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Experiments in Fluids 36 (2004) 706716 DOI 10.


Non-intrusive temperature measurements using three-color laser-induced fluorescence

P. Lavieille, A. Delconte, D. Blondel, M. Lebouche, F. Lemoine

706 Abstract This paper presents a new temperature measurement technique in a liquid, based on laser-induced uorescence of rhodamine B. The uorescence intensity is detected on three spectral bands, where the ratios between the emission of each band determine the temperature while correcting for the effects of uorescent re-absorption. In addition, the inuence of parameters such as probe volume size, dye concentration, and Beers absorption is removed. The principles of the technique are described in this paper, and the technique is demonstrated on a heated liquid jet studied under a constant and a spatially variable dye concentration. i g k DT DTmax coefcient characterizing uorescence re-absorption uorescence quantum yield wavelength jet temperature relative to the ambient jet centerline temperature relative to the ambient

Subscripts and notations

i * Xij relative to ith spectral band normalized values =Xi)Xj

C D Ilaser If Kopt Kspec R1/2 R T Tinj T0 Vc Vinj Vc (x, y, z)

1 Introduction Numerous experimental situations require temperature measurement in liquid ows, i.e., heat transfer characterization in both academic and industrial congurations such as heat exchangers and hydraulics models. Accurate data, where the inuence of the measurement probes on the dynamic and thermal elds of the investigated ows is minimal or non-existent, are required for numerical model validation in both single-phase ows and two-phase ows. Non-intrusive techniques are under development and uorescence based techniques address this goal. Fluorescence is a consequence of the spontaneous de-activation of an excited singlet state. The excited state may be populated by laser excitation with a suitable wavelength tuned on the absorption spectrum of a suitable tracer, which may be an organic dye in the case of liquid ows. The emitted uoGreek symbols rescence intensity may be dependent on the number of excited molecules, related to the molecular dye concenb temperature sensitivity (klaser) absorption coefcient for the laser wavelength tration, temperature, and pH. Fluorescence techniques have been used very frequently with a single dye, but more recently the two-dye and single dye/two-color techniques have appeared, exhibiting very Received: 18 April 2003 / Accepted: 27 October 2003 new and interesting features. In single-dye uorescence Published online: 28 February 2004 techniques, the ow is seeded with a small concentration Springer-Verlag 2004 of a uorescent dye (typically a few ppm). Single-dye P. Lavieille, A. Delconte, M. Lebouche, F. Lemoine (&) techniques can be used to measure either dye concentraLEMTAUMR 7563, tion or temperature when one of these two parameters is 2 Avenue de la Foret de Haye, not varying. Excitation and collection devices must also BP 160, 54504, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, France intercept a constant volume during the experiment, which E-mail: emoine@ensem.inpl-nancy.fr excludes the applications of single-dye techniques to twoD. Blondel phase ows, except in the case for which all the parameters DANTEC Dynamics, can be controlled (Lavieille et al. 2000a). At constant dye Tonsbakken 1618, 2740 concentration, the local temperature of the uid can be Skovlunde, Denmark

molecular concentration of the uorescent tracer nozzle diameter incident laser beam intensity uorescence intensity optical constant spectroscopic constant half-width radius of the heated jet uorescence ratio absolute temperature injection temperature reference temperature collection volume injection velocity probe volume space coordinates

measured (Nakajima et al. 1990; Sakakibara et al. 1993; Lemoine et al. 1999) by using the temperature dependence of the uorescence quantum yield. The selection of the dye is of importance for temperature measurement applications, since the temperature sensitivity varies from dye to dye. Rhodamine B and Kiton Red (also called sulforhodamine B) are the best temperature sensors (Copetta and Rogers 1998). Furthermore, these two dyes can also be excited by typical laser wavelengths, i.e., k=514.5 nm (argon ion laser) and k=532 nm (Nd-Yag laser). The main difculties of applying single-dye uorescence techniques to temperature measurements are that the dye concentration, laser intensity, and the probe volume must remain absolutely constant and controlled during the experiment. Furthermore, Beers absorption of the laser intensity along the laser beam (or laser sheet) path in the absorbing medium must be neglected as the uorescence re-absorption from the emission volume to the collection optics surface. In practical terms, this means that the low dye concentration and short optical paths, which could not address all types of realistic experiments, must be used. In order to partially overcome the problems of the single-dye techniques, some authors successfully tested the idea of using combined uorescent tracers seeded in the liquid ow (Copetta and Rogers 1998; Sakakibara and Adrian 1999; Hishida and Sakakibara 2000; Lavieille et al. 2000b). Such methods are often referred to as two-color techniques, but correctly should be called two-color/twodye techniques. In principle, one of the dyes should be sensitive to temperature and the other not or very weakly sensitive. Also, the emission spectra of the two dyes should differ enough to permit the separation of the emitted light by optical means. The two-dye technique eliminates Beers absorption, laser intensity, and probe volume dependencies. However, a dependence on the concentration ratio of two dyes remains. This ratio must be maintained constant during the experiments and its exact value must be known. For example, in turbulent diffusion processes, it must be assumed that the two dyes diffuse similarly. Another difculty relates to the spectral conict problem, corresponding to overlaps between the absorption and emission bands. There are three kinds of spectral conicts, all described by Copetta and Rogers (1998), yielding various effects on the temperature measurement accuracy and on technique implementation difculties. The two-color/single-dye technique developed by Lavieille et al. (2001, 2002) solves the problem of the concentration ratio dependence problem, since one dye (rhodamine B) associated with two spectral detection bands and two different temperature sensitivities is used. The inuence of the probe volume size, laser intensity, and Beers absorption on the laser beam path is also eliminated by processing the ratio of the uorescence emission on the two color bands. This technique has been developed for measuring temperatures of ethanol evaporating and combusting droplets. However, for larger optical paths, the re-absorption of the uorescence itself by the medium should be different on the two selected color bands, since the rst one coincides roughly with the maximum of the absorption spectrum. The differential absorption leads to

erroneous temperature measurements, for standard optical paths encountered in laboratory experiments. The scope of the present paper is to show the extension of the single-dye/two-color laser-induced uorescence technique in order to address the problem of the uorescence reabsorption and to obtain reliable temperature measurements for large optical paths in the absorbing medium. A third detection color band is added in order to quantify the uorescence absorption phenomena. The two uorescence ratios, bands 1 to 3, and bands 2 to 3 are used to determine the temperature. A demonstration of the technique, applied on a static heated cell, is presented on a heated jet under constant and variable dye concentration conditions.


2 Three-color laser-induced fluorescence principles 2.1 Main concepts The uorescence spectrum of a dye in liquid phase is broadbanded, and the uorescence intensity expression at a wavelength k is given by (Walker 1987; Lemoine et al., 1996; Karasso and Mungal 1997): Rb ek Cxdx If k Kopt kIlaser e laser 0 Vc Cgke Re ek C ydy 0 k e 1

where, Kopt(k) is an optical constant, the product VcC represents the total number of excited molecules present in the laser-excited volume, C the molecular dye concentration, and Vc the collection volume. (klaser) is the extinction coefcient for the laser excitation wavelength klaser, (k) is the extinction coefcient for the uorescence emission at the wavelength k, g(k) is the uorescence quantum yield, and Ilaser is the incident laser excitation intensity. The parameters e and b are the optical paths for the incident intensity and uorescence emission (Fig. 1). The extinction coefcients (klaser) and (k) may be both

Fig. 1. Optical paths denition


pH and temperature dependent, according to the selected uorescent dye. The uorescence quantum yield g(k) is temperature dependent, since electronic quenching of the excited state by temperature occurs at the single excited state. Expression 1 can be used in order to determine the local ow temperature, by modeling the uorescence quantum yield and the extinction coefcient (klaser). The expression of the uorescence signal as a function of the temperature is given by (Lemoine et al. 1999): Rb ek C xdx If k Kopt kKspec kIlaser e laser 0 Re ek C ydy bk=T 0 Vc Ce e 2 where b(k) is the temperature sensitivity at the wavelength k and T is the absolute temperature. Kspec(k) is a spectroscopic constant summarizing the spectroscopic properties of the uorescent tracer in its solvent, at the wavelength k. For collecting a sufcient number of photons, in order to ensure the convergence of the uorescence signal on a reasonable time, uorescence is collected on a spectral band [k1, k2]. The resulting uorescence Fig. 2. Sketch of the three-color laser-induced uorescence emission collected on the band is: principles Z k2 Rb ek Cxdx If Ilaser e laser 0 Vc C Kopt k k1 absorption and uorescence spectra, and therefore a Re modication of the uorescence distribution on the ek C ydy bk=T 0 e 3 detection spectral bands can be expected. This indicates Kspec ke Rb Re that the temperature sensitivity b depends on the uoIn the following development, 0 Cxdx and 0 C ydy will be simply denoted by Cx and Cy without restricting rescence optical path length. In view of the form of the different wavelengththe generality of the problem. As already described in the dependent terms, the integral expression of Eq. 3 is framework of the two-color laser-induced uorescence technique, the use of ratios between uorescence signals assumed to be approximated by: R ki2 measured on different spectral bands with different ekCy bk=T e dk ki1 Kopti kKspeci ke sensitivities on temperature removes the dependencies on the probe volume, dye concentration, Beers Kopti Kspeci gi Cyhi Cy; 1=T i 1; 2; 3 4 absorption of the incident intensity, and laser local intensity (Lavieille et al. 2001). Furthermore, we will In Eq. 4, the function gi characterizes the re-absorption show that the addition of a third detection color band of the uorescence on the spectral band [ki1; ki2]. The can be used to determine the unknown absorption of function hi represents the temperature sensitivity of the the uorescence signal (i.e., Cy) and therefore the uorescence emission in the spectral band [ki1; ki2]; hi is a temperature for large optical paths. The three detection function of the temperature and of the optical path Cy, spectral bands must be carefully selected in order to caused by the lter effects of the absorbing medium dissociate the temperature sensitivity and the uoresmodifying the intrinsic temperature sensitivity. Kspeci cence re-absorption effects. For rhodamine B, these can be regarded as a spectroscopic constant corresponding selection criteria are presented in Fig. 2, coinciding to the ith band and Kopti as an optical constant for the with the temperature sensitivity curve measured by band. spectroscopy as in the paper by Lavieille et al. (2001). Three measurements of uorescence intensity, on the The following criteria are followed: three spectral bands are performed. Calculating two uorescence ratios, i.e., R13=If1/If3 and R12=If1/If2, removes all rst band [k1; k2]: low sensitivity to temperature, sendependencies in the dye concentration, the probe volume, sitive to uorescence re-absorption and the local laser intensity. The system constants, i.e., second band [k3; k4]: sensitive to temperature, sensitive Kopti and Kspeci are eliminated with the use of a reference to re-absorption point where the temperature T0 and the optical path C0y0 third band [k5; k6] : sensitive to temperature, low senare known and where the reference uorescence ratios sitivity to re-absorption. R120, R130 can be measured. Taking into account Eq. 4 and the reference conditions, An additional difculty in measuring the uorescence and adopting a logarithmic form, the following twoon a color band is that the absorbing medium acts equation system can be obtained: as spectral lter itself, because of the overlap of the


R13 R130

ln g13 Cy ln h13 Cy; 1=T ln g13 C0 y0 ln h13 C0 y0 ; 1=T0 5


R12 R120

particles present in the liquid. The color separator is composed of three beamsplitters and color separator cubes corresponding to the three detection bands. Additional interference lters are used on each band in order to get the suitable spectral bands (Fig. 3).

ln g12 Cy ln h12 Cy; 1=T ln g12 C0 y0 ln h12 C0 y0 ; 1=T0 6

where hij=hi/hj and gij=gi/gj must be determined in an initial calibration experiment performed under static conditions, which will be described in Sect. 2.3. Assuming that the functions hij and gij are characterized initially, the two unknown parameters Cy and T of Eqs. 5 and 6 should be determined by an iterative method following a Newton algorithm.

2.2 Optical device A modied laser-Doppler velocimetry optical system, ber coupled with an argon ion laser tuned on the green line (k=514.5 nm) has been used in order to create the probe volume and to detect the uorescence signal in the backscatter conguration (Fig. 3). The backscatter conguration is selected more for practical than physical reasons, since the uorescence emission is isotropic. A collimated optical ber transmits the optical signal to a color separator. The signal passes previously through a high-pass lter (cut-off at 515 nm) in order to eliminate all effects of the excitation source, such as Mie scattering on small

2.3 Initial calibration The functions g12(Cy), g13(Cy), h12(1/T,Cy), h13(1/T,Cy) can be determined from an initial calibration process, produced only once for rhodamine B dissolved in a given uid. A static cell equipped with optical accesses and a thermal regulation device is lled with water seeded with rhodamine B (C=10)6 mol/l). The solution is constantly agitated by means of a magnetic bar in order to ensure thermal homogeneity and to avoid photobleaching. Successive scans with increasing y optical paths are performed at different uid temperatures, considered as homogeneous in the cell, from about 22C to 84C. The evolution of ln(R12) and ln(R13) is plotted as a function of (1/T) for the different investigated optical paths (Fig. 4, where only the plot of ln(R12) as a function of (1/T) is presented as an example). As predicted by Eqs. 5 and 6, the temperature sensitivity depends clearly on the optical travel of the uorescence in the absorbing medium. Furthermore, an increase of this sensitivity with the optical path y is observed, caused by the lter effect of the crossed absorbing medium. The curves of ln(R12) and ln(R13) as a function of (1/ T), for the different constant optical paths y can be tted by a second order polynomial of the form:


Fig. 3. Optical set-up


Fig. 4. Temperature sensitivity

calibration as a function of 1/T for different optical paths y (y is in the upper legend)


R13 R130


A13 Cy B13 Cy K13 Cy T T2 A12 Cy B12 Cy K12 Cy T T2

7 8

R12 ln R120

where K12(Cy) and K13(Cy) are two constants at Cy xed. The coefcients A12, A13, B12, and B13, according to Eqs. 7 and 8, were plotted as a function of Cy in Figs. 5 and 6. A linear t produces a good representation of the evolution of these coefcients as a function of the optical path Cy. The linear ts for A12, A13, B12, and B13 were calculated for Cy varying from 0 to 10)7 mol/l m, which corresponds to a 0.1 m optical path for C xed at 10)6 mol/l. The initial tests demonstrated that the linear interpolation remains valid at 1.5 times the tested range for y, at constant dye concentration. For higher values of Cy, some higher order polynomial expressions must be used. Finally, in order to test the validity of the models with the functions determined in the previous calibration

process, some scans were performed in the static cell along the y direction for different xed constant uid temperatures. The temperature measured by the three-color laserinduced uorescence technique is represented for the different optical paths y (Fig. 7). The temperature deviation along the optical path remains very low, the largest deviations observed being about 1C for the maximum tested temperatures and optical paths. The comparison of the temperature measured by the uorescence technique with a thermocouple appears to be satisfactory: the deviation is only 0.2C RMS for the shortest optical paths.

3 Demonstration on a heated jet 3.1 Experimental set-up and process An experimental demonstration of the three-color laserinduced uorescence was conducted on a heated jet. The heated jet consists of injecting hot water into a large and

Fig. 5. Evolution of the coef-

cients A12 and A13 as a function of Cy (C=10)6 mol/l)


Fig. 6. Evolution of the coef-

cients B12 and B13 as a function of Cy (C=10)6 mol/l)

quiescent water vessel. Two different experiments were performed: Constant concentration experiment: a hot aqueous solution of rhodamine B (concentration C=10)6 mol/l) is injected in the same quiescent solution (with the same dye concentration), maintained at ambient temperature. Variable concentration experiment: a hot aqueous concentration of rhodamine B (concentration C=10)6 mol/l) is injected in quiescent fresh water (without dye) at ambient temperature. In this second experiment, the linear form of the parameters Aij and Bij remain valid, since the highest dye concentration is 10)6 mol/l for an optical path exceeding not 0.1 m, and the linear ts were calculated for Cy ranging from 0 to

10)7 mol/l m. Furthermore, for the lowest dye concentrations the impact of Cy on the parameters Aij and Bij is low, and does not inuence the measurements signicantly. The hot water is injected by means of a round nozzle (diameter, 0.75 mm), into a large vessel (volume, 70 l) equipped with one optical access, as described in Fig. 8. The probe volume is created by the intersection of two, focused laser beams, by means of a laser-Doppler velocimetry optical device. Because of the small dimensions of the oweld, the probe volume size has been reduced to 40 lm in the x and z directions, and 180 lm in the y direction (axis orientation is provided in Fig. 8). This was accomplished by using the combination

Fig. 7. Validation of the pro-

cess in a static heated cell by different scans in y for constant uid temperature (thermocouple temperature in the gure legend)


Fig. 8. Heated jet experimental set-up

of a beam expander and a short focal length (f=150 mm) for the front lens. The detection of the uorescence signal, which is isotropic, is performed in the backscatter conguration. The average value of the uorescence signal is calculated on the three channels (three color bands) on 5105 samples acquired at the frequency f=1 MHz. The resulting acquisition time for one measurement point is 0.5 s. This time is selected more for practical reasons, i.e., to shorten the scanning time in order to avoid as much as possible the increase of the ambient uid temperature. The rst important point consists in getting a reference measurement. For the constant concentration experiment, the reference is just taken near the optical window, for a very short optical path, the temperature of the water being measured by a K type thermocouple. A different scheme must be applied for the variable concentration experiment since the vessel contains fresh water. The reference measurement is simply performed in a rectangular glass-walled vessel lled with an aqueous solution of rhodamine B, similar to that used in the experiment. It was difcult to reproduce exactly the injection conditions for both constant and variable concentration conditions, because the jet testing facilities were not equipped with a pressure and temperature regulation device. However, the data analysis and the comparisons between the two experiments (constant and variable concentration) should not be affected by this moderate difference in the injection conditions, since a normalized values system will be implemented. Table 1 summarizes these injection conditions. After performing the reference measurement, the oweld is scanned point by point; the uorescence measurements are processed in real time in order to yield the temperature. Radial scans of the jet are operated at z=const, in the longitudinal and transverse directions (i.e., x and y), from z=5 mm to z=75 mm.

3.2 Experimental results 3.2.1 General comments An example of temperature proles measured at three elevations (z=15, 35, and 75 mm) on the y axis in both constant and variable concentration experiments are presented in Fig. 9. The y direction is the most interesting one, since it corresponds to the direction sensitive to the re-absorption of the uorescence. In both experiments, the temperature decrease on the jet axis and the lateral spread of the jet are clearly visible. A relatively good symmetry of the proles can be observed, showing that the absorption phenomena of the uorescence are well corrected in the y direction by applying the three-color technique, even for small DT (on the order of 2C). The axial temperature decrease of the jet (measured in the z direction) is presented in Fig. 10 for both experiments. The measured temperature relative to the ambient temperature decreases continuously in a hyperbolic trend. A difference between the two experiments is clearly noticed, which can be attributed to the shift between the injection temperatures (see Table 1).
Table 1. Injection conditions for the constant and variable con-

centration conditions Constant temperature experiment Injection temperature (Tinj) Injection velocity (Vinj) Mean ambient temperature (T0) 71C 5.5 m/s 27C Variable temperature experiment 75C 5 m/s 25C


Fig. 9. Temperature proles

(relative to the ambient) for both constant and variable concentration experiments

In order to overcome the moderate uctuations of the initial conditions, the use of normalized values will be more suitable for a quantitative comparison between the two experiments. Since the ambient temperature increases by a few degrees in the vessel because of the injection of hot liquid, real time corrections of the ambient temperature will be performed in order to correct the normalized results.

3.2.2 Results after normalization and comparisons In order to compare the two experiments and to check the validity of the measured temperature distribution on the jet centerline by comparison with results available in the literature, centerline temperatures must be normalized as follows:

Fig. 10. Centerline temperature

decrease (relative to the ambient) for both experiments


Fig. 11. Normalized centerline tempera-

ture evolution for both experiments


Tinj T0 T T0

The lateral spread of the jet can be characterized by the evolution of the half-width radius R1/2 dened by: DT 1 R1=2 DTmax 2 10

With the use of this normalization, the decreases of the axial temperature measured in both experiments are in reasonable agreement and present a linear behavior (Fig. 11), as shown in many references (Corsin and Uberoi 1950; Forstall and Gaylord 1955; Chua and Antonia 1990). The results agree also with the data of Chua and Antonia (1990) that are also reported in Fig. 11. A part of the measurement scattering can be attributed to the difculty of positioning the probe volume on the jet centerline because of the small dimensions of the oweld. A moderate difference exists between the constant and variable concentration experiment, and may be attributed to the difculty of reproducing exactly similar experimental conditions.

The evolution of the radius R1/2 measured in the y direction is presented in Fig. 12 as a function of the normalized distance from the nozzle exit z for both experiments. As already mentioned in numerous references of the literature (e.g., Forstall and Gaylord 1955; Hinze 1975), this evolution is linear. The determined expansion factors corresponding to the slope of the evolution of the radius R12 is about 0.11 for both experiments. The two experiments are in good agreement and comparable to many expansions found in the literature, ranging from about 0.09 to 0.14 (Hinze and Van der Hegge Zijnen 1949;

Fig. 12. Jet spreading for both experiments


Fig. 13a, b. Normalized temperature proles. a Constant concentration experiment; b variable concentration experiment

general trend. It may be simply attributed to the lack of accuracy of these measurements, since the tracer concentration is very low in this zone, resulting in a low uorescence signal and a poor signal/noise ratio. A moderate asymmetry was observed on the normalized temperature proles in both experiments. This is probably correlated to the low asymmetry of the background DT y y T y and y 11 temperature noted during both experiments. DTmax R1=2 A symmetry default is clearly visible on both normalized temperature proles: it can be attributed to the nonThe normalized temperature proles acquired in the y symmetrical recirculation of heated uid, clearly obdirection are presented in Fig. 13a for the constant con- servable in the variable concentration experiment, since centration experiment and in Fig. 13b for the variable the hot uid is marked by the uorescent tracer. concentration experiment. The self-similarity is in reasonable agreement for both experiments and comparable 3.3 with the data of Chevray and Tutu (1978) obtained by the Discussion cold wire thermometry technique. The measurements Concerning the re-absorption of the uorescence, the acquired on the edges of the jet in the variable decrease of the uorescence ratio caused by the uoconcentration experiment seem to deviate from the rescence re-absorption can reach 75% for R13 and 25% Papanicolaou and List 1988; Dowling and Dimotakis 1990; Panchapakesan and Lumley 1993). The validity of the measurements can be also tested for both experiments by checking the self-similarity properties of the temperature proles. The temperature proles are reduced under the following coordinate system:


for R12 in the constant concentration experiment. This phenomenon was corrected for accurately, even for hard absorption conditions. Since the measurement in not sensitive to it, the laser power can be re-adjusted during the experiment in order to increase the signal level in strong absorbing conditions. The error caused by the effect of a non-spatially constant concentration encountered in the variable concentration experiment was also accurately corrected, even for a high concentration spreading rate as observed in a turbulent jets, for which the concentration ratio between the centerline and the border is on the order of 10. The static experiments showed that the absolute temperature error was about 1C for large temperature differences above the reference (typically 65C), and large optical paths, typically 80 mm at a dye concentration of 10)6 mol/l, for which about 75% of the uorescence signal is absorbed on the rst spectral band. The error is reduced to about 0.5C for smaller optical paths. A random error exists because of the photon detection statistics (Poisson noise) on the three photo-multiplier tubes: this error is estimated at 0.25C in the present study and is clearly visible on the proles presented in Fig. 9. Increasing the integration time of the uorescence signal could reduce some of this error. In the present experiment, the large turbulent scales of the jet may also cause a part of the scrambled aspect of the temperature proles.

signal uctuations caused by temperature uctuations must be separated from the natural uctuations of the uorescence phenomenon caused by the random arrival of the uorescence photons.


Chevray R, Tutu NK (1978) Intermittency and preferential transport of heat in a round jet. J Fluid Mech 88:133160 Chua LP, Antonia RA (1990) Turbulent Prandtl number in a circular jet. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 33:331339 Copetta J, Rogers C (1998) Dual emission laser induced uorescence for direct planar scalar behavior measurements. Exp Fluids 25:1 15 Corsin S, Uberoi MS (1950) Further investigations on the ow and heat transfer in a heated turbulent turbulent air jet. NACA report 998 Dowling DR, Dimotakis PE (1990) Similarity of the concentration eld of gas-phase turbulent jets. J Fluid Mech 218:109141 Forstall W, Gaylord EW (1955) Momentum and mass transfer in a submerged jet. J Appl Mech 22:161164 Hinze JO (1975) Turbulence. McGraw-Hill, New York Hinze JO, Van der Hegge Zijnen BG (1949) Transport of heat and matter in the turbulent mixing zone of an axially symmetrical jet. Appl Sci Res A1:425461 Hishida K, Sakakibara J (2000) Combined planar laser-induced uorescenceparticle image velocimetry technique for velocity temperature elds. Exp Fluids 29:S129S140 Karasso PS, Mungal MG (1997) PLIF measurements in aqueous ows using the Nd:YAG laser. Exp Fluids 23:382387 Lavieille P, Lemoine F, Lavergne G, Virepinte JF, Lebouche M (2000a) Temperature measurements on droplets in monodisperse stream using laser-induced uorescence. Exp Fluids 29:429437 4 Lavieille P, Lemoine F, Lavergne G, Lebouche M (2001) Evaporating Concluding remarks and combusting droplet temperature measurements using two color laser-induced uorescence. Exp Fluids 31:4555 We have presented a new and powerful technique for measuring temperatures in liquid ows. The inuences of Lavieille P, Lemoine F, Lebouche M (2000b) On the use of uorescent tracers to measure droplets temperature. CR Acad Sci Ser IIb the local laser power, tracer concentration, probe volume 328:5560 size, and Beers absorption of the incident intensity on the Lavieille P, Lemoine F, Lebouche M (2002) Experimental investigation measurements are removed. The technique can be used for on interacting low evaporating droplets temperature in linear stream using two color laser induced uorescence. Combust Sci large optical paths, since uorescence re-absorption conTechnol 174:117142 centration phenomena are corrected, even if the concen Lemoine F, Antoine Y, Wolff M, Lebouche M (1999) Simultaneous tration is not constant along the optical path. For water temperature and 2D velocity measurements in a turbulent heated ow, the temperature range in which the method can be jet using combined laser-induced uorescence and LDA. Exp Fluids 26:315323 applied is from just over water freezing point up to boiling Lemoine F, Wolff M, Lebouche M (1996) Simultaneous concentration point, which almost covers from 0C to 100C at atmoand velocity measurements using combined laser-induced uospheric pressure. If one operates at a pressure higher than rescence and laser Doppler velocimetry. Exp Fluids 20:178188 atmospheric, the upper temperature limit is about 180C, Nakajima T, Utsunomiya M, Ikada Y, Matsumoto R (1990) Simultaneous measurement of velocity and temperature of water using corresponding to the destruction of the rhodamine B LDV and uorescence techniqiue. In: Proceedings of the 5th molecule. Symposium on Application of laser techniques to uid mechanics, The demonstration on a heated jet, under constant and Lisbon. Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon, pp spatially variable dye concentration conditions, with large Panchapakesan NR, Lumley JL (1993) Turbulence measurements in optical paths compared to the oweld dimensions, furaxisymmetric jets of air and helium, Part 2: Helium jet. J Fluid Mech 246:225247 ther strengthens the application of the technique. FurPapanicolaou PN, List EJ (1988) Investigation of round vertical thermore, the measurement is independent of the number buoyant jets. J Fluid Mech 195:341391 of uorescent molecules in the probe volume, which Sakakibara J, Adrian RJ (1999) Whole eld measurement of tempermakes possible some applications of the technique in two ature in water using two-color laser-induced uorescence. Exp Fluids 26:715 phase-ows, such as ows with bubbles or in polydisperse Sakakibara J, Hishida K, Maeda M (1993) Measurements of thermally sprays. stratied pipe ow using image processing techniques. Exp Fluids The next interesting step is to extend the technique to 16:8296 measuring uctuating quantities. The processing of the Walker DA (1987) A uorescence technique for measurement of concentration in mixing liquids. J Phys E: Sci Instrum 20:217224 temperature uctuations is unlikely to be simple, since the