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Reena Pant*, Pradyot Kala

1

, R. C. Saraswat

2

and S. S. Pattnaik

3

*Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering, Institute of Engineering &

Technology, M J P Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-INDIA email:pradyot_bly@yahoo.co.in

1

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, College of Engineering &

Technology, Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed University, Allahabad-INDIA

email:pradyot_bly@yahoo.co.in

2

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, S. G. S.I.T.S, Indore-INDIA email:rcswat@yahoo.co.in

3

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, NITTTR, Chandigarh-INDIA

email:shyampattnaik@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: The effects of position of shorting pin

and feed-probe in an equilateral triangular

microstrip patch antenna are theoretically taken

into account using transmission line model. At

d

s

/d

h

=0.33, frequency ratio (FR) of upper

resonant frequency to lower resonant frequency is

minimum. It is observed that the minimum FR

decreases if substrate permittivity increases and it

varies from 2.811.68 for

r

1.0 to 9.8. While the

FR increases if the distance of the shorting pin

from that point (d

s

/d

h

=0.33) increases. Maximum

FR is observed at the triangle tip. The maximum

FR varies from 5.435.07, and it decreases if

substrate permittivity increases. It is also observed

that the resonance frequencies are almost constant

with probe position.

Index Terms: Shorting pin, Dual-band, ETMSA.

I. INTRODUCTION

The first study on Triangular Microstrip

Antenna (TMSA) dates back to 1978 when

Helszajn and James [1] reported theoretical and

experimental investigation on Equilateral

Triangular Microstrip Antenna (ETMSA) as disk

resonator, filter and circulator. TMSA have

received much attention due to increased

demand of small antennas for personal

communication equipment. The triangular MSA

is known to require small patch size that of a

square or circular MSAs [2]. In many

applications, compact MSA capable of operating

in multibands are highly desirable.

The conventional ETMSA antennas were

studied in [3]-[17]. The basic formulas to design

ETMSA antennas are presented in [18]-[19].

The ETMSA has been analyzed and modeled

using different techniques, namely, cavity

resonator model [3],[5]-[14],[17], geometrical

theory [4], Method of Moment (MoM) [10] and

genetic algorithm (GA) [14]. It is apparent that

most of the analyses are based on the cavity

resonator model resulting in simple computer

aided design formulas for determining the

operating frequencies.

To obtain dual band, a few attempt have been

made [20-27]. Dual frequency operation of an

ETMSA is demonstrated by using stacked

patches [20], using a pair of spur lines [22],

using a slit [23], using a V shaped slot [24], by

loading two pair of narrow slots in the triangular

patch [25] and [26], and also by using shorting

pins [27].

Pan and Wong [27] first time presented a

working model of a dual band ETMSA with

tunable frequency ratio. This patch generates

two different operating bands mainly due to the

shifting of the null-voltage point, and divide the

flow of current in two different streams, having

different path lengths.

62

IJMOT-2007-10-272 2008 ISRAMT

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY

VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRIL 2008

Recently, Hong and Li [28] investigated the

dual-mode operation of microstrip triangular

patch resonators in realizing dual-mode

microwave planar filters.

In this endeavor the effect of position of shorting

pin and feed-probe are theoretically taken into

account using transmission line model.

Considering the triangular patch as a number of

cascaded transmission lines of varying width

derives the input impedance.

II.THEORY

The geometry and transmission line equivalent

of the proposed dual-frequency design is shown

in Figs. 1-2. Considering the effect of fringing

field, dimensions of the triangular MSA has

been modified (Fig. 3). In this paper the effect of

position of shorting pin and feed-probe are taken

into account. It has two different cases: (I)

shorting pin is closer to vertex compared to

feeding probe and (II) feeding probe is

closer to vertex compared to shorting pin. Case-I

(Fig. 4), the total input impedance at the feed

point may be obtained using transmission line

theory as

Shorting pin

Feeding probe

Z

in3

2

3

p

s

n

1

Fig 2: Cascaded T. L. sections

Z

in2

Z

in1

Probe feed

Shorting pin

h

r

substrate

d

d

p

d

s d

h

Fig 1: Top and side views

) 1 (

2 1

2 1

in in

in in

p in

Z Z

Z Z

L j Z

+

+ =

Shorting pin

Z

in2

Z

in1

Feeding probe

Z

in3

d

d

s

d

p1

d

p

d

s1

L

d

eff

Fig 3: Contribution of fringing field on ETMSA

63

IJMOT-2007-10-272 2008 ISRAMT

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY

VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRIL 2008

T. L.

between

probe

& vertex

Z

in3

Z

in1

Z

in2

T. L.

between

probe &

shorting pin

Z

L2

Shorting pin

Feeding probe

Z

L1

Z

in

Lp

Ls

Fig. 5: T.L. equivalent of ETMSA if probe is towards vertex

T. L.

between

shorting pin

& bottom

Fig. 4: T.L. equivalent of ETMSA if shorting-pin is towards vertex

Ls

T. L.

between

shorting-pin &

vertex

Z

in3

Z

in1 Z

in2

T. L. between

probe &

shorting-pin

T. L.

between

Probe

& bottom

Z

L2

Shorting pin

Feeding probe

Z

L1

Z

in

Lp

64

IJMOT-2007-10-272 2008 ISRAMT

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY

VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRIL 2008

where L

p

is an inductance offered by the current

flowing through the center conductor of the

feeding probe [19], is the operating frequency,

and Z

in1

is the impedance at probe looking

towards bottom and may be written as

where Z

in1k

is the input impedance of k

th

section

looking towards bottom end (k p), and is

defined by

where Z

ok

and Z

Lk1

are the characteristic and load

impedances for that particular section. Z

ok

may

be obtained by [19]

where W

k

is width of k

th

transmission line

section and L is distance between vertex and

bottom of the patch

where and

eff

are fringing field width and

effective permittivity respectively [19 ].

Z

Lk1

for any section is equal to the input

impedance of the previous section and may be

written as

On the other hand Z

in2

is the input impedances at

probe towards vertex and may be given by

where Z

in2k

is the input impedance of k

th

section

looking towards vertex (skp), and is defined

by

where Z

LK2

for any section is equal to the input

impedance of the previous section and may be

written as

Z

in3

is the impedance at shorting pin position,

looking towards vertex and may be written as

where Z

in3k

is the input impedance of k

th

section

looking towards vertex (k s), and is defined by

(

+ + +

+

=

) 444 . 1 log( 667 . 0 393 . 1

120

) 4 (

1

4

8

log 60

h

W

h

W

otherwise

h

W

if

h

W

W

h

Z

k k

eff

k

eff

k

k

ok

( )

) 5 ( 15 . 3

) 5 (

3

2

) 5 ( ,

c d d

b

d

L

a

n

k n d

W

eff

eff

eff

k

+ =

=

=

) 2 (

1 1

p k Z Z

k in in

= =

) 7 (

2 2

p k Z Z

k in in

= =

) 9 (

) 1 ( 2

3

2

=

=

+

otherwise Z

s k if L j Z

Z

k in

s in

Lk

) 10 (

3 3

s k Z Z

k in in

= =

) 3 (

) tan(

) tan(

1 1

1

1

n

L

jZ Z

n

L

jZ Z

Z Z

Lk k o

ok Lk

ok k in

+

+

=

) 8 (

) tan(

) tan(

2

2

2

n

L

jZ Z

n

L

jZ Z

Z Z

Lk ok

ok Lk

ok k in

+

+

=

) 11 (

) tan(

) tan(

3

3

3

n

L

jZ Z

n

L

jZ Z

Z Z

Lk ok

ok Lk

ok k in

+

+

=

) 6 (

1

) 1 ( 1

1

=

=

otherwise Z

k if

Z

k in

eff

Lk

65

IJMOT-2007-10-272 2008 ISRAMT

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY

VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRIL 2008

Z

Lk3

for any section is equal to the input

impedance of the previous section and may be

written as

Similarly one may obtain the patch impedance if

shorting pin is connected between probe and

bottom of the patch as shown in Fig. 5.

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Resonant frequency (which is indicated by the

zero input reactance value) and frequency ratio

are calculated at different shorting-pin and probe

positions for different values of n for the antenna

designed parameters:

r

= 4.4, h = 1.6 mm, d =

50 mm, and r

s

= 0.32 mm. These are also

calculated for different substrate permittivities

having other parameters remain same. The

results are plotted and shown in Figs. 6-11.

It is evident from Fig. 6 that at d

s

/d

h

=0.33, the

first resonant frequency (f

r1

) has a maximum

value, while the second resonant frequency (f

r2

)

has a minimum value consequently frequency

ratio (FR) is minimum. The minimum FR varies

from 2.811.68, and it is also observed that it

decreases if substrate permittivity increases.

While the FR increases if the distance from that

point (d

s

/d

h

=0.33) increases. Maximum FR is

observed at the triangle tip. The maximum FR

varies from 5.435.07, and it is also observed

that it decreases if substrate permittivity

increases.

Fig. 7, revels that the obtained theoretical results

are in good agreement with experimental results

obtained by Pan and Wong [27]. It is also

observed that the resonance frequencies are

almost constant with probe position as shown in

Fig. 8.

From Figs. 9-11, it is observed that the nature of

graph for variation of resonant frequency with

) 12 (

) 1 ( 1

3

=

=

+

otherwise Z

n k if

Z

k in

eff

Lk

Fig 7: Variation of Frequency Ratio with

shorting pin position.

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

5.5

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

r

=1.0

r

=2.1

r

=4.4

r

=4.4 Experimental

r

=6.4

r

=9.8

d

s

/d

h

F

R

E

Q

E

N

C

Y

R

A

T

I

O

1

0.8

1.6

2.4

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Fr1 Theoretical Fr2 Theoretical Fr1 Exp Fr2 Exp

d

s

/d

h

F

R

E

Q

E

N

C

Y

G

Hz

Fig 6: Comparison of theoretical and

experimental results [27]

Fig 8: Variation of resonance frequencies with

shorting pin position for different probe

positions (

r

=4.4 and d= 50 mm).

0

1

2

3

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

d

s

/d

h

F

R

E

Q

E

N

C

Y

G

Hz

d

p

/d

h

=0.0

d

p

/d

h

=0.2

d

p

/d

h

=0.4

d

p

/d

h

=0.6

d

p

/d

h

=0.8

d

p

/d

h

=1.0

66

IJMOT-2007-10-272 2008 ISRAMT

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY

VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRIL 2008

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

[

G

H

z

]

n=10

n=20

n=50

n=100

n=10000

1.8

2

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

3

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

[

G

H

z

]

n=10

n=20

n=50

n=100

n=10000

1.9

2.4

2.9

3.4

3.9

4.4

4.9

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

[

G

H

z

]

n=10

n=20

n=50

n=100

n=10000

shorting pin position for values as small as n=10

is similar to higher values of n such as n=10000

and it is also observed that the graph is in good

approximation for n=100. The error between

n=100 and n=10000 is less than 3%.

IV. CONCLUSION

In this study we have presented an approximate

but computationally very fast method for solving

the problem of probe fed ETMSA with a

shorting pin. The Transmission Line model is

used for the calculation of input impedance.

Comparison with the measured results

demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed

method.

REFERENCES

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resonators with magnetic walls, IEEE Trans.

Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. MTT-26, pp. 95-

100, 1978.

[2] H.R Hassani and D. Mirshekar-Syahkal, Analysis of

triangular patch antennas including radome effects,

IEE Proceedings H Microwaves, Antennas and

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[3] Y. T. Lo, D. Solomon, and W. F. Richards, Theory

and experiment on microstrip antennas, IEEE Trans.

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[4]. F. Keuster and D. C. Chang, A geometrical theory for

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triangular patch antennas, IEEE Trans. Antennas

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frequencies of the triangular patch antenna, IEEE

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Characteristics of equilateral triangular microstrip

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Fig 10: Variation of upper resonant frequency

with shorting pin position for different values of

n.

Fig 9: Variation of lower resonant frequency with

shorting pin position for different values of n.

Fig 11: Variation of Frequency Ratio with

shorting pin position for different values of n.

F

R

E

Q

E

N

C

Y

R

A

T

I

O

d

s

/d

h

d

s

/d

h

d

s

/d

h

67

IJMOT-2007-10-272 2008 ISRAMT

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY

VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRIL 2008

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[14] D. Karaboa, K. Gney, N. Karaboa, and A. Kaplan,

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68

IJMOT-2007-10-272 2008 ISRAMT

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY

VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRIL 2008

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