Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAMME SEMESTER I (2011/2012) KC 41503 ADVANCE ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

Group Assignment 1 : Landfill Leachate Treatment

Group Members ADELINE JELUNG BENJAMIN KAM CHEOH LIEW CHUAN DAVID SIAW WEN CHIIN EWAN TAMBAKAU @ WILLIAM FIRDAUS AZMEE LIOW KAI SING LOWEL CHONG SUSYANA SAMIRAN

MATRIX NUM BK08110232 BK08110127 BK08110093 BK08110031 BK08110189 BK08110175 BK08110077 BK08110131 BK08110338

Table of Contents 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.0 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.0 4.1 5.0 6.0 7.0 Introduction........................................................................................................ 3 Leachate ......................................................................................................... 3 Leachate Quality .............................................................................................. 3 Impact of Leachate .......................................................................................... 3 Leachate Treatment ......................................................................................... 4 Landfill Selection ................................................................................................. 5 Leachate Type and Data ...................................................................................... 7 Kayu Madang Landfill Leachate Data ................................................................. 7 Analysis .................................................................................................... 7 Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulations 2009 ............................................11 Available Water Treatment Technology .............................................................12 Process Selection ...............................................................................................13 Process Description .........................................................................................13 Conceptual Design and Calculation ......................................................................14 Discussion .........................................................................................................17 References ........................................................................................................18 Questions Asked During Presentation .........................................................20 Discharge Limit Set by Department of Environment .....................................22 3.1.1

Appendix A Appendix B

1.0 1.1

Introduction Leachate

Leachate is any liquid that, in passing through matter, extracts solutes, suspended solids or any other component of the material through which it has passed. The precipitation that falls into a landfill, coupled with any disposed liquid waste, results in the extraction of the water-soluble compounds and particulate matter of the waste, and the subsequent formation of leachate. Leachate produced from municipal solid waste landfill sites is generally heavily contaminated and consist of complex wastewater that is very difficult to deal with. Leachate produced form these waste dumping sites is heterogeneous and exhibits huge temporal and seasonal variations. 1.2 Leachate Quality

The composition of leachate varies widely depend on waste type and the waste age (Christensen et al., 1994). Leachate is characterized by high concentration of organic matter (biodegradable and non-biodegradable), ammonia nitrogen, heavy metals, and chlorinated organic and inorganic salts. Typically, the leachate can be characterized into three major groups. The three major groups are mainly organic matters, inorganic matters and xenobiotic organic compounds. Leachate pollution index (LPI) provides an overall pollution potential of a landfill site. Table 1.1 Pollutants in leachate (Aik H. L. et al., 2010) Group of Pollutants In Leachate Organic Matters Components Acids, alcohols, aldehydes and others such as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), Volatile fatty acis and refractory compound include fulvic-like and humic like compounds Sulfate, chloride, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, hydrogen carbonate, iron and manganese and heavy metal like lead, nickel, copper, cadmium, chromium and zinc Aromatic hydrocarbon, phenols, chlorinated aliphatics, pesticides and plasticizers include PCB, Dioxin, PAH, etc.

Inorganic Matters

Xenobiotic organic compounds

1.3

Impact of Leachate

A poorly designed landfill with no leachate collection system would face the consequences of groundwater pollution. A release of leachate to the groundwater may present several risks to human health and the environment. The release of hazardous and non-hazardous 3

components of leachate may render an aquifer unusable for drinking-water purposes and other uses. Leachate impacts to groundwater may also present a danger to the environment and to aquatic species if the leachate-contaminated groundwater plume discharges to wetlands or streams. Once leachate is formed and is released to the groundwater environment, it will migrate downward through the unsaturated zone until it eventually reaches the saturated zone. Leachate then will follow the hydraulic gradient of the groundwater system and eventually pollute the groundwater. It is therefore important to collect and treat the leachate formed in the landfill. 1.4 Leachate Treatment

A number of ways may be applied to treat the leachate, these usually resulting in changes of chemistry and a general reduction of strength from the original release. These treatment are either physical (filtration, sorption, advection, and dispersion), chemical (oxidationreduction, precipitation-dissolution, adsorption, hydrolysis, and ion exchange), and biological (microbial degradation).

2.0

Landfill Selection

Overall there are more than 200 landfills in Malaysia serving the need of the city to remove solid waste. Our group has chosen the landfill in Kayu Madang which is located in Kota Kinabalu. Location (GPS 6 o 06' 25.9" N; 116o 10' 29.1" E) The site is located at Kg. Lapasan, Telipok within the Kota Kinabalu Industrial Park, 18 km northeast of Kota Kinabalu City, see Figure 5.9. The waste disposal site covers an area of 8.9 hectares (22 acres). History Disposal of waste at this site started in 1997 and is expected to last until 2015. It has a capacity of 15,333 cubic metres. The following picture shows the layout of the landfill.

Figure 1.1

Layout plan of Kayu Madang Landfill (Christianus, 2005)

Waste collection coverage and amount of waste received This site receives all types of waste except scheduled and hazardous waste from the rating areas of Kota Kinabalu City, Penampang, Tuaran and Kota Belud. It receives an estimated total of 9,000 tonnes of waste per month. Site characteristics The site is located in a gently sloping northeast-southwest trending valley with sloping hills at the northeast and southwest. The valley floor is underlain by alluvium while sandstone and shale underlie the hills. The surface runoff at the north western part of the valley flows northwest into the Salut Bay. The immediate surrounding has not been developed and is covered with secondary forest. Design Kayu Madang landfill is a Level IV sanitary landfill. It has a bottom liner but it is only in the middle part; the liner comprises clay (1 m), sand (2 inches) and aggregate (5 inches). The area is fenced with a gate and guard. Leachate is collected and pumped to the oxidation pond. Groundwater wells have been installed. There is also weigh bridge and wheel wash.

Figure 1.2

Schematic diagram of Kayu Madang Landfill (Christianus, 2005)

Existing Leachate Treatment It is to be noted that there is existing treatment for the leachate produced in the landfill. The existing treatment plant, however, is inefficient in treating the leachate. The raw leachate is pumped into a facultative pond before channeled into two maturation ponds.

3.0

Leachate Type and Data

The selection of water treatment technology should be based on the type of influent received by the water treatment facility. A water treatment facility for a palm oil mill might be different from the water treatment facility for paper mill; this is true for landfill leachate as well. By knowing the content of the effluent that needs to be treated, we can select appropriate method that would best treat the effluent. In this paper, we will evaluate the composition of leachate produced by Kayu Madang landfill and select a suitable water treatment technology in comply with the standard set by the Malaysian Government which can be referred in the Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulations 2009. 3.1 Kayu Madang Landfill Leachate Data

The selection of process presented in this paper will rely mostly on the data gathered from journals and internet. Below is the leachate composition for the landfill site in Kayu Madang. Table 3.1 Parameter BOD COD Suspended Solid pH Ammoniacal N Nitrogen Phosphate Cadmium Plumbum (Lead) Chromium Copper Manganese Nickel Zinc Iron physico-chemical of leachate in Kayu Madang (Christianus, 2005) Range 22 208 mg/L 46 829 mg/L 18 346 mg/L 6.61 7.61 10.28 277 mg/L 35.18 296 mg/L 0.5 mg/L 0.01 mg/L 0.06 mg/L 0.05 mg/L 0.03 mg/L 0.05 1.3 mg/L 0.04 mg/L 0.05 0.06 mg/L 2.4 7.7 mg/L Average 80 mg/L 313.4 mg/L 121 mg/L 7.184 168.256 mg/L 210.23 mg/L 0.5 mg/L 0.01 mg/L 0.06 mg/L 0.05 mg/L 0.03 mg/L 0.49 mg/L 0.04 mg/L 0.055 mg/L 4.67 mg/L

3.1.1 Analysis The data in the table was acquired from the year 1997 to year 1999, with the landfill built and began operation in 20 September 1997 (Christianus, 2005). The landfill is now 14 years old, we expect some variation in the content of leachate as it age. Regrettably, the most 7

recent data regarding the physico-chemical of the leachate is not available. In order to select an appropriate water treatment process, we need to know the composition of the leachate for the landfill. In this paper, we will attempt to compare the composition of Kayu Madang Landfill Leachate with other data from other researches that are based in Malaysia and other tropical countries. As stated by Tchobanoglous et al. (1993) in his research, the composition of the leachate will change as the landfill age. According to the data he collected, the magnitude of pollutant in the leachate will depreciate overtime; this finding is in accordance with the research done by Robinson & Luo (1991). The selection of data will focus on the old landfill especially those in Malaysia and our neighbouring countries and other tropical countries. The table below shows the place of landfill, location, its corresponding age and the source of the data: Table 3.2 Landfill Pulau Burung Kulim Nonthaburi Various Landfill in Malaysia and other tropical countries Location Penang Penang Bangkok Country Malaysia Malaysia Thailand Year Operated 1991 1996 1982 Reference Aziz H.A et al. (2003) Aziz S.Q. et al. (2010) Theepharaksapan S. (2010)

Table 3.3 Parameter BOD COD Suspended Solid pH Ammoniaca-N Nitrate-N Phosphate Cadmium Plumbum (Lead) Chromium Copper Manganese Nickel Zinc Iron Unit mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L

Comparison of values of leachate composition Pulau Burung 48 -105 1533 2580 159 233 7.5 9.4 360 730 900 3200 10 43 4.60 15.5 0.10 4.1 -19.5 Kulim 135 476 630 2860 232 1374 6.93 8.26 130 1309 400 2600 8.0 40 01 0.6 11.4 8 Nonthaburi 400 2700 290 8.44 112 0.05 0.17 0.50 0.32 2.95 Kayu Madang 22 208 46 829 18 346 6.61 7.61 10.28 277 35.18 296 0.5 0.01 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.05 1.3 0.04 0.05 0.06 2.4 7.7

Both Tchobanoglous et al. (1993) and Kostova (2006) did a research and published their findings regarding the variation of leachate composition over time. The findings can be found in the table below: Table 3.4 Concentration of some leachate characteristic at different phases (Kostova, 2006) Leachate Constituents BOD COD TOC Ammonia NO2-N TDS Transition phase (0 5 years) 100 11000 500 22000 100 3000 0 190 0.1 500 2500 - 14000 Acid-formation phase (5 10 years) 1000 57000 1500 71000 500 28000 30 3000 0.1 20 4000 - 55000 Methane fermentation phase (10 20 years) 100 3500 150 10000 50 2200 6 430 0.1 1.5 1100 - 6400 Final maturation phase (> 20 years) 4 120 30 900 70 260 6 430 0.5 0.6 1460 4640

Table 3.5 leachate characteristic for new and mature landfills (Tchobanoglous et al., 1993) Value, mg/L New landfill (less than 2 years) Constituent BOD TOC COD Suspended Solid Organic Nitrogen Ammonia nitrogen Nitrate Total Phosphorus Ortho Phosphorus Alkalinity (CaCO3) pH (no units) Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Chloride Sulphate Total Iron Range 2000 30000 1500 20000 3000 60000 200 2000 10 800 10 800 5 40 5 100 4 80 1000 10000 4.5 7.5 200 3000 50 1500 200 1000 200 2500 200 3000 50 1000 50 1200 Typical 10000 6000 18000 500 200 200 25 30 20 3000 6 1000 250 300 500 500 300 60 Mature landfill (greater than 10 years) 100 200 80 160 100 500 100 400 80 120 20 40 5 10 5 10 48 200 1000 6.6 7.5 100 400 50 200 20 400 100 200 100 400 20 50 20 200

By looking at the tabulated data by both Tchobanoglous et al. (1993) and Kostova (2006), we can make the following assumption: 1. BOD, TOC, COD, Suspended Solid reduce dramatically when the landfill is over 10 years old. 2. The leachate becomes more alkaline over the time but not more than 7.5. 3. Ammonia and nitrate content varies from time to time but is not significantly larger than the first few years. 4. The metal content of leachate reduced by more than 50% after 10 years compared to the first year. Observing from the table, we noticed that there is a hike in concentration of composition of leachate between year 5 and year 10. The concentration of the composition of leachate declines steadily upon after 10 years. Since the leachate of Kayu Madang is more than 10 years. We have come up with the following values for the expected current leachate composition by drawing values from other available leachate composition (Table 2.2) that is within the scope of values is table 2.3 and table 2.4. Table 3.6 Estimated physico-chemical of leachate in Kayu Madang in year 2011 Parameter BOD COD Suspended Solid pH Ammoniacal N Nitrogen Phosphate Cadmium Plumbum (Lead) Chromium Copper Manganese Nickel Zinc Iron Average 400 mg/L 630 mg/L 159 mg/L 8.3 112 mg/L 400 mg/L 10 mg/L 0.01 mg/L 0.03 mg/L 0.025 mg/L 0.015 mg/L 0.25 mg/L 0.02 mg/L 0.025 mg/L 2.30 mg/L

The data in the table above will be used in the analysis of the type of water treatment process used in this paper.

10

3.2

Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulations 2009

In December 2009, the Department of Environment (D.O.E) Malaysia has revised the Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulation 2009. All the sewage discharge from the domestic sewage treatment plant is typically subjected to the local, state and federal regulations and standards. Under the regulation, the acceptable conditions for discharge of leachate have been amended and can be referred in the appendix B. The new standard of discharge limit with comparison to the projected composition of leachate for the need for the treatment is summarized in the table below: Table 3.7 Parameter BOD COD Suspended Solid pH Ammoniacal N Nitrate N Phosphate Cadmium Lead (Pb) Chromium Copper Manganese Nickel Zinc Iron (Fe) Projected effluent and discharge limit with required action Discharge Limit 20 mg/L 400 mg/L 50 mg/L 6.0 9.0 5 mg/L 0.01 mg/L 0.10 mg/L 0.20 mg/L 0.20 mg/L 0.20 mg/L 0.20 mg/L 2.0 mg/L 5.0 mg/L Projected Effluent 400 mg/L 630 mg/L 159 mg/L 8.3 112 mg/L 400 mg/L 10 mg/L 0.01 mg/L 0.03 mg/L 0.025 mg/L 0.015 mg/L 0.15 mg/L 0.02 mg/L 0.025 mg/L 2.30 mg/L Action required Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No No No

In accordance with the law gazetted by the government, we come to a conclusion that only BOD, COD, Suspended Solid and Ammoniacal Nitrogen need to be treated before it is being discharged into the streams.

11

3.3

Available Water Treatment Technology

Many leachate treatment methods have been proposed and can be found in the journal. The table below is the summary of the processes and technology its effectiveness in treating leachate. Table 3.8 Comparison based on efficiency, installation and operation cost (Renou S. et al., 2008; Madu J.I., 2008) Process Transfer Recycling Lagooning Physico/Chemical Coagulation/flocculation Chemical precipitation Adsorption Oxidation Stripping Biological Aerobic Processes Anaerobic Processes Pre-Anoxic Detrification Membrane Bioreactor Membrane Filtration Ultrafiltration Nanofiltration Reverse Osmosis Average Removal (%) BOD >90 80 >80 >80 >80 >90 >80 80 >90 COD 60 80 40 95 40 - 60 <30 70 90 30 90 <30 60 90 60 80 >90 >85 50 60 80 >90 TKN >80 <30 <30 >80 >80 >80 >80 >80 60 80 60 80 >90 SS 30 40 >80 30 40 60 80 60 80 >75 >99 >99 >99 >99 Installation & operation Less Less Less Less Less Expensive Expensive Less Less Less Expensive Expensive Expensive Expensive Skilled personnel No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes

*Installation & operation cost and the need for skilled labour varies for Aerobic Process and Anaerobic Processes. Biological aerated filter, Anaerobic filter are examples of processes needing expensive installation & operation cost as well as skilled labour.

12

4.0

Process Selection

A conventional activated sludge system will not be able to meet the new standard imposed by the government as proven by Kutty S.R.M. et al. (2011). Thus, a more detailed process with emphasis on the removal of nitrogen needs to be selected. In this case, our group has chosen the Pre-Anoxic Detrification with activated sludge Process. 4.1 Process Description

The process of Pre-Anoxic Detrification with activated sludge can be best explained from the diagram below:

Figure 4.1

Process flow of Pre-Anoxic Detrification with activated sludge (Gunasekara, 2011)

The Pre-Anoxic Detrification with activated sludge consists of an anoxic tank followed by the aeration tank where nitrification occurs. Dissolved nitrogen in the form of ammonium will be converted into nitrite ions and then to nitrate ions in the presence of oxygen by nitrifying microorganism. Nitrate produced in the aeration tank is recycled back to the anoxic tank where denitrification will occur with the end product as Nitrogen. This overall process will not only treat BOD, COD, Suspended Solid but also the ammoniacal-Nitrogen contained in the leachate.

13

5.0

Conceptual Design and Calculation

The core principle of the design was to have a complete mix activated sludge process together with anoxic tank. The leachate pumped up from the flow to the facultative pond first, then to the maturation pond. After final maturation pond treatment, effluent discharge to the sea through Salut river. The new system proposed (see Figure 5.1) is to further reduce BOD, COD to meet the Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulation 2009.

Figure 5.1: Proposed further treatment system Existing plant effluent characteristic: BOD5 = 400mg/L Let, Flow, Q= 0.150M3/s Use Value of growth constants (source: Metcalf & Eddy, 2003 and Shahriari et al., 2006) Ks = 100mg/L BOD5; m=2.5d-1; kd=0.050; Y=0.50mg VSS/mg BOD5 removed. Assuming that the secondary clarifier can produce an effluent with only 30.0mg/L SS. We can extimate the allowable soluble BOD5 in the effluent using the 63-percent assumption. S = BOD5 allowed BOD5 in suspended solids S = 30.0 (0.630)(30.0) = 7.4mg/L

14

The mean cell-residence time can be estimated with Equation shown and the assumed values for the growth constants.

(4.1)

Q = wastewater flow rate into the aeration tank, m3/d X0=microorganism concentration (volatile suspended solids or VSS) entering aeration tank, mg/L V=volume of aeration tank, m3 m=maximum growth rate constant, d-1 S=soluble BOD5 in aeration tank and effluent, mg/L X=microorganism concentration (mixed-liquor volatile suspended solids or MLVSS) in the aeration tank, mg/L Ks= half velocity constant =soluble BOD5 concentration at one-half the maximum growth rate, mg/L Kd=decay rate of microorganism, d-1 Qw=flow rate of liquid containing microorganisms to be wasted, m3/d Xe=microorganism concentration (VSS) in effluent from secondary settling tank, mg/L Xr=microorganism concentration (VSS) in sludge being wasted, mg/L
) )

s= Solving for c

(7.4)(2.45c 1) = 100.0 + 5.00c (18.13c 7.4) = 100.0 + 5.00c c = 107.4/13.13 = 8.179 = 8d-1 If we assume a value of 2000mg/L for the MLVSS, we can solve using equation below:
) ) )

(4.2)

For the hydraulic detention time, ) ) ) ) = 0.561 d or 13.46 h 15 ) )

The volume of the aeration tank is then estimated using equation below:

The volume of the anoxic tank is estimated by setting the hydraulic retention time of the tank roughly 25% of aeration tank as done by a group research team from Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS in their pilot plant (Kutty S.R.M. et al, 2011)

16

6.0

Discussion

Many of the values in the table especially the current Kayu Madang landfill leachate might not be accurate. The values are projected by referring from the other samples from other landfills and the finding of journals. In order to get a better and more accurate data to design a suitable waste water treatment facility, a most recent sample collection and analysis is required. There might be some slight variation in the calculation made as some of the parameter constant (growth constant for microbes) are taken from journals and researches from western countries. Very little research on the microbes activities in the tropical country are observed and hence the limitation on the data during calculation. While the landfill does not accept scheduled and hazardous waste which could potentially lower the amount of metal in the leachate, the varying amount of BOD, COD and TSS should be taken note of. Sabah has a very unique feature of unpredictable rainfall which could potentially increase the amount of effluent, this could overload the water treatment system. The equalizer installed at the head of the treatment plant should act as a medium for concentration and flow equalizer. The anoxic tank and anaerobic aeration tank could be combined for space efficiency, such combination commonly dubbed as aeration/anoxic reactor. In this type of system, an overall oxygen deficit condition is hard to be established across the entire contents of the reactor and, unlike what is found with the reactors-in-series mode, there is no oxygen uptake rate gradient to establish an initial oxygen deficit environment. Hence, this system is generally not preferable. Due to the stringent enforcement of the effluent limit set by the government, a special treatment needed to be carried out. The Pre-Anoxic Detrification with activated sludge process is one of the process modifications where non-conventional method is applied. To maximize the denitrification performance in anoxic tank, oxygen delivery in the anoxic tank should be 50% to 70% of the demand.

17

7.0

References

Aik H. L., Hamid N. & Yung T. H. 2010. Influence of Waste Age on Landfill Leachate Quality. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development. 1(4): 258-264. Aziz H.A., Yusoff M.S., Adlan M.N., Adnan N.H., and Alias S. 2003. Physico-Chemical Removal of Iron From Semi0aerobic Landfill Leachate by Limestone Filter. Waste Management. 24: 353-358. Aziz S.Q., Aziz H.A., Yusoff M.S., Bashir M.J.K., and Umar M. 2010. Leachate Characterization in Semi-aerobic and Anaerobic Sanitary Landfills: A Comparative Study. Journal of Environmental Management. 91: 2608-2614. Barlaz, M., Baun, A., Christensen, T., Kjeldsen, P., Ledin, A. and, Rooker A.. 2002.Present and Long-Term Composition of MSW Landfill Leachate : A Review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 32(4): 364-371. Chang, K.C., Chain. E.S.K., Dertien, J.T., Harper, S.R. & Pohland, F.G. 1985. Leachate generation and control at landfill disposal sites. Water Pollution Resources Journal Canada. 20(3): 10-24. Christensen T.H., Kjeldsen P., Albrechtsen H.J., Heron G., Nielson P.H., Bjerg P.L., and Holm P.E. 1994. Attenuation of Landfill Leachate Pollutants in Aquifers. Critical Reviews in Environment Science and Technology. 24: 119-202. Christianus P. 2005. Leachate Management in Kayu Madang Landfill, Telipok. Thesis. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Gunasekara S.N. 2011. Improvements on Municipal Wastewater Treatment by: Chemical Pre-Precipitation with Ca2+ & Mg2+ and Acid Hydrolysis of Toilet Paper. Master Thesis. Royal Insitute of Technology. Ifeanyichukwu M.J. 2008. New Leachate Treatment Methods. Master Thesis. Lund University. Kostova I. 2006. Leachate from Sanitary Landfills-Origin, Characteristics, Treatment. Borovetz: University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy. Kutty S.R.M., Isa M.H., Leong L.C. 2011. Removal of Ammonia-Nitrogen (NH3-N) and Nitrate (NO3-) by Modified Conventional Activated-Sludge System to Meet New D.O.E Regulations. Perak: Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS. Laugesen C.H., Lim P.S. & Mohd Iskandar M.A. Solid waste disposal in Sabah. Environmental Conservation Department, Sabah Survey Report August 2002. Regulations 2009. Environmental Quality (Control of Pollution From Solid Waste Transfer Station and Landfill) Regulations 2009 (Regulation 13). Kuala Lumpur: International Law Book Service. Renou S., Givaudan J.G., Poulain S., Dirassouyan F., Moulin P. 2007. Landfill Leachate Treatment: Review and Opportunity. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 150: 468-493. Robinson H. and Luo M. 1991. Characterisation and Treatment of Leachates From Hong Kong Landfill Site. Journal of the Institution of Water and Environmental Management. 5(6): 326-335.

18

Shahriari H., Eskicioglu C. and Droste R. L. 2006. Simulating Activated Sludge Systems by Simple-to-Advanced Models. Journal of Environmental Engineering. ASCE 132(1): 42-50. Tchobanoglous G., Theisen H., and Vigil S. 1993. Integrated Solid Waste Management Engineering Principles and Management Issues. Singapore: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Theepharaksapan S., Chiemchaisri C., Chiemchaisri W., and Yamamoto K. 2011. Removal of Pollutants and Reduction of Bio-toxicity in a Full Scale Chemical Coagulation and Reverse Osmosis Leachate Treatment System. Bioresource Technology. 102: 5381-5388.

19

Appendix A Questions and Answer During Presentation 1. What is the capacity of the landfill? A: The Kayu Madang landfill have a capacity of 15,333 cubic metres. 2. Please cite the reference for the schematic diagram of landfill. A: Christianus P. 2005. Leachate Management in Kayu Madang Landfill, Telipok. Thesis. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 3. Why you did not choose tropical work and data (calculation part)? A: Very little research on the microbes activities in the tropical country are observed and hence the limitation on the data during calculation. 4. For the process proposed in UTP thesis (Kutty S.R.M. et al.), criticize the method. Nothing is perfect. A: They uses a pilot plant where the leachate is made up of lab chemicals and not real leachate, hence the possibility of inaccuracy. In the process, steady state flow were used for the pilot plant, real life situation may differ from the pilot plant. The calculation for tank size were BOD based and not Ammoniacal-Nitrogen. It is optimized for BOD and not Ammoniacal-Nitrogen. 5. How do you achieve constant flow? A: By using equalizer tank, we can achieve constant flow 6. How do you measure the flow rate of leachate? A: Any flow measuring device such as rotameter can be used to measure the flow. 7. Where the waste comes from? A: This site receives all types of waste except scheduled and hazardous waste from the rating areas of Kota Kinabalu City, Penampang, Tuaran and Kota Belud. 8. How do you maximize the performance of denitrification? What is the parameter involved? A: Nitrification largely depended on the food/mass ratio and the deficiency of oxygen in the liquid. The retention time also affect the performance. By increase the food/mass ratio, adjusting the oxygen of 50-70% of the demand and lengthen the rentention time. 20

9. Why use anoxic tank instead of other tank? Think of a simultaneous treatment with anoxic and anaerobic. A: Anoxic tank is used for its denitrification process which is good in eliminating the ammoniacal-nitrate. The anoxic tank and anaerobic aeration tank could be combined for space efficiency, such combination commonly dubbed as aeration/anoxic reactor. In this type of system, an overall oxygen deficit condition is hard to be established across the entire contents of the reactor and, unlike what is found with the reactors-in-series mode, there is no oxygen uptake rate gradient to establish an initial oxygen deficit environment. Hence, this system is generally not preferable. 10. How much sludge come out? How do you measure? A: The amount of sludge coming out has yet to be ascertain as not enough data is available for calculation at the moment. Sludge can be treated as viscous liquid and can be measure same as liquid. 11. If during heavy rainfall, how do you prevent it from overflow? A: Equalizer would be able to contain the rainfall and adjust the flowrate to prevent overflow of the tank. 12. How to maximize performance of nitrification, is the aeration control important, how do you control it? A: Similar to question number 8.

21

Appendix B Discharge Limit Set by Department of Environment

22