carriageway roads along which overtaking opportunity is very limited, the isolated local improvement of a junction to a ghost island could induce unsafe driver behaviour, since the short length of wider road thus created may be used by some frustrated drivers for overtaking. 3.2 Measures that have been found to reduce the number of such manoeuvres at existing ghost island or single lane dualling junctions include a. The application of diagonal hatched road markings in the hard strips at an existing single lane dualling junction, which gives a more confined impression to approaching drivers, as shown in Fig 3/1. b. 3/2. c. The use of double white lines along the hatching boundary at ghost island junctions, as shown in Fig

The use of differential red coloured surfacing within the hatched area of the ghost island.

Figure 3/1 : Use of Hatching in Hard Strips to Eliminate Overtaking Manoeuvres (para 3.2)

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Horizontal Alignment 3.4 Ideally, major/minor priority junctions should not be sited where the major road is on a sharp curve. However, where the siting of a major/minor priority junction on a curve is unavoidable, the preferred alignment is where T-junctions are sited with the minor road on the outside of the curve. This is especially important for junctions on climbing lane sections or dual carriageways, to ensure that minor road traffic has a clear view of vehicles on the major road that may be overtaking through the junction. Junctions on the inside of sharp curves are most undesirable. Vertical Alignment 3.6 The best locations for junctions are on level ground, or where the gradient of the approaches does not exceed 2% either uphill or downhill. Downhill approaches in excess of this figure, particularly on high speed roads, can induce traffic speeds above those desirable through the junction, and lead to a misjudgement of the approach speed by drivers entering from the minor road. Uphill approaches are also undesirable since it is difficult for drivers to appreciate the layout of a junction when they are approaching it on an up gradient. They cannot see the full layout from the lengths immediately on either side of the crest. 3.7 Where the minor road approaches the junction on an uphill gradient, drivers can often wrongly perceive the junction form. In such circumstances, a designer shall attempt to create a level section of at least 15 metres length adjacent to the major road. 3.8 Sections in the central reserve opening at single lane dualling and dual carriageway junctions should fall, for drainage purposes, towards rather than away from the minor road, particularly where there is superelevation across the main carriageway. In such instances where this does not occur, drivers may not immediately appreciate the road they are joining is a dual carriageway, particularly with single lane dualling.

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4 SAFETY
4.3 Various methods which have been shown to enhance safety at [major/minor] junctions in the past include: a. The installation of a ghost island on single carriageway roads to shelter right turning traffic and discourage overtaking. b. The use of double white line markings or raised rib markings along the hatching boundary, or the application of differential coloured surfacing within the hatched area at ghost islands. c. For more heavily trafficked junctions on rural single carriageway roads, the installation of physical islands to achieve single lane dualling. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. The application of hatching in the hard strips at single lane dualling junctions. The replacement of a rural crossroads by a staggered junction. The installation of channelising islands on the minor road approaches at rural crossroads. The improvement of visibility. The provision and maintenance of good skid resistant surfaces. The conversion of urban major/minor priority junctions to traffic signal or roundabout control. The installation of pedestrian guard rails, central refuges and pedestrian crossings in urban areas.

k. On high speed dual carriageways, the prevention of right turn crossing manoeuvres at the junction and use of a roundabout or a grade separated crossing close to the major/minor priority junction for the purpose of U-turns by the diverted traffic.

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5. ROAD USERS SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS


Cyclists Facilities 5.4 The provision of dedicated cyclist facilities is covered in TA 57 (DMRB 6.3).

5.5 Bearing in mind the practicalities and economics, it is important to consider the provision of facilities that take cyclists away from the mouth of the junction. This will minimise the interaction between cyclists and motor vehicles and provide safe crossing points. 5.6 Such facilities may include the following:-

a. Shared use by pedestrians and cyclists of a displaced cycle track/footway with a controlled or uncontrolled crossing. b. c. A signposted alternative cycle route away from the junction. Full grade separation, for example by means of a combined pedestrian/cyclist subway system.

If provision of any of these is not possible, then greater emphasis should be placed on the safety aspects of the design of the major/minor priority junction layout, by careful attention to the provision of crossing places. Equestrians Facilities 5.8 Where it is expected that there will be regular use of the junction approaches by ridden horses, of the order of more than 20 passages a week, consideration should be given to the provision of dedicated crossing places. 5.9 Advice on the design of at-grade equestrian crossings is given in TA 57 (DMRB 6.3).

Pedestrians Facilities 5.12 Although it is preferable to provide separate pedestrian routes away from the junction, this is rarely practical, in which case the following facilities should be considered:a. b. c. d. A minor road central refuge at an unmarked crossing place (Fig 5/2). Zebra crossing, with or without a central refuge. Displaced controlled pedestrian crossing. Subway or footbridge.

5.13 The type of facility selected will depend upon the volumes and movements expected of both pedestrians and traffic, and should be designed in accordance with current recommendations and requirements BD29 (DMRB 2.2); TD 36 (DMRB 6.3.1); TA 68 (DMRB 8.5.1). The use of different types of pedestrian facility at the same junction is not recommended. 5.14 At-grade pedestrian crossing points should not be placed in the mouth of the junction, instead they should be located away from the mouth where the carriageway is relatively narrow. In urban areas, where pedestrian flows are relatively low, it is possible to provide a central refuge in the hatched area of a ghost island junction. However, where pedestrian flows are high, consideration should be given to single lane
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dualling junction, even in circumstances where the traffic flows may not warrant such a provision, in order to enable pedestrians to make the crossing manoeuvre in two stages, and have a safe central waiting area. 5.15 Defined at-grade pedestrian crossing points on the minor road should be a minimum of 15m back from the Stop line, and should be sited so as to reduce to a minimum the width to be crossed by pedestrians provided they are not involved in excessive detours from their desired paths. Central refuges should be used wherever possible, but not in the major road in a rural situation.

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7. GEOMETRIC DESIGN FEATURES


General 7.1 This chapter outlines the geometric design features to be considered on the design of major/minor priority junctions. Many of the features are dealt with separately, and a designer should work systematically through the design procedure prior to assembling the component parts. Design Speed 7.2 Geometric standards for junctions are related to the traffic speed of the major road, and for new roads this is the design speed as defined in NRA TD 9. Visibility 7.3 Minor road traffic has to join or cross the major road when there are gaps in the major road traffic streams. It is therefore essential that minor road drivers have adequate visibility in each direction to see the oncoming major road traffic in sufficient time to permit them to make their manoeuvres safely. This concept also applies to major road traffic turning right into the minor road. As well as having adverse safety implications, poor visibility reduces the capacity of turning movements. Visibility shall however, not be excessive as this can provide a distraction away from nearer opposing traffic. 7.4 Drivers approaching a major/minor priority junction from both the major road and the minor road shall have unobstructed visibility as indicated in the following sections. The envelope of visibility for drivers eye height is as set out in NRA TD 9. Major Road 7.5 Drivers approaching a major/minor priority junction along the major road approaches shall be able to see the minor road entry from a distance corresponding to the Desirable Minimum Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) for the design speed of the major road, as described in NRA TD 9. This visibility allow drivers on the major road to be aware of traffic entering from the minor road in time for them to be able to slow down and stop safely if necessary. Minor Road 7.6 The principle of providing the required visibility for drivers approaching the junction from the minor road has three distinct features. a. Approaching drivers shall have unobstructed visibility of the junction from a distance corresponding to the Desirable Minimum Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) for the design speed of the minor road, as described in NRA TD 9. This allows drivers time to slow down safely at the junction, or stop, if this is necessary. Where a Stop sign is proposed the visibility envelope shall be widened to include the sign. b. From a point 15m back along the centreline of the minor road measured from the continuation of the line of the nearside edge of the running carriageway of the major road (not from the continuation of the back of the major road hardstrip if this is present), an approaching drive shall be able to see clearly the junction form, and those peripheral elements of the junction layout. This provides the driver with an idea of the junction form, possible movements and conflicts, and possible required action before reaching the major road.

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c. The distance back along the minor road from which the full visibility is known as the x distance. It is measured back along the centreline of the minor road from the continuation of the line of the nearside edge of the running carriageway of the major road. The x distance shall be desirably 9m (but see para 7.8). From this point an approaching driver shall be able to see clearly points to the left and right on the nearer edge of the major road running carriageway at a distance given in Table 7/1, measured from its intersection with the centreline of the minor road. This is called the y distance and is defined in Fig 7/1. Relaxations are not available for this distance. 7.7 If the line of vision lies partially within the major road carriageway, it shall be made tangential to the nearer edge of the major road running carriageway, as shown in Fig 7/2. 7.8 In difficult circumstances, the x distance may be taken as a Relaxation from 9.0m to 4.5m for lightly trafficked simple junctions, and in exceptionally difficult circumstances, to 2.4m back from the nearer edge of the major road running carriageway. The x distance, from which full y distance visibility is provided, shall not be more than 9m, as this induces high minor road approach speeds into the junction, and leads to excessive land take. 7.9 Similarly, although the y distance shall always be provided, there is little advantage in increasing it, as this too can induce high approach speeds and take the attention of the minor road driver away from the immediate junction conditions. Increased visibility shall not be provided to increase the capacities of various turning movements. 7.10 These visibility standards apply to new junctions and to improvements to existing junctions. 7.11 Where the major road is a dual carriageway with a central reserve of adequate width to shelter turning traffic, the standard visibility splay to the left is not required, but the central reserve to the left of the minor road shall be kept clear of obstructions for the appropriate y distance, when viewed from an x distance of 2.4m. 7.12 If the major road is one way, a single visibility splay in the direction of approaching traffic will suffice. If the minor road serves as a one way exit from the major road, no visibility splays will be required, provided that forward visibility for turning vehicles is adequate. 7.13 Vehicles parked within splay lines may obstruct visibility. Where necessary, parking and access should be controlled to prevent this. Care should also be taken in the placing of signs, landscaping and street furniture within the visibility splay areas to ensure that their obstructive effect is minimal.

Design Speed of Major Road (kph) 50 60 70 85 100 120

y Distance (m) 70 90 120 160 215 295

Table 7/1 : y Visibility Distances from the Minor Road (Relaxations not available para 7.6c)

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Design Vehicle 7.14 Allowance shall be made for the swept turning paths of long vehicles where they can reasonably be expected to use a junction. Consideration shall also be given to the manoeuvring characteristics of these vehicles in the design of staggered junctions. 7.15 All of the geometric parameters used in the design of a major/minor priority have been developed to cater for a 16.5m long articulated vehicle, whose turning width is greater than for most other vehicles within the normal dimensions permitted in the existing Road Traffic (Construction, Equipment and Use of Vehicles) Regulations, or likely to be permitted in the near future. Corner Radii 7.17 Where no provision is made for heavy commercial vehicles, it is recommended that the minimum circular corner radius at simple junctions should be 6m in urban areas and 10m in rural areas. Where provision is to be made for heavy commercial vehicles, the recommended circular corner radius is:a. 10m at urban simple junctions, followed by a taper of 1:5 over a distance of 30m, measured from the edge of the major road carriageway up the minor road in the case of the entry to the minor road, and followed by a similar taper measured from the centreline of the minor road along the major road for the entry to the major road. b. c. d. e. 15m at rural simple junctions, with tapers of 1:10 over a distance of 25m. 15m at ghost island junctions, with tapers of 1:6 over a distance of 30m. 15m at simple staggered junctions, with tapers of 1:8 over a distance of 32m. 20m radius in all other circumstances.

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These radii only apply where there are no nearside diverge tapers or lanes, or nearside merge tapers. Figures for these are given in paras 7.54 and 7.61 respectively. 7.18 Where heavy commercial vehicles comprise a significant proportion of the turning movements, use of the compound curve shown in Fig 7/3 is recommended.

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Carriageway Widths 7.19 All of the geometric parameters defined in paras 7.20 7.48 can be seen for the three main types of major/minor priority junction in Figs 7/4, 7/5 and 7/6. Through Lanes 7.20 At ghost island junctions, the through lane in each direction shall not be greater than 3.65m wide, exclusive of hardstrips, but shall not be less than 3.0m wide. 7.21 At single lane dualling junctions, the through lane in each direction shall be 4.0m wide exclusive of hardstrips. This width, with the hardstrips, will allow traffic to pass a stopped vehicle without leaving the paved width. 7.22 At dual carriageway junctions the through lane widths remote from the junction shall be continued through the junction.

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Minor Road Approaches 7.23 On a minor road approach of nominal width 7.5m or less, where a channelising island, as described in Annex 2, is provided both lanes shall be 4.0m wide at the point where the hatched markings surrounding the channelising island begin. At the point where the channelising island commences, the widths on either side shall be as follows: a. On the approach to the major road, 4.0m wide for ghost island or 4.5m wide for single lane dualling or a dual carriageway, exclusive of hardstrips. If the approach on the minor road consists of two lanes, this dimension shall be 5.5m.
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b. On the exit from the major road, 4.5m wide for a ghost island or 5.0m wide for single lane dualling or a dual carriageway, exclusive of hardstrips. These dimensions are shown on Fig 7/7.

a. b. c.

7.5m or less nominal width 4.0m in all cases 4.5m for ghost island 5.0m for single lane dualling, dual carriageway

d.

4.0m for ghost island 4.5m for single lane dualling, dual carriageway 5.5m if two lane approach

Figure 7/7 : Minor Road Approaches (para 7.23 and Annex 2)

7.24 If there are no channelising islands in the minor road, the nominal approach width should continue up until the tangent point of the curve to join the edge of the major road running carriageway. Carriageway Widths Around Curves 7.25 Where carriageways are taken around short radius corners, added width shall be provided to cater for the swept area of larger goods vehicles and the cut in of trailer units. On single lane sections greater than 50m in length an allowance shall be made for broken down vehicles as in para 7.21. Table 7/2 shows the recommended minimum widths for various nearside corner radii based on the design vehicle. For radii above 100m, the standards set out in NRA TD 9 shall be used.
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Inside Corner Radius or Curve Radius (m)

Single Lane Width (excluding hardstrip provision) (m)

Single Lane Width with space to pass Stationary Vehicle (including hardstrip provision (m)

Two Lane Width for One Way or Two Way Traffic (excluding hardstrip provision) (m)

Inside Lane

Outside Lane

Total

10 15 20 25 30 40 50 75 100

8.4 7.1 6.2 5.7 5.3 4.7 4.4 4.0 3.8

10.9 9.6 8.7 8.2 7.8 7.2 6.9 6.5 6.3

8.4 7.1 6.2 5.7 5.3 4.7 4.4 4.0 3.8

6.5 6.0 5.6 5.2 5.0 4.6 4.3 4.0 3.8

14.9 13.1 11.8 10.9 10.3 9.3 8.7 8.0 7.6

Table 7/2 : Minimum Corner and Curve Radii and Carriageway Widths (para 7.25)

7.27 An articulated car transporter will turn in the widths shown, but where provision is to be made for this type of vehicle, street furniture above 2.5m high should be set back at least 1m from the edge of the minor road carriageway at the bellmouth (this does not apply for channelising islands) to allow for the projection of the trailer over the tractor cab. Central Islands 7.28 Cutting, merging and diverging movements can usefully be separated by physical or painted guide islands set out with road markings so that the number of traffic conflicts at any point is reduced (as indicated in Fig 7/10). Painted guide islands can be enhanced by the use of coloured surfacing or textures within them. However, designs which have numerous small traffic islands should be avoided as they are confusing and tend to be ignored. Tapers 7.30 Central islands, whether for ghost islands (Fig 7/8) or single lane dualling (Fig 7/9) should normally be developed symmetrically about the centreline of the major road to their maximum width at the tapers shown in Table 7/3. The maximum island width should continue through the junction to the tangent point of the minor road radius and the edge of the major road carriageway. For single lane dualling, the central island should be introduced by means of hatched markings until there is sufficient width to accommodate the appropriate sign on the nose of the physical island with the required running clearances to it.

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Design Speed (kph)

Taper for Ghost Island and Single Lane Dualling

Taper for Dual Carriageways

50 60 70 85 100 120

1:20 1:20 1:20 1:25 1:30 --

1:40 1:40 1:40 1:45 1:50 1:55

Table 7/3 : Tapers for Central Islands

Figure 7/8 : Ghost Island Development and Taper (para 7.30)

Figure 7/9 : Physical Island Development and Taper (para 7.30)

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7.31 Where junctions are located on climbing lane sections or on sharp curves, islands should be introduced asymmetrically to suit the circumstances (as indicated in Figs 7/16 and 7/17). It is perfectly permissible however, to introduce islands asymmetrically in other circumstances. This can have the benefit of avoiding expense... If the widening is biased to the minor roadside, through traffic will be deflected where crossing movements at the minor road take place, which may be a benefit. Turning Length 7.32 The turning length is provided to allow long vehicles to position themselves correctly for the right turn. The turning length shall be 10m long irrespective of the type of junction, design speed of gradient, measured from the centreline of the minor road. It is shown on Figs 7/4, 7/5 and 7/6. 7.33 Where capacity calculations indicate that for significant periods of time there will be vehicles queuing to turn right from the major road, the turning length shall be increased to allow for a reservoir queuing length to accommodate such vehicles. Where reservoir provision appears desirable at a junction with ghost islands, consideration shall be given to providing physical islands instead to afford greater protection to turning traffic. Where site conditions prevent this, the reservoir space may still be provided. Direct Taper Length 7.34 The direct taper length is the length over which the width of a right turning lane is developed. For ghost islands and the physical islands in single lane dualling and dual carriageway junctions right turning lanes shall be introduced by means of a direct taper whose length is part of the deceleration length, and depends on the design speed. This taper length is given in Table 7/4. Design Speed (kph) 50 60 70 85 100 120 Direct Taper Length (m) 5 5 15 15 25 30

Table 7/4 : Direct Taper Length (para 7.34)

Ghost Islands 7.35 For new junctions, the desirable width of a ghost island turning lane shall be 3.5m, but a Relaxation to 3.0m is permissible. At urban and suburban junctions it can sometimes be advantageous to use a greater width not exceeding 5.0m to allow a degree of shelter in the centre of the road for heavy commercial vehicles turning right from the minor road to execute the turn in two separate manoeuvres. On rural roads, with design speeds above 85kph or where hardstrips are present, widths greater than 3.6m are inadvisable because wide ghost islands in these situations create a sense of space that could encourage hazardous overtaking at junctions. 7.36 For improvements to existing junctions where space is very limited a reduced width may be unavoidable. The width of ghost islands shall not be less than 2.5m.

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7.37 At left/right staggered junctions, the deceleration lengths would overlap but the width of the ghost island shall not be increased to make them lie side by side. The starting points of the right turning section shall be joined by a straight line, which will mean at higher design speeds, the full width of the turning lane will not be developed until the end of the diverging section (as shown in Fig 8/3). The width of the turning lane shall be the full with of the ghost island. Width of Physical Islands in the Centre 7.38 At single lane dualling and dual carriageway junctions, the width of the central island at the crossing point shall be 10.0m, including central reserve hardstrips. This width will shelter most heavy commercial vehicles turning right from the minor road, except for very long vehicles. In exceptional circumstances where use by very long vehicles is expected and a roundabout is not feasible, a width of 14.0m including hardstrips, will be needed to shelter the largest articulated vehicles (16.5m) and a width of 16.5m, including hardstrips, will be required to shelter drawbar trailer combinations (18.35m). 7.39 The minimum width of a physical island, usually located at the end of the direct taper shall be 3.5m (shown in Figs 7/5 and 7/6). Right Turning Lanes 7.40 The overall length of a right turning lane provided at ghost island, single lane dualling and dual carriageway junctions, will depend on the major road design speed and the gradient. It consists of a turning length, as described in paras 7.32 and 7.33, and a deceleration length. This component shall be provided in accordance with Tables 7/5a and 7/5b, in which the gradient is the average for the 500m length before the minor road.

Design Speed (kph) 0-4%

Up Gradient

Down Gradient

Above 4%

0-4%

Above 4%

50 60 70 85 100 120

25 25 40 55 80 110

25 25 25 40 55 80

25 25 40 55 80 110

25 25 40 55 80 110

Table 7/5a : Deceleration Length (m) for Ghost Island and Single Lane Dualling (paras 7.40 and 7.55)

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Design Speed (kph) 0-4%

Up Gradient

Down Gradient

Above 4%

0-4%

Above 4%

50 60 70 85 100 120

25 25 40 55 80 110

25 25 25 40 55 80

25 25 40 55 80 110

25 40 55 80 110 150

Table 7/5b : Deceleration Length (m) for Dual Carriageways (paras 7.40 and 7.55)

7.41 The deceleration length can be seen on Figs 7/4, 7/5 and 7/6. The deceleration lengths are based on the assumption that vehicles will slow by one design speed step on the national road before entering the length. The deceleration rate on the level is assumed to be 0.375g. There is no reaction time as this is a planned manoeuvre. Central Reserve Openings 7.42 The opening in the central reserve for single lane dualling and dual carriageway junctions at the crossing point shall be 15.0m wide, as shown on Figs 7/5 and 7/6. 7.43 Problems have been experienced with driver confusion over priority within the central reserve, particularly where the width of the physical island has been increased to cater for heavy commercial vehicles. Measures to regularise the priority arrangement within the central reserve opening include channelising the central area to arrive at a priority arrangement. An example is shown in Fig 7/10. 7.44 Consideration may also be given in these circumstances to introducing differential coloured surfacing to enhance the road markings or indicate the area of allowable overrun for heavy commercial vehicles. However, such coloured surfacing should also be visible at night and in poor weather conditions.

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Traffic Islands and Refuges 7.45 Traffic islands should be provided in the mouth of the minor road at major/minor priority junctions, except simple junctions, to:a. b. c. d. e. Give guidance to long vehicles carrying out turning movements. Channelise intersecting or merging traffic streams. Warn drivers on the minor road that a junction is ahead. Provide shelter for vehicles waiting to carry out manoeuvres such as waiting to turn right. Assist pedestrians.

7.46 Physical islands shall have an area of at least 4.5 square metres, and shall be treated to be conspicuous in poor lighting conditions. Smaller areas should be defined by road markings. The risk of overriding the islands can be reduced by offsetting the approach nose from the edge of the vehicle paths. 7.47 Where a traffic island serves as a refuge for pedestrians it shall be at least 1.5m wide and have openings in the centre at carriageway level to make the crossing easier for pedestrians (see Fig 5/2). Opposite the refuge openings, dropped kerbs shall be installed for the same reason. A refuge beacon about 4-5m high may be placed between the bollards. Care shall be taken that street furniture does not obstruct the drivers view of pedestrians. 7.48 The recommended layout and details of the design of rural channelising islands can be found in Annex 2.

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Diverging Tapers and Lanes 7.50 Right turning tapers and lanes in the centre of ghost islands and single lane dualling on single carriageways, and on dual carriageways are especially useful as they provide a convenient space for vehicles to slow down and wait before turning off the major road, and assist the right turn out of the minor road. Details of the design of such facilities are covered in para 7.40. 7.51 Nearside diverging tapers allow left turning major road traffic to slow down and leave the major road without impeding the following through traffic, but they are of less benefit in terms of operation and safety than right turning lanes, possibly because the left turn from the major road does not cross an opposing traffic stream and is rarely impeded. However nearside diverging tapers should always be considered for higher speed roads or on gradients. 7.52 Except on roads with hard shoulders, nearside diverging tapers shall not be provided at simple junctions (Paragraph 1.14). They shall be provided at junctions between national roads and national or regional roads where the design speed for the major road is 85km/h or above. They shall be provided at other junctions in the following circumstances for traffic in the design year:a. Where the volumes of left turning traffic is greater than 600 vehicles AADT.

b. Where the percentage of heavy commercial vehicles is greater than 20%, and the volume of left turning traffic is greater than 450 vehicles AADT. c. Where the junction is on an up or down gradient of greater than 4% at any design speed and the volume of left turning traffic is greater than 450 vehicles AADT. Where the major road flow is greater than 4000 5000 AADT then the above figures for turning traffic can be halved. At some junctions there may be safety benefits in providing nearside diverging tapers at lower flows. 7.53 They shall not be provided where the minor road is on the inside of a curve where traffic on the diverging lane could adversely affect visibility for drivers emerging from the minor road. They shall generally not be provided where the design speed for the major road is less than 85kph nor where the cost of provision is excessive. In that case adequate warning of the junction ahead must be provided. 7.54 Nearside diverging tapers shall be formed by a direct increase to a width of 3.5m contiguous to the corner into the minor road (preferably of radius at least 20m where the main road design speed is 85kph and at least 40m above this speed). The width around this corner will depend on the radius selected. A Yield line shall be provided so that the left turning traffic gives way to the traffic turning right from the major road. The length of this lane is defined as being from the beginning of the taper up to the Yield line, as shown in Fig 7/11. 7.55 The desirable length of a nearside diverging taper shall be that of the relevant deceleration length given in Tables 7./5a and 7/5b. Where there are severe site constraints and the design speed is 85km/h, the length may be reduced to a minimum of 35m as a Relaxation.

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7.56 At a higher major road flows over 4000-5000 AADT, vehicles decelerating on the main carriageway and moving into the diverging taper to a point where there is a full lane width available in the diverging taper, may have a significant effect on the capacity of the through carriageway by impeding following drivers. In this instance, consideration should be given to the provision of a nearside auxiliary lane instead of a taper for diverging traffic. The provision of an auxiliary lane, as shown in Fig 7/12, would allow turning traffic to move off the mainline prior to any deceleration. 7.57 The auxiliary lane should be of sufficient length to allow for the speed change from the major road to the turn into the minor road and would not normally be less than 80m. Its length may also depend on any need for reservoir space for turning traffic. The auxiliary lane should commence with a direct taper (Fig 7/12) the length of which shall be determined from Table 7/4. The taper should be that used for a right turning lane for a single lane dualling or dual carriageway junction, with the relevant deceleration length given in Tables 7/5a and 7/5b.

7.57A On roads with hard shoulders, diverging tapers should be provided in accordance with the requirements of Paragraphs 7.80 to 7.84.

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Merging Tapers 7.58 Merging tapers permit minor road traffic to accelerate fully before joining the faster traffic streams on the mainline where the joining traffic may otherwise impede flow and be a source of hazard. 7.59 Merging tapers shall only be used at dual carriageway junctions. They shall be provided where a national or regional road joins a national dual carriageway road having a design speed of 85kph or above. They shall be provided generally where the design speed is 85kph or above and the volume of left turning traffic in the design year exceeds 600 vehicles AADT. However, where the merging taper is for an upgradient of greater than 4%, or where the percentage of heavy commercial vehicles exceeds 20% the threshold value may be reduced to 450 vehicles AADT. They shall never be used at single lane dualling junctions. They shall not be provided where the cost of provision would be excessive. 7.60 At some junctions on dual carriageways there may be safety benefits in providing merging tapers at lower flows. 7.61 A separate turning lane, preferably of radius at least 25m where the main road design speed is 85kph and at least 30m above this speed, shall be used to introduce the merging taper from the minor road. The initial width of the lane, which will depend on the radius of the turning lane determined from Table 7/2, should be decreased at a constant taper depending on the design speed (Fig 7/13). 7.62 The lengths of the tapers to be used are given in Table 7/6. The minimum initial width of a merging taper shall be 3.5m. On dual carriageways with a design speed of 120kph the merging taper may be preceded by a short nose of 40m length formed between it and the end of the 30m approach curve as set out in para 7.61. The back of the nose should have a minimum width of 2m (Fig 7/14). Design Speed (kph) 85 100 120 Merging Length (m) 90 110 130

Table 7/6 : Merging Length

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Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

Stagger Distances 7.63 The stagger distance of a junction is the distance along the major road between the centrelines of the two minor roads. 7.64 For simple major/minor priority junctions with a right/left stagger, the minimum stagger distance shall be 50m. For a ghost island junction it shall also be 50m. For a junction with single lane dualling it shall be 40m, and for dual carriageways the distance shall be 60m. These lengths are based on the distance required for manoeuvring the 18.35m drawbar trailer combination design vehicle between the two minor roads, and shall be provided on all new staggered junctions, including the upgrading of rural crossroads. 7.65 For simple left/right staggers, the minimum stagger distance shall be 50m. The minimum values for the other types of staggered major/minor priority junction are given in Table 7/7. For higher design speeds, this distance is based on the sum of the two deceleration lengths lying side by side plus the turning lengths (and queuing lengths, if appropriate) at each end, as indicated in the Table, otherwise it is based on the manoeuvring requirements of the design vehicle. Skew Junctions 7.66 The design parameters where the minor road approaches at an angle other than 90o, for both left hand and right hand splay junctions, are shown in Fig 7/15. The parameters are set out in paras 7.20 7.48. For those locations where the major road is on a curve at the junction, the relevant design parameters are indicated in Fig 7/16. Junctions on Climbing Lanes 7.67 For major/minor priority T-junctions located on a climbing lane, the key dimensions are shown in Fig 7/17. 7.68 Simple major/minor priority junctions and single lane dualling shall not be used within climbing lane sections, since problems of safety may arise. 7.69 Staggered junctions of other types shall be avoided on climbing lane sections. Design Speed (kph) Ghost Island 50 60 70 85 100 120 50 (manoeuvring) 50 (manoeuvring) 60 (10 + 40 + 10) 75 (10 + 55 + 10) 100 (10 + 80 + 10) -Stagger Distance (m) Single Lane Dualling ---75 (10 + 55 + 10) 100 (10 + 80 + 10) -Dual Carriageway 60 (manoeuvring) 60 (manoeuvring) 60 (manoeuvring) 75 (10 + 55 + 10) 100 (10 + 80 + 10) 130 (10 + 110 + 10)

Table 7/7 : Minimum Stagger Distances for Left/Right Staggered Junctions

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Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

December 2000

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Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

Drainage and Crossfall 7.76 From considerations of surface water drainage and driver comfort, the road camber on the major road shall be retained through the junction and the minor road graded into the channel line of the major road. Checks shall be made for flat areas at all changes of gradient, superelevation or crossfall. Traffic Signs and Road Markings 7.77 The need for, and layout of, traffic signs and road markings is an integral part of the design process. These matters need to be considered from the earliest stage as they can fundamentally affect layout and hence land acquisition requirements. Advance signing on minor roads may need particularly careful consideration. 7.78 The policy and detailed guidance on these aspects are given in the Traffic Signs Manual, and reference shall always be made to the Manual for comprehensive advice. Road Lighting 7.79 Road Lighting is normally provided at major/minor priority junctions in rural areas only when an intersecting road has lighting. When an existing junction is being modified, the lighting provision should be checked for suitability with the new arrangement. Any alteration should be carried out prior to, or at the same time as the roadworks. Roads With Hard Shoulders 7.80 Where hard shoulders with major/minor priority junctions are provided on roads, particular care should be taken to ensure safe designs for the junctions. The layouts should be in accordance with the geometric requirements described in the preceding paragraphs of this Chapter and in Chapter 8, together with the following additional requirements. Approach to a Junction 7.81 On the major road approach to a simple junction on the left, a direct taper diverging lane should generally be provided within the paved width of the hard shoulder, as shown in Figure 7/20. Where the traffic flow warrants (see Paragraph 7.56) an auxiliary diverging lane 3.0m wide should be provided as shown in Figures 7.21 and in accordance with the requirements of Paragraph 7.57. In both cases the desirable length of the diverging taper shall be that of the relevant deceleration length given in Tables 7/5a and 7/5b. Where there are severe site constraints, this length may be reduced by half as a Relaxation subject to a minimum length of 25m for design speeds of 70km/h or less and 35m for higher design speeds. 7.82 The hard shoulder shall be tapered by means of hatched road markings prior to the junction. The taper angle shall be 1:30, reducing the hard shoulder to form a hard strip 0.6m wide. At a simple junction or a dual carriageway junction, the taper shall terminate at least 15m before the start of the diverging taper (see Figures 7/20 and 7/24). At a ghost island junction or single lane dualling, the taper shall terminate at the start of the central island road markings or 15m before the start of the nearside diverging taper, whichever is the earlier (see Figure 7/22). The full paved width should generally be continued through the junction; otherwise a 0.6m wide hard strip shall be provided up to the junction. 7.83 At junctions where one of the traffic flow criteria of Paragraph 7.52 are satisfied, the layout of the diverging lane shall be in accordance with the requirements of Paragraphs 7.49 to 7.57.

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Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

7.84 At junctions where none of the traffic flow criteria of Paragraph 7.52 are satisfied, nearside diverging tapers may be omitted as a Relaxation. At such locations the hard shoulder shall be tapered by means of hatched road markings prior to the junction. The taper angle shall be 1:30, reducing the hard shoulder to form a hard strip 0.6m wide. At a simple junction the taper shall terminate at least 15m before the start of the corner radius. At a ghost island junction or single lane dualling the taper shall terminate at the start of the central island road markings, and at a dual carriageway junction it shall terminate at least 50m before the start of the corner radius (see Figure 7/23). After the hatched taper, a 0.6m wide hard strip shall be provided up to the junction. Departure from a Junction 7.85 On the major road departure from a simple junction on the left, the hard shoulder shall start not less than 20m beyond the end of the corner radius, as illustrated in Figure 7/20. The full paved width should be continued through the junction, with the paved area behind the edge of carriageway or 0.6m wide hard strip hatched until the start of the hard shoulder. 7.86 On the major road departure from a ghost island junction or single lane dualling, the hard shoulder may be introduced over the length of the taper of the central island road markings as illustrated in Figure 7/22. 7.87 On a dual carriageway departure from a junction on the left, the hard shoulder shall start not less than 50m beyond the end of the corner radius, as illustrated in Figure 7/23, or be introduced over the length of the merging taper, as illustrated in Figure 7/24. Merging tapers shall be provided where the traffic flow criteria of Paragraph 7.59 are satisfied. The layout of a merging taper shall be in accordance with the requirements of Paragraphs 7.58 to 7.62. Opposite a Junction 7.88 On the side of the major road opposite a simple T junction, the hard shoulder shall be maintained through the junction. 7.89 On the side of the major road opposite a ghost island junction or single lane dualling, the hard shoulder shall be tapered to form a 0.9m hard strip as illustrated in Figure 7/22. On the approach side the taper shall be at an angle of 1:30 and shall be introduced by means of hatched road markings. This taper shall terminate at the start of the central island road markings. On the departure side, the hard shoulder may be reintroduced over the length of the central island taper. Opposite a ghost island junction on a Wide Single Carriageway, the hard shoulder may, as an alternative, be continued through the junction. Where the required paved width is less than the full paved width away from the junction, the full paved width should be continued through the junction, with any excess area hatched. 7.90 On the side of a dual carriageway opposite a junction, the hard shoulder shall be continued through the junction. Hard Shoulders on the Minor Road 7.91 Where the minor road approach to a junction has a hard shoulder, the hard shoulder should be terminated by tapering to a width of 1.0m to form a hard strip. The taper angle should be 1:30 and the taper should terminate not less than 15m before the start of the entry widening. 7.92 Where the minor road departure from a junction has a hard shoulder, the hard shoulder should not start before the end of the exit widening. 7.93 In accordance with the Traffic Signs Manual, the Stop line on the minor road shall be set 0.6m back from the edge of major road carriageway.
December 2000 TD 42/42

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

1:30 Taper

15m min

20m min

0.6m
STOP

0.6m

Hard Shoulder

Hard Shoulder

Hard Shoulder

Hard Shoulder

a = Deceleration Length (Refer to Table 7/5a) Not to Scale

Figure 7/20 : Treatment of Hard Shoulders at Simple Junction with Direct Diverging Taper

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1:30 Taper 15m min b 0.6m


STOP

20m min

0.6m 3m

Hard Shoulder

Hard Shoulder

Hard Shoulder

Hard Shoulder

a = Deceleration Length (Refer to Table 7/5a) b = Direct Taper Length (Refer to Table 7/4) Not to Scale

Figure 7/21 : Treatment of Hard Shoulders at Simple Junction with Auxiliary Deceleration Lane

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1:30 Taper

15m min b

3m

1:30 Taper 0.6m


STOP Hard Shoulder

0.6m
Hard Shoulder

Hard Shoulder

Hard Shoulder

0.9m

0.9m

Taper no sharper than 1:30

a = Deceleration Length (Refer to Table 7/5a) b = Direct Taper Length (Refer to Table 7/4) For treatment of additional widths at a Wide Single Carriageway. see Paragraph 7.89. Not to Scale

Figure 7/22 : Treatment of Hard Shoulders at Ghost Island Junction

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

1:30 Taper 50m 50m

0.6m Hard Shoulder


STOP

0.6m Hard Shoulder

Central Reserve

Central Reserve

Hard Shoulder

Hard Shoulder

Not to Scale

Figure 7/23 Treatment of Hard Shoulders at Dual Carriageway Junction - Without Tapers

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

1:30 Taper

15m min b 0.6m

20m

0.6m

0.6m Hard Shoulder

Hard Shoulder

Central Reserve

Central Reserve

Hard Shoulder

Hard Shoulder

a = Deceleration Length (Refer to Table 7/5b) b = Direct Taper Length (Refer to Table 7/4) c = MergingTaper (Refer to Table 7/6) Not to Scale

Figure 7/24 Treatment of Hard Shoulders at Dual Carriageway Junction - With Tapers

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Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

8. ASSEMBLY OF DESIGN ELEMENTS


8.2 In Chapter 7, the components of design have been considered separately, but the final layout shall be looked at as a whole. It is important that, on entering a junction, drivers should be able to see and understand, both from the layout and advance traffic signs, the path they should follow, and the likely actions of crossing, merging and diverging vehicles. 8.3 Figs 8/1 [8/3] show how the component parts can be assembled to produce the overall junction design.

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Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

December 2000

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Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

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Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

ANNEX 2

DESIGN OF CHANNELISING ISLANDS

T-Junctions or Staggered Junctions 1. The recommended layout for T-junctions or staggered junctions, where the minor road centreline is inclined to the major road at an angle of between 70 and 110, is shown in Figure A2/1. This should be read in conjunction with Tables A2/1 and A2/2 overleaf.

2. a.

The following points should also be noted: Edge of major road carriageway means edge of major road running carriageway.

b. The circular arc R1 is tangential to the offset, d, from the minor road centreline and the offside edge of the through traffic lane on the major road into which right turning traffic from the minor road will turn. c. By striking a circular arc of radius (R1 + 2) metres from the same centre point as arc R1 to intersect the edge of the major road carriageway, point A is established where a straight line drawn from the centre point of arc R1 to this intersection crosses R1. d. The circular arc R2 is tangential to the offside edge of the major road offside diverging lane and also passes through point A.

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Minor Road Inclination ()

Offset d (m)

70 80 90 100 110

1.5 2.0 2.5 2.0 1.5

Table A2/1 : Channelising Island Offset

Width of Major Road Carriageway at Junction (m)

Radius R1 (m)

9.5 10.0 11.0 18.0 (single lane dualling) 24.6 (dual carriageway)

12 12 14 22 26

Note: Radius R2 is normally the same value as R1 but should be designed to ensure that the island nose is positioned between 2-4 metres from the edge of the main carriageway and that the width of the island lies between 2-5 metres.

Table A2/2 : Design of Radius R1 e. The design ensures that right turning traffic from the major road will not clash with traffic waiting to turn right from the minor road. Splay Junctions 3. The design of skew junctions is similar to that outlined above, but the following points should be noted: a. The centreline of the minor road is turned with a radius of at least 50 metres to meet the edge of the major road at right angles. b. For left hand splay junctions, the island should be about 15 metres long. The right hand side of its tail (viewed from the minor road approach) should touch the curved minor road centreline and be rounded off at a radius of 0.75m to 1.00m. c. The offset, d, for left hand splay junctions is 4.5 metres.

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d. For right hand splay junctions, the circular arc R1 touches the curved minor road centreline and is tangential to the offside edge of the through traffic lane on the major road into which right turning traffic from the minor road will turn. e. The island should be about 15 metres long. The tail is offset about 1m to the right of the curved minor road centreline (viewed from the minor road approach) and rounded off with a radius of 0.75m to 1.00m.

Crossroads 4. The recommended layout for rural crossroads where long vehicles are predicted, and where the minor road centreline is inclined to the major road at an angle between 70 and 110, is shown in Figure A2/2.

5. There are similarities in the design to that outlined previously, but the following points should be noted: a. The long axis of the island is inclined at 5 to the minor road centreline and the island is always 3m wide. b. The circular arc R1 has a radius of 11m and is tangential to the left hand side of the island (viewed from the minor road approach) and the centreline of the major road. (In some cases where the minor road is inclined to the major road at angles between 100 and 110, R1 will have to be reduced to 8m to create a suitable island.) c. The circular arc R2 has a radius of 11m and is tangential to the major road centreline and the minor road centreline.
December 2000 TD 42/55

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions (TD 42/95)

6. Where the minor road centreline is inclined to the major road at angles less than 70, R1 will normally be 12m and R2 8m. 7. Where the minor road centreline is inclined to the major road at angles greater than 110, R1 will normally be 8m and R2 12m. 8. Where two splay minor roads meet at a crossroads, the minor road centrelines should be offset relative to one another by approximately the width of one island.

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Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

VEHICULAR ACCESS TO ALL-PURPOSE NATIONAL ROADS


(Based on TD 41/95 with NRA Addendum)

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Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

1. INTRODUCTION
Scope 1.1 Where vehicular access has been approved [TD 41/95 together with its NRA Addendum] sets out requirements to be met in providing or improving such access to an all-purpose national road, including geometric and visibility standards [It] reviews the traffic and safety implications and stresses the need for only the minimum number of well engineered connections in safe positions. General 1.5 Connections for vehicular access to an all-purpose national road range from a field gate with a verge crossing or a direct access serving a single dwelling or development up to a minor road serving a number of developments or a large single development. If the total amount of traffic forecast to use the connection exceeds 500 vehicles per day (AADT) then it should be designed according to the appropriate junction Standard. This would be for either a Major/Minor Priority Junction (TD 42 ), a Roundabout (TD 16 DMRB 6.2.3), a Signalled (TD 50 DMRB 6.2.3) or Grade Separated Junction (TD 22 DMRB 6.2.1 or TD 40 DMRB 6.2.5) depending on the level of use of the connection, the traffic flow on and the nature of the national road in terms of the general level of junction provision along the length. Where the flow likely to use the connection falls below 500 AADT, and the connection is a direct access as defined in para 1.12, then [TD 41/95] shall be used for the design of the geometric layout. 1.7 The primary purpose of the national road network is to provide for the safe and expendious movement on long distance through traffic. That means strictly limiting the number of direct accesses to national roads. It means ensuring that the full implications for traffic and road safety are taken into account when proposals are made for new development in the vicinity of national road. This is whether it involves new access or increased use of existing accesses, particularly onto dual carriageways where speeds are high. Limiting direct access remains a prime objective of the National Roads Authorities. Definitions 1.11 The terminology follows where possible the definitions contained in BS 6100 : Subsection 2.4.1 1990. 1.12 The following additional terms have been defined for use in this Standard. Direct Access : a connection to an all-purpose national road for the use of road vehicles, serving or intended to serve, one or more properties, and linking directly to the site. Junction : a meeting of two or more roads. Minor Junction : a meeting of a minor road with the all-purpose national road. Major Road : is a road on which traffic has a priority of movement over that of other roads. Minor Road : is a road on which traffic concedes priority to the traffic on the major road. Roads : Urban and Rural : An Urban Road is a road which is in a built-up area and has either a single carriageway with a speed limit of 40mph or less, or has a dual carriageway (including motorways) with a speed limit of 50mph or less. All other roads are Rural Roads.

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Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

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Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

2. GEOMETRIC ACCESS
General

STANDARDS

FOR

DIRECT

2.2 Direct vehicular access on to national roads shall be avoided as far as practicable. Where feasible, access should be to a local road. Where a direct access to an all-purpose national road has been agreed by the National Roads Authority, traffic flow and safety can be assisted by good design of the connection, meeting the requirements of the relevant junction standard. Large scale development proposals may merit the consideration of special traffic measures and road works to accommodate them in the existing network. Details for the design of such is set out in the Standards quoted in para 1.5. The geometric standards given in this chapter are only relevant to direct accesses where use is forecast to be less than 500 AADT in the design year. 2.3 The type of direct access provided shall correspond to the type of all-purpose national road involved and the volume and character of traffic likely to use it. It is unreasonable to require costly access designs when an access is readily apparent to drivers and only a few vehicle movements are expected from and to it each day on a road which does not carry high speed traffic. This therefore refers to roads having a design speed of 85 kph or below. 2.4 It is inadvisable to agree to a new access facing an existing one across a single carriageway as this may lead to vehicles crossing the national road. Cross road situations are undesirable and it would be better to ensure accesses are staggered. The implications and accident risk for right turning traffic into and out of the access shall always be taken into account. This may indicate that it would be desirable to prevent the right turning movements. If preventing them is not a practical option, vehicles waiting in the centre of the road to turn right can sometimes be protected by islands.

Existing Direct Accesses 2.5 Where an existing direct access is likely to cause, or has caused, danger to road users, then the Road Authority shall endeavour to provide alternative, improved means of access. 2.6 Where alternative means of access cannot be provided, the owners of these existing accesses are expected to use them safely. However the Road Authority shall endeavour to see that improvements are made to these accesses, in order to increase safety. New or Altered Direct Accesses 2.8 The geometric layout of new and altered direct vehicular accesses on to existing all-purpose national roads shall be determined by the design speed of the major road as defined in NRA TD 9 and the size of vehicles using the access. The access shall be designed for the largest vehicle expected to use it. The selection of access layout will be dependent upon carriageway widths, geometric constraints, local traffic flows, other site specific features and environmental considerations. 2.10 Any application which results in a material increase in the volume of traffic or a material change in the type of traffic entering or leaving a national road shall be carefully considered. Generally, a material increase is considered to be if the turning traffic flows as a result of the new development would increase by 5% or more although there may be cases when it is important to consider smaller increases

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Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

2.11 New or altered direct accesses shall not normally be sited on a bend unless the desirable minimum stopping sight distance can be achieved. If the National Roads Authority agrees to the provision of a direct access as a Relaxation, the preferred location is on the outside of the bend to maximise the available sight lines. The provision of a direct vehicular access on the inside of such a bend shall be refused. Wherever practicable, Direct Accesses should not be sited in the overtaking section of single carriageway roads as defined in Road Link Design as set out in NRA TD 9 2.12 New or altered direct accesses onto national roads shall wherever possible be on level ground or in sags where there is visibility as set out in para 2.15 to 2.27. They shall not be at or near crests where the shape of the connection would not be immediately apparent to the driver on the national road, or where there are double white lines (indicating restricted forward visibility). At drivers eye level there shall be a clear view from the direct access over the immediate area of the access and its connection to the national road. New direct accesses shall only be sited where they do not encroach on the visibility requirements of adjoining direct accesses or junctions in regular use. This determines the minimum spacing of new accesses. 2.13 On dual carriageway roads, it is important to keep crossings in the central reserve to an absolute minimum. Only in exceptional circumstances therefore should movements across the central reserve be permitted to and from direct vehicular accesses. It is up to the National Roads Authority to determine whether the circumstances are exceptional in any particular instance. Crossings of the central reserve shall not be provided on dual three lane carriageways and wider. 2.14 New direct accesses shall not normally be provided at locations where the major road gradient is greater than 4%. It is recognised that in hilly terrain, particularly where major road traffic flows are less than 60% of the capacity given in Table 4 of NRA TD 9 , direct accesses at locations with steeper gradients may be acceptable and the accident risk should be assessed before approval is given. Visibility 2.16 It is important that any driver wishing to turn right across the opposing traffic stream into the access shall be able to see oncoming vehicles for the Desirable Minimum Stopping Sight Distance as set out in NRA TD 9 for the design speed of the road. NRA TD 9 also sets down the visibility requirements on approaching a junction and the same values shall be taken for drivers approaching where vehicles are turning right into a direct access (see also 2.24). 2.17 Visibility splays shall be provided to enable emerging drivers using the direct access to have adequate visibility in each direction to see oncoming traffic in sufficient time to make their manoeuvre safely without influencing the major road traffic speed. Drivers of vehicles on the major road shall also have forward visibility equivalent to the desirable minimum stopping sight distance to be aware of the presence of the access. 2.18 Dangerous conditions arise if vehicles obstruct visibility by parking within visibility splays. Where necessary, parking and access shall be controlled to prevent this. The Design Organisation shall ensure that the positioning of lay bys, bus stops, traffic signs and other street furniture does not interfere with the drivers visibility requirements and that the obstructive effect for all road users is minimised.

2.19 The visibility standards given below are expressed in terms of X and Y distances. Figure 2/1 below illustrates these distances in a typical access.

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Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

2.20 The X distance is referred to as the set-back distance and shall be measured from the continuation of the nearer edge of the major road running lane (not from the continuation of the main road hardstrip if this is present) along the centre line of the direct access. Where a hard shoulder on the major road continues across the line of the Direct Access (see Paragraph 2.39), the X distance shall be measured from the back of the hard shoulder. The Y distance shall be measured from a point on the nearer edge of the main road running lane to its intersection with the centre line of the access. 2.21 Normally, an X distance of 4.5m shall be provided for a direct access where use in the design year is forecast not to exceed 500 AADT. The choice of set back distance is related to the forecast traffic using the access. For lightly used accesses, for example those serving a single dwelling or a small cul-de-sac of a half dozen dwellings, then the set back X may be reduced to 2.4m. The 2.4m set back relates to normally only one vehicle wishing to join the national road at one time. The 4.5m covers the situation where two light vehicles may want to accept the same gap in the national road traffic. Where in the case of lightly used accesses the site conditions are particularly difficult then the set back X may be reduced to 2.0m as a Relaxation. Any further reduction would be a Departure from Standard . 2.22 The Y distance along the major road, the all purpose national road, shall be determined from Table 2/1: Design speed of major road (kph) Y distance (m) 120 295

100 215

85 160

70 120

60 90

50 70

Table 2/1 : Value of Y Distance Note: these figures correspond to the Desirable Minimum Stopping Sight Distances set out in Table 3 in NRA TD 9 . Relaxations are not available on these figures.

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Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

2.23 Design speed on the all-purpose national road required for determining the Y distance shall be as given in NRA TD 9 for existing and proposed roads and can be based upon measurement, speed limits or design speed principles. 2.24 In calculating sightlines it is important to ensure that the national road traffic shall have at least Desirable Minimum Stopping Sight Distances (SSD) on the approaches to the access (NRA TD 9 ). Relaxations below Desirable Minimum are not permitted under NRA TD 9 on the immediate approaches to junctions and this shall apply to direct accesses. 2.25 The same principles of sightlines in the vertical plane apply to direct accesses as given in NRA TD 9 for stopping sight distances. Thus, visibility in the vertical plane shall be measured from a drivers eye height 1.05m to 2.00m positioned at the set back distance in the direct access to an object height of between 0.26m and 1.05m. This will ensure that a vehicle approaching on the national road is easily identified at night and that, for example, a child can be identified walking along an adjacent footway. Figure 2/2 shows the construction required.

2.26 Where an emerging vehicle crosses a footway at a lightly used direct access for example from the driveway of a single dwelling pedestrians may not have sufficient warning of its approach. This relates to the situation where the vehicle crosses at the footway level and there is no clearly formed differentiation in level between the footway and the crossing. Under these conditions, visibility splays to the back of the footway, 2m on either side of the centre of the access shall be provided from 2m back in the access. The drivers eye height shall be taken as 1.05m and the object height at the back of footway shall be taken as 0.6m to make clear the presence of a small child. This is shown in Figure 2/3. Approach Gradients and Visibility 2.27 On direct accesses gradients greater than 10% approaching the national road shall not be permitted other than in exceptional circumstances. The access gradient immediately next to the national road should be considerably less and a dwell area of at least 15m shall be provided immediately adjacent to the national road carriageway. Where site conditions are particularly difficult this area may be 10m as a Relaxation. In the case of a single dwelling, it may be reduced to 5m as a Relaxation. The gradient for the dwell area shall lie between 0 and 2% approach downgrade. In difficult situations this may be increased to between plus and minus 4%. The visibility requirements set out in the above paragraphs shall be met in full at locations with steep gradients.
December 2000 TD 41/8

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

Geometric Layouts 2.28 Table 2/2 gives a number of basic direct access layout types which should form the basis of local designs. 2.29 The following are layouts detailed in this Chapter and for which diagrams appear at the end of the chapter. Layout 1: Layout 2: Layout 3: Layout 4: Layout 5: Layout 6: Layout 7: Layout 8 Layout 9: Layout 10: Field access Single dwelling A simple T layout for urban and rural situations Left in/left out layout T layout with ghost island Rural access where long vehicles are predicted Rural access where long vehicles are predicted, no right turn from national road Typical gateway entry treatment Nearside diverge taper, as for example, entry to a Petrol Filling Station (PFS) Merge taper.

Layouts 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 allow for the provision of short merge tapers to enable Heavy Commercial Vehicles (HCVs) to enter the national road without having to encroach on the adjacent traffic lane. Where possible these tapers should be provided particularly if HCVs perform the turn regularly. The layout diagrams indicate the paved width required; adequate visibility shall be provided in accordance with Paragraphs [2.16] to 2.26.

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Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

Field Access

Single Dwelling

Small Development eg up to 30 dwellings

Medium Sized Development eg industrial estate 3,4,5

Larger Sized Development eg housing development 4,5

Where Large Vehicle Likely 6,7

Gateway Entry

Diverge Taper eg PFS entrance 9

Merge Taper eg PFS exit

Direct Access Layout Traffic using the access AADT Layout suitable for carriageway configuration

10

Less than 10 movements a week Single Dual

Less than 50 movements a week Single Dual

0-300

3:0-300 4:0-500 5:300-500 3-Single 4-Dual (Single as a Relaxation) 5-Single

300-500

6:0-300 7:0-500

0-300 para 2.30

para 2.31

para 2.34

Single

4-Dual (Single as a Relaxation) 5-Single

6-Single 7-Single

Single

Single Dual

Dual 2 and above

Notes: 1) These figures are recommendations and indicate the approximate level at which alternatives for connections should be considered. Design Organisations should look carefully at the safety implications involved in providing the alternative connection. The upper limit for the operation of the T layout with ghost island is also a function of the major road traffic flow and this needs to be checked using PICADY or a similar predictive computer program.

2)

Table 2/2 : Recommended Standard Access Layouts

Typical gateway entry treatment (Layout 8) 2.30 There may be occasions when developers would choose a gateway style connection for direct access... An example is shown in Layout 8. The access is normally slightly ramped as a footway crossing which may be regarded as a road hump and the surfacing used generally contrasts to indicate a change in the nature of the area. Design Organisations should consult the National Roads Authority for the current requirements of the road legislation in relation to road humps. Special authorisation may be required where the road hump falls within the highway boundary of the national road and where only a single road hump is installed as the entry treatment. Speed reducing features may be required on the minor road side of the entry treatment under specific legislation. The ramps should not be greater than 1:10 to limit grounding occurring. The entry need not be ramped but if it is not, then the surfacing must contrast with both the road surface of the national road and the minor road at its rear. These gateway entries are not appropriate where regular use by even small numbers of Heavy Commercial Vehicles (HCVs) is likely. The disturbance caused to national road traffic by an HCV turning into an entrance is considerable. This can be accommodated to a certain extent by the use of tapers on both sides of the entrance. Tapers should be considered where the traffic using the gateway entry exceeds 50 vehicles in the peak hour. Further advice is given in Guidelines for Traffic Calming for Towns and Villages on National Routes. Diverge Tapers (Layout 9) 2.31 Nearside diverge tapers allow left turning national road traffic to slow down and leave the national road without impeding following through traffic. This is important where the major road traffic is heavy and fast. They shall be provided at direct accesses where the national road design speed is 85 kph or above and the volume of left turning traffic is greater than 450 vehicles AADT and there is a high proportion (greater than 20%) of large or slow moving vehicles either turning or continuing on the national road or the gradient of the national road is greater than 4%. Nearside diverge tapers may also be applicable where there is a high
December 2000 TD 41/10

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

seasonal use by large or slow moving vehicles. They may be omitted if there are difficult site constraints. 2.32 Diverge Tapers shall be formed by a direct taper to a width of 3.5m at the corner into the direct access (preferably of radius 20m). The width round this corner will depend on the radius selected. These figures are given in TD 42 . Left turning traffic shall be signed to Yield to traffic turning right from the major road. The diverge taper length is given on Layout 9. 2.33 They shall not be provided where an existing direct access is on the inside of a sharp curve (see Para 2.11) as traffic on the diverging lane could adversely affect visibility for drivers emerging from the access or access road. Merge Taper (Layout 10) 2.34 Merge tapers shall only be used at direct accesses to dual carriageways of two lanes and wider where the Design Speed is 85 kph or above, the volume of left turning traffic exceeds 450 vehicles AADT and there is a large proportion of large or slow moving vehicles either turning or on the national road (over 20%) or the gradient of the national road is greater than 4%. Merge tapers may also be applicable where there is a high seasonal use by large or slow moving vehicles. 2.35 Merge tapers allow left turning traffic from the direct access to accelerate before joining the national road traffic. A separate turning lane, preferably of radius 25m minimum, shall be used to introduce the merging lane from the direct access. The initial width of the lane, which will depend upon the radius of the turning lane, shall be decreased at a constant taper which depends on the Design Speed. The width of the turning lane is as set out in TD 42 for various radii. The merge taper length is given on Layout 10. The length incorporates one design speed step reduction from the standard for the Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions TD 42, having regard to the normally lower level of use of direct accesses compared to junctions. Entrance Gates Across Direct Accesses 2.36 Entrance gates across a direct access shall be set back to accommodate one vehicle in the access clear of the main running lane and preferably clear of the footway. The vehicle to be accommodated should be of the largest type to use the access on a regular basis, (which in the case of farm vehicles, may include a trailer). Wherever possible gates should open away from the highway and where this is not possible, the set back should be increased to allow for this. As a Relaxation, where entrance gates are permanently open while the development is in use and during the working day, the requirement for the set back may be omitted. Signing and Marking 2.37 Statutory requirements for traffic signs and road markings are contained in the Road Traffic (Signs) Regulations 1997. Farm Access 2.38 Further advice on the direct access to farms and the types of use to which they may be put is set out in TA 57 . Roads with Hard Shoulders 2.39 On roads with hard shoulders, accesses with Layouts 1, 2, 3 (without hard strip), 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 shall be positioned at the back of the hard shoulder rather than at the edge of carriageway. Alternatively, the hard shoulder adjacent to the access shall be hatched as described in TD 42 for a junction, and the access positioned at the edge of carriageway.
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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

2.40 On roads with hard shoulders, accesses with Layout 5 (ghost island) shall be designed in accordance with TD 42 . 2.41 Where diverge or merge tapers are required for accesses on roads with hard shoulders, as Layouts 9 and 10, the taper shall be accommodated within the hard shoulder width and the hard shoulder adjacent to the access shall be hatched as described in TD 42 for junctions.

Where field accesses are frequently used by wheeled vehicles, consideration should be given to constructing a hardened approach strip to assist in the removal of mud from tyres and equipment prior to entering the national road.

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

without hardstrip

Corner Radius Minimum radius

with -

No Heavy Commercial Vehicles urban roads 6m rural roads 10m

Provision for occasional Heavy Commercial Vehicles (HCVs) (but see Layout 6) Minimum radius Urban roads 10m (with taper over 30m of 1:5 exiting left turn in and out) Rural roads 15m (with taper over 25m of 1:10 exiting left turn in and out) Where the national road has a hardstrip and HCVs comprise a significant proportion of the turning movements, then the compound curve shown in TD 42 shall be used.

with hardstrip
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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

Layout 5 Ghost Island Turning Lane Widening on Both Sides of National Road

Dimensions as in TD 42

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Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

Corner Radius Alternatively, the compound curve for the corner, shown in TD 42 may be used.

Corner Radius Alternatively, the compound curve for the corner, shown in TD 42 may be used.

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

Note: On both of these layouts, where the use exceeds 50 vehicles per hour in the peak, or there is occasional use by HCVs, tapers may be considered to be added on both sides of the access on the national road. The tapers should be 1:5 and should start and finish 15m from the centre line of the direct access. Where site conditions are difficult, entry radii may be reduced to 4m as a Relaxation. December 2000 TD 41/16

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

Design Speed (kph)

On Up Gradient

On Down Gradient

0 4% 120 100 85 70 60 50 110 80 55 40 25 25

Over 4% 80 55 40 25 25 25

0 4% 110 80 55 40 25 25

Over 4% 150 (110) 110 (80) 80 (55) 55 (40) 40 (25) 25

Figures in brackets may be used where the all purpose national road is a single carriageway. Diverge Taper Length D Metres The length may be reduced as a Relaxation by one design speed step where there are difficult site constraints.

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

Design Speed (kph) 120 100 85 [70]

Merge Taper Length M (m) 110 90 70 50

Merge Tapers shall be used on dual carriageways of 2 lanes or wider where the design speed is 85 kph or above. The lengths given above represent one design step reduction from the figures given for merge tapers at major-minor priority junctions in TD 42 (see para. 2.35). The length may be reduced as a Relaxation by one further design speed step where there are difficult site constraints.

December 2000

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

3. ROAD USERS SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS


Pedestrian Facilities 3.3 Separate pedestrian routes crossing the direct access away from the bell mouth are preferable. Only rarely may they be practical. If the crossing has to be in the bellmouth then an unmarked crossing place provided with dropped kerbs and a central refuge should be considered. Central refuges are covered by TD 42 The use of tactile surfaces should be considered in the normal way. Cyclist Facilities 3.6 The provision of dedicated cyclist facilities is covered in TA 57 (DMRB 6.3)

Equestrians 3.7 In some cases it may be necessary to consider the provision of dedicated crossing places where the number of crossings by ridden horses is relatively high. In such circumstances, TA 57 (DMRB 6.3) may be consulted for advice on the design of at-grade equestrian crossings.

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

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TD 41/20

National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

4. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
Environment 4.2 It is essential that visibility splays remain unobstructed by vegetation. Trees and shrubs shall not be planted within 3m back from the edge of the visibility splay. This is to allow for future growth to take place which will not impede the required standards of visibility. 4.3 Exceptionally and providing visibility standards are not infringed, plants maintained as ground cover could be planted within the visibility splays but normally the splays should be grassed or paved. Any grass will require at least one cut per annum. The maintenance regime shall be discussed with the National Roads Authority. Parking 4.6 It will be important to ensure that developments serviced by a new direct access do not lead to parking on the national road in the vicinity of the access to the detriment of the safe passage of vehicles on both the access and the national road.

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Vehicular Access (TD 41/95)

December 2000

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National Roads Authority Road Geometry Handbook

References

REFERENCES

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References

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References

REFERENCES
Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (DMRB): Volume 1 : Highway Structures : Approval Procedures and General Design: BD 37 (DMRB 1.3) Loads for Highway Bridges. Volume 2 : Highway Structures : Design (Substructures and Special Structures) Materials: BD 29 (DMRB 2.2) - Design Criteria for Footbridges. TD 19 (DMRB 2.2) - Safety Fences and Barriers. BD 52 (DMRB 2.3.3) The Design of Highway Bridge Parapets. Volume 5 : Assessment and Preparation of Road Schemes: TA44 (DMRB 5.1.1) Capacities, Queues, Delays and Accidents at Road Junctions Computer Programs ARCADY/3 and PICADY/3 (TRRL). TA 30 (DMRB 5.1) Choice Between Options for Trunk Road Schemes. Volume 6 : Road Geometry: NRA TD9 (NRA DMRB 6.1.1) Road Link Design. NRA TA 43 (NRA DMRB 6.1.1A) Guidance on Road Link Design. NRA TD 27 (NRA DMRB 6.1.2) Cross Sections and Headroom. TD 22 (DMRB 6.2.1) Layout of Grade Separated Junctions. TD 16 (DMRB 6.2.3) Geometric Design of Roundabouts. TD 50 (DMRB 6.2.3) The Geometric Layout of Signal-Controlled Junctions and Signalised Roundabouts. TD 39 (DMRB 6.2.4) The Design of Major Interchanges. TD 40 (DMRB 6.2.5) Layout of Compact Grade Separated Junctions. TD 42 (DMRB 6.2.6) Geometric Design of Major/Minor Priority Junctions. TD 41 (DMRB 6.2.7) Vehicular Access to All-Purpose Trunk Roads. TA 23 (DMRB 6.2) Determination of Size of Roundabouts and Major/Minor Junctions. TD 36 (DMRB 6.3.1) Subways for Pedestrians and Pedal Cyclists. Layout and Dimensions. TA 57 (DMRB 6.3) Roadside Features. Volume 8 :Traffic Signs and Lighting: TA 68 (DMRB 8.5.1) The Assessment and Design of Pedestrian Crossings.

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References

Other References BS 6100 : Subsection 2.4.1, Glossary of Building and Civil Engineering Terms: Highway Engineering. British Standards Institution. Guidelines for Traffic Calming for Towns and Villages on National Routes. National Roads Authority. Memorandum on Grants for Non-National Roads. Department of the Environment and Local Government. National Roads Project Management Guidelines. National Roads Authority. PICADY/3 Application Guide 18 : 1990 (Priority Intersection Capacity and Delay, Version 3). Transport Research Laboratory. Road Traffic (Construction, Equipment and Use) Regulations 1963 to 1997. Road Traffic (Signs) Regulations 1997). Traffic Signs Manual. Department of the Environment and Local Government.

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